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The Abbeville press and banner. (Abbeville, S.C.) 1869-1924, December 18, 1901, Image 2

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THE MESSAGE
President's Review of National
Affairs Read to Congress.
HRfiFS WAR (IN ANARCHISTS
VliMuu nun vii iiiiiuiviii v i v
Believes No Changes Should Be Made
io the Tariff and Advocates
Reciprocity.
PUBLICITY A CHECK ON TRUSTS
The President Favors National Supervision
and Control of Industrial Combinations
?Urges tlio Ke-ennctraent of the Chinese
Exclusion Law? Recommends the
Amendment of the Immigration Laws
? Pleads For tho Up-Building of the
Merchant Marine and tho Expansion
of the Navy ? Tho Isthmian Canal
Treaty?The Monroe Doctrine?Tlec.>minciulatioug
About Cuba, Hawaii, Porto
Rico and the Philippines?The Army
?Tho Other Topics Discussed.
. Washington, D. C.?President Roocsvelt's
first annual message, which was read
before the Senate and House of Representatives,
is, in p; rt, as follows:
The Congress assembles this year under
the shadow of a great calamity. On the
6th of September President McKinley was
shot by an Anarchist while attending the
Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo, and
died in tha: city on the 14th of that
month.
Of the last seven elected Presidents he
is i.he third who has. been murdered, and
the bare recital of this fact is sufficient to .
justify grave alarm among all loyal Amer- i
ican citizens. Moreov-r, the circumstances ,
of this, the third assassination of an American
President have a pecularily sinister .
significance. Both President Lincoln and '
President Garfield were killed by assass- ;
ins of types unfortunately not uncommon .
in history; President Lincoln falling the
victim to the terrible passions aroused by ^
four years of Civil War, and President ,
Garfield to the revengeful vanity of a disappointed
officeseeker. President McKin- ,
kj was killed by an utterly depraved crim- '
iaal belonging to that body of criminals ,
who object to all governments, good and ,
tad alike, who are against any form of ^
popular liberty if it is guaranteed by even |
the most just and liberal laws, and who ,
are as hostile to the upright exponent of ]
a tree -people s sooer will as to me tyran- (
nical and irresponsible despot. i ,
President Roosevelt then pays a high
tribute to the late President as a man, a J
citizen and a statesman. In concluding (
his eulogy the President said: "We mourn (
r. good and great President who is dead, ,
but while we mourn we are lifted up by ]
the splendid achievements of his life ana
the grand heroism with which he met Lis
Ceath." J
The President, in referring to the crime *
which so shocked the community, said
that the blow was aimed not at the Presi- ]
dent, but at every symbol of government. !
It was the bold defiance of anarc'.iy. of all j
law and order. The Anarchist is *a criminal
whose perverted instincts lead him 5
to prefer confusion and chaos to the most
bene':cent form of social order.
President Roosevelt then declares that !
.anarchistic speeches, writings and meet- '
ings are essentially seditious and treason- 1
able. He urges Congress to enact such J
legislation as will b.*r all Anarchists or .
persons justifying the murder of those 1
placed in authority from entering ;he A
countrv. The President continues: The I
i _i u i? ^
jpeuerai courts snomu uc giwu j?>iouiv.hu..
over any man who kills or attempts- to
kill the President cr any man who, ov the
Constitution or by laws, is in line of succession
for the Presidency, while the punishment
for an unsuccessful attempt
should be proportioned to the enormity of
the offence against our institutions.
Anarchy is a crime against the whole
human racc, and all mankind should band
against the Anarchist. His crime should
be made an offence against the law of nations,
like piracy and that form of manstealing
'known as the slave trade, for it
is of for blacker infamv than either. It
should be so declared by treaties among
all civilized powers. Such treaties would
give to the Federal Government the power
of dealing with the crime.
President Roosevelt refers in congratulatory
terms to the prosperity of the nation,
but titters a warning to the men who seek
to add to their possessions by gambling in
, any form and unwise speculation, as they
are a source of menace not only to themselves,
but to others. If the business
world loses its head it loses what legis'atio
1 cannot supply.
The President then considers the great
accumulations of wealth and large industrial
corporations. He says that the c-eation
of great corporate fortunes has not
beer due to the tariff nor to any other
governmental action, but to natural causes
in the business world, operating in other
oimhi^pIoo nc thpv nr.pra.fcp in Olll* own. I
r.^hc process has aroused much antagonism. ;
the President observes, a great part of c
which is wholly without warrant. There I
have been abuses connected w:th the ac- |
cumulation of wealth, yet it remains true 1
that a fortune ac. aniulated in legitimate i
business can be accumulated by the person 1
specially benefited cnl on condition of 1
coniernng immense incidental benefits i
upon others. Successful enterprise, of i
the tyne which benefits all mankind, can 1
only exist if the conditions are such as to J
ofTer great prizes as the rewards of success.
_ i
President Roosevelt advises caution in i
dealing with the abuses involved in the ]
question of industrial combinations. He i
renarks: It cannot too often be pointed !
out that to strike with ignorant violence
at the interests of one set of men almost
inevitably endangers the interests of all.
The fundamental rule in our national life
?the rule which underlies all others?is
that, on the whole, and in the lonjj run.
we shall go up or down together. There
are exceptions, and in times of prosperity
?ome will prosper far more, and in tunes
of adversity some wi'l suffer far m?ro than
others, but speaking generally, a period r "
good times means that all ihare more or iess
in them, and in a period of hard times all
feel the stress to a greater or les.i degree.
Disaster to great business enterprises can
never have its effects limited to the men
at the top. It spreads throughout, and
while it is bad for everybedv it is worst
for those farthest down. The capitalist
may be shorn of his luxuries, but the
wage-worker nay be deprived of even bare
xeeessitics'.
