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The Wheeling daily intelligencer. [volume] (Wheeling, W. Va.) 1865-1903, December 06, 1898, Image 2

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Spain hoj waged war can not be attained.
The Are of Insurrection may flame
or may smoulder with varying season*
but it has not been, and it is plain that
It can not be extinguished by present
methods. The only hQpe of relief and
repose from a condition which can no
longed be endured Is the enforced pacification
of Cuba. In the nam'' of humanity.
in the name of civilisation, In b*?
haif of endangered American interests,
whicb give ub 'the duty und right to
peak and to act. the war in Cuba must
In view of all this, the Congress was
asked to authorise and empower the
tnkm measures to secure a
full and final termination of hostilities
between Spain and tb<? people of Cuba,
and to secure in the Island the.establishment
of & stable Rovernment capable
of maintaining order and observing
Its international obligations. Insuring
peace and tranquility, and the security
of lta citizens, as well as our own, and
for the accomplishment of those ends
to use the military and naval forces of
the United States as might be necessary:
with added authority to continue
generous relief to the starving people of
The response of Congress, after nlno
daya of earnest deliberation, during
which the almost unanimous sentiment
of your body was developed on every
point, save aa to the expediency of coupling
the proposal action with a formal
recognition of the republic of Cubu ;?s
the true and lawful government of that
1"' wMnh failed ,,f
adoption?the Congress. after conference.
on the 19th of April, by a vote of
42 to 55 In the senate, and 311 to 6 In the
house of representatives, passed the
memorable joint resolution declaring:
"First, that the people of the island of
Cub*'are, and of right ought to be,
free and Independent.
"Second, That It Is ttie duty of the
United States to demand, and the government
of the United States does hereby
demand, that the government of
Spain at once relinquish its authority
and government in the Island ofjCuba.
and withdraw Its land and naval forces
from Cuba and Cuban waters.
"Third, That the President of the United
States be, and he hereby is, directed
and empowered to use the entire land
and naval force of the United States,
and to call Into the actual service of
/ the United States the militia of the several
states, to such extent as mayN be
necessary to carry these resolutions into
"Fourth, That the United States hereb^dlsclalms
any disposition or Intention
to- exercise- sovereignty. Jurisdiction or
control or said island, except for (he pacification
thereof, and asserts Its determination
when that is accomplished
to leave the government and control of
the island to Its people."
This resolution was approved by the
Executive on the next day. April 20. A
copy was at once comunlcated to the
Spanish minister at this eapital. who
forthwith announced that his continuance
in Washington thereby became
impossible. and asked for his passports,
whichc were given him. He thereupon
withdrew from Washington, leaving the
protection of Spanish interests in the
United States to the French ambassador
and the Austro-Hungarian minister.
Simultaneously with its communication
to th? Spanish minister here. General
Woodford, the American minister at
.uauna. was leieRrapneu connrmauon
of the text of the Joint resolution, and
directed to communicate It to the government
of Spain, with the formal demand
that It at once relinquish Its authority
and government in the Island of
Cuba, and withdraw Its forces therefrom.
coupling this demand with the
Announcement of the intention of this
Kovernment as to the future of the island,
In conformity with the fourth
clause of the resolution, and Riving
Spain until noon of April 23 to reply.
That demand, although, as above
shown, officially made kr.otvn to the
Spanish envoy here, was not delivered
at Madrid. After the instruction reached
General Woodford on Che morning
of April 21. but before he could present
it, the Spanish minister of state notified
him that upon the President's Approval
of the Joint resolution the Mas
drlrigovernment, regarding the act as
"equivalent to an evident declaration of
war," had ordered its minister In
"Washington to withdraw, -thereby
breaking oft diplomatic relations between
the two oo tin trie* nnd ceatlntr a!!
official communication between their respective
representatives. General
"Woodford thereupon demanded his
passports, and quitted Madrid the same
The War Dfeliml.
Spain having thus denied the demand
of the United States and Initiated that
* complete form of rupture of relations
which attends a state of war, the executive
powers authorized by the resolution
were at once used by me to meet
the enlarged contingency of actual war
between sovereign states. On April 21
I proclaimed a blockade of the north
t coast of Cubi, Including ports on said
coast of Cuba; and on the 23rd I called
for volunteers to execute the purpose of
che resolution. By my message of April
25, the Congress was informed of tbf*
situation, and I recommended formal
declaration of the existence of a state
of war between the United States and
8paJn. The Congress accordingly voted
on the same day the act approved April
23, 1898. declaring the existence of such
war from and including the 21st day of
April, end re-enacted the provision of
the resolution of April 20, directing th*
President to -use all the armed forces of
the nation <o carry that act Into effect.
Due notification of the existence ot war
as aforesaid, was given April 2j. by telegraph.
to all the governments with
which the United States maintain relations.
in order that their neutrality
might be asaumed during the uar. Th?:
various governments responded with
proclamations of neutrality, each after
its own methods. It Is not among the
least gratifying Incidents of the struggle
that the obligations of neutrality
were impartially discharged by all. of.
ten under delicate and difficult clrcumstances.
In further fulfillment of international
duty, I Issued. April 26. a proclamation
announcing the treatment proposed
to be accorded to vessels and th^lr
cargoes as to blockade, contraband, the
exercise of the right of search, and the
Immunltv of neutral flairs nnrl ti*ntrnl
goods under the enemy's flag. A slmllai
proclamation iai made by the Spanish
government. In -the conduct of hostilities
the rules of the declaration of Purls,
including abstention from resort to privateering,
have accordingly been observed
by both belligerents, although
neither was a party to that declaration
Our country, thus, after an Interval
of half a century of peace with all nations.
found itKelf engaged In dendlj
conflict with a foreign enemy. Ever*
nerve was strained lo meet the emergency.
The reaponae to the Initial en!
for 125,000 volunteers was Instant am!
complete, as was also th* result of th?
(second call of Ma?r 2.", for 75.000 addl
nonai v??iumecrj?. ine rang* oi in>
regular army were Increased to the limits
provided by the act of April 2rt. Th<
enlisted force of the navy on th? ISth ol
August, It reached its maximum
numbered 24.123 men and apprentices
One hundred nnd three vfmielK ?ver?
ndded to the navy by purchase, one *vaj
presented to the government. one loar.
ed. nnd the fowr vesnela of the Interna
tlonal Navigation Company, tho Bt
"Paul. St. Loul*. New York, am
Paris, wcro chartered. In addition
to th'se the revenue cut
ters and lighthouse tender* "*'*n
turned over to the navy department ant
t?"came temporarily a part of the uux
Mary tiavy.
