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Mow it is Conserved and Replenishe
Clemson College, Dec.?When w
consider how very easy it is fc
nitogen to escape from the soil i
is hot surprising that it is the higl
est priced of all fertilizing material!
Even at that, however, the price
higher than it need be, for natur
manages to maintain the supply ii
every tract of wild land without im
porting fertilizers from abroad, an
we would profit by adopting-more c
Nature uses two methods fo
maintaining the supply. First, sh
conserves. Whenever a leaf become
of no use to a tree it is shed an
falls to the ground. Similarly, othe
waste "materials fall to the ^rouni
b " and become part of the soil. State
Briefly. Nature's method of conserv
ing nitrogen is to return all wast
4' - materials to the soil very soon afte:
' they become wastes. This featur
has a great deal to "#'do with he
ability to increase the fertility o
the soil which runs wild.
But even nature is unable to <re
turn all of the nitogen to the so
m shape to be of use to plants. Ther
is inevitably some loss even here
Consequently she. must have som
"means of replenishing the soil suppl
or eventually the soil would be com
pletely exhausted. This replenish
ing is accomplished chiefly by cer
tain lowly plants, which have, th
unusual ability of taking nitrogei
from-the inexhaustible supply in th
air and using it in the same wa;
that other plants use the .solubl
supply in the soil* When they di
most of the nitrogen thus secure
from the air is added to the soi
These are said to be "nitrogen-fib
lug" plants; and the most importan
?nes from this standpoint are certai
There are two general types o
bacteria which "fix" nitrogen. Th
bacteria of one type live in ordinar
soils. The other type comprises th
"legume" bacteria, or "nodule" bac
teria, so-called because they grow i
the roots of legumes (clovers, beans
peas, etc.) and cause round galls o
nodules to develop. This method o
growth is mutually favorable, fo
the legume furnishes a good place t
grow and food of one kind to th
bacteria and the bacteria furnishe
nitrogen to the legume. The amoun
of nitrogen so furnished is often ver;
great, as may be observed by notin
the difference in size of legume
with and without nodules on a so
poor in nitrogen. And the amoun
?f nitrogen available for succeedin
plants where legumes are returne
+? tVio anil in nlsn vprir crrpat ne ma
be observed by planting crops afte
legumes have been plowed undei
This is the most^mportant sourc
of nitrogen for the soil, either i
nature or under cultivation.
A tmall amount of combined o
"fixed" 'nitrogen is added to the so
in ram water and snow, but th
amount is comparatively unimpoi
Farmers have still another metho
not used by nature, by which the
can increase the nitrogen supplj
They can apply commercial nitroger
This is expensive but has specu
value under some circumstances, an
should be used in most cases to sup
plemeat and not to take the place
the other sources mentioned.
. jl iic muou ciictuvc xiicaouico
- maintaining soil nitrogen on th
? ;arm as \Vell as in nature, are carefu
conservation, utilization of the wor
of soil bacteria, and utliization o
? the work of legume bacteria. An<
^ the legume bacteria are the most im
r, jportant of all.
Her Idea of It.
t ' "Clipped.
"My dear," saifl Mr. Plunger whe
he wont home one evening. "IV
t something important to tell you?
?/<aiv0v Viae Kpon ?T\rvn?nf^>H fn f*lr
charge of my affairs."
"How nice!" cooed Mrs. Plunge:
"When will he hold his first recej:
.'Feed milk cows liberally now an<
I they will do better on grass nea
plan for corn or sorghum enougl
to fill the silo next summer.
*EST TO F
THE NITROGEN SUPPLY
id What the Farmer Can Do to Main*
tain It Cheaply.
e Clemson College.?Organic matter
>r is "the storehouse which holds 95 per
it cent of the soil nitrogen, and there
i- fore a soil low in organic matter, so
3. that nitrogen is the limiting factor
is in crop production.
e The use of 'beans, peas, clovers,
n and vetches in the rotation and their
i- incorporation with the soil "by means
d of cutting up with a disk harrow
' - I
and plowing under deeply, is tne
cheapest and most efficient method
of supplying nitrogen for succeed
ing crops. These crops, at the same
time, provide organic matter which
helps to hold the nitrogen over a
series of years and permits it to 'be
come available for several following
The value of green manure, farm
manure and crop residues often de
pends on how rapidly they decay in
the soil and provide available nitro
gen, says N. E. Winters, extension
agronomists, who states that a large
part of the value of drainage, lime,
cultivation and fertilizers is to stim
ulate the healthy decay of the or
ganic matter and render available
the nitrogen and other plant food
materials for the use of crops.
