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twenty-one, of whom ttenty are benefi
ciaries; the number in the Citadel Acade my has averaged sixty-five, in the propor tion of forty beneficiaries to twenty five pay cadets. By the adlitionat rooms which the new story to the Citadel building has provided, one hundred and thirty cadets ay be accommdaeJ. BANK OF THilE STArE. This-islstttot was citartere-1 in 1S12. To the pecuniary pressure of the times. in. .luced by the restrictive policy of the Fed. eral Government, it owed its existence. Thedistressvf the planting community was so general and paralysing, that the Legisla ture, after investigating every mode t'f re lief, ultimately adopted the scheme r, a system of public loans, in the mature of is. count, on real or persto;al property. The accommodation furnished on mortgage to individuals, limit'd at first to $ 000 each, but the act of '25, increased to $10,000, the 7th section of the original law pre scribed should be distributed in proportion ale amounts among t'e election districts. This provision. I believe, h-is never been earriel into effect. Its execution, if. re quired at the time, was soon rendered un necessary, as it is well knowt, that our ag ricultural population recovered from the eouseg+tences of the sudden revulsion in their condition, at an early period subse quent to tho war, in 1820, the capital of the Bank was pledged fur the redemption of the public debt. This was done to meet the expenses consequent on the eatablishmtent of a sys -em of internal improvement, then com menceti by the State. The immediate ef fect was to convert the Bank,. for nany years practically only. a loan oflice, into an Institution to be conducted on purely com mereial' principles. By the usual accot rmodation on bonds, it incurred embnrraQs ments and hazards, and the operation was too slow to attain the end, which, by a vir, tual modification of the principal, if not exclusive, design of the original act, it was henceforth to fulfil. Fn 1833, it was deemed "expedient and hIn eficial, both to it3 citizens and the Stdte, to re. charter the Bank." It now becomes te sulemn duty of the Legislature to inquire whether its existence shall be prolonged beyond the year '56, to which by law it is limited. Ott this sub ject a great diversity of opinion has for manty years been entertained. ''he public mind seems at leng,th to have been brought to the conclusion that thie Batik has not acconmplished the high pur. poses foe which it was created ; that. it is-a' dntt gerous- institution, anti4republican in its charac. ter and tendency ; and that the evils-ine itably arising from the connection between-a moneyed corporation and the State, increase and ramify, the longer the rights and privileges of the for. iner are extended. The resolutions of your last session, adopted by very decided majorities, and the apparent acquiescence of the pecgple in the decision of their rulers, would seem to have de finitely settled the que-tiun of a recharter, and that necessarily all nntor and collateral issues have been absorbed by it. The political history of South Carolina has too long presented the anotnalon spectacle of its constituted authorities pertinaciously uphold ing a State corpor:ation, while it denounced any uion between a alank and the Federal Govern ment. To me it is obvious that, except the un constitntionality of a United States Bank and . >s ' "r its possession of a .wider field of operations. vlie of the prodnets of labor, is itot eas.ily .di vested of its established anith'oiity. fly the mi finence it iniseinsibly acqirimes, it tncamsrambly perpetuates its muwn existence. The fatal blow to time Federal Batik was given by the Execu tive in the exercise uof an tunwarrantable power. I inyoke the Le-gislature themn to profit by the admonitionms which the past hias wrtinten Ott time legislattive history of oumr counttry. I- aliso, de sire, in this place, to express amy settled coim-.ic, tion,. that the Bank of time State wats fotnnded ott a false amid pernmiciotus prinmei;ple t hat to gramnt to thme mnemibers of a comuimity almoost exciii sivoly devmoted to rural ptrsitm unusual facili ties for cotmmandinog nmoney,.is to. iniflict uiponi them and thteir pmosterity tnm nimmnigatmed evi', that the more numeronts atnd difFienlt thme obstia eles-in the way of recei.vinig B-stnk accommmoda lions By that class, time gruater their contet. met, and time more certain the smcces.s im their vocation. Whmenever time agricturist substi ttutes speculationi for time results of iminstry, his prospects tmay seem bril!amt f.u a senmsam, lint the day of darkness anid dikaster will imevitably follow. I,nsubtmitting a lanlm for winintg tip time Datik, I scarcehy need assure yout that time suibjet has ieceived-my most titeuetve exatmnationi, amid that in suiggestitig time ne-mcssity for your actiomi uponm it, I have beent immfluenmced solety bmy a high senise of official dmity. It is proper I should infornm you. that Messs. Bitrring, Brotihers & Co,. of Lonadon, have ad dressed to me a commiunication.