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By Last INight's Mail.
From the Baltimore Sun, 21st inst. LATER NEWS FROM EUROPE. ARRIVAL OF THE CAMBRIA. The Steamer Cambria, Capt. Leitch, arrived at Halifax last evening, bringing dates from Liverpool to the 8th inst. aud Loudon to the 7th. CoMs EaCIAL. LIVEa'ooL, Sept. 8. In the early part of the week Cotton was inactive, yielding in favor of buyers for Middling and lower classes of Ameri car. but without changing in better grades. Theiransactions for the seek comprise 86,280 bales: of which Speculators took 8.540 American, and Exporters 6,070 bales. The quotations ate as follows: Upland 45 to 51d; Mobile 5 to 5Jd; Orleans 5 d. At the'time of the Steamer's sailing, there was a brisk demand and prices firm. The Corn trade is dull, and there is but little alteration in the value of any article. TaE CHOLERA. In-London the deaths for the week end ing on the 8th amouted to tight thousand, of which sixteen-hundred and sixty-three were from cholera. The deaths from the same disease -in Livetpool wvere in a still greater proportion; and were also on the increase in Dublin. In Paris and the Provinces it also is prevailing to a great extent. and several distinguished persons have fallen victims to it. Vienna and Berlin are suffeting more than Paris-in the latter cite the deaths from it were averaging forty per day. POLITICAL INTE.LLIGtENCE. ENGoLAN.-In the manufacturing dis tricts trade was active, and employtnent plenty. The Royal family were, at the latest dates, still sojourning in Scotland, but ex pected to return to London by the 13th. AUSTRtA AND HuNGAR.-The latest news from Hungary reports that Conorn and Peterwardin still hold out against the Allied armies. Klapka commands at the former place, and Kiel at the latter. On the 23d ult. a long interview took place between Kiel and the Russian Gen eral Baig, which resulted in sending Kiel to General Haynau to arrange the terms of a capitulation. The impregnable position of Klapka, in Comorn, induces that General to demand most favorable conditions before surren dering. A letter from Vienna, under date of the 31st ult. states that several of the chiefs of the -Hungarian revolt have been executed -among the number was an Austrian ex minister. One General has been hung. and another shot. The wives and children of several of the Hungarian leaders, as well as the mother and children of Kossuth, had been sent as prisoners to Presburg. Garrisons of three thousand men each, are to be posted at Grosswardein, Buda and Pesth. The Hungarian Corps of Perrezel had entered Orsova, but the Turkish authori ties refused to received them until they laid down their arms. Georgey's surren der was first known at Comorn on the 18th nit.; and summons sent to the Garri * son to surrender or propose terms of cap itulation. - Georgey has been pardoned by the Em peror of Austria-he intends residing at Styria. FRaac.-The Paris Monileur pub Jishes a decree reinstating sevetnty-one Lieut Generals, and fourteen Major Gen erals. who were put on the retired list af ter the Revolution of February. The French Government still continues to re fuse passports to German refusees on their passage through France to America. Gen. Oudinot was expected to arrive at Paris on the 20th ult. The appointment of Lucien Marat as Minister to Madrid was considered as atn attempt to conciliate the two parties in tihe French Cabinet. RoMEz.-Savelli, the Pope's former Minister of the interior, had arrived at Rome, and installed himself head of the Police, under the control of the French authorities. Hius first decree was for the tssuing of guarantee notes for the declared value of the paper motley, imposing line and imprisoniment on all who refused it. The Russian Etmporer was at Warsaw, - at the latest advices. On the 20tht ult.. the Austrian troops evacuated Monega the last place occupied in the Piedmontese territory. MONTa.AL, Sept-.10. * ANoTHER RtoT AT MONTREAL-On Monday, a public meetinA was called at Bytown, by the Ministerial party for the purpose of framing .an address to Lord Elgin. The oppostiton were present in full force. By their acts the Ministerial President was compelled to leave thte chair. The opposition then took possession of the ground, and passed resolutions condemning the course pursued by Lord Elgit. Much confusion ensued, fire-arms were used, and several were wounded, and some reported killed. The military were called out, who finally restored order. [Correspondence of thte N. Y: [Herald.] SARaTAYBVno, S. C., Sept. 4. In my last, I alluded to a visit I had paid Mr. Barrett itn his cell- I was ac companied.by Major Legg. who introduced me te the prisoner. I informed him thatt I was attached to the Herald, and shtould relate whatever occurred in our conversa-. tion. He is a young man about 2S years of age, and has rather an intellectual cast of