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IN SENATE, MONDAY, Jan. 2. A Bil to aduit the State of Michigan into the Union upon tnu equal footing with the original States. Whereas, in pursuance of the act of Congress of June the 15th, 1836, entitled "An act to establish the northern boundary of the.State of Ohio, .d to provide for the admission- of the Slate of Michigan into the Union, upon the conditions there in expressed," a convention of delegates, clected by the people of the said State of Michigan, for the sole purpose of giving their assent to the bonodaries of the said State of Michigan as described, declared, sd established, in and Iy the said act, did oil the 15th of December, eighteen hundred anti thirty-six, assent to the provisions of saidi act : Therefore, le it enacted, 4-c. That the State of Michigan shall be one, amnd is bereby declared to be one, of tile United States of Asmerica, and admitted into the Union oil an equal fmoting with the origin al States, in all respects whatever. Sec. 2. And be it further enucted. That the Secretary of the Treasury, inm carrying into eifect the 13th and 14th sections of the act (of the twesity-third of June, eighteenm hundred and thirty-six, entitled "Ai set to regulate the deposits of the public money." shall consider tile State of Michigan as being one of the U. Stales. Mr. Calaloun addressed the Senate as follows: I 1sve bestowed on this subject all the attention that was in my power, and, altho' netated by a most anxions desire for the nmnission or Michigatn into the union, I find it impossible to give my assent to this bill. I am satisfied the Judiciary Coi mittee has not bestowed upon the subject all that attention which its magnlituide re quires ; and I can explain it on no other supposition why they homld place the ad llissionl oil the grmounis they have. One of the committee, the Senator from Ohio oil my left, Mr. Morris, has prononced the grounls as dangerons anl revolultionary. lie miiht have gone farther, amid with trith pronotnned thesm utterly repegimit to the principles of ii costitluion. I have not ventured this assertionl, as strong as it is, without iule reflectit ;. , andI weighing the full hree of the terms ( have used, and do not fear. wiih an impartial hearimg, to esablish its trithi beyond the power of controversy. To understand fully the objection to this bill, it is necessary tiat we shold have a correct conception of the facts. They are few and usma be briefly told. Some tile previoti to the lait session of Congress. the territory of michigm, through her Legislature. astihorised the people to meet in conmvention, for the snumr pose of forming a State Goverment. Thev mnet aecordimly, ani agreed upon a con stititionm, which they forthwith transmitted to Congress. It was fimly lisenied it) this Cih ssnbher, an5d, objectionale ;n thle isr ment. wai, an act va fin ally pa;Sel, wh1ichd accepted time cosititution, anl' delae jm ien t;pij n0 to a ..1...4 --4 -, - - the Un In on F ilnl odt 1,ta ..h sihmimld, by a convention of time peoiple, mis - semt to thie loundmaries preseribed Iy the net. Soion after our mdiomrmmet thmo Lezislatutre of the State of M11ichiig-m, (for she had been ramsed by (nto nmssemt to tie sligmity of a State,) called ma convention of the people of the State, in conmfurnmity to the net, wiich met abt time time apin ted, at As Arbor. After fumll disenssion, time conmvenm tionm withheld its assemnt, anmd fosrmally tranms tnit.tedi time re4ult tom time Presi'lenut (If tihe Unitedi St-mtes. Th'iis is time first part of tihe story. I will now give tile seqgnel. Since tham, durmimmg tim last smiomnth, a self-constis tusted assesmbly mlet, professediy as a coni venitiomn of tile pe~ople of the State ; hsut wvithiout the authosrity of the State. Thmis umnant hmised amnd