MIDDLETOWN, NEW CASTLE COUNTY, DELAWARE, SATURDAY MORNING, APRIL 16, 1870.
NEW STOVE, TIN,
THOMAS II. BOTHWELL'S
North Side of Main Street, 4 Building« West
of Town Hall,
Where he haa constantly on lut ml, and is pre
pared to manufacture
ALL KINDS OF TIN WARE,
At Short Notice.
Particular attention paid to
ROOFING AND SrOUTING.
Orders respectfully solicited and promptly atten
STAR, COTTAGE, NATIONAL,
CHARM, PRIZE, & VICTOR COOK.
BOQUET BASE, GAS, BURNING
BASE, DIAL, VIOLET, REVERE, UNION AIR
Stoves suitable for stores, offices, hotels, and
Orders will he received and promptly
any kind of Stove that may he ordered.
GALVANIZED, RUSSIA, AND SHEET IRON,
COAL HODS, SEIVES,
TEA KETTLES, BAKE PANS, WAFFLE IRONS
SAD IRONS, BRASS k ENAMELLED
ENAMELLED SAUCE PANS.
TEA BELLS, JAPANNED CHAMBER BUCKETS,
SPITTOONS, WAITERS, LANTERNS,
FLOUR AND PEPPER BOXES,
SAND CUPS, MATCH SAFES (Cast Iron,)
PEACH CAN 8,
( Soldered nnd Self-Scaling )
PATENT CLOTHES FRAMES, 4c. 4c. 4c.
Prompt nttention to business, moderate prices,
competent workmen, nnd a determination to
please, may at all times he expected by those who
may favor him with their custom.
THE VAPOR COOKING STOVE.
No Wood, no Coal , no Stove 9 Pipe, no
Ashes, no Dirt, no Wood Boxes, vo
Coal Scuttle, no Kindling Wood ,
But a Friction Match,
And the fire in full blast in half a minute, oven
hot in two minute?, steak broiled in seven min
utes, bread baked in thirty minutes, the lire en
Please call and examine it in operation at
Thomas H. Rothwell's Stove Store,
Sole owner of the stove for the State.
Feb. 19— y
JR AW BONK
Super Phosphate of Lime.
INCREASE YOUtt CROP OF
Corn, Oats, Potatoes, Wheat & Grass,
At well as add to the fertility of y
judicious and economical inode of
soil, by a
Get the value of your outlay the first season.
Obtain better filled eats and heavier grain.
Make your laud permanently fertile.
Over sixteen years of constant
, on all crops,
bos proven that Baugh's Raw Bone Phosphate
may b« depended upon by Farmers.
^»'Highly Improved and Standard Warranted.
For sale by agricultural dealers generally.
BAUGH & SONS,
No. DO Konti« Delaware Avenue,
ELAWARE RAIL ROAD BONDS,
DELAWARE STATE BONDS,
NEW CASTLE CO, BONDS,
For Sale by GEO. INGRAM 4 CO.
STOCK. Highest market rates paid by
Oct. 2»-tf GEO. W. INGRAM 4 CO.
W ILMINGTON 4 READING R. R. BONDS
For sale by GEO. W. INGRAM 4 CO.
Oct. 23—tf Brokers.
F IRST Class Real Estate Bonds for sale by
GEO. W. INGRAM 4 CO
AP1TALISTS are invited to call and exam
ine our list of Securities before investing.
Geo W. Ingram a Co.
IDES AND TALLOW WANTED!
Bull Hides 0 cents.
Sheep Pelts 75 ctl.
Steer Hidee 8 cents.
CeJfSkin 14 cents.
Tallow 10 cents.
above price# will be pai
Not. JO-tf INGRA
M 4 GIBSON'S.
OSAGE ORANGE PLANTS,
VEKY LAUGE AND FINE.
Small FRUIT PLANTS & VINES
OF THE BEST VARIETIES OF
EARLY ROSE 4 CTHER SEED POTATOES
For Information and Prices, apply to
Woodside Small Fruit Nursery,
MT. PLEASANT, DEL.
Cecil Democrat, Kent News end Transcript,
Delawnrcan, Del. Gazette, Republican, copy 3
months und send bill to advertiser.
HOUES SUPER PHOSPHATE
THE STANDARD MANURE.