coulntenance ; his hair wvas very long--his race very pale, and looked as thotugh he had suf'ered considerable anxiety. Ilis manners are those of a gentleman, and he converses very fluently. I remarked that I was very sorry to see a Northerner in .so unpleasant a fix. H e replied thatit certainly wams nmot a pleasant one, and wanted to know what the people of the North thlought of the whole matter. I told hitm frankly, that I helieved the opinion generally entertained wats simply this--that if he had foolishly come South,. ntent, to produce excitement and anarchy, by disseminating the Brutus papers, he de served to suffer. lie said, "I am not an abolitionist; 1 have no connexion with them; it can't be proved against me. Even if I were, 1 have a right to be ; but I have not circulated any documents, and is can't be proved. I go for the Wilmot proviso up to the hub. Congress have a right to abolish slavery in the territories, under the constitution, and they ought to do it. There is a large majority in the North that are free soilers." Ile then entered into a discussion and defence of the free soil movement. and spoke so clearly on the subject, that I felt certain it was one to which he had devo ted a great deal offstudy and attention. Jn fact, he remarked to Major Legg that he wrote the free soil ;address to the people of the State of indiana, and that he made many stump speeches, which had made him many friends, and he had been pro nounced a good stump speaker. lie said he was in this State merely to get names. "My good sir, I happened in a town where you had btt recently passed, and saw the clerk who furnished you with names of people in that town. Every name given you, even the most obscure, who never had before received a paper of any kind received by the mail a copy of Brutus and while persons whose names were not handed to you, did not receive one." "It was at Anderson. It was not so. I have seen the same names given me, in an almanac; whoever sent the co pies of Brutus, might have seen those names, and got them from the almanac. There is not a particle of proof against me, except in the copies found on me, and-I don't know who sent them to me. I can get out an habeas corpus." "Nonsense-I have been among the people in this town to-day; they are awfully excited, anl if you were turned loose in this community, you would be lynched as sure as your name is Barrett." I then related the adventure of the ped lar with the Cincinnati wagon, when he jumped up from his cot bed, and. asked Major Legg to produce them. "If," said he, "any Cincinr.att abolitionist have dared to come here to insult this community while I am here in prison, if I know them, r will denounce them, declare who they are, and tell of their connections, and come out andI expose the whole matter." Major Legg said, "Barrett I advise you, as a friend, to order those letiers addressed to you now lying in the Anderson Post Office, to be sent to you. Open and read them. It can do no harm and its sadly against your case that you don't do it. I tell' you honestly if you do not it will result to your prejudice ; keep tip this ex citement. and you may postpone your trial six months longer." "I will think of it, but I won't do it now. I can clear myself. I can get a letter from Brisbane, stating that he never was au thorized by toe to send any pamphlets." -t would not do your case any good. People here believe him to be a most in fernal scoundrel and a liar. Again your employers, E. Hlarwood & Co. sent and subscribed to the Spartan. The return mail brought hack a copy of Brutus, ad. dressed to'every man who had an adver tisement, or whose name appeared in any manner in that piper: Your friends seem determined to identify you with the move. ment." DIFFICULTY WITH FRANCE.-We re ceived last night the following despatch from Baltimore, giving the partieulari of the dilliculty with the French Minister. From it we learn that M. Poussin, last February, presented to Mr. Buchanan, thetn Secretary of State, a claim in behalf of M't. Porte, a Frenchman, residing in Mexico. w'ho bad purchased Tobacco, knowing it to be private property. Gov. Childs had ordered the TJobacco to be restored to its right owner, and gave the Frenchman back his money. The French Minister thien set up a clat for- damages. The Court of Inquiry decided against this claim, and their decision was approv ed of by General Scott, and afterwards by Mr. Clayton. M. Poussin, in a note to -Mr. Clayton, used in'sulhing language towards Gov. Childs, but wi:hdreav the offensive letter t the suggestiotn of Mr. Clayton. Subsequently however M. Poussin ad dressed another note to the Department of State, mtakiug charges against Comman der Carpenter, in connection with saving the French ship Eugenia from shipwreck Car penter claiming salvage for his cre w, which wvas refused, On this subject Poussin wrote a very insulting letter to M r. Clayton reflecting. Ott the honor of our Government. Gen. Taylor then caused the whole correspon dnce'to be laid before the French Govern men t, expecting immediiate redress-which not being aff'orded, he ordered all com-. tmunication with M. Poussin to 'be closed and his passports at his disposal. TUE SToRx.