President Roosevelt sa;*s that there are
real and grave evils connected with trusts,
one of the chief being over-capitalization
because of its many baleful consequences,
and a resolute and practical effort must be
rjade-to correct these cvi's. He continues:
There i3 a widespread conviction in
the minds of the American people that the
great corporations known as trusts are in
certain of their features and tendencies
hrrtful to the general welfare. This
< springs from no spirit of envy or uncharitao.cness.
It does not rest upon a lack of
intelligent appreciation of the necessity of
meeting changing and changed conditions
of trade with new methods, nor upon ignorance
of the fact that combination of
canital in the effort to accomplish great
things is necessary when the world's profvesa
demands that great things be done,
t is based upon sincere conviction that
combination and concentration should be,
not prohibited, but supervised, ar.d within
reasonable limits controlled, ana 111 ny
jcrimnent this conviction is right.
The President believes that the first essential
in determining how to deal with
the great industrial combinations is knowledge
of the facts. Publicity is the only
sure remedy that can be invoked. The
Government, he declares, should have the
' - '-w. ? L . , '
right to inspect and examine the workings
of the large corporations engaged in interstate
business. Continuing he says:
Artificial bodies, such as corporations
and joint stcck or other associations, depending
upon any statutory law for their
existence or privileges, shou'.d he subject
to proper governmental supervision, and
full and accurate information as to their
operations should be made public regularly
at reasonable intervals.
The large corporations, commonly called
trusts, though organized in one State, alwvivs
do business in manv States, often
(loins very little business in the State
where they are incorporated. There is
utter lack of uniformity in t!ic Stale
Jaws about them, and as no State has any
exclusive interest in or power over their
acts, it has in practice proved impossible
to get adequate regulation through State
action. Therefore, in the interest of the
whole people, the Xation should, without
interfering with the power of the States
in th* matter itself, also assume power of
supervision and regulation over all corporations
doing an interstate business.
Thte President the;* states that if Concress
^oes not have the power to franc a
law which will enable the Federal Government
to exercise the control referred to,
then, he believes, a constitutional amendment
should be submitted to confer the
power. i
He recommends the creation of a Cabinet
officer to be k:;own as Secretary of
Commerce and Industries. It should be
his province to deal with commerce in its
broadest sense, including among many
other things whatever concerns labor and
all matters affecting the great business ;
corporations and our in&rchant marine. 1
After ref'-rrinj: tj the present projpci\.: s
condition of the wage-workers the I'rosi- !
dent remarks that every effort of legis'a- !
tor and administrator should be '
bent to secure the permanency of this
state of affairs and its improvement 1
wherever possible. He says tbet 1
our labor* should be protected so far '
as it is possible from the presence in this
country of any laborers brought over bycontract,
or ox those who. coming freely,
yet represent a standard of living so de- 1
p.jssea that they can undersell our men 1
in the labor market and drag them to a '
lower level. I regard it as necessary, with
this end in view, to re-enact immediately 1
the law excluding Chinese laborers and to '
strengthen it wherever necessary in order
to make its enforcement entirely effective. '
President Roosevelt declares that our j
present immigration laws are unsatisfac- 1
tory. fie believes that a comprehensive *
law shou'd be enacted with the object of '
working a threefold improvement over cur !
present system. First, we should aim to 1
include all persons who are known to <
be Anarchists, and also all persons who '
arc of a low moral tendency; secondly, to (
secure by a careful test some intelligent 1
capacity to appreciate American institu- (
tions and to act sanely as American citi- *
zens; and thirdly, to exclude all persons '
who are below a certain standard of eco- .
nomic fitness to enter our industrial field >
is competitors with American labor. ?
Tiie President is in favor of letting the <
tariff rest without revision for the pres;nt.
He says: 1
There is general acquiescence in our <
present tariff system as a national policy, t
The first requisite to our prosperity is the i
:ontinuitv and stability of this economic s
policy. Nothing could ha more unwise t
than to disturb the business interests of '
the country by any general tariff change t
it this time. Yet it is not only possible, j
i>ut eminently desirable, to combine with t
the stability of our economic system a *
supplementary system of reciprocal benefit
i id obligation with other nations. Such t
ecipTocity i. an incident and result of t
;he fin.i establishment and preservation
>f our present economic policy." Ifc was es- t
serially provided for in the present tariff c
uw.
Reciprocity must be treated as the hand- '
r\f ir?r> Onr first- Hllf.V tf> Cj
iee that t^o protection granted bv the c
:ariff.in evefy case where it is needed is e
maintained, and that reciprocity be sought f
or so far as it can safely be done without ?
njury to our home industries. The well- "
)eirg cl the wage-worker is a prime con- a
lideration ox our entire policy of economic ?
egislation. 11
The natural mine of development for ?
t policy of reciprocity will be in connee- 11
:ion with those of our productions which F
10 longer require all of the support once 1
leeded to establish them upon a sound s
jasis, and with those others where either 11
jecause of natural or of economic causes
ve are beyond the reach of successuil com- !>
jetition. 1
Ths .iext subject discussed is the mer'hant
marine. The President says it is J'
liscreditable tD us as a -?.;.cion that only a *
rifling portion of our great commerce* is ''
sarriec on our own ships. To remedy this "
itate of things, he continues, would not ?