POTTS & KLETT,
Camden. Hew Jersey.
The attention of Farmers is especially called to
Rhodes Super Phosphate,
nnd reliable manure for
;tl! .;8 for othc
attested l»y au experience of fifteen years..
This long established mid standard manure is
prepared expressly for DRILLING, nnd particu
lar care is taken to maintain the high reputation
it has obtained.
is the most valuable
A TRUE BIRD GUANO.
RICH IN PH0SHPATE8 .J- ALKALINE
Substitute for Ground Raw Bones.
.$30 per ton, of 2000 ihs.
For sale by dealers and by"
YARNALL & TRIMBLE,
Wholesale Agents Pennsylvania, New
Jersey and Delawure.
IHIIB Proprietors offer for Sale, for Fall plant
JL ing of I8G9 or Spring of 1870,
70,000 Beach Trees
of the lending
Market and Family Varieties.
200,000 SMALL FRUIT PLANTS
consisting of the following varieties :
CURRANTS, AND GRAPE VINES.
300,000 OSAGE ORANGE QUICKS.
One and Two Years Old.
EAKLY ROSE. POTATOES,
And several other leading varieiies, for seed.
Oct. 16, 1869.
POLK & HYATT,
Or to WM. B. CROFT.
T HE undersigned having removed to Main
street, opposite the National Hotel, Middle
town, Del. intends to devote his whole uticulion
to the *
GRAIN AND LIME BUSINESS.
Will pay on order of Messrs. William Lea A Sons,
Brandywine Mills, or Elihu Jefferson. New Castle,
Del. the highest cash price fui grain, delivered
at Del. R. R. or on Delaware waters.
Also will fill orders for
Rambo'8, White's & Kenneday's Lime
In store and for Bale
MORO PHILIPS' BA UGIPS RA W BO NE $
CLOVER AND TIMOTHY SEEDS,
FLOUR, FEED, AND CORN MEAL,
^tÄ-Don't forget—opposite the National Ho
tel. Middletown, Del.
A. T. BRADLEY.
Wanted on Bond and Mort
Qeo. W. Ingram * Co.
ARM IN KENT COUNTY, MD. OF 250
ACRES, UPON NAVIGATION,
For Sale upon very reasonable terms. Apply
oct. JA-tf GEO. W. INGRAM 4CO.
S EASONED OAK nnd PINE WOOD, sawed
and Split, delivered in town, in quantit)## to
E. T- EVANS,
suit, at $7 per cord, by
BY JOHN O. WHITTIER.
He had bowed down to drunkeness ;
An abject worshiper ;
The pulse of manhood's pride had gone,
Too faint and cold to stir;
And he had given his spirit up
To the humblest thrall ;
And, bowing to the poisoned cup,
He gloried in his fall.
There came a change—the cloud rolled off,
And light fell on his brain—
And, like the passing of a dream
That cometli not again,
The shadow of his spirit fled,
He saw the gulf before—
He shuddered at the waste behind,
And was a
He shook the serpent's fold away,
That gathered round his heart,
As shakes the sturdy forest oak
Its poison vine apart ;
He stood erect—returning pride
Grew terribly within,
And conscience sat in judgment on
llis most familiar sin.
The light of intellect again
Along his pathway shone,
And reason, like a monarch, stood
Upon its golden throne;
The honored and the w*
Within his presence came—
And lingered oft on lovely lips
llis once forbidden name,
There may he glory in the might
That treadeth nations down—
Wreaths for the crimson warrior,
Pride for the kingly crown ;
But glorious is that triumph hour
The disenthralled shall find,
When evil passion boweth down
Unto the God-like mind.
Written for the Middletown Transcript,
THE ASTOR FAMILY.
From the records of some of "The old
merchants of New York city" we glean
the following :
John Jacob Astor at one period of his
life peddled cakes for old German Deiter
ich, and at one time he kept a store in
Pearl street, just above Franklin square.
The idea that Mr Astor canto to New
York, from Germany, with property, is
in a ship commanded by old Captain Stone,
who has not been dead many years. As late
as January 10th, 1781), we find one of his
He came a steerage passenger
J. JACOB ASTOR,
At No. 81 Queen street.