The maximum effective fighting fo ret
of the navjr during th'* war. separatee
Into classes, nn* us follow:
Four battleships of th# first clan*
one battleship of the *eo?>nd 'Imps
two armored rrulsers; six coaiit de
fense monitors; ono armored ram
twelve protected cruisers; thre<* unpro
tected cruiser*; "Ightecn gunboat*; on<
dynamite cruiser; eleven lorpedi
fcoats; fourteen vessels of th* old navy
Including monitors. Auxiliary navy
' ":?i . . converted
rachts; twentr-sereo conTCTted
toga; nipnocn ron verted colllers;
fifteen ravfaue I'Utltn; four lighthouse
tenders, and nineteen miscellaneous
Much alarm wu* left a ion;: oar eotlr*
Atlantic seaboard lest some attack
might be mode by tbe enemy. Every
precaution was taken to prevent posslblc
injury to our great cltlca Iflog
along the coait. Temporary garrisons
tverp provided, drawn from tbe state
militia; Infantry an<J llRlrt bstterles
were drawn from :he volunteer force.
About 12,000 troop j were thus employed.
Bhe coast signal service was established
for observing the approach of an enemas
ships to .th" coast of the United
States, and tha life savins and ljghthouse
service* io-operated, which enabled
the navy department to have all
PortlonB of the Atlantic^ coast, from
Maine to Texas, under observation.
The auxiliary navy was created under
the authority of Congress and was officered
and manned bv tbe naval mllltla
of the several states. This orjanltttlon
'patrolled the coast. and performed the
duty of a second line of defense.
ITnder the 'direction of (he chief of engineers,
submarine mlnei were placed
at the most exposed points. Before the
outbreak of the war, permanent mtnlnc
casemates and cable gallerle* had been
constructed at nearly all Important harbors.
Mont of the torpedo material was
not to be found la the market, and bad
to be specially manufactured. Under
date of April It, district officers were directed
to take *11 preliminary measures,
short of ?he actual attaching of the
loaded mines tq the cables, and on April
22. telegraphio orders were Issued to
place the loaded mines In position.
The aggregate number of mines placed
was 1.635. art the principal harbors
from Maine to California. Preparations
were also made fur the planting of
mines at certain other harbors. l?t pw? "?
nni.li. <l&e?miAtlAn nf h** Rrlnn.
ish fleet, then? mine* were not plac?.
The slnr.al corps wan promptly organixed,
and performed service of the most
difficult ond important character. It"
operations during the war covered tho
Hectrical connection of all coast fortifications,
the establishment of telephonic
and telegraphic facilities for the
ramps at Manila. Santiago and In Porto
Rico. There were constructed three
hundred mile* of line at ten great
camp*, thus facilitating military movements
from those points In a manner
heretofore unknown In military administration.
Field telegraph lines were e?
lanjisneu anu in.'iiniaineu unqcr mc n?emy's
fire at lianlla. and'later the Manila-Hong
Kong cable was reopened.
In .Porto Rico cable communications
were opened over a discontinued route,
and on land the headquarters of the
commanding' officer was kept In telegraphic
or telephonic communication
with the division commanders on four
different lines of operations.
There was placed In Cuban waters a
completely outfitted cable ship, with
war cables and cable gear, suitable both
for the destruction of communications
belonging to the enemy and the establishment
of our own. Two ocean cables
were destroyed under the enemy's batteries
at Santiago. The day previous to
the landing of General Shafter's corps
at Caimanera, within -twenty miles of
the landing place, cable communtcations
were established and a cable station
opened giving direct communication
with the government at Washington.
Tills service was invaluable to the executive
in directing the operations of
the army and navy. With a total force
of over 1,300, the loss was by qisease In
camp and field, officers and men Included,
only five.
The national defense fund of $.*)0.000,000.
was expended in largo part by the
army and navy, nnd the objects for
which it was us^d are fully shown in
the reports of the several secretaries. If
was a most timely appropriation, en
abllng the government to strengthen Its
defense and make preparations great'
ly needed in case of war.
This fund belnir inadequate to the requirements
of equipment and for the
conduct of the war, the patriotism of
the Congress provided the me<fhs in the
war ravenue act of June 13, by authorizing
a 3 per cent popular loan not to
exceed four hundred million dollars and
by levying additional imposts and taxes.
Of the authorized Joan, two hundred
millions were offered and promptly taken,
the subscriptions so far exceeding
the call as to cover it many times over,
while, preference being given to the
smaller bids, no single allotment exceeded
Ave thousand dollars. This wai
a most encouraging and significant result.
showing the vast resources of the
nation and the determination of the
people to uphold their country's honor.
Tlic President Recite* Briefly tli? Salient
It Is not within the province of this
message to narrate the history of the
extraordinary war that followed the
Spanish declaration of April 21, but a
Dnci rrcuai ui iw mure ouucwi icaiuus
is appropriate. The first encounter of
the war In point of date took place
April 27. when a detachment of the
blockading squadron made a reconnaissance
In force at Matanxas, shelled the
harbor forts, and demolished several
new works In construction.
The next engagement was destined to
mark a memorable epoch in marltlma
warfare. The Pacific fleet, under Commodore
George Dewey,had lain for some
weeks at Hong Kong. Upon the colonial
proclamation of neutrality being Issued
and the customary twenty-four
hours' notice being given, It repaired to
MIra bay. near Hong Kong, whence it
proceeded to the Philippine Islands under
telegraphic orders to capture or destroy
the formidable Spanish fleet then
assembled nt Manila. At daybreak on
the lBt of May. the American force entered
Manila bay and after a few hours'
I engagement, effected the total destruction
of the Spanish fleet, consisting of
ten warships and a tronsport. betides
capturlnq the naval station and forts at
s Cavite, thus annihilating the Spanish
' naval power In the Pacific ocean and
I completely controlling the bay of Manila.
with the ability to take thecKyat
i will. Not o life was lost on our ships,
th** wounded only numbering seven.
while not a vessel was materially in'
jured. For this Kallant achievement the
Congress, upon my recommendation.