nerely serve to build up our shipping in- t
erests, but it wou'd also result in benefit 0
o all who are interested in the permanent c
'stablishment of a wider market for _
American products, and wculd provide an
mxiliary force for the navy. It should be
nade advantageous to carry American }
;oods in American bu;lt ships. 11
At present American shipping is vnder t
:ertain great disadvantages when put in S
:ompetition with the shipping of foreign T
countries. Our Government should take e
:uch action as will remedy these ineruali- v
ies. The American merchant marine a
ihould be rcs'ored to the ocean. t
For the first time appropriations fir irrigation
and the reclamation of desert i
ands are suggested. Appropriations, lim- c
ted to necessities, are bespoken for the im- t
jrovement of the rivers and harbors. c
The President congratulates the country
>n the workings of the gold standard C
noney system. Ht says it is timely and t
udicious and desirable to maintain. He ^
>raises the National Banking law, but f
says there is need of better safeguards
igainst financial panics, and that the cur- *
ency should be responsive to trade's de- v
nands. J
The collections from duties on imports "
ind 'nternal taxes conti :?:e to exceed the *
>rdinary expenditures of the Government,
,'ianks r.iuinly to the reduced armv expenditures.
The utmost care sho.itd be 1
:akcn not to reduce the revenues so that 1
chere will be any possibility of a deficit,
jr';, after providing against any such con:ingency,
mr-.ns should be adopted which :
ivill bring the revenues more nearly with- Sj
n the limit of our actual necls. This sec- tiop
of the message closes with a demand S
[or str;et cconomv in expenditures. J
President Roosevelt writes that expe- I
rience has sho\v-< the wisdom of the pur- 1
roscs of the Interstate Commerce act, but
has also shown, possibly, that some of its
requirements arc wro;:g certainly, that the
rue:ins devised for the enforcement of its
ovision* are defective. Tho act should
be u_.endcd. The railway is a public c*?rvant.
Tis rates should he just to and open
to all shippers alike. The subject is one of
great importance and calls for the earnest
attention of the Congress.
After a brief reference to the Rpiendid
work in the way of upbuilding domestic
and foreign trade which is being carried
on by the Department of Agriculture, the
message discusses our insular possessions.
I . Hawaii our aim must be to develop
the territory on the traditional American
lines. We do not wish a region of large
estates tilled by cheap labor; we wish a
healthy American community of men who 1
themselves till the farms they own. All ]
our legislation for the islands should be ]
shaped with this end in view.
It is a pie: *.ire to say that it is hardly
more necessary to report as to Porto Rico '
than as to any State or Territory within !
our continental limits. The island is thriv- 1
ing as .jever before, and it is being admin- i
istered efficiently and honestly. Its peo
n',e are now enjoying liberty and order under
the protection of the United States, I
and upon this fact we congratulate them '
and ourselves.
In Cuba much progress has been made toward
putting the independent government
of the island upon a firm footing that before
the present session of the Conjrres.s
f\r*es this will be an accomplished fact.
Cuba will then stn^t as her own mistress,
and to tlu beautiful Queen of the Antilles.
as she unfolds this new page of her
c'.estiny, we extend our heartiest greetings
and good wishes. I most earnestly ask
your attention to the wisdom, indeed to
the vital need, of providing for a substantial
reduction in the tariff duties on Cuban
imports into the United States.
In the PhiMppines our problem is
larger. Our earnest effort is to help the
people upward alonr the otojiy and difficult
path that leads to self-government.
We hope to make our administration of
the islands honorable to our nation by
making it of the highest benefit to the
Filninoo themselves, and as an earnest of
what we intend to do, we point to what
we have cone. Already a greater measure
of material prosperity and of gorernmenval
honesty and efficiency has been attained
in the Ph"ilipp;nes than ever before in their
history.
There are still troubles ahead in the
islands. The insurrection has become an
affair of local banditti and marauders,
who deserve no higher regard than the
brigands of portions of the Old World.
Encouragement, direct or indirect, to
these insurrer:tOB stands on the same footing
as encouragement to hostile Indians
a. J of ill W? Indian I
Ill Uic U <IV3 nucu ??v. ?ktii
H'aM.
The time has come when there should
be additional legislation for the Philippines.
Nothing better can be done for the
islands than to introduce industrial enterprists.
Nothing would benefit them so
much as throwing them open to industrial
development.
Af.er calling attention to the crying
need of either a Governmental or a privately
owned cable to Hawaii and the
Philippines to be continued to points in
Asia, the message declares that not a
single great material work which remains
to be undertaken on this continent is of
such co isenuence to the American people |
i.s the building of a canal across the isth- j
mus connecting North anrl South Amer- !
ica. Its importance to^ the nation is by
no means limited merely to its material
tffccts upon our business prosperity, and
yet with view to these efleets upon our 1
business prosperity alone it would be to
the last degree important for us immediately
to bogin it. While its beneficial effects
would nerhaps be most marked upon
the Pacific coast and the Gulf and South
Atlantic States, it would also greatly benefit
other sections. It is emphatically a
work which it is for the ' iterest of the : i
sntire country to begin, and complete as
soon as possible. The President then tells
of the new treaty with Glreat Britain and
if aprppoved says the Congress can then
proceed to give effect to the advantages it
secures us by providing for the budding
3f the canal.
WOi:tmuing me rresiueui, sajs;
The true end of every great and free
people should bs se'f-resp:cting pea^e, i
md this nation most earnestly desires
sincere and cordial friendship with all
others. Over the entire work:, of recent
rears, wars between the great civilized
powers have become less and less frequent.