-The witnd, which for thae last thtree week's, with searcely a day's interruption, tins blown steadily from the the Northeast, commenced freshening yes. terday morning between 2 and 3 o'clock, nd at 7 the appearances indicated an approaching gale. instead, thowever, of getting r-ound to the Southwest, as was apprehended, it veered more to the North ward. and as we write it teas sensibly slackened, and it is probable the blow will exhaust itself from the Northwest. We' fear that it has been violent at sea, end has been fruitful of disasters to vessels on the coast. The steamer Vanderbilt, which waited for the mail at Wilmington until 5 p. m. on Tuesday, crossed Cape Fear har about 8 p. m. with the wind blowing moderately from the Northeast. At midnight tho sea began to roll heavily, and at 2 a. m. the winad commenced blowing a gale from thle Northeast, which continued up to the time of her crossing the Charlestotn lar. The sea much of the time was a complete steeet of foam, coming int occasionally from the Southeast as well as the Northeast. The boat wvas compelled to lay-to a part of the time, arnd was slightly inju red in leer up per works, but born herself quite gallant. ly through the gale.-Charlestont Mercury, 20th, inest. The daunghter of the Quecn of Sweden who is about to marry Louis Nepoleon, has a dowry of E.,000,000~ sterlinig. EDGEFIELD C. H. WEDNESDAY. SEPTEMBER 26, 1849. Drougirt. The long contintance of the drought has parched the earth in this region,- and dried up wells and water courses. The section of coun try for twelve or fifteen miles above this place is almost destitute of running water, and the in. habitants are forced to do their milling at a dis tance from fifteen to twenty-five mites in the piney woods, where, thanks to the properties of the soil, the streams are abundant and well supplied. Court. The court of Cominon Pleas and General Sessions will sit at this place on., Monday the 1st of October, to continue in session for two weeks. There will be a very heavy docket on the criminal side of the Coutt. Execution. The slave Joe, the murderer of JEssE W EATHERFORD, was hanged near this place on Friday last. Gov, Seabrool His Excellency, Governor SEABRoOK passed through this place on Friday last. on his way from Greenville to Columbia. He tarried but one night in our village. French Minister. M. Pous'in, the French Minister,at Wash ington. sent an insulting note to the State De partment, whereon the President immediately demanded his recall. The French Govern ment not having complied, Mr. Poussin has been informed that his passports are ready for him. Medal for Gen. Scott. The Gold medal voted by Congress to Gen. Scutt has been received at the war Department. The value of the Gold is said to be $450, on one side is a portrait of Gen. Scott. On the re verse, the battles of the City of Mexico, Chas pultepec, Vero Cruz, Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Churubusco, and Mohlino del Rey. Didiculty with France. The Government of France has taken of. fence at the appointment of Mr. Rivesas Min. ister Plenipotentiary, to reside near that court on account of personal objections to this 7Gen tlcman. Remonstrance has been made to th Cabinet at Washington against the appoint ment. What will be the result, we are une to state. Unless some amicable adjustmen .. once take place, l suppose we shall have an. er flare 'up with la belle France-our Rev tionary ally. French President. Louis Napoleon is about to marry a Princess of Sweden. It is said, moreover, that he has a ritten letters to the Czar of Russia congratu lating him upon his success over the Hungari ans. Coming events are certainly casting their shadows before thema. We have lung believed in the monarchical propmensities of the French President. Little doubt is now left on our mind, that a deliberate attempt will soon be made in France, favored, doubtless, by many of the crowned heads on the continent, to re establish monarchy. Fever in Charleston. We have for a week past listened to rnmors of yellow fever in Charleston without giving credit to themt, as the Charleston papers were entirely silent on the matter. The last Mercu ry and Conrier, however, allude to the matter. and report six deaths from this disease-" four from Ireland, one from England, and one from Germany." A part from this fever, the city is said never to have been healthier. Owing to the lateness of the season, it is not probable this disease will hecome generally prevalent ot be very fatal. There need be, therefore, wve think, no