lawvless assemblatte as. smssed the high fumnetonm of giving the as sent of tihe State ofi Michigam to time cons dition of adsmissinm, ams prescribsed ini time act of Conmgress. Thmey communmsiminted thleir assent to thme Exectntive of thme [United States, and hlie to tihe Senate. Tme Semia;te referred his smenaje to time Conmmittee on' the Juudiciary, amnd that Co~immittee me ported this Bill for t'he admission of tihe State. Snech are time frects onst of whmich grows the immportanst qulestionm, had( this self-conmsti tumted amssembmlmy tile anthority to assemnt fom the Staste ! I lad thcy time authority to do( what is implied in giving anssenmt to time cuon dition of ahdmhisiionm ! That assenst imtro dluces thme Stmmte insto time Unmionm, andii pliedges it ini the mnost soemnm smannelr to time COni stitumtiosnal comlpact whmichm inds these States ill one1 confede.lrated body :imiposes onm her all its obigatiinms, andms confers on her all its benmefts. lind t his irregulamr, self-conmstitut ed assesmmblage mime inuthioity to perfomrm thesse igh~ anmd solenmn nes of soverseignmty im time mmamme of time Stat', oh Mich!iigans -- Shse cauldi omly come insm i a X$ut,and nmomne -could aet or speaik for her w ithsout hmer ex press anthority ; amid to assumime the nutho W rity without tier aantionm is niothming almort of Agasin, the atssenmt to time conditionsq pre serthesd by Congseas ismmhlies anm ansthomity in thmose who gave it to supmsiledie inm part the constitutionm of the Stamte of Michmigamtm for her consti'tutiomi fixes time bounda~i~rie.s of time State as part of thmat instrminent, wthichm time comm-litionm of admiissionm emntirely alters, and to that exStenit, time assemnt womuld smuper sedle time conistitumtioni ; atnd thmus time qusestions is presentd, wilethlier thmis self-const:itumtedi aissembily, styling itself a conmvenmtion, ihad the ,msth'oity so dJo an mmct which nlecessarily amplies time right to sipersede in past the comstittonj~. But furthmer : Tme Stamte of Michmiganm, thmroth its Legislturme, amuthorised am Con vention1 of~ theo people, imn order tb dectermhiine wvhethmer time comndition (If ad(1missionm shmomuld be assentedh to or nt. Tme convention imot ; anti, after miatuire dIeliberation, it dii sented to the codiionm eo aidimissionm -mand thimusagin the questiomn is presemted, whetm er this self-conmstitumtedi assemblaige, thmis caen ti-for it is enmtitledi to sno highmer nameto -had time anthmormty to annsul time dlisisnt of the State, solmly givenm by a -omn ventoson of the pecopie, regumarly convoked undaer time express austhorsty of time constitut-. ed authorities of tie Stamte. if all (or anmy of these qmmestions he au awerei t m teiog-.,:.,. :r e . ofc~g asseaAddage of December had no authority io speak in the aanme of the State of Mich igan-if none to supersede any: portion of hervonstitutiont--if none to annul her dis seni to the condition of admission regular Uy given by a convdhtion of the people of teState, convoked bythe authority of the State-to- istroduce her on kie -authirity would be not only revolutionary and dan gerous, but utterly repugnant to the princi pies of our constitution. The question then submitted to the Senate is, had that assemblage the authority to perform these high and solemn acts ? The chairman of the Committee on the Judiciary holds that this self-ct stituted as semblage had the authority ; nmI what is his reason I Why, truly, because a greater number of votes were given for'those who constituted that assemblage, than for those who constitutcd the convention of the peo ple of the State, convened under its con stituted authorities. This argument re solves itself into two questions-ie first of fact, and the second of principle. I shall nottliscuss the first. It is not necessary to do so. But if it