1 fitly bestowed ?rx>n the actor* preferment
and substantial reward.
The* effect of this remarkable victory
upon the spirit of otir people and upon
the fortunes of the tvar was instant. A
prestige of invincibility thereby attached
to our artnr, which continued
throughout the struggle. Reinforcement*
were hurried to Manila under the
command of Major General Merritt and
firmly establish*'] within sigrlit of the
capital, which lay helpless berore our
On 1ho 7th day of May. the government
was advised officially of the victory
at Manila, and at once inquired of
the commander of our fleet what troops
n-.-mtil !?#? ronnlroil Th* Infnrmntlnn
? iran received cn the l.?th day of Mny.
:ind the first army expedition sailed
May 25, and arrived off Manila June 30.
Other expedition-* noon followed, the totnl
forre consisting of Ml officers and
15,0*8 men.
So I)lvlilf>i| Victory.
Only reluctance to cause needless loss
of life and properly prevented the e?rly
storming and capture of the city, and
(herewith the absolute military occupancy
of tii?* whole group. The Iniurg.-nt*.
mnanxrbUe had turned the active
hostilities suspended by the uncompleted
truce of December. 1897. Their
forcca Inv ted Manila from the north
<>rn and eastern side, but were eon
Ktmined by Admiral Dewey and Qener)
a I Merrltt, fr^in attempting an assault.
, It wa? Ilttlnn that whatever wan to be
done in the way of decisive operations
t In that quarter should bo accomplished
k '
by tb? strong arm of the TJnMed Bute
*Jone. Obtflnr the stern procept <
war which rnjoint the overcoming i
the adversary and the extinction of h
power wherever aaaallable aa the
and sure means to win a peace, divide
victory waa not perjnlsalble, for no pai
tltlon of the rights and responsibility
attending the enforcement of a Joi
and advantageous peace coulil t
thought of.
Following the comprehensive acheor
of vsneral attack, powerful forcea wei
assembled at various point* on 01
coast to Invade Cuba and Porto Rio
Meanwhile naval demonstrations wei
made at several exposed points. 0
May 11, the cruiser Wilmington an
torpedo boat 'Wlnslow were unsocces!
ful In an attempt to silence the battel
lea at Cardenas, a gallant cnslga.Worl
Bitfey. and four seamen, foiling. Thei
grievous fatalities were' strange!
enough among the very few which o<
curred during our naval operations I
this extraordinary conflict.
i Meanwhile the Spanish naval prepai
Stlons had been pushed with great vli
or. A powerful squadron under Admli
al Cervera, whlcli had aasembled at tq
Cape VeHe Islands before the outbrea
Of -hostilities;' nan crons?u mc wo,
and bf its erratic movements in tt
Caribbean sea delayed our mllltar
plans, while baffling the pursuit of 01
fleets. For a time lean were felt lei
the ships Marietta and Oregon nearln
some after a long voyage from Sa
Francisco, of over 15,000 miles, might t
surprised by Admiral Cerveta's flee
but their fortunate arrival dlspellc
these apprehensions and lent muc
needed reinforcement. Not until Admit
al Carver* took refuge in the harbor <
Santiago de Cuba, about Hay 19, was
practicable to plan a systematic navi
and military attack upon the Antilles
possessions of Spain.
Several demonstrations occurred c
the coasts of Cuba and Porto Rico 1
preparation for the larger event. O
May 13, the North Atlantic squadrfl
shelled San Juan de Porto Rico. 0
May 30, Commodore Schley's squadro
bombarded the forts guarding tt
mouth 4>f Santiago harbor. Neither a
tack had any material result. It wi
evident that well ordered land open
tlons were Indispensable to achieve
decisive advantage.
The next act in the war thrilled n<
alone the hearts of our countrymen, bi
the world, by its exceptional hcrolsi]
On the night of June 3. Lieutenant Hoi
son, aided by seven devoted volunteer
blocked the narrow outlet from Santlag
harbor by sinking: me comer luerrimii
in the channel, under a fierce fire froi
the ahore batteries, escaping with the
llvca aa by a miracle, but falling Inl
the hand* of the Spaniards. It is a moi
gratifying Incident of the War that tt
bravery of this little band of heroes w?
cordially appreciated by the Spanish at
miral, who sent a Has: of truce to notll
Admiral Sampson of their safety, an
to compliment them on their daring ac
They were subsequently exchange
July 7.
Brilliant Santiago Campaign.
' By June 7 the cutting of the last Ci
ban cable Isolated the island. Therea
ter the Invasion was vigorously prow
outed. On June 10. under a heavy pre
tecting fire, a landing of six hundrc
marines, from, the Oregon, Marblehea
and Yankee. was effected in Guanti
namo Bay, where it had been determine
to establish a naval station.
Thi# Important and essential port wfi
taken from the enemy after sevei
fighting by the marines, who were tt
first organized foroe of the Unite
tSates to land in Cuba.
The position so won was held desplt
dejperate attempts to dislodge oi
forces. By June 16, additional forc<
were landed and strongly entrench*
On June 22 the advance of the invadlr
army, under Major-General Shaft*
landed at Daiquiri, about fifteen mll<
east of Santiago. This was aecomi
liehed under great difficulties, but wit
marvelous dispatch. On June 23, tt
movement against Santiago begun. 0
the 24th the first serious engaRomcr
took nlace. in which the First and Ten!
cavalry and the Flint United Stat*
volunteer cavalry. General Young
brigade of General Wheeler'* dlvlaioi
participated, losing heavily. By nigh
fall, however, ground within five mill
of Santiago was won. The advantag
wus steadily increased. On July 1 a s<
verc bottle tcok place, our forces gal*
ing the outworks of Santiago; on the
EI Caney and San Juan were taken, a:
tpr a desperate charge, and the invesi
inent of the city was completed. Tl
navy co-operated by shelling the tow
and the* coast forts.