- subtstatilly protestinig agtinst cloisinug the. Iamk, n time groundm that thatt instituitioni was volitumrily ' fered by thme Staote ais- onte of time seiriiies for the boan niegmotiited by thmeim. I will onily herc remitark, that it is not.proposed to destroy lime Batik, L.ut to deprive ii of its baniking powers. It will coni'innte ax a cmrprntiont until 1800 four years beyontd time peridto which its ditra tion extends tby thme existinig law. At that imne, only $48.88 88 of te foreign,. a nd $398019' 50 of the dotmestic debt will he: dime, whie the assets of time Batnk will anmunt tim about two andit a half rr.ilhions. Bitt, ini trutmh, time tforeign debit wvill then have beeni pa.id, if thme plan oif hy)po thecating secuirities, or emnittinig new lmonds siloubti the ordinmary meauns fail, be resorted tmo. Inm order to seen re that re,nit, time dircectuors should be invrested- with full powers. By tis expeu dient, the argutmenit of violted fnitit wdii have nto grounad on which to rest. Tho State will have discharged its ot-ligatins mi foil, amid that,, too, befom e. time perioid specified itt the conmtrac'ts1 km time imeaniwhe, let time assets of time Batik. not required for time redemip:ion of time liabhihi ties of that institutioni, be sobetmuly set apart lor the liqpidationi of the puhhie debht. PUBLIC DEtT. The following-is-a detatiled statenmnt of tIme abbt of the State: . Rtie or :nt. andt date tInnm Now owin;. Payn1t,e in,. Whirr. Sp. ei. m-animuid iinan,, 1*011. 17t,:ta..7t ium5i Cha rratunmu its do. do. 17 .t5*.71 15 dto. . pere ti. freit tun, 1*5s3s aiui mis chardca - do.. doni. 44Z7.2 .: 1i570 eburteoitun 5 ,tn. . . ank n. 4,5h,71..a 155, dJ.u-m s. do. JRevou'ttonmmry 117y,4asas db.S eTalue.iat 72.10.00.m, Thme resontrees of mime Bunk, app icable- to te paymenit of this debt. armout- to $$3.88.$ (if, wh ich is an excess of availale assets mover mime liabilities of time State of $1,532',8-3 9'), mor over two and a half imillions, if tihe sum of' $1.0">1. 0041, received fromn time federal gomverntmenmt Ott deposit, be includedl. In coniclusioni allow nme to addh thtat, as far as my1 persom al knowledge extentds, tIme Batnk fromt its organtizaition to the present day hats becen ably and flhithfllhy conducted. My obhject:onis arc not to its admiisration,. bitt to time poliey im wichl the Institution itself' miriginarted.L Tme accompantyinig letters fronmte Presimdemnt and,Cashiier were writteni in reply to certatin in-. terrogatoies propountded lay imie. CATAWBA INDIANS. The Legislature, at its last session. confided to the cate of the Govel nor this whole subject. t ith a reqest that he . ould ' appoint soime fit and propser pers-mn to examine intothecoudition ofthe Indiiats, and report to him." It con flitin; to the spirit of this resolution, I noin. nated live commissioners frim the districts of York and Lancaster to meet me, with as simy of the Catawbas na rould be assembled in the vicinity of Nation Ford, oa. the twenty-third d1y ofJuly. At that u:eeing full and satisfrac tory answers were ohatined on many aiterial points. Snlsenently, 1 proposed a series of questions to.the comnansmioners to elicit a writ. tell reply. .t the same time, B. S. Massey, of l.ancaster, was despaichied to llaywood county, North Carolina. for a nurpose conneted with. the sain object tu be accomplished. Copies of the papers. disclosing the result of my investi gaiins, . now forward. The two important questions involved in the geueral inquiry, have refelence, the one, to the proprietors.of the anls in the Indian buundary;. the other to the Catawba tiihe. Thirty-seven years ago, the- Catawha. conn try, e'mbraciig ain area of fiftcen itiles sTijre, was uamepresented in thE. Le;islature. The member eleet-d in 1803. hei'ing only a- lensehol der. was dueciated ineligible to a sent. The law of 1812, constitoting :t lease for three lives. or ninety-nine years, a qtalification equivtlent to a freehold, placed. the people of that region. im relation to a represett n. on a footing with the rest of their fellow-citizens. By an act passed in December, 1835, the reversionary right to the Iamis, which thereafter were to --i considered and n.ljndgeu real estate," was transferred from the State to those whio owned then 'as lessees from the Catawba Indians." In 18410, anl agreement was conclusned with the ludiane, by which they contracted to cede their interest in their lands for twveity-one thoisand dollars. To be reflunded for this expenditure. the- Legislature imposel t tax of one and a half ecn's on every tICie within the Catawba linsits. The present assessed rate is one-half a cent an acre. By the act of that year, "to carry nto cffeict the late agreement between the Catawba Indians, and the coinmissionets on the part of this State." South