'Fresh vegetable matter incorpor-,
a ted with . the soil is many times
more valuable in supplying nitrogen
for a growing crop than old carbon
ized organic residues that have re
sisted decay for a long time. Only
about 2 per cent of th6 nitrogen
in the old stabilized organic mat
ter of ah untreated soil becomes
available in one season, while in a
limed soil as much as 35 per cent of
the nitrogen in a legume "green
manure crop becomes available in
the same time.
A clean cultivated field left bare
all winter in South Carolina, losesy
large amounts of expensive nitrogen
in ^i*oino?Mk ttrofni* A /m?rvTrr_
4A4 VttV UiC*UM?5^ TTUVVl A 5J.VCU giVVT"
ing crop of rye and vetch, oat3 and
vetch, or crimson clover* will not
only sav? about $10.00 worth of ni
trogen from leaching from an acre
of soil during the winter months, but
If inoculated will add another $10
worth from the God-given air. '
Hence, the use of summer and;
winter legumes for pasture and;
plowing under, combined with the |
regular and systematic use of lime1
and mineral fertilizers, constitutes \
the most economical means of main
taining the supply of available
nitrogen in the soil for field crops.
,OF STATE HIGHWAYS
Columbia, Jan. 3.?The cost of the
maintenance system on the state
highways of South Carolina averaged
for last year $257 per mile, with, a
total cost of $271,913, for maintain
ing 1,119 miles. This is shown in the
annual report of the state highway
department, as prepared for the legis
lature by Chas. H. Moorefield, chief
engineer of the department.
The roads maintained under the
maintenance system are mostly new.
The maintenance is handled with sev
eral methods, different in various
counties, the patrol system in some,
4.U/, -i-i mL ^
me system 111 utnera. ine iact
that many of the highways are new
accounts for' the low average main
The report of Mr. Moorefield shows i
that the roads of the 6tate which
show the best results of the main
tenance work are in Greenville coun
ty. Under the system 104 miles in
Greenville were maintained at an
average cost of $503. This cost is
i- j large because of the very heavy traf
fic over the roads. W. H. Willimon!
is superintendent of maintenance for
In' Richland county 18 miles were
maintained, at an average cost of
$398. Robert King is superintendent
of maintenance. The report shows
e \ that the roads are in good condition.
In Spartanburg the average cost
was $385, the mileage 78. In Green
wood the cost was $307, the m leage
57. In Anderson the cost was $312,
the mileage 96. In York the average
cast was $268, the mileage 58. In
Orangeburg the cost was averaged
$304, for 34 miles:
The maintenance work is support
ed by part of the proceeds of the au
FOR BETTER PASTURES
Interesting Experiments in Pasture
Clemson College, Jan.?We be
lieve that practically all of this cut
over pine land of tjie low country
can be utilized profitably in the pro
duction of beef cattle, says Prof. H.
W. Barre, director of the South Car
olina experiment station, in discuss
ing the work now being carried on
ai tiic tuaai. ouawivu xv* www*
tures to support more and better
livestock in the Coastal Plain sec-,
tion. The native grasses, however,
will not stand close grazing and
carry a sufficient number. of cattle tv
zo enable the industry to develop as
it should. We have undertaken,
therefore to determine the best grass
es and pasture plants to use and the H
best methods of developing perma
nent pastures in this section.
The three hundred acres of land
purchased for this^ work last year ai
have been fenced and subdivided in- ^
to twenty-five acre and fifty-acre 30
pastures for these experiments. Fif
ty acres were sown to carpet grass
and lespedeza. Where the land was
burned over before seeding and the
pasture grazed closely and the seed
sown broadcast, satisfactory stands
seem to be developing. -
Tests of methods of seeding car
pet grass ana lespeaeza were Degun
on fifteen acres.! The stumps were C)
removed from this.area so that parts ^
of it could be plowed and the ob
jectionable weeds that develop on it
could be cut with a mower. The fol
lowing five methods of seeding are
being used in preparation of the land
for the seed; burning over, plowing,
disking, cutting over, and no treat- S1
ment. Oji the areas which are jf
disked and plowed, it seems that we
have secured a better stand of grass
and clover. It may be, however, that
this is only apparent and that we
are able to see the new grass better
on the land on which the sedges have
been partly killed out by cultivation.