On the day following this brilllai
achievement of our land forces, occui
red the decisive naval cambat of tl
war. The Spanish fleet, attempting I
leave the harbor, was met by the Amei
lean, squadron, under command of At
mlral Sampson. In less than thr<
hours all the Spanish ships were d?
stroyed, two torpedo boats being sunl
and the Maria Teresa. Almiranl
Oquendo, Vizcaya and Chrlstobal Colo
driven ashore. The Spanish admiral an
over 1.300 men were taken prisoner
>Vhi!e tho enemy's loss of life was d<
plorably large, some six hundred perls)
ing. On our side but one man was kll
ed, on the Brooklyn, and one man wi
seriously wounded. Where ail ao-coi
spicuously distinguished themselve
from the commanders to the gunner
and the unnamed heroes In the bolli
rooms, each and all contributing towai
*h? of this astoundinc vli
tory. for which neither ancient nor m<x
ern history affords a parallel. In U
completeness of the event and the mai
velotis disproportion of casualties,
would be Invidious to single out any f<
special honor.
Deserved promotion has awarded th
more conspicuous actora?the Nation
pro roundest gratitude Is due to all <
these brave men. who, by their skill an
devotion In a few short hours. crush?
the sea powers of 8paln, and wrought
triumph whose derisiveness and fai
reaching consequences can scarcely t
measured. Nor can we be unmindful <
the achievements of our builders, mi
chanlcs and artisans for their skill I
the eonstructlon of our warships.
With the catastrophe of Santlas
Spain's effort upon the ocean virtuall
ceased. A spasmodic effort toward th
ond of June to send her Medlterannen
fleet, under Admiral Camara. to r??lle\
Manila, was abandoned, the expedltlo
tain* recalled after It has jmssc
through the Sue* Canal.
The capitulation of Santiago follow*
Th?? city was closely besieged by lam
while the entrance of our ship* Into th
harbor rut off all relief on that Bide. Ai
ter a truce, to allow of the removal <
non-combatants, protracted negoflc
Hon* continued from July C to July 1
when, under a menaceof lmmMlat* m
vault, the prelimInarles of surrend*
were agreed upon. On the 17th Genen
Shaffer occupied the city. The caplti
latton embraced the entire cast mi en
of Cubo. The number of Spanish so
dlera surrendered wan 22.000. all of whoi
were subsequently conveyed to Spain i
the charge of the United State*. Tl
story of this successful campaign Is tol
In the report of the secretary of wn
which wll be laid before you. The Ind
vhln&l valor of officers and soldiery wi
never more Htrlklngly shown than i
tho Several engagements leading to tl
aurender of Santiago, while the promt
movements and miccestiful victories we
Instant and universal applause. 7
those who gained thin complete trlumpl
which wtabllBhed tho ascendancy of tl
TJfclted States upon land tm the flgl
off Bnntlngo had fixed our nupremac
on the neaw. the earnest and laxtln
gratitude of th?* Nation Ih unnparlnrc!
due. Nor should we alone rnnemlx
the gallantry' of the living: tho don
claim our tears, and our losses by halt
and dlaeAse must cloud any exultatUj
nt the reault. nnd teach us to weigh tl
awful cost of war. however rightful tl
cause or signal the victory.
Pitvrto Itloo Cnmpalcn,
With tho fall of Santiago, the occupi
tlon of Puerto Itlco became the nea
strategic necessity. Cleneral Miles ha
previously l>een assigned to organise n
expedition for that purpose. Fortut
ately he was already at Santiago, whei
V . > .
M had arrived cm the 11th of July with
it Inforeement* for General Shaft
if army.
It With these troops, consisting of :
r Infantry and artillery, tiro cotnpanlt
d engineers, one-company of the at)
oorpa, Oeniral M!!"? left onantan/
,, on July O, having nine transport*, i
voycd by the fleet under Captain 1
? glnson, with the UumcIiuhUi, (I
hip), Dixie, Gloucester. Columbia
Tale, the two carrying troop*. The
' pedltlon landed at Ouanlca on Jul]
* which port wa? entered with little
' poaltlon. Here the fleet m Joined
" the Annapolis and the Wasp, while
e Puritan and Amphritlte went to
Juan, end Joined the New Orle
? which was engaged In blockading
" port. The major-general commani
r" wa* subsequently reinforced by Oen
h Schwan's brigade of the Third a
*o corps, by General Wilson, with a ]
y of hi* division,' and also by Oen
Brooke, with a part of his corps, n
o bering In all 18,978 officer* and men.
On July 17 he entered Ponce, on
the most* important port* In the lali
r- from which he thereafter directed op
r- tlons for the capture of the Island.
te With the exception 01 encoumers t
Ic the enemy at ^uayarao, Hormigue
a. Coaxno and Yavico, and attack 01
ie force landed at Cape Ban Juan, tl
y was no serious resistance. The c
ir palgn was prosecuted with great vl
it and by the 12th of August much of
ig Island was In our possession, und
n acquisition of the remainder walr i
,e a matter of a short time. At most of
t points in the island our troops ?
,A ?*nthuslaatic*ly welcomed. Prote
;h tlons of loyalty to the flag, and gratlf
pj for delivery from Spanish rule met
J commanders at every stage. As a
J: tent Influence toward peace, the
,} come of the Puerto Blcan expedl
' was of great consequence, and genej
n commendation is due to those who j
tlclpated in it.
,n The last scene of the war was enai
11 at Manila, its starting plae?. On
in gust 15, after a brief assault upon
n works by the land forces, in which
,n squadron assisted, the capital sun
n dered unconditionally. The casual
10 were comparatively few. By this
l' conquest of th?? Phlllplpne islands,
13 tually accomplished when the Spaj
capacity for resistance was destrc
? by Admiral Dewey'* victory of the
of May, waa formally sealed. To Gen
ft Merritt, his officers and men for t
It I.-Mmnlnlnlne- -on/1 .tiiVAtmt BPrVlei*
n* for their galantry in action, the Na
}" is sincerely grateful. Their ions voy
was made with singular success, anil
f? soldierly conduct of the, men, moe
U whom were without previous experic
{J in the military service deserves unm<
? ured praise.
A Kcmnrkable ItrcorJ.
ie The total casualties in killed
>8 wounded- In -the army during the
!" with Spain was: Officers killed, 23;
,d listed men killed. 237, total. 2S0; ofll.
t. wounded. 113; enlisted mien wouni
(1 1,461; total. 1,577. Of the navy: kll
17; wounded. 67: died as results
wounds, 1; invalided, from service
. total, 91.