Carolina succeeded "to the sight, title. and interes: heretofore vested in the Catawh Indians, for the purposes sit taxation a of issning grants to the respective lessees tereof. The 7th section declares, that the lessees who-hald executed bods, as enjoined by a previous nct, were retlired to pay into the Treansry the anmual-suims stipulated, until they shonld. ecede to-the terms " of this act, or nittiu the expiration of the term of their leases, at either of which periods, they shall be entitled ho grants for their respective leasehold posses sios," fly tls 5th section, it appears that the swat of $7000 was set apart to-purchase land, mad for " the establishmsent and outfit of the In dans." Under this provision no action was ta ken, as neither the money nor olject were nmed in the appropriation act-of that year. In 1541, $25010 was appropriated for that purpose._ At that time the Agent had conilitionally bargimed for a tract of land in York district, contaimng 503 acres, at $4 per acre, As it was stsbse testly ascertained that no better arrangement. enbl ie umde, the contract was concluded. This brief history shows. that the inhabitants of the indian, territory occupy an annmulous lnsition, in which the government should no longer compel them to acqtiesce. South Car li t did not by the treaty of 1840, buy the-Ca. tawba lands. The flee simple from the first set t!ement of the country had been vested in her, nccorditig to the legal doctrine as to indissn hands withfinl the bonidaiy of the original thirteen States; nor did site purchase the usufrnct of the Indians, (or the State had, two years pre. vsaly. ^.onveyed it to the lessees. who then rietos have retuaried ian adleqiate ecaivali. In confideint atiicipationtti fspeedy relief fromu their rulers, thiey settled anda sedutced a wilder mess to mthe domiinion of the pinghi. WVhere beasts of pre.y niidistuirbedly roumed, a h.tudy, .ihly inteiliget, and denise popuilation are now their r ighits antd obligations, they reel tIat athey o not stand on the samte fitnas and elevated riod with the other membtaers or their pliit cal funily. The high prirognative.,1, erym;hity, ty persistanceGi itn an intvi dions dierscunmu , is rtically densiedi themi. T1hey don nt' coim. din ot f ie pecaiar;sy urden wh ich they agre stade to bear, biut that its imnpositioni substantied v pirclimis theis ias in the enjoymnent tof a hei. efit, obtasined gentetally withotut foIl costs, and, many instrmices, unworthily, i iiot fraiuda erttly. It toay safely bie aflirimed, tIat foutr fit'ths of the fatrmers are in poassessioni of their estates b.y purchaste for an ample conisideraitioni. ~or at large prop)ortion of their posses:ionis, the reil worsls was pa;idl beftore te existente uof thie treay. Th'le numbisler whto hoald by iwhleritance, antd whlo nmirally, if not legally, should lhe cont sidered as purchsasers, as compiajarauively very limited. it dlespite, then, of this diecide2d evi deuce sif right owinershtip, the Laegislatutre hats su tjv tel till alhe prop1rietiars to an anissial charge umpo heir lands, which I hiold to ie unequtal adia utijust, anid probably u ncnist ittitoatl: unte aa. itt aeferencee to rtnt and taxes; unjuitst, lie casuse poor lanai prays mottre thani the rieh; sin conastitatioal, for the reasoin that it annsulswrit teat cntrtaetE, If the piulica spirited and indusstriois citizen who niow hails frotum that imisuresting divison< ff Sthstl Catrolinar, luad biceii prevenitedl by conisi datrations of inisecurtity ofI ti1tle rromn constitusi img it hi hsomte, the result wvould have beeni a loes to the State oif .ver thiree thousand farimers, ,all the advaitiages flotwinog froms thseir agricnuiliral en teririse, thalabor oif n large him:rk piopubsitions, ada a sery ct,nsiderable revenuec derived fromi the tax on slaves. 'aTo constratin htimt therefore to retain in Ihis presenu tasatisfanetory sittiatio.n, wouild be manauifestly inexpedienit tond iuipohiti. Biarriersa which create avaoidable- distctions, especially in relaition to pecnniary burdeuns. oght not to lie allowedi its a republic; but if frosm anty cause, permsitted,. they sould exist otly so long its the pmhahie intierests iinperimusly deiad. At this period tito of dliffienay and lar. we shotsh' rigidly nhusini from-tthe ent firceent oif aity maensture thatt by potssibility might iunterrupht thte current ofhIasrtimniuus feel" itag which niow so happt~ily pervades of our bor The ditTerenace betwveeni a half centt per acre, and te tax thait wotuldl be levied, if the latnds were assessed iin the ordianary way, is too small to warrant the exercise by the Legilsare oh a qu iestioablle power. Virtusally, eqnis ity in tIme paytent of! thae State taxes would not remtove the lien out the posses,ionas of the proprietor, b iut by dimniishinig thae yearly rate, only urxteund time peried of reiambuirseamenit of the debt, for w tich his hands by stiute are pledged. Infinncied