In other tests several seeding mix
tures were tried on land that had
been plowed and disked. These tests
have not been completed at the pres
ent time. In still other tests with
carpet grass and lespedeza seeded on
plowed land, lime and fertilizer were
applied before planting. It appears
that we have secured much better
stands and certainly better growth
where some fertilizer was applied
before planting. The fertilizer used
in this work was nitrate of soda* and
acid phosphate, different rates of ap
plication being made. In some of the
plots of these series we have secured
a very satisfactory stand of lespede
za and carpet grass.
JANUARY FARM CALENDAR
Repair terraces when weather
Plow heavy soils that have not
been plowe-d already especially
where cotton is to be planted.
Repair machinery for spring op_
Save and apply to fields as much
manure as possible putting it
especially on thin spots.
jOlean up hedge rows, fence rows,
ditch ^anks and teraces, also drag
grass, weeds, and underbrush with
in 200 feet of a cotton field.
Plow under or cut up with a stalk
cutter old cotton stalks that are
Prepare tne hotbed and cold
frames, for cabbage, tomato, pep_
per, and eggplant.
Plant caibbage seeds in hotbeds
January 1 to 10th if possible.
Plant English peas if the soil is'
in proper conditions. Cover ithe seed
5 to 6 inches deep.
Prepare land for spring Irish P<>-||
tatoes, and purchase Irish potato
seed now for delivery in February, jy
Prune all fruit trees preparatory
to spraying with lime sulphur solu_|S
tion in early February.
If soil is in condition, it is better'!
to plant fruit trees this month than!J
Select and mate those birds near,
est the requirements of th? Stan, j\
dard of Perfection for the breed,
keeping in mind vigor, condition,
egg laying capacity.
For maximum egg.production,
feed a well balanced ration both
grain .and mash; suppJy green suc_
culece; give plenty of fresh water,
OW HOTELS RANK
IN THE PIEDMONT
Following, is the ranking: of hotels
t the Piedmont section as announc
l by the State hotel inspector at Co
mbia. Figures are on a basis of a
>ssible score of 1,000 points.
Landrum, Imperial 800.
Abbeville, Eureka 877.
Anderson, Chiquola, no .score;
Belton, Belton 800.
Clinton, Clinton 870.
Central, R. R. Hotel 650.
Due West, Due West 700.
Easley, Mountain View 877.
Greenwood, Oregon 925.
Gaffney, Carroll 869.
Inman, Hatchett 750.
Laurens, Laurens 905.
Landrum. Imperial 800.
McCormick, McCormick 800; Ka
Newberry, Newberry 950; Nation
Pickens, Pickens Inn 750; Old
ickory Inn 750. ,
Pelzer, Pelzer 800.
Piedmont, Piedmont 800. .
Spartanburg, Cleveland 960; Gresh
n 950;. Finch 905; Spartan 773;
liochfield 852; Piedmont 600; Jack
in 550. '
Seneca, Oconee Inn 800; Palmetto
Caesars Head 900. . *
Glenn Springs, Glenn Springs 850.
cyt and oyster shell.
For early fall pullets f:et the in_'
abator or hen in January so as to
et February hatched pullets.
Se? to it that all livestock has a
jmfortable place ' to stay. Col#
eather will bring on pneumonia to
Cle?n up the pastures, remoVin^
ushes and everything that will be
l the way of the mowing machine.
Repair'the old fences. Put in a
ew post here and there and make
ire that the old fence will turn
vestock during the summer.
Breed dairy cows during January
id they will calve' between October
0 and November 9. It pays to have
lem freshen in tie fall.