/ It will be observed that while
5? navy was engaged In two great -bat
y. and In numerous perilous undertakl
^ in blockade and bombardment,
d more than fiO.Oto of our troop? x\
transported to distant lands and v
xl engaged in assault and sieges and ba
and many skirmishes in unfamiliar
ta rltory, we lost in both urms of the t
e vice a total of 1.668 killed and wouni
ip and in the entire campaign by land
sea we did not. lose a gun or a flag, <
transport or a chip, and with the
te ceptlon of the crew of the Merrlmac
ir a soldier or sailor was taken prlsonei
m On August 7, forty-six days from
3. date of the landing of General Shaft
,g army in Cuba and- twenty-one d
r. from the surrender of Santiago,
United States troops commenced
>- barkatlon for bo%. and our entire f<
ih was returned to the United States
it* early as August 24. They were abt
n from the United States only two mon
it It Is fitting that I should bear te
h mony to the patriotism and devotioi
?s that large portion- of our army wh
'b although eager to be ordered to the ]
n, of greate3* exposure, fortunately
t- not required outside of the Un
?s State*. They did their whole duty.
>o like their comrades at the frer.t h
?- earned the gratitude of the Nation.
>- like manner, the officers ond men of
2 amy and of .the navy who remaine*
f- their department.-* and stations falthf
t_ performing most important duties <
ie nected with the war. and whose requ
n for assignment in the field and at s<
was compelled to refuse because t
it servirrs were indispensable here.
r" entitled to the highest commendatior
,e Is my regret that there seems to be
i0 provision for their suitable recognlt
r" In this connection it is a pleasure
me to mention in terms of cordial apj
* elation the timely and useful work of
American National Ited Cross, botl
relief measures preparatory to the c.
tc paigns, in sanitary assistance at sev
of the camps of assemblage, and la
ia under the ablo and experienced lea<
chin nf thf nrpsldpnt of the society, 3
" Clara Barton,, on the fields of battle
, In the hospitals at the front In Ci
" Working In conjunction with the u
J* ernmental authorities and under ti
" sanction and approval and with the
* * t huslastlc co-operation of many patrl
' women and societies In the varl
Ij mates. the Red Ctofb has fully mj
talned Itsalready high reputation for
tense earnestness and ability to exer
1C the noble purposes of It# internatk
r, organisation, thus justifying the co
It dence and support which It has recel
)r at the .hands of the American people.
the members and. officers of this eocl
1#, and all who aided them In th?>ir phi!
? throplc work, the sincere ^nd lasi
yf gratitude of the tiddlers and the pu
i,l id clue and Is freely accorded.
,<j In tracing these events we are t
ft stantly reminded of our obligation?
r. the Divine Master for His watchful <
te over us and His safe guidance, forwl
the NaMon makes reverent ackno
?- odgement and offers humble prayers
In the continuance of Ills favor.
;o PEA7?~NE00TIATI0H8.
The Protocol and tlia Cotnmiiiloiii?I
^ cn??io? of Government of uevr Poi
>c along After ttioTrrnty la Signed*
in The annihilation of Admiral Cervc
fleet, followed by the capitulation
Santiago, having brought to the Spa:
il* government a realising sense of
ie hopelessness of continuing a strui
f" now become wholly unequal, It m
)l overtures of peace through the Fre
lr" nmbassador, who with the :vjwvnt vf
government, had .ictcd as thu frier
" representative of Spanlrh Interests tl
Ing the war. On the 26th of July,
C'ambon presented a communlcat
I signed toy the Duke of AlmodOver.
Spanish minister of state. Inviting
" ITnlted States to state the terms u
lt which It would be willing to make p<v
On July 30, by a communication
I(1 dresse'i the Dukt of Almodovarj
r handed to M. Cambon. the terms of
i^Lgovernment werean.-our.cd.substant
Ia !> a? In the protocol afterward*
n On AUKUflt 10. tho Spanish reply. de
,0 ugust 7. wart handed by M. Cnmbor
,jj tho neerptary of *tnto. It accepted
,n rondHlonaUy th? term* Imposed on
0 Ctfba, Porjo Rico and nn island of
fif hadroncs proup. but appeared to i
i,i Inadmlrwtble rtesennUloaS In rflfftra
x\ our demand* a# to the Philippine
y land.1*. Conceiving that dlscuMlon
,g thin point oould neither too practical
:> profluble, I directed that, In order
?r avoid mlwindenuandlngr, the ma
id ahould l>o forthwith elated by pro|K>?
io tho embodiment in a formal protocol
m the term* upon which the ncgotlatl
ie for peace were to be undertaken,
le Tho vaffii*- and inexplicit nifprtl
of the Spanish note oould Hot ho aoci
ed, fhe only ropjy belnK to present a
^ virtual ultimatum it draft of prott
embodying the precis terms tendcrw
" Spain In our nolo of July 30, with ad
Htipulutlon* of detail an to the nppo!
n mcnt of conunlmloner* to arrange
i- tho ovnouation of the Spsnitfh Antll
e Un August 12, M. Camtoon announced
jtfM cal *o aubmittetf. AcvordUacly, on the
afternoon of August 12 M- Cambon, mm i
U? the plenipotentiary of Sp*ln, and jecre?
of tary of atata as the plenipotentiary 9*!
rnal the United State* eigmM a protocol prouno
?n- "Article 1. Spain win rellr.ijciih aE
11?- claim of sovereignty oyer and title to
la?. Cuba.
aBd "Article IT. Spain will cede to the
United Suite* the Ifland of Porto Bleo
' " and other laland* now under Spanlih
?p- sovereignty In the We?t Indies, and alao
' ~y an Island In the Latdrone*-to be *?l*cted
t>y the United State*.
San ..AnMe ill. The United State* will
occupy and hold the city, bay and harS|rL;
bor of Manila pending the owclueloo of
a treaty of peace which shell determine
5 ' the control, disposition, .nd government
of the Philippines."
The fourth article provided for the ?ppoint
meat or joint commissions on the
part of the United Statu and Spain, to
. meet in Havana and San Juan, reepec,rd
tlvely. for the purpose of arranrtn* and
eraJ carrying out the detail* of the stipulated
evacuation of Cuba. Porto Rico and
-Kh other Spanish islands In the Wait Indie*.