Obre, it would be easy to show that never was so important a ftet so loosely testified. There is not one par tiede of offcial evidence before us. We had nothing but the private letters of indi viduals, who do not know even the nua hers that voted on either occasion ; they know nothing of the qualifications of voters, ior how their votes were received, nor by whom counted. Now, none knows better than the honoural-le chairman himself that such testimony as is sibimitte(l to is to establish a fact of this moment, would not lie received in the lowest inigitrate's court im the land. But I waive this. I cone to the question of the principle involved; and what is it ? The argument is, that a greater number of persons voted for the last con vention than for the first, and therefore the acts of the last, of right abrogated those of the first; in other words, that mere nimlrs without regard to the forms of law, or the primeiples of the constitution, give authori ty The authoritsl of numbhers, according to this argunient, sut-s aside thr authority of law and the constitution. Need I show ihat sneh a Irinriple goes to the citire over throw of our constitutional Government, an1d would subvert all social order ? It is the identical principle which prompted theit. late revolutionary and anarchiet*il movei'nt im Maryland, and which has (lone more to shake confidence in our system of govern ment than any event since the aloptioni of' our constitution, lut which haippily has been frowned dIown by the patriotism and intelligence of the ieol)le of that State. What were the grouiin(s of this insurree iionary ineasure, but that the government If Maryland di( not represent the voice of the numerical majority of the people of Alarylan)d and liht the authority of law and constitution were nothing giitanst that of itumbthers. Ilere we find on this floor, mutl fronn the head of the Jnliciary Coni itmittee, the satme principle revived, and if posille, in a worse form; for inl M arylanl the anarchists assumed that they were sus tained ly tle numttierieal majority of the people if the State, in their reviliutionary ,mu rtiairma, uWA'fW n T't~ li've, is a nere Ilurality. The largest unmer of votes cinitnei: :or the self-created assemlage, is 80x); and no mian will utidertake to say that this con stitutes any thii like a majority ofi the voters of lichiga : nand he eliis the high authority which he dofies for it, iot because it is a majority of the people iof Michigani, but because it. is a greater utinamber than voted for the auttho~risedl 'oniventtioni of the pieopile that refused to agree to thle condi titin oif adanu ssiotn. It miay lie shiowin hby his own witniess, that a majority oif the voters of M ichiigan greatly exsceeded 8000t. Mr. WVilliamns, the President of thie self createdi aisenthintge, staitedl that the popniu intioni of that State, amountted to nieartly 2010,000 piersonts. If so, there cannot lie less thant frott 20,000 to 30,(I410 'voters. coat sidlerinig how nearly universal the right of suil'rage is uunder its constitution :and it thus appears thtat this irregular, self-consti tutedl imetintg dlid not represenit the vote of one-third oif thle State ;andh yet tin a mere pinetple of pilurallity we ate to superesedel the contstitutioni of M ichiigant, aiid annul thle act of a conuventtioni of the peolhe regularly conivened uder the antthotrity of ti.e gov erinnent of the State. urt, satys the Setiator from Penntsylvania, (Mlr. luchtnati.) this taswtmbly wzadito self constitittetd. It met undieer tie aiithiority ofi antmnat ofCongress, nnl that hadin no ref'erenmce to the Statre, but otily to the Iteole;i mtd that the assemblage ini Decembtler was inst siuch a meeting as that act comiemplatedl. Ii is niot may itntenmioni to discuss the ,p itst iii whether the htonouaralide Mentator