Wars with barbarous or semibarbarous
peoples come in an entirely different
catagory, being merely a most regrettable
but necessr/y international poice
duty which must be performed. Peace
;an only be kept with certainty where
joth sides wish to keep it, but more and
nore the civilized peoples are realizing the i
vicked folly of war and are attaining that I
:ondition of just and intelligent regard
;or the'rights of others which will in the
md. as we hope and believe, make world- '
vide peace possible. The peace conference
nt The Hague gave definite expression
to this hope and belie! and marked a 3
itride toward their attainment. j
This same peace conference acquiesced 1
n our statement of the Monroe Doitrine (
is compatible with the purposes and aims
)f the conference. ,
Our people intend to abide by the Mon- 1
oc Doctrine and to insist upon it as the 1
>ne sure means of securing the peace of (
he Western Hemispl :rc. The navy of- <
ers us the only means of making our in- ,
ibtence upon the Monro? Doctrine any
hing but a subject of derision to whatever
lation chooses to disregard it. We desire
he peace which comes as of right to the <
ust man armed, not the peace granted on )
erms of ignominy to the craven and the 1
reakling. ]
It is not possible to improve a navy af- j
er war breaks out. The shins must be ,
(uilt and the men trained long in advance. I
The work of upbuilding the navy must I
>e steadily continued. No one point of
nr policy, foreign or domestic, is more
mportant than this to the honor and maerial
welfare, and above all to the peace,
if our nation in the future. Unless our
ommerce is always to be carried in forign
bottoms, vre must have war craft to
irotect it. So far from being in any way
provocation to war. an adequate and
lighly trained navy is the btst guaranty
gainst war. the cheapest and most effeclve
peace insurance. The co3t of buildtig
and maintaining such a navy repreents
the very lightest premium for insurng
peace which this nation can possibly
lay. The President thinks the Naval Mi!tia
forces and the National Naval Keerve
should receive hearty encouragement.
It is not necessary to increase our army
leyond its present ?ize at this time. Cut
t is necessary to keep it at the highest
nint of efficiency. The individual units,
i*ho as officers and enlisted men compose
his army are, we have good reason to beieve,
at least as efficient as those of any
ther army in the entire world. It is our
[uty to see that their training is of a kind
o insure the highest possible expression
f power to these units when acting ia
ombination.
No other citizen deserves so well of the
Republic as the veterans, the survivors of
hose who saved the Union. We are now
udeed one nation, one in fact as well as
a name; we are united in our devotion to !
" _ 1?i i
no nag wnicu is mc symuui ui t
reatness and unity, and the very c3mileteness
of our union enables us all, in (
very part of the country, to glory in the
alor shown alike bv the sons of the North
nd the sons of tne South in the times *
hat tried men's souls. J
The President states that the merit sys- :
eri of making appointment is as Ameri- )
an as the common school system, and ]
hen recommends the reorganization of the ;
onsular service.
Cordial support for the St. Lnuis and
'harleston expositions is fcesooken, and >
hen postal affairs are treated. The an- <
mal postal deficit has been ste .di'.v re- '
luced from $11,411,770 in 1897 to S.3,923.727 ;
n 1901. Among the recent postal ad- J
ances the success of r_ral free delivery J
wherever established has been so marked '
hat, and actual experience has made its 1
lenefits so plain, that the demand for its i
xiension is general and urgent.
The message after felicitating the counry
upon the successful settlement of the
luestions growing out of the anti-foreign
iprising in China, concludes as follows: ,
The death of Oueen Victoria caused the J
eople of the United States deep and
icartfelt sorrow, to which the Government
avc full expression. When President
nur ration in turn re- i
eived from every quarter of the British '
?moire expressions of trrief and sympathy 1
10 less sincere. The death of the Empress <
)ou-ager Frederick of Germany also ;
iroused the genuhe sympathy of the ]
American people, and this sympathy was
:ordia!ly reciprocated by Germany when
he President was assassinated. Indeed,
rem every quarter of the civilized world
ve received, at the time of the President's
!eath, assurance of such grief and regard ,
is to touch the hearts of our people. In
ne midst of our affliction we reverently
hank the Almighty that we are at peace
vith the nations of mankind, and we
irmly intend that our policy shall be such
is to continue unbroken these interna;ional
relations of mutual respect e.iid
;ood will.
THEODORE ROOSEVELT.
Pat Her Baby In the Oven.
Mrs. F. Meydrs, who lives five miles
'rom Correctionville, Iowa, wrapped
ier five-months'-old baby Cora in a
blanket, put her in the oven of the
iiitchen stove to keep warm and went
jut into the yard to gather fuel. When
she came bark half an hour later the
fire in the stove had blazed up and
the room was filled with smoke. Rushing:
to the oven she found the flames
leaping from the blanket and clothes
md body of her infant. Life was al
reuuy e.\uuti. ,
Indians Want to Lease Lauds.
Indian Agent Mytonn, cf the British i
Ute reservation at White Hooks. Utah. !
with five head men of the Utes, had.
a hearing bofore Indian Commissioner
Jones, at Washington, and aslced authority
to lease their mineral and grazing
lauds. There is urgent need at the
reservation for irrigation work, and
the Indians are anxious to secure revenue.
Gait Well Foand In Georgia.
Analysis of a sample of brine taken I
from a new well near Chiekamauga
Park, Ga., shows that it contains ten
per cent, of pure salt. It was struck
at a depth of 212 feet. There are no
other calt wells in that portion c.'.
Georgia.
MS Of THE PHILIPPINES"
United States Supreme Court's Decision
in the Tariff Cases.
PORTO RiCO CASE ALSO DECIDED
The Court Says the Philippine Inlandi
Became American Territory "When the
Treaty of Paris Was Signed and Duties
Cannot Be Levied?Tlio Validity
of the Foralter Act Iteafllrmed.