Next doer but one to tho FrienJs' Meet
ing-house, has for sale an assortment of
Pianofortes of the Newest Construction,
made by the best makers in London, which
he will sell on reasonable terms. He gives
cash for all kinds of furs, and has for sale
a quantity of Canada Beaver and Beaver
Coating, Racoon Skins, and Racoon Blan
kets, Muskrat Skins, &c. &c.
Ho commenced advertising early. Tt
was long after this date beforo he became
the great merchant, and sent his ships to
India. What a row he kicked up in New
York in 1-808. It was at a time when the
embargo of Mr. Jefferson was in full blast.
Not an oyster boat was allowed to go out
side of Sandy Ilook. Faney the astonish
ment of the ship owners of this city, who
had ships lying in the docks rotting and
idlo, when they took up the Commercial
Advertiser, of August 13th, 1808, and
read,: "Yesterday the ship Beaver, Capt.
Galloway, sailed for China."
There was trouble among the merchants
and ship-owners, when it became known
that the ship of Mr. Astor had actually
gone to sea on a loug India voyage. Why
should he be favored, and no oue else?
Finally it was ascertained that the sharp
John Jacob had obtained a special jtermis
from the President of the United
States for his ship Beaver, navigated by
30 seamen, to proceed on a voyage to Can
ton, for the ostensible object of carrying
home to China a great Mandarin of China.
John Jacob Astor had picked up a Chi
naman in the park, got up the story, ob
tained the Presidential permit, and sent
his ship to sea before other merchants were
aware of the mse.
A rival house then wrote a letter to the
President, and informed him that the great
Chinese personage was no Mandarin—that
ho was not even a Hong merchant, or a
licensed security merchant—but only a
common Chinese dock loafer, that had
been smuggled out of China.
It was stated that his departure from
China was contrary to the laws of that
country ; that when he arrived in China
he would be put ashore privately from the
Beaver, and very likely that his obscurity
nnd low condition of life might afford him
his only chanoe of avoiding a summary
It was a dodge of Mr. Astor to make a
Chinese voyage at a time when all other
merchants were restrained by the embargo.
Then the old Commercial- Advertiser
came out and pitched into Mr. Astor. It
said editorially, in reference to the strange
permission of President Jefferson :
" The time of granting this permit for
the Beaver to aail ia remarkable. It is
when a general embargo Is imposed on all
onmmerce with our nearest neighbors ;
when the exohsnge of dnmestio produce
with Canada, New Brnnawick and the
Floridas in interdicted by an armed foroe ;
when the intercourse of our citizens in our
own bays, rivers, and harbors, in small
boats inoapable of 4 sea voyage, la subject
to the most vigorous control of the Custom
Rouse; nay more—tbU permission has
gone into effect, when on »«count of some
new, or' unnknown political necessity, all
permission which have not been car
ried into effect, are rescinded. The ship
Beaver is one of the most valuable, the
number of men«cxposcd to peril the great
est in any merchant's service, and the voy
age not to the West Indies, but to the an
Let us observe the progress of this af
fair ; if the trade is safe, and can be pros
ecuted consistently with the public inter
cuts, let ajl who aro willing engage in it,
otherwise let all be restrained. Let there
be an embargo or no embargo ; but let us
not countenance partial dispensation from
the operations of general laws.'*
Next day old John Jacob Astor got
aroused up, and addressed the following
To the Editor of the Commercial Ad
vertiser : I observed in your paper of the
13th inst. on article inviting public atten
tion to a transaction (as you state it, of a
most extraordinary character) relative to
the ship Beaver, and the Mandarin. If
whoever wrote that article will give me
his name, and if he is not prejudiced a
gainst any act of the administration, nor
influenced from envy arising from jealousy,
he shall receive a statement of facts rela
tive to the transaction in question, which
will relieve him from the anxiety under
which he appears to labor for the honor of
the Government? and the reputution of all
concerned. He shall be convinced that
the Government has not been surprised by
misrepresentations in granting permission,
and that the reputation of those concerned
cannot be in the slightest degree affected.
By giving the above a place in your pa
per, you will oblige, sir,
Your humble servant,
John Jacob Astob.
New York, Aug 15th, 1808.
Twenty years had elapsed since tho old
German sold fancy goods, and even rose
to the dignity of pianos, in Pearl street,
near Oak. lie could now control a vast
amount of trade. He never made any
explanation, and the journals of the day
did not spare him ; but he was realizing
gold, and he knew it. lie could afford to
laugh. Mis friends called upon him that
night at his house, No. 220 Broadway,
about the middle of tho block, where the
Astor House now stands, and congratulat
ed him upon his uole.