serious cause of alarm. We learn, that the citadel Academy has been snspended for the presenat in apprehension of an epidemic. Greenville & Laurens R. Road. Public meetings have been recently held at the Villages of Greenville and Laurens to take steps to build Rail Roads to these Villages. Much interest was evinced in the matter; and large stock taken. There seems to be little doubt of success. We admire the public spirit and energy of our Fellow-citizens of neighbor ing Districts and henstily wish them good speed in their generous enterprise. Will old Edge ield look indiff'erenihy- on till she is surpassed by all her sister Districts in enterprise and public works ? By the love that we bear our country and our posterity, this must nut be. Let us arouse from our lethargy and exert the true spirit of our District. H~ave we no persevering, public-spirited heart among us, who will boldly lead in these matters of pulic improvement? 0, f.r some master spirit of inspiring eloqjuence to ewaken is the mninds of our people a just sense of their real interest and welfare! Diliclulty with Post R~Iaster. The last Pendleton Messenger gives an ac count of a stirring scene in the village of Pent detomn at the Post Oficee on Friday the 4thinst Aolition documents, signed Junius, "of a most malicious, offensive and insulting charac ter to the Southern People." were receivedl in large quantities on the arrival of the Southern Mail, uapon the knowledge of which, the execu tive committee of the committee of safety and vigilance, after consultation. "entered the of fre, shoved the Postmaster aside, took posses siotn of the papers, and now have them'n under lock and key, where thaey will remain until the meeting of' the committee of vigilance and safe ty on the ~29th inst." For a ?tuh, otur Post Ollico Departmetnt tunder thle new Admnm.straZ tin is likely to canse us perpetual annoyance ati inin natin. Brisbane's Letter. W. A. Brisbane, whose name has been asso ciated with the Barrett case, has published a letter of self-vindication in the Cincinnatti Globe. lie repels the charge of being author of the abolition pamphlets, " Brutus " and "Carolinian," but " fully coincides with the views" expressed in the former, and is " per fectly willing to shoulder all responsibility.'' He says, lie takes occasion to publish, that he is " ready at all times to receive cotnnunica tions from Carolinians, such as the " Brutus" Pamphleti', or the answers to Mr. Elwood Fish er's celebrated lecture, and to share the respon sibility of their circulation." He studiedly conceals finm the public his connection with Barrett, now in Spartanburg Jail; but unfortunately for him that fact is now too well attested to admit of doubt. A recent correspondent of the New York Herald, wri ting from Spartanburg C. 11. of the date Sept. 4th, givesan account of an interview in Jail with Barrett. in which he represents the latter as say ing-:" I can clear myself. I can get a letter from Brisbane, stating that he never was author ized by me to send any pamphlets." The Rev. Gentleman complains bitterly, that, when he was in South Carolina about eighteen months ago, lie was treated with great indignity, and was forced with his wife and in fanit secretly at night to leave the State. le may think his good fortune, that lie escaped so well. Should lie venture again to visit the State, his reception, we opine, will be a little more cordial and his flight less certain. After all his equivucatiop, in the postscript to his letter published in the Globe, he reveals the fact that lie is an accomplice in the Barrett case. Ile writes-" Perhaps at some future time I shall be at liberty to communicate to your readers some things connected with this affair (Barrett's) that I cannot now do without a breach of private colfidonce." Does this not fix his guilt? How long shall this man abuse our patience ! FOR TUE ADVERTtSER. Profitable Invcstinents. MR. ErDTo:-The success attending the enterprise of constricting Plank Roads, by way of "profitable investments," in all the sections of country where they are most used and appreciated, has Induced Capitalists to subscribe liberally for the stock, with an eye to. large dividends, and their most sanguine views have been in a majority of ciases fully realized. The first road of the kind made in the United States, was in the State of New York, from the city of Syracuse to Central Square. The right of way cost the Com-. pany nothing, and the bed of an old and much traveled road being used, there was but little grubbing or grdiug required. It has but a single track, eight feet wide, ac cornmodating an immense travel, without The tolls taken during L.wu .... No. 1, amounted to $7.957 14 Tolls taken at gate, No 2, 4.930 01 Total, $12.87 15 The hinlaries of gate keepers, and repairs.during the two years amounted to 1,530 00 Leaving for rebuildi'g &div. $11,357 (00 We see from the above, that there was paid into the Trensury of the Compa ny, by the end of the first two years after they commenced receiving tolls, and after paying all expe es-an amount al most equal to the tonnt expetuded in buildiug the roads On the route $roposed foir laying dowvn a Plank Road, between Edlgefield and H-amburg, you have the best materials for constructing a road in the most economical and durable muanner-yott have lumber, and men near the whole line of the rood, from whom the lumber can be purchased, at a moderate price, atnd you would have little or no grading on the whole road. Considering the duranility of the pine Itum ber, that would lbe used in the construc tion of this road, together wvith the dry nature of the land over which it would pass, it would probably stand, some eight to ten years with but little repair. Besides, the fact that Plank Roads, are good investments, they are also sources of| great economy. By the present system of road working, the planter is frequently subjected to the inotvenience, of taking all his a ble bodied hands from his crop and putting them on the pblic road, where they are liable by law, to work for twelve days, repairing dama gsa, perhaps, made by men, who never in any way contribute to like repairs. A citizen, whose employment is to haul heavy goods from one portin of the coun try to another, in no wvay indenmnifies the public, for the repairs he renders necessary, by the small amount of .road duty lie per forms at home. If every man, wh-len hau ling heavy goods over tho public roads, should pay his tax in the- wvay of told, then, instead of doing an injury to a par ticular neighborhood, he would help that neighborhood support a better road for the accommodation of all. It is estimated that the cost of laying a single track, over a route liko this, will vary from 51500 to 2000, per mile, it is highly probable, that it would be very safe to put the Jowest figure on the road fromn Edgefield to Hamburg, which would fall very much under the estimate of your correspondent ''Farmer."' TRAVELLER. Ar. EAsY RULE FOR FAaR~as.-The Augusta Chronicle gives the following sim *ple plan of estimating the value of pro duce in the Foreign markets. Our far mers will find it useful: A "quarter of wvheat" is an English measure of eight standard bushels, so if you sea that quoted at fifty-six shillings it is seven shillings a bushel. A shilling is twenty-four cents; multiply by sev nil you have One dollar and sixty eight cents pr bhel. FOR THE ADVtITSar.Rl. Plank Roads. Mn. EnhT-,-It will no doubt, be readily admit ted by all, that a Plank Road, passing through or near a Plantation, bringing it in immediate communication with n:arket by a safe and easy road. is of direct and immediate benefit to it. Such is not the ease with Ra:L Roads. altny Barnwell Planters, living on the lite of the Charleston Rail Road. find it for their interest, and do send their Cotton twenty to thirty miles by wagon, to the Hamburg market ; and some planters on the Geor gia Rail Road, now wagon. their Cotton sixty or eighty miles to the Augusta mar ket, in preference to sendi"g it to market by Rail Road. But it should be kept in mind that the common roals in Georgia. are not so uncommonly bad, as the roa ds leading to Hamburg from the up-country. There are sonie objections to Rail Roads passing through lands anti plantntions, which cannot well be obviated,-one is, the danger of sparks from the Locomotive, setting fire and burningtimberiand. About twelve months ago, there were many thousand acres of valuable timber burnt, on the line of the Long Island Rail Road, injuring the farmers on the line, to the amount of about half a million of dollars. Another objection to Rail Roads, is the danger of stock being run over and killed. Many planters on the line of Rail Roads, keep up two lines of fence, to keep their cattle off the track. Neither of these ob jections apply to Plank Roads.. It may seem extravagant, at first sight, but on examination, [ believe those who waggon cotton to Hamburg, will agree with me. that the value of the horses and mules killed or injured so as to be worthless, during the last ten years, by pulling through the drep sand from Hamburg to the twelve mile post, would build the Plank Road from Edgefjeld to Hamburg. The Proprietots of the Greenville line of stages, have lost some eight or ten valuable hor ses within the last twelve months, which can probably be traced to that cause. To build a Plank Road from Edgefield to Hamburg, ten feet wide, 3 inches thick, resting on 3 stringers 3 x 4, would take 174,240 feet lumber -per mile, supposing the length of the road to be 25 miles, it would take 4,336,000 feet of lumber, to build the Road. The Mills on the route could probably furnish 10,000 feet per day, which would require about eighteen months for them to supply the amount