I
Washington, D. C.?The United
States Supreme Court has rendered decisions
in two cases Involving the customs
relation of the United States with
its insular possessions. The one opinion,
dealing with a case from the Philippines,
was adverse to the claims of
the Government, and the other, In what
is known as the second Dooley case,
from Porto Rico, sustained the Government.
In the first of these the opinion was
handed down by Chief Justice Fuller.
The case was that of Emil J. Pepke vs.
The United States, kaown as the
"Fourteen Diamond Rings Case," and
involved the constitutionality of the
imposition of customs duties upon
merchandise brought into the United
States from the Philippines, after the
exchange of the peace treaty with
Spain.
The opinion, as stated, was adverse
to the claims of the Government on
the ground that the Philippine Islands
were, at the time the rings were
brought in, American territory. Ceasing
to be foreign territory, they became
domestic territory. The decision
in the De Lima Porto Rlcan cases
were cited at length, and it was held
that the resolution adopted by Conpress
concerning the Philippines was
not sufficient to change the situation.
Chief Justice Fuller said that the
Philippine Islands ceased to be foreign
territory as soon as the Paris
treaty of peace was signed, and the
resolution to which he referred as being
ineffective and not binding was
the resolution adopted by the Senate
soon after the ratification of the treaty.
The Chief Justice concluded his opinion
by reversing the decision of the
Court below. Justice Brown read an
Dpinion concurring In the result, but
differing from the conclusions drawn
Dn minor points. Justices Gray, Shiras,
White and McKenna dissented.
This case is one of the two important
cases left undecided by the Court at
Its last term, when It decided a number
of cases involving the customs relations*
of the United States with Its
Insular possessions. Those decided at
that time bore entirely upon the relations
of this country with Porto Rico,
jnd this was the only case of a largo
ciumber which were then argued and
considered which involved the United
States with the Philippines. Much interest
has been manifested in the Philippine
case, because of the probability
jf legislation relating to the Philip-'
n/vnni?r> /\P pAnrrroeo
[lines <IL III1S 9C.131UU U1 V.OO.
In the Dooley case Justice Brown,
ivho delivered the Opinion, held that
is Porto Rico Is not foreign territory,
the poods shipped to Porto Rico are
lot exports, but whether exports or imports,
the wide range of Congress in
:he matter of taxation was sufficient
;or a contingency of this character. At
uest, he said, the duty was a tern-,
sorary expedient, and as it was explictly
provided in the Foraker act that
:he Porto Rican Legislature could
change the character of the enactment,
it was held that the Foraker act was
merely legislation in the interest of
Porto Rico.
The Foraker act was sustained on
:he grounds laid down in the Downs
:aso, another one of the insular cases
Jecided at the last term. The decision
)f the lower Court was affirmed. ,Tus:ice
Brown explicitly said that the
opinion was not to be construed as a
justification of export duties.
The contention on the part of Dool?y's
counsel was that Congress had
30t tlio power under the Constitution
:b impose taxes or duties such as were
:evled under the act of April 12, upon
irticles taken into Porto Rican ports'
[rom other parts of the United States,
Porto Rico being an integral portion of
ho Nation.
The Chief Justice and Justices Harlan,
Brewer and Peckham united in a
Sissenting opinion in the Dooley case,
ivhich was handed down by the Chief
Justice. Tiiey held that the duty imposed
was export in character, and
:hat the fact that it was levied for the
benefit of Porto Rico did not change
ts character.
BANK CLERK COUDIE CAUGHT.
Through Him American Crooks Robbed
Liverpool Bank of SS50,000.
Liverpool, England.?Goudie, the defaulting
clerk of the Bank of Liverpool,
was arrested at Bootle, a suburb
of Liverpool. It was through Goudie
Lhat the bank was robbed of $50,000 on
forged checks, and American sporting
tuen are accused cf being in the
scheme.
The arrest aroused the greatest excitement
in Liverpool. The detectives
found Goudie in bed and said: "You
are Goudie." He replied: "I'm the
man you are wanting." He was perfectly
calm. He had been staying
in the same lodging house since the
day he left the bank. After Goudie
left the bank he hung about the docks
till dusk. Then he went to Bootle
and took lodgings in a shabby street
within a stone's throw or tne ponce station.
He feigned illness and never left
the house.
BUhop's Ban on Church Fairs.
Bishop O'Conuell, at Portland, Me.,
has issued a decree that no fairs shall
be held by the Catholic churches, on
account of the expense that they cause
to the poor people of the different
parishes.
CentexiHrinn Dies From a Fall.
Terence Murphy, aged 101 years,
died at T iltiinore, Md., from the effects
a full last September. He
recovered from an attack of sunstroke
last summer, although his physicians
said he would die.
Captain Tilley Exonerated.
Tho United States Naval Court at Tntuila,
Samoa, has honorably acquitted
Captain Benjamin F. Tilley, Naval
Governor of Tutuila, of all the charges
' ? Vn AflVloilfu tn sustain
UgUliiSl mill. nv 1. . .W.? _
the charges was presented to the Court.
Commander Uriel Sebree has succeeded
Captain Tilley as Naval Governor.
First Bunking; Power in the World.
In his report as Controller of the
Currency, William B. Ridgely shows
that the United States is the first banking
power of the world.
INDIANS TO BE CITIZENSj
Plan to Divide the Lands of the
Red Men in New York.
Proposed National and State Legislation
to Effect the Severance of Tribal Kela*
tloni* ? Trobable Indian Objection.
Albany, N. Y.?Nearly 5300 Indians,
residents of this State, will become j
citizens through the severance of the I
tribal relations -which have existed for
c nturies ll! the plans of President
Foosevelt and Governor Odell are carried
out in Congress and in the State
Legislature.