The Beaver then left this port in Au
gust, 1808, and made a great voyage. She
returned to New York with two hundred
thousand dollars more than sho left
with. Sho made a Canton trip iu 1809,
and again in 1810. Seme one once asked
John Jacob about the largest sum of mon
ey he ever made at any one time in his
He said in reply that the largest
sum of money he ever missed making was
in reference to the purchase of Louisiana,
in connection with De Witt Cliuton, Gov.
Morris, and others. They intended to
purchnse all of that province of the Empe
ror Napoleon, and then to sell it to Presi
dent Jefferson at the same price .charging
2| per cent, commission on the purchase.
It fell through, for some trifling cause or
other. Had they succeeded, Mr. Astor
csiimntcd that lie should have made about
000 , 000 , 000 .
His son, William B. Astor, to whom
John Jacob bequeathed most of his proper
ty, never made a dollar in his life, lie
always stood by his father, and is prompt,
untiring, and liberal to tenants, although
systematic. He still keeps up certain
charities that his father sustained.
Old Jacob had a country-seat out of
town, at Hurlgate, 80th street now, to
avoid the heavy water tux. The Astor
family now own six hundred acres of land
iu New York City, most of it covered with
Wm B. Astor is still hale and hearty,
being about 78 or 79 years of age, and
may be seen daily, walking arm-in-arm
with one of his sons towards his office, in
Prince street. His office is fitted up liko
a banking house, and filled with clerks.
When A. T. Stewart, the great mer
chant first commenced in business, and be
gan to operate in real estate, ho had the
pecuniary assistance and advice, of his
triend Wm. B. Astor.
The sons of Wm. B. are John Jacob,
and William ; the former about 48 to 50
years of age, resembling, it is said, his
grandfather John Jacob, in build and com
plexion ; with a strong, light, GermaD
cast of countenance, being 0 feet high,
broad shouldered, and weighing 200 lbs.
He is the Astor of this generation. Wil
liam, aged 40, the younger, resembles his
mother, bciug of dark complexion, with
black hair, he, also, is a dutiful son and
as equally attentive to business as his
brother. He is tall, of more agile propor
tions, and weighs in the neighborhood of
160 pounds. B. S. T.
Yew York, April, 1870.
A firm in York, England, several years
since, undertook to make a twenty-five
inch telescope, something that astronomy
had never accomplished. It is now nearly
completed. The tube, including dew cap
and eye end, is 32 feet, and its diameter
at the nbject end 27 inches, and where
largest, 34. The weight of tbo who'e in
strument is nine tons. The object glass
has an aperture of 25 inches nearly, and
its vocal length is 29 feet. The full illu
minating power of this telescope is nearly
three times that of the telescopes at Har
vard College Observatory and Pulkowa,
A oitizen of Bnrnstable, Mr. Joseph
Coddman, has named his first son Cape,
so that his name and place of nativity may
be both told at once.
NO INTERVAL SIOLTEV MAS*.
The geologists are in trouble. They
canuofc settle the foundation principles of
their favorite science. After a long and
hard struggle between the aqueous and
igneous theories of the earth's formation,
it was generally supposed that the igneous
had won the day, at least so far as relates
to the order of their worship. If anything
was supposed to be settled in geology, it
was that the centre of the earth has been,
or is, in a molten state, and that the gran
ite rocks are unstrutiûcd, and give evidence
of being formed under great pressure and
intense heat. Earthquakes and volcanoes
were referred to as proofs of this great in
ternal heat, and the protrusion of trap
rock as a proof of the molten state. On
this granite as a solid foundation, the
stratified rocks were supposed to rest,
though of necessity the order is generally
disturbed by the long action of subterra
But the foundation seems at last falling
through. The aqueous theory has wen a
new triumph, and is driving its rival from
the field. Granite is found to bo not of
igneous, hut of aqueous formation. Some
years ago a Mr. Evan Hopkins, of Eng
land, broached a uew theory, and attemp
ted to prove, on scientific principles, that
g'ranito was formed not horizontally, but
vertically, and not by heat and pressure,
but by solution and magnetism,
speculations at first attracted little atten
tion, and excited indeed much derision,
but they have gradually attained the as
sent of many masters in the science.