needed. It thus becomes obvious, that it is necessary to call in the aid of steam, in building the road. By taking what lum ber the Mills on the route could supply, and erecting a Steam Engine, on some ridge where timber is- plenty, moving the Engine as the timber is exhausted, the road could he completeJ in six to ten mouths. I will recur to the subject aecain; SA LUDA. FOR THE ADVERTtSER. mo. XIV. ^--'nud. ta boni civis' sad otntes.ea DE. Or. I. I institutions . y history of a Jvanced state al error. Two may widely tmoral, social, and political pus.. et have much that is common between them;. and a style of government suited to one may be well adlapted to the other. The great principles of justice and equity, which lie at the bottom of all good governmentt, arc general propositiuns of abstracted reasotn, and are ;not accommodated to times and to men. They do not change witht the conditiotns of society, nor with the ages of the world. They are the same, yesterday, to-day, atnd forever. Andt every govetn ment wrhich has existed for any length of tme, howv despotic soever, has developed mnany of these principles in the fornm of salutary laws, customs anid institutions. In our own governmer.r, these principles are inwrought in its very organism. Our Republic sprang into existence, like the Goddess of Wisdom, in full panoply, out of the heads of men as pure in heart and as sound in wisdom as ever fall to the lot of men to become. 11, at once, establish ed the broad basis of freedom, by embody. ing the great eternal rules of justice and wisdom. To cherish and prescrve, then, the wise regulatione, which contatn these great unchanging principles-these noble safeguards of hutman liberty, that rise above the cotnditions of metn-is the para -nount dttty of all, wvho claim to be lovers of genuine liberty. TIhe statmp of truth and expediency is fixed upon them; for they are in harmony with man's nature, and with the great laws of universal gov ernment. They should stand eternal as time! Those self sty leJ reformers, therefore, who, to amend, will swee away, as by a revolutionary move. the w ,ole past order of things, are retrograde itn their notions and wvork to the lasting injury of mankind ! In the langttage tof atn emitneut political writer, " to preserve atnd to reform, should be the aitm of eiery statesman." t To. hold on to that which titme antd judgment have shown to be wisc and expedient; cautiously tto amend to suit the growing wants of society; to correct all real abuses and inconveniences; anid etrenuously to resist all rash and inmprud~ent changes these constitute the duties of the enligh tened and practical statesman. But the distinguishing mark of thte conservative pa. triot, is to hold on with bold firmness, to the sound and valuable parts of his govern ment and institutions, against a ruthless spirit of chatnge ! The value to our country of a class of men, thus conservative in their notions, is at present incalculable. It is feared, we are in great danger of anarclay from a rabid and lawless spirit of innovation. There is a retnarkable disposition atmong us to work serious changes in the wise laws and institutions franmed by our ances tors, and to raise false colors of reformi. We seeni tired of the admirable style of governments inistituted after our Revulu tion, and to be looking back towards Greece and Rome for models, of true Ro * Not to pull down, buit to prescrce in eguaity, all the conventiences of the people, is tlte hi;;h-. eat concernt atnd wisdom of the good citizen1. + SrEmndt Bnrhc.I publics. We are breaking in with the great principle of delrgated power, so conducive to order and just administration in modern anvernnents, and falling back upon the antiquated notion of absolute and direct popular agency. We are also fast discarding the rntioual. conservative principle, do admirably predominant in our various polities, which gives the right of rule to the concurring.majority _ of all the intetests of so'iety; nd we ate bringing again into practice the absolute power of t he numerical majority-the dan gerous and exploded theory of the ancient Republics. The important question arises, cii bon? What good is to be -expected from these changes ? Are they really needed ? Have our Constitutions failed in their designs ? have they not rather fulfilled the highest dxpectatiuns of their framers, in making .us the freest and most prosp us people on the globe? Did the people t urming them, surrender into the hands of government, too many of their rights and -privileges? Or did they omit to secure any important charter rights ? The wisdom of the pres-. eat day has not been able to point out these defects. No people in any age of the world, has ever experienced under government a larger share of rationalliber. ty, than may be enjoyed by the people of this country, under the just interpretation of the American