With this action more than 87,000
acres of the most productive farm land
1n the western part of the State, which
by constitutional provision is now exempt
from taxation, will produce a
revenue equal to the amount now expended
by the State upon its wards
fo road improvements, support of the
Thomas Orphan Asylum for Young
Indians of the Seneca Tribe, and for
bridge buildings. This sum aggregates
annually about $75,000.
While he was Governor of New
York President Roosevelt appointed a
commission to make a report upon the
feasibility of dissolving the tribal relations
of the five tribes in this State
and apportioning' their lands among
them. The commission reported favorably,
but nothing was done by the
last Legislature.
Residents of the counties in which
Vinao trihos si fun fed. and friends
of the Indians generally, believing that
their condition -will be improved by a
dissolution of their traditional organizations,
have been working hard to
bring about this reform, and now, they
believe, they are about to see their efforts
crowned with success.
President Roosevelt promised the
advocates of this plan to urge Congress
in his first message to pass laws
dissolving tribal relations of all Indian
tribes In the country, dlstrbuting their
lands in severalty. Governor Odoll
will make a similar recommendation
in his message to the Legislature.
In the Legislature, a bill will be introduced
endowing the members of
the five tribes with citizenship and allotting
in severalty among them such
lands as are held by the tribes through
grants from the State or in fee. Dug
provision will be made in this bill to
prevent alienation of these lands, except
amonK the Indians themselves,
for a period of years. By this means
white men will be prohibited from acquiring
any of these lands, as they
have on Western reservations, after
allotments have been made.
It Is probable that there will be
strong opposition to the plan, as many
of the Indians, especially among the
Senecas. are shi-ewd and unscrupulous,
and their present relations afford them
an excellent opportunity to enrich
themselves at the expense of their fellows.
sometimes in defiance of the tribal
laws, whose administration they
themselves control.
The five tribes are the Senecas,
whose reservations lie in Allegany,
cattaragus ana urie oounues; tue
Tuscaroras, in Niagara County; the
Onondagas, in the county of that
name: the St. Rcsris. in Franklin, and
the Shinnecocks, in Suffolk.
The Senecas hold their lands in Allegany
and Cattaraugus counties from
the nation, and in Erie County, in fee
simple, through purchase. The Tuscaroras,
Onondagas and Shinnecocks
hold theirs in fee, and the St. Regis
tribe occupy State lands.
ARMY DEFEATED THE, NAVY.
President Roosevelt Witnessed an Exciting
Football Contest in Philadelphia.
Philadelphia. ? Frobably the most
distinguished gathering that ever witnessed
a football contest in this country.
and admittedly the greatest crowd
that ever entered the gates of Franklin
Field, saw West Point defeat Annapolis
by the score of 11 to 5. From
the moment that President Roosevelt
and his party entered the great amphitheatre
until half an hour after the
referee had blown his whistle announcing:
the cessation of hostilities
there was an almost continuous upl-oar
such as lias probably never taken
place before on any football j^ld In
the country, fully 30,000 persons being
present.
Even the President and several members
of his Cabinet, worked up to a
nervous pitch by the excitement, left
their seats in the private box which
had been set apart for their occupation.
and took positions on the side lino
benches, which are usually used for
substitute players and coaches. There
was not a seat unoccupied, and hundreds
stood around the field through
the entire game.
MICHIGAN BANKER CONE.
H. H. Terwllllcrer Disappears From Modtajrue?
HI* Business Solvent.
Detroit, Mich.?Henry H. Terwilliger,
for tweniy years a private banker
at Montague, has disappeared. He
came to Detroit a few days ago. and
from here sent a long letter to W. F.
Xeufer. saying that his burden was
more thnn he could bear, and that his
family would never see him again.
Accompanying the letter was an assignment
and two trust deeds making
Mr. Xeufer and Christ L. Strong, of
Montague, trustees to conduct his
business.
By the deeds Mr. Terwiiliger
stripped himself of all his visible property.
but provided for his wife and
daughter. An investigation showed
that Mr. Terwiiliger took with him
Konl- Sr. n
perous condition, there helnc visible at
least $15,000 above all liabilities. The
amount on deposit is $G1.S00, this renresentin?
the total amount of liabilities.
The total assets will range from
$70,000 to $80,000.
Soeleiy Leader a Rank Looter.
Thr-odore Duddleston. Jr., assistant
cashier of the National Stock Yards
Bank, at East St. Louis. 111., has confessed
to President C. O. Knos that
he had embezzled $20,000 in the last
four years. He did not state what In?
had done with the money. Duddleston
was a loader in society. He has a wife
and one child.
AbolUhert rostn^e on Newspaper*.
The Peruvian Republic has abolished
postage on newspapers, which hereafter
will be transported free.
The Sporliiic TVoiiil.
The fastest authentic record for the
speed of a horse is 1).")^ seconds for a
straight mile over a specially prepared
track.
Trap shooters are up in arms against
an edict of the Amateur Athletic
Union, which desires to make a class
distinction.
A 1 A
-<v iiuiuur un.1 suul uuu n.uieu nv?
(leer at one shot in Fulton County,
Penn. The animals were together,
and he supposed he -was shooting at
one deer, and did not discover the
other until after the shot
?
MEM M KEP0B1
Reduction of Revenue to the Extent,
of $50,000,000 Urged.
FINANCIAL REFORMS SUGGESTED
Proposes Federation of National Bank!
Into a Great Contra. Institution Foi
the Distribution of Unemployed "Reserves
? Kecommcnds a "Guartntj
Fund" Tlan For tho Currency System.
Washington, D. C.?Secretary Gage,
iu Lis annual report to Congress, takes
a staDcl against tbe war taxes, and suggests
that many of them be repealed*
and the Government revenue oe cut
down to ?-30,000,OCO.