Prof. Thompson, by rigid mathemati
cal reasoning from well-known physical
laws, also proved that the existence of a
liquid ocean in the interior of the earth
was simply impossible. He declared it to
be a physical necessity that "the iuterior
must be eveu more rigid than the superfi
Leading geologists are frankly surren
dering the old theory, and Prof. Ansted,
in a paper read before the British Associ
ation in 1869, says:—-"Geologists until
recently, have spoken of granite as a pri
mitive rock, as the nucleus of the earth,
and as having been from time to time
erupted, playing an important part in the
general disturbances by which the general
framework of the earth is supposed to have
been constructed. The observations of
Daubrce and Sorby show that all true
granite has been elaborated with water,
under great pressure, at a temperature be
low melting heat : that it has neither been
ejected nor has it formed a framework.
There aro granites of all ages and of many
kinds. Numerous observations show that
granite alternate with and passes into strat
ified rocks, and must iu such cases be
stratified rock, and that its production
does not necessarily involve destruction
and obliteration of all tho stratified rocks
with which it is associated. This view of
the nature of granite will greatly affect
the theories of geology."
This is no longer a matter of theory,
but of demonstration. Granite can not
have an igneous origin. Chemists testify
that the laws of chemical action disprove
it. The presence of black lead in granite
and gneiss is inconsistent with melting
heat, for bluok lead is pure carbon, and
would have beeu reduced to ashes by heat ;
and iu turn would havo also reduced the
mica and hornblende, as carbon always
operates on silicates in blast furnaces.
The chemists also testify that if the gran
ites were once in a melted state, the mag
netic iron ore in them would have united
with tho silicates, forming a vitreous in
stead of a crystaline rock. Attempts have
been made to resolve granite by heat into
what was regarded as its original state,
but they failed utterly. It would not
melt ; its crystals gradually decomposed, or
turned into black glass, confirming tho
opinions of the chemical critics.
The laws of gravity also bear witness a
gainst the igneous origin. As the Annual
of Scientific Discovery says:—" If granite
were once in a molten condition, then, as
it cooled in the first place, quartz must
havo crystalised out, and would have
sunk down through tho still molten mass,
while feldspar and mica must have crysta
lised at a much later stage of cooling, as
the necessary consequence of their differ
ent degrees of fusibility.
As a last and conclusive stage of proof
that granite is of aqueous and not of ig
neous origin, chemists have succeeded in
producing feldspar, the base of granite,
from solutions of kaolin and alkaline sili
cates in heated water, and as it is generally
conceded that mica and quartz, the other
principal ingredients, are aqueous deposits,
the demonstration may be regarded as
The science of geology, therefore, will
need a thorough reconstruction. If the
igneous origin of granite is given up, the
idea of a molten mass at the earth's centre
will also be abandoned. If this intense
oentral heat be exploded the argument for
a gradual cooling of the earth from fire
mist will limp badly, and the Laplace the
ory of physioal devcloperaent will lose all
probability. And, still further, if the
granites are not the most ancient forma
tions, but are often of modern dates, in
termingled with rock of the secondary or
even tertiary period, it may be necessary
to make long deductions from geological
On the whole, we may safely conclude
that it is not wise for geologists to dis
credit Moses, or to cavil at tho oredulity
of Christians, till they have built some
foundation for their science on which it
can rest securely. IVe may add, also,
that faint-hearted theologians, who have
lost their faith in inspiration, because of
scientific difficulties, may take heart again,
and believe that Moses is a more reliable
teacher than Lycll or Huxley.— Hem.
Tim Column of Mioxetic Ltairr.—
Prof. J. D. Steele, writing about the
newspaper-story of a terrific column of
magnetio light, shooting out from the sun
toward the earth, explains its origin thus :
"It has been known fo» some time that,
during a total eclipse, red flames were seen
to play about the edge of the moon. Dur
ing the eclipses of 1808 and I860 it was
definitely settled that they aro entirely
disconnected from the moon, and were
vast tongues of fire, darting out from the
sun's disk. By observations with the
spectroscope, and also by means of the
wonderful photographs of the sun taken
by Do la Rue during the eclipse of 1860,
it was discovered that those fire-mountains
consisted mainly of burning hydrogen gas.