Constitutions. It is a re markable fact, that nearly all the abuses, and all the oppressions that have appeared in our Republic, have been perpetrated' against the express provisions, of those. noble instruments, or by insidious perver sions of their true intent and meaning. They are not to he traced to the govern- - ments themselves, but to theitmal-adminis tration ; to- the rude experiments of raish in novation; to the cupidity and ambition of designing politicians, of factions, and wrongheaded numerical majorities! No governments. ever existed, better calculated, in our judgment, to secure to freemen all their true rights and liberties.. None ever looked more closely to the real interests of mankind-to the welfare of the people generally/. When, with a reflect ing eye we view their atnpleprovisions for. popular liberty.; their wise restrictions upon legislative and executive power ;and their wonderful adaptation to all the wants and reasonable desires of a free, virtuous, and ntelligent people; we are almost forced o conclude, that some super-human agen :y contributed to their formation ; that Providence, in His inscrutable wisdom, mparted to theit virtuous framers, a more han ordinary share of knowledge, virtue, - ind patriotism. What could offer, then, a bler field of efThrr, than to study out the neaus by which these constitutions may re perpetuated, and to give them practi .al success in our country ? What a tree ure they might become to generations yet - iborn! The liberty of millions of our ellow-beings, desceneents of our coon rymen, depends, perhaps, upon their just and equitable provisions! To preserve, then, in their purity, these dmirable Documents, is the part not only f wisdom, but of moral duty and patriot 's. We may rest assured, -that, in the :onflicting jratsions and interests that now. and will. perhaps, forever agitate our ountry, they can never be improved. Every change, it is feared, will be for the ,orse. We should hang on; therefore, to hese, as the Palladia of our rights-as the greal safety ships of our nation's liberties, it the turbulent political sea of ihe future. As abuses in administration arise chiefly n a departure freon their noble provisions, is the first duty of the statesman, vigi antly to w atch over these Consiitutions, and o se'e that they are executed in good faith. And it is the province sof an intelligent 2eople to have a guaranty of their faithful. reservation, by always keeping at the ead of afi'airs, men who are prudent, noderate and conservativo. In- this way done, can our liberties be perpetuated ! O~N of THE PEOnLE. DmsTRESslro AcetDEtNT.-The Colm >Ia Trelegr~aph of the 20th, inst., says-A nost pair.ful occurrence took -place on 'uesday last in Brick Range. by which Slife was lost. A little girl, daughter of Mrs. A. Tarrar, atbout three years of age, playing on the back steps of the second soy, fell and received so severe an injury he she expired from the effects of it early mo Wedntesday (yesterday) tmorning. The accident was onme w bich no care can. aften suflice to gurd against. .The grief af the bereaved parent should be mitigated by the recollection that her loved one was removed in her first fresh purity, 'before. sin or sorrow hamd become- known to her, ad "of buch is the kingdom of Heaven." ADIERICAN CrrEs.-Nothing can ex eeed, perhaps we say equal, the marvel Ios grow th of many ofour A merican cities. The "Ilome Jo unt" says that the num br of people embraced within the limits and suburbs of the city of New.York is about half a million; and half that number within those of Philadelphia. "NDw Or leans contains about a hunidre~and fifty, ostan one hundres1 and .thirty, and'Hal timore one hundred and five thousand in habitants. The 'secotnd child born in Cincinnati,-it is said, is still living. ad-has not reached the middle age of life, whlile the city has a population of a hundred thousand. The population of St. Louis was one timusmand six hundred in 1811); sixteen thousand in 1840; forty thousand 4 in 1845; and is probably now not less thatn sixty thousand. Buffalo contained - two thousand four hundred and twelve in1i825; in 1846, twenty-nine thousand seven hun: dred and seventy-three; and now contains about forty-ive thousatnd. In 1828, the population ef Lowell was three thousand ive hundred and thirty-two, it is now more than thirty thousand. Chicago, a place scarcely known on the latest maps, has already reached a population of eigh teen thousand; and Milwaukie, of still more recent origin, is rivalling it in its grothand population. COLD WVcArnERt.-At Sharon, yester day morning, upon low ground, ice, was rund of the thickness of a common wind a'v glass, which had made during the night. andl very heavy white frost was isitle, It was feared that the vines in the iinity were badly injurod.-Boton Trats., 4th inst. Kwect arc the slumnbers of the virtuous,