TMt The fifth article provided for the.ap,
a polirtment of not more than lira com-here
mlaaloner* on each aide, to meat at
un- Paris not later than October 1, and to
for, proceed to the negotiation and conctua
the or a xrfatf or peace, vuujccl w mitho
.Iflcatlon according to the respective
anly constitutional forms of the two coon- ;
tiie tries. I
eere The sixth and last article provided |
sta- that upon the signature of the protocol1
tude hostilities'between the two countries
our should be suspended and that notice to I
po- that effect should be given as soon a*
out- possible by each government . to the I
tlon commanders of Its military and naval I
f?u* forces.
i'ar* Immediately upon the conclusion of
the protocol I Issued a proclamation of I
cl?a August 12, suspending hostilities on the
.?? part of thl> States. The oecesJJJ*
sary orders to that end wero at once
given by telegraph. The blockade of I
the porta of Cuba and San Juan tie PorVhf
t0 Klco na" ,n llkc manner raised. On
August 18. the muster out of 100,000 volni?h
unteers. or aa near that number as was
found to be practicable, was ordered,
let ?n December 1, 101.155 officer* and
men had been mustered out and <Jlsh-i.
charged from tile service and 9,000 more
will be mustered out by the 10th of the
tlon monin- Also a corree^uuuib huuiw> >
age of general and general staff officers
the hftve been honorably discharge from
t Qf the service.
'nee The military commissions to superin>a?.
tend the evacuation of Cuba, Porto Rico.
and the adjacent islands, wtre
-* forthwith appointed:
, For Cuba?Major General James E.
ana Wade, Read Admiral William T. Sampwar
son. Major General Matthew C. Butler;
en- Tor Porto Rico, Major General John R.
*npi Brooke, Rear Admiral Winfleld S.
Schlep, Brigadier General William G.
led,' G?rdon, who eoon afterwards met the
Spanish commissioners at Havana and
<j; San Juan, respectively. The Porto RJ'
' can joint commission speedily accomour
pllshed Its task, and by October 18, the
ties evacuation of the island.was completed,
nga The United States flag was raised over
and the Island at noon on that day. The ad. ere
ministration of Its affairs has been prorere
vlslonally intrusted to a military govjttle
ernor until the Congress shall otherter
wise provide. The Cuban joint high
ser- commission has not yet terminated Its
led; labors. Owing to the difficulties in the
and way of removing the large numbers of
Dr a Spanish troops still in Cuba, the evacuex
atlon cannot be completed before the
not 1st of January next.
The Pue* Commission*
th,e Pursuant to the fifth article of the
ayt protocol, I appointed William R. Day,
the lately secretary of state. Cash am K.
em- Davis, William P. Frjre and George
^ Gray, senators of the United States.
08 I and Whitelaw Reld. vto be the peace
J*nc commissioners on the part or me umted
States. Proceeding in due season to
;st'" Purls, they there met on the 1st of October.
Ave commissioners, similar!? aplcnr
pointed on the part of Spain. Their ne!>ost
gotlatlons have made hopeful progress,
?** no that I trust soon to be able to la? a
"*J{ definitive treat? of peace before the
i?S- senate, with a review of the steps leadin<A
to its algnature.
. ?t RATIFIED. In the meantime, and un,*
til the Congress haa legislated other on
wise, it will be my duty to continue the
fop military governments which have existed
since our occupation and GIVE TO
tcr> As soon as we are in possession of
jerJ Cuba nnd have pacified the island it
ills* *HI fc? necessary to five aid and dlan<!
rectlon to its people to form a govern k
ment for themselves. This should be
;ov- undertaken at the earliest mbroent conheir
slstent with safety end assured sueen
cess. Tt Is important that our relations
otic with this people shnll be of the most
,ou? friendly character and our commercial
tin- relations close and reciprocal. Xt should
in- be our duty to assist In every proper
elite way to build up the waste places of the
>nol Island, encourage the Industry of the
nfl- people, and assist them <o form a govved
ernment which shall be free and IndeTo
pendent, thus realising the best asplraety.
tlons of the Cuban people.
BA, capable of performing all internat
to tional obligations and which shall enrare
courage thrift, industry and prosperity,
ileh and promote peace and good will among
>wl- all of the Inhabitants, whatever may
for have been their relations In the psst.
-- ---
Neither revenue nor
have n plaee In the new government.
Jish Diplomatic DUIirn with Southern Ilfthe
public* and Th*lr StatiiN.
jgle With the one exception of the rupadc
ture with Spain, the Intercourse of tlid
nch United States with the groat family of
|(Jjy nation* ha5 been marked with corditllup.
ity nnd the close of the eventful year
M. finds most of the Issues that necessarily
the nrIs<> in relations of aoverlhe
elgn states adjusted or presenting no
pon *rr'?u? obstacle to a Just and honorable
IC<? solution by amicable agreement,
ad- A *,>nR unsettlod dispute as to the exJn,l
tended boundary between the Argentine
f ills Republic and Chile, stretchtng along the
lal- Andean crests from the southern border
of the Atacama desert to Magellan
,twj straits, nearly a third of the length of
, l0 the South American continent, assumed
un- acute atage in the early part of the
i to year, and afforded to this government
the occasion to express the hope that the
tele resort to arbitration already contemto
plated by existing conventions between
Is. the parties, might prevail despite tho
on grave difficulties arising in Its appllcanor
Hon. I nrn happy to say that arrangeto
ments to this end have been perfected,
Iter tho questions of fact upon which the reIng
spectlvo commissioners were unable to
I of agree being in course of reference to
ona H,>r Britannic Majesty for detcrmlnaa
M.Mnnt <ii(r.?ronnf> tnufhtnc the
on? northern boundary line across the Ala*
pt- camn desert, for which existing trestles
.? a provided no adequate adjustment, bids
?col fair to be nettled In like manner by a
1 to joint commission, upon which the Unlded
tod States minister at Iluenos Ayres has
Int- been Invited to aerve nn umpire In the
for last resort.
les. I have found occasion to approach the
his Argentine government with a view of
ChrUtm** Msffkrm* f
Mt Fine Susp
Boy*' Silk Flow?
|H wkh patent bue
end*, xor.
RVM Van's Fin* Butpeni
mm and each pair In
Man'* 81lk Suspend
colon, and each
ma* box. worth 9
1320 M
settling dl<erencts of rate charges lm- i
pojed upon the cables of an American i
corporation In the transmission between
Buenos Ayr ft and the cttlea of Uruguay
and Brazil of through messages
passing from and to the United State?.