has g.ivent the true initerpretation of the nr, hut, it ii were, I could very easily show his initerpireta tioti to lbe erronleons; fori, if such lhad bieti the intention of Conigress, the net surely woul htave specified t he timte whetn the cotnm venmtion was to lie laki, whoi were to lie the tmtaniagers, who the voters, nad would nti havt e In) it toindiIvidluals, wh~o mighii chooise to aisiumeu t he nutitiority to diiermrmine aill t hese nlitnpritint pints I i ght aliso redi ly show that the word --conivenition"' ofilte people, tis used ini law or lae consti utionn, nlwwnvs mens a mtetin~g of the peopille regularly conivented b~y the constitutedl atuthorit, yoft}ge State, ini ihair high soivereigni enyneity, atnd hat it never tieans such an assemtinge ats the oneii ini queistion.~ Itiut I waive I his; I tak~e ahiher groutid. If thle taet he, indeedg, sm-h a the Senator ays it is, then 1 maitain itm it is utterly oppo5sedl to thme fimnliamental pirinci liles ioter Federnl Utnitin. Conmgress hits nto right whantever io calla conrention in a State. Jt can catll bupotte conv'entionm, nnd that is a rconvention ufther people ofl hie Un'itedh States to amt~ed the F~ederal Conmstitttionti nor eart ii eall thtit, except authorizedl by twto-thtiris of the States. Ours is a Federal Repiubli--- Unrioti of States. Michigan is a State: a State in the course oif dlmission, titd ldifl~ering only fromn the other Smftes in Iter federtal relIn lions. She is delatred to bet n State in thie most soleimntimatiner hvy youtr own acr. Slue entn comae into the litionalso as a Stte. and lby her voliuntinry assen: eiven by the. pieoplle of thie Stite ini contvt'tiin, enilled lv thie constittuted amboucrity of thei Sttre. To tidmtit Ihe Stnte of Micbigan otn the nu lthority oif ta self-ereated mteetinC. or otie 'nllied by the direct authority of Conegress, passitng lby thie authority ofilie State,'wotald be thie mtost mlonstrouts procdeeditig uinder er coitution that eaa be Conceived; dim inost repugdant to .itrieieples, gemous mn its consequences. It inblisli a-direct relation betweem vidnal citizens of a State and the Government, in uiterjsubversion o eral character of our 7rtten. T ofithe citizens to this (overnmeng i t he -States exclusively. Thev -ar to its authority and laws only be State hate assented they should dissents. their asent is not hing i on hand, if site assents, timir dissent i It is through the States alone, tht States Government can have any c with the peple of a State, and then the Senator from Pennsylva that if Congress cifn authorize a cc of the people in fhe State of A without the authority of the State tersi not what is the ohieet, it ma mnanner nuthorize conventions in er State for whatever purpose .it i pro per. iichigan is as nmuch a snvreig nny oil er, dillering only, as I hav' to I er federal relaitois. If we santeion to thme assemblliage of Dee the lprinciple laid down by the Ser Pennisylvanlit, tien we establish trine that Congress has po*er plensure coinventions within t lie is there a Senator ot ithis floor wit sent to such auuoctrine? Is there, cinfly, who represents the smaller this Union, or the wcaker sectiintt thin power, amd every vestage of St woubhI be -lestroyed. Our sytm stubverteii, and isteud of a'federa and sorereigit S lta, we woitil power cotncentratel here, mnd th become thei most oilits desp.,tj. indeed, Itmuist lie blin d, wlo do that sIch it lner woul give ile (Gmoverument it complet control . States. I call u oi Semflors now ;t doctrine sofianrgerotus. Let it be iered, that miiler our vstem, Ii dinmts live ire-ver; goodt i es onlv We Iay not felel all theevil cotils nt lote, but this precidmtit once su'rlv lie received, aid wil becoini striimeti of iilinile evil. It will be asked, What t1ist lie Will yo - refist to admit 41 icliian I 'nion ; I answer no: I misire tom filnd if the senatort i romti bilina i will anree, I :ifm realy bw to tin its she stoIx at the inlv l mime of la;s witlhoumt Livint!f sancetiont to lie ummanm asmmbhle of lihreambier. li if that Ihw-s noit mee their tlere is still anmilier by whihb sle .fmiised. We are ttohl twvt fi-r( Legisaitre atm people mit M hltiga Ivoir ife an-ept ing the coailitior ar of last sessiotI. 