"Buy (that purebred d^iry bull this
lonth. Good bulls may be bought
jry cheaply new.
j ^ You cc
| Building a
i G. A. NEUFFER,
ON CONTROLING RATS
Most InjuHoni' PiiF ft" Anificu ,1
Hon* and Farm. C
Clemson College.?In the control 2
of rats, the most injurious animal of *
the American farm and home, there
are two conditions that most be ob- j
served: First ,we mast stop feeding
thefti; secondly/ whatever method of
control'we undertake must be jrat in
to operation over the entire premises 1
at the same time. Rats "get wise," 1
and if we begin a method at on.e 5
place with a view of continuing it 1
from place to place as time goes on, '
we will never control rats.
We build seed houses, barns 'and
other structures in which rats fyid
accommodations, without a thought
of rat-proofing. Around the home
we store uprT)oxes, cans, and other'
materials, furnishing excellent hiding '
places. Our feed for the livestock, '
including poultry, is kept in sacks or 1
boxes that have no rat protection.
We allow the space- between the '
ground and floors of buildings to be- '
come packed with chaff, refuse feed,
cotton seed and seed cotton, etc. And i
yet we blame the .rat for being a 1
constant visitor. * i
Whatever method of, control be
adopted,^whether it be trapping or' '
poisoning, it Should be undertaken
intelligently after a .careful plan has
been made covering the premises, ad- i
vises Prof. A. F. Conradi, entomol
ogist. On the farm one or two rat
terriers or several good cats are
among the most effective methods
of rat control. Cats are useful in
rat control about city and village ,
premises. It is true that many cats j
are ruinous to birds, ind when a cat
has formed the bird killing habit it ,
should be destroyed and replaced by
a better one. \v '
.In some sections systematic rat
campaigns have produced splendid
results,'and similar campaigns should
be of the greatest benefit in all sec
tions of our state.
. Farmers' Bulletin 896, "House
Rats and Mice," may be obtained by
writing the Extension Service, Clem
son College, S. C., or the**TJ. S. De*
partment of Agriculture, Washing
ton, D. C. :
' " * . ' ' " '
f ? r
ml LOIS J!
IT WILL BE
in save from $1.
>0 a month wii
fins With Your t
sries Op ens
- Smltiaf Mm! Aftar Cojriaf 1
CleuMPon o41eg?, Bk. 11.?Foij
owing the instructions gJVtn la
tently on curing meat fcy'tfe ferine
oethod ad the 4ry method, the m%-?
^estions given belour ?a aaoldM^
neat after caring may fee of inter- .
?t end value to many JgsafKO, tft?k
S. G. Godibey, assistant professor
>f animai husbandry."*. , ;.....
After the meat is cured, wash at
^loroughly with lukeimign water
ind hang in the smoke _ honee ;
smoking. Hang ithe pieces ?f meat - |
to they will ,not ouch but will per
outa free circulation of air. Aftejf"' s" H
;fae meat has be^n haoging for 24 J
lours start the smoke aeing hieiory,
naple of some hard wood. Com .
3obst will dfr-but they give the meat ,*
a dirty appearance. > > '-<?
- - . if
Don't get the meat too hot* Lot
the fire start slowly and keeip* it weH-"
smothered. Thirty-six to -48 hours' V.
smoking is sufficient, hat. in hoi* -,.b
weather it is ibetter to start the fire .
2very other day And amobe a total f v
>f 60 hours. , ~-M .
Smoked meat, after it telSbtf
and firm, should ho wrapped
heavy paper and pat dn amii4\in
sack, t is very important 'that the /
top -of the sack lb* tied so st will
keep insects out.
Paint each sack with ydlo# waah
and hang the meat,up. Never stack
it in a pile.
Vv' ' "
The following is the recipe ftrr
For 1%0 pound hams.o* iwedn use
3 pohnds of barium sulphate; 1 . ^
ounce of glue; 1 1-4 ounces curome
yellow (lead chromate); $ ounces /
of-flour. / -
-*i - . Vi iBf iLi. _i
mil a pan aaxrut one-aair zaii ox
water and dissolve all of floor.
Dissolve the chrome,, yellow in a.
quart of water in a separate veeael
and add the solution and the $ftie
to the flour; Bring this to a <boi3 and
add the barium sulphate slowly,
stirring constantly. Make the waA
the day before it is reqpired; Stic
it frequently when usi^g and afk
plywith a brush, ...
The largest copper bo^il^er in the
world, weighing three tons, ia, in the
Smithsonian Institution , at Washings
J. S. MORSE,
etary & Treasurer.