Although the matter Is complicated by J
exclusive concessions by Uruguay and 1
Brasll to, foreign companies, there is
strong hope that a good understanding
will be reached and that the Important
channels or commercial communication
I h#rween the United States and the At
lantlc cities of South American rpar be
freed from an almost prohibitory dls- ,
In this relation I may be permitted to
express my sense of the fitness of an internatlonal'arrcement
whereby the Interchange
of messages over connecting
cablcit may be regulated on a fair basis ,
of uniformity. The world has seen the
postal system developed from a con- i
gtrle of Independent and exclusive services
Into a well-ordered union.of which
all countries enjoy the manifold bene- <
fits. It would be strange were the na- 1
tloos not In time brought to realise that i
modern civilisation which owes so much
of Its progress to ti? annihilation of
I space by the electric force, demands
that this all-important means of com- i
munlcatlon be a heritage of all peoples,
to be administered and regulated In
tbelr common behoof. A step In this dlI
rtctlon was taken when the Interna- '
tlonal convention of 1884 for the protec- '
tlon of submarine cables was signed. 1
and the day Is. I trust, not far distant ]
when this medium for the transmission !
of International concert Is as completeas
Is the msterial carriage of commerce '
and correspondence upon the face ol
the waters that divide them.
The claim of Thomas JefTerson Page
against Argentina, -which has been
pending many years, has been adjusted.
The sum awarded by the congress of
Argentina -was $4,243 35.
The sympathy of the American people
harfjustly been offered to the ruler and
! the people of Austria-Hungary by rea- 1
| son of the affliction that has lately be- .
| fallen them In the assassination of the ,
empress-queen of that historic realm.
On the 10th of September, 1887. a con- 1
I fllet took place at kattlmer. Pa., be- 1
tween a body of striking miners and the {
I sheriff of Lruserne county and his depu
ties. In whlcn twenty-two miners wcjc
killed and forty-two wounded, of whom
ten of the Jtflled and twelve of the
wounded were Austrian and Hungarian
subjects. This deplorable event naturally
aroused the solicitude of the Austro?Hungarian
government, which, on
the assumption that the killing and
woundinglnvolvedthe unjustifiable rais,
use of authority, claimed reparation for
I the sufferers. Apart from the searching
investigation and peremptory action of
| the authorities of Pennsylvania, the
federal executive took appropriate steps
| to learn the merits of the case, in or1
dcr to be in a position to meet the ur|
gent complaint of a friendly power. The
sheriff and his deputies, having been Indicted
for murder, were tried and acquitted,
after protracted proceedings,
and the hearing of hundreds of witneses,
on the ground that the killing
was in the line of their official duty to
i uphold law and preserve public order in
the state. A representative of the department
of Justice attended the trial,
and reported its course fully. With all
, the fact* In its possession, this government
expects to reach a harmonious
understanding on the subject with that
or Austna-nung&r>. iiuuvniioiai.uiHf, .
the renewed claim, of th* latter, after
learning the result of the trial, for indemnity
for its injured subjects.
Despite the brief time allotted for
preparation, the exhibits of this country
at the universal exposition at Brussels,
in 1897, enjoyed thte singular distinction
of a larger proportion of awards, having
regarded to the number and classes
of article* entered, than those* of other
countries. The worth of such a result
in making known our national capacity
to supply the world's markets is obvious.
Exhibitions of this national character
are becoming more frequent as the exchangee
of commercial countries grow
more intimate and varied. Hardly a
year passes that this government is not
invited to national participation at
some important foreign centre but of
this one too short notice to permit of
recourse to Congress for the power and
means to do so. My predecessors have
suggested the advisability of providing
by a general enactment and a standing
appropriation for accepting such Invitations,
and for representing of this country
by a commission. This plan has my
cordis! approval.
* ?Um? ?Ka Pfilslon matrlpilnnn *in
the Importation of cattle from the United
State*, originally adopted as a sanitary
precaution, will at an early day b??
relaxed as to their present features of
hardship knd discrimination. so n* to
admit live cattle under due regulation of
their slaughter after their landing. I
am hopeful, to. of*favora!ble change In
the Belginnt treatment of our preserved
and salted meats. The growth of direct
trade between the two countries, not
alone for Belgian consumption and Belgian
products, but by way of transit
from and to other continental states,
has been both encouraging and beneficial.
No effort will be spared to enlarge
its advantages by seeking the removal
of needless impediments and by arrangements
for increased commercial
Central American Complication*.
The year's events In Central America
deserve more than passing mention.
A menacing rupture between Costa
Rica and Nicaragua was happily composed
by the signature of u convention
between the parties, with the concurrence
of the (Juntemulean representatives
as a mediator, the act being negotiated
and signed on board the United
States steamer Albert, then lying in
Central American waters. It Is believed
that the good offices of our envoy and of ,
ItA .kHmmniulai- of that VOM?l fOntrlbUt" ,
ed toward this gratifying outcome.
I nmy last annual message the altutlon
wan presented with renpect to the J -j
diplomatic representation or thin gov- :
ernment In Central America, created by
the association of Nlear.iRua. Honduras J
and Salvador, under the title of the i i
Oreater Hepubltc of Central America. (
and the delegation of their international I
function!! to the diet thereof. While the 1
representative character of the diet was I
recognised by my predecessor. and hus <
boon confirmed during my ndmlnlstrutlon
by receiving It* accredited envoy 1
and granting exequaters to consul* com- 1
missioned under its authority, that rec- f
ognltlnn was qualified by the distinct 1
understanding that the responsibility *?f '
each of the component sovereign repub- <
lies towards the United States remained i
wholly unaffectetl. c
This provision. Inasmuch us the compact
of threo republics wan at the out- 1
set an association whereby certain rep- 1
resentatlve functions were delegated to (
a tripartite commlnslon. rather than a c
federation possessing centralised pow- t
ers of government and administration. 1 s
In this view of their relation and of the <i
relation of the United States by the aev- j c
??-- ? I ?
Iccktici and 8|drts?
',,' " V
red Fln? SntpeiHl?r?. /?/?
klei and Hid Irather
Jot. with ?llt buckJts. ^r.