He also argues in favor of amending
the national banking act, so as to provide
for a more elastic currency and its
expansion in volume when increase
of business requires it.
The Secretary inclines toward a bank
which would be a sort of parent institution,
though, he admits that public
animosity toward a central bank,
with power of establishing branches,
is still too strong to allow the serious
consideration of such a project. He
thinks, however, that the same advantages
might be secured through a federation
of banks.
He l'avors the transfer of the burden
of the redemption of greenbacks from
the Treasury to banks without interest
tost to the Government. The greenbacks,
Mr. Gage thinks, would eventually
become gold certificates, which
he says they ought to be in reality.
Another matter which he treats specially
is his renewed recommendation
for a remodeling and extension of the
Act of March 3, 1S91, relating to the
carrying of ocean mails by American
steamships.
"There is no reason why the United
States should be dependent on the auxiliary
navies of European powers for
our ocean maii service," says the Secretary.
In opening his report, Secretary Gage
says: '
"The reserve fund and trust fund
have been maintained. The redemption
of United States notes have been
each day adjusted by exchange for
gold, so that the full sum of $150,000,000
has been kept unchanged in coin
and bullion.
"Upon the withdrawal of Treasury
notes as the bullion of 1890 was coined
into standard dollars, silver certificates
under the Act of March 14, 1900, were
substituted to the extent of $10,743,000
to July 1, 1900, and $28,244,000 additional
to July 1, 1901. - By November
1, 1901, the total exchange reached
$45,336,000.
******? ?i J
"xne genu muiitmcs m<uu
of the metal were increased during the
fiscal year by $45,1G0,270, and in the
first quarter of 1902 by $31,801,430 additional.
"The gross gold in the Treasury, including
the reserve and the trust fund
against certificates, received an addition
of $71,270,325.74 during the fiscal
year, and a further addition of $34,304,225.50
by October 1, while $13,007,327
more in October brought the aggregate
by November 1 to 8542,831,840.
"This sum in gold was never before
equalled in our annals, and only for a
few months some years ago has any
other government ever held so much
of that precious metal."
While the circulation per capita was
$26.50 on July 1, 1900, and $2S.52 on
October 1, 1901, gold certificates more
and more entered into the field of large
denominations, and were used almost
exclusively in the payment of customs
duties and in the settlements at the
Clearing House in New York.
Two features are marked in the currency?first.
the growing use of gold,
-- - x .
and, second, tne constant auuiuuu m
the small denominations of paper.
On March 4, 1000, there was in existence
2017 National banks, with authorized
capital stock' of $010,308,005;
bonds on deposit to secure circulation,
$244,611,570; circulation secured by
bonds. 5216,374,975: and circulation
secured by lawful money, $38,027,935.
Comparing conditions on that day with
the close of the fiscal year. 1901, there i
is shown to have been a net increase
in banks of 501; of capital, $31,3oS,000;
bonds deposited to secure circulation,
SS.007,660; circulation secured by
bonds, $107,515,929.
The total amount of bonds purchased
aud charged to the sinking fund of
1902 from July 1 to November 15, inclusive,
was $23,114,420, and the
amount disbursed was $41,982,9S6.39.
Secretary Gage says that the revenues
of the Government from all
sources for the fiscal year ended June
30, 1901, were $099,316,530.92, while
the expenditures for the same period
m.11 r.no me. lonvintr a surulus
oftl$77,717,98r3s.
The estimated Government revenues
for the fiscal year 1!)02 are figured at
$6SS,633,042, leaving an estimated surplus
of $100,000,000: the estimated revenues
for 1003 are $712,020,630. leaving
an estimated surplus of $23,172,311.53.
Cotton Production Estimate.
The statistician of the Department
of Agriculture, at Washington, reports
0,074,000 bales as tilt? probable cotton
production of the United States in
1001-02. The area picked or to be
picked is estimated at 26,802,230 su its.
a reduction of 730,216 acres, of 2.6 x)..'
cent., from the acreage planted.
fVoolcn Good* Trade Outlook.
The woolen goods trade is in the be
tweeu seasons stage, but mills are
busy on old orders, and the - outiook
for the new season is excellent.
Indians Shoot Kancherd in Arizona
John Baker has arrived at Bisbee.
Ariz., with the report that he and hi>
partner, Walter Kelly, were fired on
by Indians in the mountains of Southern
Arizona and Kelly was killed.
Baker was painfully wounded. Ol!ieers
have gone to investigate.
Pencil Gouged Out ail Eye.
John tYuelli, a pupil of the public
school "at Alco, X. J., was. romping
with a companion when the siuwp
paint of a pencil ran into one Ol his
eyc-s, destroying the sight.
Reason For Jilting >*oi Good.
William r. Crawford, of South Car
oiiua, will nor be appointed a lieuren
ant in the army, tie juteci uis uuui-i-u,
and the letter of explanation to her
mother, which Secretary Root made
the test, has proved to he unsatisfactory.
The Secretary has therefore announced
that President Roosevelt's decision
will stand and Crawford's commission
withdrawn.
Kobberg Secure 84000.
Robbers took $4000 in cash and as
much more in jewelry from tile State
'Hank at Williamsville. ill.
I
LJ ? ^ ' -if*
NEW CONGRESS MEETS
Organization of the Senate and House* of
Representatives.
-K
Four New Senators Sworn In ? Speaktf
Henderson Re-elected?Animated
Scenes In Each Chamber.
''
Washington, D. C.?The opening of '> :
the first session- of the Fifty-seventh
Congress drew to the Capitol a gfeat
throng of spectators. Although the '
two Houses were not called to order { ;
until 12 o'clock, the historic old struc-.
ture was astir long before that hour.