11 that helne I all that is nieessary is, that Ih? Le slould cnll auother cmivention. . emity will thus -e removedi-mI. nal tI lie still abiunlat tittime fir her a at this Session. And shall we sake of L:ining a few tmnthi Its, _-iv smint toa hill frniught with pritmciple sirois as this ? We hlave. been fol. that ulers miitec imimediately it will Ie ton II Io ri-eive ler prolortion of tlie, stir w4n1t1t have io wei'ITmr. Give le her Cilli share. I am renly tIo d) s withoumt waitinig her admii--lonm. 1 liiied to hetir oni s ogr-nt tn quemstioni tives assigmedl For lm'r tmissii, to the law ant con-siltituiot. Smm0l iraitionms oneiillt it)t ibe preseiiitei are- se-ttliitgreat emtitittimial prinE I trust that we shaml pass hv tll snm hums mioutives mit this moccistitn, a grond tii mthe g1m'reat andIVi tndmitet ie that tan iniforimal, irrmizniitr. se-lfe tmem aissembtlly, a mttre mennen-s, has ano ty tin spemnk ir a sovre-ign State m-ase whiatemver :tin struesede its< timmn, oir in re-verse its mdissentt dealibmernt e-n liy a cemiiini mif the petople oft reuznlarly conivenied untder its constim thiority. WAstNo-rmN, ,Jamt A mecssagme was remcmivm-d himit thm dei oif thme Un~mitedi Sit-s, in answ resouliuitin ini the Senate,. trainim trnislatiomn mif a lmetm-r aire-smed bi Sanmta A nn, oni thn 4th .Jnly iNG, Presilh-nit of the Uniitmed States, antt mcopy mif thec letrer mif thle lntremr per writtetn int rely, dhaited 14thI Smept. Getn. Snta Ania setes thmt 1m., w te heamd mof G,0010 Mex'~ienums. wn pirisoneir: that lhe wits, ant er bminii timiet ini iduittm-e, mon thn point of emi enmgtaemeints inmto whli'ehl lit hai ptrevenmtedm fromi sit doming, ow1ing~ to) fi-etusnemss mof a nusmbemr mof pmeople, w stays ilhat his stny aumong1 thle Ipe-mlelt 4 as hail contviiced' him that it was for Mexicom tim prolseentte time war aniy tutu thaut it was his contvinetion ih t i ptle of Me-xi-m wmimahI be oif thme snm immn, wrjmt line shuld eImx latin matterst TPhiis, lie hai mniot fln mipotinity of itm-ionse-gii-,--ne of te occurrene.n -upoken't mif. Thi- fam-t neeopnijtedm lir the xpdii n inin7ast Tera-s, t hie Mehxi vernmiientt bintg ignmorantt mof thn rmeal mithis itn Temxais. IlIt ex'prm-ssetl hi mo eniemr inmtoi niegotiat itut withi thle State-s in renrd~n tom Tlexas, tind mhils is itndier thei, imipression tint lie (Om-n smot) hats it in his poiw-r to bring abmot Iieet ntl thne mtatter. IlThe Premim thn Uniitedl Stattes relim-, by tmling hi thin Mei-ennit Gomvernttment htave ml Sint they will tnot hld t hemmselv'es yatiy nem of htis, (Sanmta Atna's) w prisonetr, andti says it is ig mossible- for ain aniy step in the mtatter, tundemr m' -ircmtistances. I le remarkemd, that Merxico lit dlisposedm1 tin avail hemrself goodm mmlicems int te Untitedm States to endi, by tin!otintion, ton thn civil war ng wmumi give him greater pleasur m lie instrumental in bringitng abot imesirable result. [This letter was se It-r cove-r tin Glen. Sanmitel Houtston.) Mr. Pireston exphressedl his npiin lie independefmlmnce of Temxna ouight to 'ognizemd, aniy thing fthat Sattta An may or tdo to thme cmontrary notrwithstutm lie wvas preparedi to shoiw, that upown 'ogenizemd princ-iplmes of tnational law, irtnctire mofthis Governmnent, it wasi mm make- a prmopt atnd speemdy acknio nent ofC her indlepenmdence. ife tain liai the Prestimden titimelf woulmd lia~ tnnended tho .dontion of te cor.-,