*. ChrtaimM box, for ?QC*
.for only....
1)1332 Market Street.
etrnl repuMMa a change In the representttlonof
thla country in Central America
was neither recommended by the executive
nor initialed by Congress: thus
leaving one of our envoya accredited
u heretofore separately, to two antra
>f the greater republic, Nicaragua ami
Salvador,?ndtoa third state Costa Rica
which WR? not a party to the compact. ,
while our envoy was similarly accredited
to a union-aute?Honduras and a
non-union alate?Guatemala. The re.
rait ha* been that the one haa preaenled
credential* only to the president of
Costa Rica, the other having be?n reoelved
only by the government of Guaiemala.
Subsequently the three associated republics
entered Into negotiations for
taking the steps forecasts In the ordinal
compact. A convention of their delegate*
framed for them a federal constltutlon
under tho name of the United
States of Cenlml America, and provided
tor a central federal government and
legislature. Upon ratification by the
constitutional states, the first of November
last was fixed for the new system to
bo Into operation. Within a few weeks
thereafter the plan was severely teated
by revolutionary movements arising.
with a consequent demand for' unity of
ictlon on the part of the military power
of the federal states to suppress them.
IT--I? tUlJ Dtw.ln tho nun- nntnn numa
to have bfccn weakened, through the
tvithdrawal of Its more Important members.
This government wa? not officially
id vised of the installation of the federa?
Hon. and has maintained an attitude of
friendly expectancy, 4*hlle In nowise relinquishing
the position held from the
nutset that the responsibilities of the
several states toward us remained unaltered
by their tentative relations among
President Faror? Action by Congress.
n be Contra led by this Country.
The Nicaragua canal commission, under
tho chairmanship of Hear Admiral
lohn Q. "Walker, appointed July 24,1897.
under the authority of a provision in the
3undry Civil act of June 4 of that year,
lias nearly completed its labors, and the
results of its exhaustive inquiry into the
proper route, the feasibility, and the
cost of construction of an Inter oceanic
:anal by a Nlcaraugan route will be laid
before you. In the performance of Its
task the commlmftslon received all possible
courtesy and assistance from thegovjrnmenl
of Nicaragua and Costa Rica,
which thus testified their appreciation of
the importance of giving a speedy and
practical outcome to the great project
that has for eo many years engrossed
the attention of the respective countries
A5 the soope of the recent. Inquiry embraced
the whole subject with the aim
Df making plans and surveys for a canal
by the most ?x>nvenient route, it necra?artJy
Includes a review of the results of
previous survey* and plans, ana in particular
those adapted toy the Maritime
~anal Company, under its existing conreaslons
from Nicaragua, and Costa
Rica, so that to this extent those grants
necessarily hold as essential a part in
;he deliberations and conclusions of tho
sinal commission as they have held and
nust needs hold in the discussion of the
natter by the Congress. Under th*se
ilrcumstancea and in view of overtures
Tiade to the governments of Nicaragua
ind Costa Rica, by other parties for a
lew canal concession predicted on the
issumed approaching lapse of the contracts
of the maritime canal company
ivlth those states, I have not hesitated
o express my conviction that conversions
of expediency anil International
policy n* between the several govern*
nente intresied in the construction and
rontro! of an inter oceanic canal by thla
oute. require the maintenance of the
statue quo. until the canal commission
shall have reported and the United
Stares Congress .shall have had the op- , t
>ortunlty to pass finally upon the whole
natter during the present session, with)ut
prejudice by reason of any change
n the existing conditions.
Nevertheless, It appears that the government
of Nicaragua, as one of Its las:
sovereign acts before merging Its pow:rs
in those of the newly formed United
States of Central America, has granted
in optional concession to another association,
to become effective on the expiation
of the present grant. It does not
?> -. JU . >11 vn h?>n
ippear wnat mu biiuv^o
nade or what route U proposed under
:hl? contingent grant. so that an examination
of the feasibility of its plaji Is
lecessarlly not embraced In the report of
he canal commission.
All these circumstances suggest the
jnrency of some definite action by the
Congress at thU session if the labors of
he past are to be utilized and the linkng
of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans by
? practical waterway is to be realized.
That the construction of such a mariIme
highway is now more than ever inJlsptnsable
to that Intimate sod ready
ntercormnuniratlon between our eastern
tnd western seaboards demanded by the
innexatlon of the Hawaiian Islands and
h?* prospective expansion of our Influence
and commerce In the Pacific, arid
hat our'national policy now more lmleratlvely
than ever, calls for Its control
>y this government, are propositions
vhieh I doubt not the Congress* will duly
ippreclate and wisely act upon.
Upon a convention providing ?> -*** ?
evival of the late United State* and
Chilian claims commission and the consideration
of claims which ?vore duly
>reseMed to the late commlr.?ion hut not
'onaldered because of the expiration of
he time limited for the duration of the
Minmtalon. tva* signed May 2*. WJ.
tnd walr remalnetl unacted upon by tha
tenat<*. The term therein fixed for ft- ' ?
ectlnfffhu exchange of ratlfleatlonsh**ng
claptotd. the convention fall* unlet*
he time be extended by amendment,
\1ilch I am endeavoring to bring about,
vlth the friendly concurrence of the Cliiean
rhe C, J, will not Beeonie Inrolred -P?r?
mrr Itcromnieiidaliou Itracwed.
The United States has not been an In.
liferent spectator or ?ne MM
vent* transpiring in the Chlnnte em- I
)Iro. whereby portions of lis maritime I
>rovlncv* arc passing under the control I
>f various Kuropean powers; but Jh?
>ro.npect fhnt the vast commerce which
he energy of our citUcna am! th?* necw'iy
of our staple production* for Chl?rsf?
uar* ha* built up In th.*e rvsiona
nay no; bo prejudiced through any ex'luslve
treatments by the new oecu?a:iti*
<haa obviated the nerd of our
ountry becoming an :ie:or In the *?vne.
Our position nmonjr nations, bavin* a
atrp Pacific coa*x. and conntantly **>andlng
direct trade with the farther
>riont. give* Us the e^ultabh* claim t?
?>n#:id'*ratlon and friendly treatment in
his regard. and It will he my aim to
ubserve our lar^e Interests In that
juarter by all means appropriate to the
onetant policy of our governmwu The

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