There were no entrance restrictions,
and the crowds flowed uninterruptedly
into the building. Many women were
in the throngs, including the wives and a,
families of'Senators and members, as
well as many representatives of the
Cabinet, Diplomatic and executive dr- >
cles.
A profusion of floral offerings, quite
unusual in quantity, in variety and In
beauty transformed the Senate Chamber
into a veritable flower show. Almost
every member was the recipient
of evidences of the-regard of hls/v/
friends. The display of chrysanthemums
was notably beautiful.
After the Senate had been called to
order, Messrs. Dietrich and Millard, of .:
Nebraska; Gibson, of Montana, and
Klttridge, of South Dakota, were
sworn in as Senators. The usual reso- .
lutions and the appointment of a committee
to notify the President that
the Senate was in session then fol- v?
lowed, and a recess of thirty minutes
was taken.
The Senate took a further recess tmtil
2 o'clock to await the organization
of the House and the appointment of .. .
its committee to wait upon the President
Senators Hale, of Maine, and
Morgan, of Alabama, were appointed
as the Sepate committee. * x
At 2 o'clock fhe Senate reassembled^
Mr. Gamble announced the death of
the late Senator Kyle, and the Senate . i,adjourned.
Leaders on both sides in the House -./S
were slow in making their appearance, ,
hnt fiH thev nrrlved the celebrities
were pointed out to the spectators In v j
the galleries. . .
At the conclusion of the roll call,
showing 3ia members present Mr. ~
Cannon, of Illinois, nomiqated David a
B. Henderson, of Iowa; and Mr. Hay, of
Virginia, nominated Mr. Richard-'
son, of Tennessee, for Speaker. A roll . j
call for the election followed.
The vote for Speaker was: Hendert
son, 190; Richardson, 149; Stark, of .
Nebraska, 1; Cummings, of New York,
1. Mr. Henderson was declared elected,
and was escorted to the chair by the V:
other three men voted for. He made
a brief speech. ^
Mr. Henderson thanked the House )
for its expression of confidence, and .
asked the support of all the members.
The oath was administered to him by
Representative Bingham, of Pennsylvania,
"the father of the House," and
by the Speaker, in turn, the oath was ;
administered to the members-elect < *
After the drawing of seats and a loot: ]
at the flowers, the House adjourned. /
THE NATION" AI* BUDGET.
xr*
The Estimate! of Secretary Gage Sab- ,
mitted to congress.
Washington, D. C?The Secretary of ~
the Treasury has transmitted to Congress
the estimates of appropriations
required for the Government service *
for the fiscal year ending June 30,1903, " >
as furnished by the heads of the several
executive departments. The total
appropriations asked for are 5610,S27.688,
which is $1G,000,000 less than
the estimates for 1802, and $4,000,000
more than the-appropriations Tor that
year. Following is a recapitulation of
the estimates by departments:,
Legislative $ 10,188,099
Executive 204,160 '
State Department 2,446,328
Treasury Department 156,484,925 .
War Department 161,920,101;
Navy Department 100,701,122
Interior Department 161,710,535
Postoiflce Department.. .. 4,464,968 ,
Department of Agriculture. 5,509,540
Department of Labor .... 190,580 I
Department of Justice 6,917,330 .1
Total..-: $610,827,688
SOUTH CAROLINA FAIR OPEN. 1
Words of Greeting From the President? n
Depew Orator of the Day. f
Charleston, S. C.?The South Carolina 1
and West Indian Exposition was for- I
mally opened to the world with words - I
of greeting from the President of the! I
United States. An imposing parade of I
military and civic bodies formed down j|
town, and escorccd the guests of honor. ^
to the exposition grounds, where they: H
took part in an appropriate program oij* H
exercises. In the afternoon all Charles- 1
ton observed the day as a holiday, and
the city was handsomely decorated.
After the parade had been reviewed
at the exposition grounds, the guestsi , I
of ihe day assembled in the. Audl-j 1
torium, where the ceremonies took, 1
place. The invocation was rendered! I
by the venerable Charles S. Vedder, of 3
the Huguenot Church. Captain F. W.
Wagner, President of the Exposition;
Company, and Governor M. B. Mc*j ,
Sweeney spoke words of welcome. i
Chauncey M. Depew, orator of the
day, was Introduced by Mayor jJ
Adjer Smith. At the conclusion of the
Senator's oration President Wagner
of the Exposition stepped to the wire
connecting the Auditorium with the
Executive Mansion in Washington, and
sent greeting to President RooseveltA
few minutes later the response of
the President was received, and the!
exposition was formally declared
open.
Thoatfttidft of Bills Fut la.
* * *- r"v ^ ?Oorofnl thmu
vvasningiou,
sand bills were Introduced in the
House of Representatives, coveringnearly
every phase of public affairs
that bas attracted interest in the country.
They include Pacldc cable, oleomargarine,
amending tariff law amendment,
bankruptcy law repeal, r'or ai
reciprocity commission, admission of
States, establishing a department of
commerce, amending the currency law,.
amending the immigration laws, etc.
- Prominent People.
Marie Corelli, the author, is givinff,
lectures in England.
Senator Depew will wed Miss Pal-;
mer in Paris on .Christmas Day.
General Santos J. Zelaya bas been
re-elected President of Nicaragua.
Former Queen Liluokalani, of Hawaii,
has beeu entertained in Salt;
Lake City, Utah, by the Hawaiian;
colony.
Jarues J. Hill has two fads. One is I
the collecting of paintings. His otaerj
amusement Is the collecting of uuaetl
lewela,

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