This was precious information to secure in
the midst of the excitement and novelty,
and in brief duration of a total eclipse. It
did not, however, satisfy scientific men.
For two years Mr. Lockyer, aided by a
grant from Parliament to construct a su
perior instrument, had been experiment
ing in order to detect these flames at oth
er times than at the rare oocurrenoe of a
total eclipse. On the 20th of October,
1868, he obtained a distinct image of one
of the prominences, which he afterward
traced entirely around the sun. Astron
omers can, therefore, now study these
flames at any time. The results of ob
servation now being taken show that
storms rage upon the sun with a violence
of which we can form no conception. Hur
ricanes sweep over its surface with terrific
violence. Vast cyclones wrap its fires in
to whirlpools, at the bottom of which out
earth could lie, like a boulder in a volca
no. Huge flames dart out to enormous
distances, and fly over the sun with a
speed greater than that of earth itself
through space. At one time a cone of
fire shot out 80,000 miles, and then died
away, all in ten minutes time. Beside
such awful convulsions, the mimic display
of a terrestrial volcano or earthquake sinks
into insignificance. There is nothing in
these phenomena to alarm us. They have,
in all probability, happened constantly
for ages past. That we have now means
of investigating their nature and measur
ing their height and velocity furnishes no
cause of anixety. Rumors of these discov
eries have crept into tko papers, and, ex
aggerated by repeated copying and sensa
tioual additions, have given rise to these
mysterious and uncalled-for predictions."
Hay sprinkled with chloride of lime,
and left for one hour in a closed room,
will remove the smell of paint.
"Ever of Thee." —A sad story is con
nected with the name of the writer of the
beautiful song, "Ever of Thee," which
has been sung and admired by so many iu
this conntry and in Europe,
Foley Hall was a gentleman by birth
and education. Wealthy in his own right,
with a largo expectation, he led a heedless
life—not chosing his associates, but allow
ing himself to bo drawn into the society
of the vicious. His property soon disap
peared, and he was left without resources
sufficient to buy his daily bread. His mu
sical talents had been lightly cultivated,
but, as ho never needed them, he scarcely
knew to what degree they could be made
available. In his distress, however, he
wrote his charming song. "Ever of
Thee." A London publisher gave him
one hundred dollars for it; but that a
mount, with such a spendthrift, would not
last long. He wrote other songs, but tho
money not coming as fast as he wished, in
a weak moment he forged the name of his
publisher, and although every effort was
made—even by tho publisher—to save
him, it was of no use, and poor Foley Hall
went to Newgate, and died broken-hearted
before bis trial came on.
Lesions for Fever. —Says that walking
cyclopedia of health knowledge, Dr. Hall:
—When persons are feverish and thirsty
beyond what is natural, iudicatcd in some
cases by a metallic taste in the mouth, es
pecially after drinkiug water, or by a whi
tish appearence of the greater part of the
surface of the tongue,- one of the best
"coolers," internal or external, is to take
a lemon, cut off the top, spriukle over it
some leaf sugar, working it downward into
the lemon with a spoon, and then suck it
slowly, squeezing the lemon and adding
moro sugar as the acidity increases from
being brought up from a lower point. In
valids with feverishness may take two or
three lemons a day iu this manner with
the most marked benefit, manifested by
sense of coolness, comfort and invigora
nary "supper" of summer, would give
many a comfortablo night's sleep and
awakening, after rest and invigoration,
with an appetite for breakfast, to which
they are strangers who will have their cup
of tea for supper, or "relish" and "cake,"
and berries, or peaches and cream.
A lemon or two thus takcu at "tea
as au entire substitute for the ordi
The male citizens of Zanesville, Ohio,
have petitioned that women may be inves
ted with all the rights of citizenship, and
also with all its duties, namely : that they
be liable to milita'ry, jury and road duty
and that if a woman refuse or neglect to
provide for the suppqrt of her husband and
family, a divorce shall be granted, award
ing alimony to the .husband.
lor the Middletown Transcript.
Practical farmers assert that leached 1
ashes are preferable as a manure to un
leached. Various reasons may be assign
ed for this—quick lime is always mingled
with the contents of the lcach-tub to pre
pare the potash fur dissolving the fat, oth
erwise more pcnrltt.-h or anla>i*atus would'
result, and soap could not result from such
ley. The remuant of caustic potash that
cannot be leached economically, is more
potcut in preparing plant food than the
whole would have been if a mere salt of
potash, mingled with the insoluble sili
cates and phosphates which always abound
in the ashes of hard wood. Some educa
ted men know enough of chemistry to en
able them to doubt the importance of lime
in the above relation, although backed by
the experience of all their grandmothera
and the opinion of an expert—any expla
nation of the above to such is superfluous,
and to the uneducated such authority is
Again, many wiseacres suppose that a
mere mixture of strasfurth or other salts
of potash with phosphates, &c. will make
an equivalent for wood ashes as a manure
—and another popular error is fostered by
scribblers in agriculture of late—that sea
salt and quick lime liberate soda, when
mingled—thus not only fostering a false
notion about salts, whether of potash or
soda, hut deceiving the iguoraut with tho
apparent relation of soda as a manure,
from its similarity to potash in producing
soap and glass. Salts of soda may be
substituted for potash with the same sort
of result that attends the substitution of
the jack ass for the horse, except upou
asparagus and sea plants. Pound cake is
not a mere mixture of eggs, butter, fleur,
Ac. nor would the same effect result if
each was swallowed separately; moreover
the cook deserves some credit when an
unusually wholesome cake results, even
with the best materials. Unleached ashes
like sharp tools, may not be safely used
by children; nevertheless corn may be thus
manured in the hill, and perhaps tarred
and rolled therein, especially during a wet
season, when the rain dilutes it so as to
nourish the plant, but seed potatoes thus
treated are inevitably destroyed, however
valuable the trongest ashes when sprink
led over the manure, especially if musty.
One man rolled his seed potatoes in guano,
and the result was an extraordinary crop*
whereas, another using the 6amo guano
in the same way and upon similar soil,
failed to produce a single plant, bccauao
in the latter case the potatoes were freshly
cut when the guano was applied; whereas,
in the former caso they were wilted for a
week. An experienced orchardist direct
ed my attention to one of my dwarf pears*
the stem of which was covered with moss
and rough bark, and advised a scrubbing
with ashes and lime or strong ley. I cau
endorse this prescription, as I used it with
great success in rejuvenating many pear
trees—slushing the concentrated mixture
freely over the whole stem and its base,
One of these, a fine Dutchess, had so far
depreciated, that its fruit did not exoced
much tho size of a hens' egg—ho actu
ally pronounced it a Doyenne—but now it
excels in producing large and highly ool
ored fruit. David Stewart, M. D.
Port Penn, April 5, 1870.
DEEP V.. SHALLOW PLOWING.
The Milford paper recommends shallow
plowing for light land. Where there is
much sand it is doubtless best, as deep
plowing is best for heavier clay land. It
"The experience of all good Dela
ware farmers is, that shallow plowing on
light soils will produce heavier crops of
grain than deep plowing, and our north
friends, generally, (who have settled
iu lower Delaware,) would do well to be
guided by their advice,"
But Deluwurc farmers arc not tho only
ones whose experience has taught them
that shallow plowing is best for light land.
A Mr. Hart, of Litchfield county, Con
necticut, recently made the following
statement before tho Farmers' Club, which
was quite a stunner t > the advocates of
deep plowing. 11c said :
" My brother plowed shallow on fine
land and had 101 bushels and a peck of
shelled corn to the acre; when he plowed
over seven inches he did not get sixty
bushels of cars. On other laud, by deep,
culture, he got but twenty-five bushel*,
per acre, where shallow plowing had giv
him seventy-five. AVhen ho plowed
four and a half inches deep he had a dou
The above statement would have boon
more satisfactory if the person giving It
had described the quality of tho land and
the mode of culture. AVhat do we un
derstand by "fine land," or "other land."
AVe cannot tell whether it was clay, sand,
or loam. AA'hatover it was, it must have
been "fine" land to produce over one hun
dred bushels per acre, and tho result was
not due simply to shallow plowing.
"Ticket, sir!" said a railroad conduc
tor, passing through one of th® trains tho
other day, to a passenger. " My face ia
my ticket," replied the other, a little
vexed. "Indeed!" said tho conductor,
rolling back his wristbands, "well, my
orders are to puuoh all tiokets passing over
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