tiy these views, I rccommemnd that te onds, given int pitrsiuaiee of the reqmuire mecats of the aet, of '38, itt nuambser 25, amid amontinuiaig in thte aggregate to $1,22.6 '24, inite rest amd pritcipal, be carucelled;.hat the-lanmds wttihi te late Catiawba territaty be ci:sified a id v,slued, with a view to the pnayument of taix s by tIme owuners;-anmd that tIre Staste discharge te erainder of thte debt due the Inadiansa from-. the ubic treaisury. By treaty ofl:1840; Sonth Carolina- agreed to xpnid five thtoutsanddiollars for tIhe piurhase of hadt ia Iiaywood conty, or itn a amuntainons or thily settled coiuntrys to pity lair the ouatlay of the Inmdiauns two thioussandl five hsiundredl dol. rs, anmd afterwamrds, fifteen hindred dtoller unnatmlly. A true constructions of thais clauase of he agteenett," perba t,i wairrants tIme concint tribe shonld take place, the State was bonnd to pay the respective amonnts, atntd at the periods specified. So far is this from having beene done th:at, frmn the report of the conmmissioners, only an amonnt of nine thomsand two hundred dol l:rs of the debt, that wits to be Iignidated im 1851, has been cancelled. It is to be inferred from the evidence adduced, tihtt many of the Indians in North Carolina have received either no part, or legally an isnllcient portion of the:r antnily; atnd with regard to the majority, that its appointment has ieten tade at timies ieregn lar, and witho-t refe-rence to any established rule. For this result I aeirit the ugetit of ill censure. In the prosecuti of his responsible engagements, I believe him to have practised all proper zeal and fidelity. The terms of the treaty tinthaving been con plied with by S.nithl Uarolint, how and when the remainder of the dhbt, $1 I,800, is to be paid, is a quiestiot for legislative decisiom. In aid of your labors on this subject. I desire to bring a few farts to your notice. The prrsent Indian farm, within the old Catawb.a boundary, was pnrchased for S2000. Only one family of six persons-a mother aini her young children, re side upon it; of the other members of the tribe in this State, forty-eight bead a wandering life; and fifty-eight are in North Carolina. Strong elflr.ts have long been perseveringly but frtit lessly used to induee those whim form a part of our popriatiinn to live ron their own land. 'ITe report of .Ir. Massey shows, that the Catawbas in lywood' nie dissatisfiud with their con di tion; that man:y dh.csn returning to South Car olin; and thur. after rhite deliberation, their chiel or head men, in both States, had notified hirm of their willingness to emigr.tte and mite with the Chi:kas:tws, as sot as ttme means of removal shall be ptt at their disposal. In the act of Congress making provision for the enr tent and cilingent expautes of the Indian De pa rttnent, passed Jily, 1818, it appears that the sum of $5000 has been appr.spriated' ' for the removal of te Catawha tribe of iidians now in the limits of North Carolina." As this grant wits obtained, it is believed, throttgh the instrt mentality of Mr. Tihmtas, the Indinn Agent of that State, the reason why the act does notap ply to South Ca rolina is apparent. When the debt of tventy-one thousand dol lar shill tie discharged. otr ,li:tation to minis ter to the wants of tte Culawba Indians will by no teans have ceased. To guard with paren tat atlection these children in disposition and in, tellect, is at once dictated by humi:nity and gra titude. The period perhaps is not remote, when the last soil will he thrown on the grnave of a people who. individually and collectively have been faithfil to the land of tileir adoption, and in times of peril, zealns in the protection of its onor and interests. I recommend that an application be made to Congress for an .tpprospriation eqtivalent to the anouit set apart for the Gatawba Indians in North- Carolint, to defray the expeoses of the remnownl of the portion of that tribe yet remain ing in this State; also, that an agent be appoint ed to gather its scatteted members on their ftrm ml York, in oner, at the mostconvemient seamson next Sear, to superintend their emigration to the West:- that tin their arrival at their new home,.he furnishes them with faring utensils. cause suitable buildings t.s be elected for their use, provile thetm with the necessaries of life, and retmain witlh-theim until his services shall be no longer necessary. I also tecomacnd that, until their removal, the present agent be re quired diligently to attend to their wants, and to supply them.with clothing and provisions in such at way as, if possible, to Imsure an eqtal and ample provisions for all, wheresoever located. II.I'rAIltY AFFAIRS. linmediately aflter ibh' ;mdjontrment of the Le gislture, I vi=itod time Arseinals, n" omtbseqtent. Iv nauttled as mnanv r tt. -.... ' ----- ,,,, ,an.lmoal m in w., wete wanting. The war tI nrdor, too, whic.h, it is aidittied, dislnuish es otir pteople, seeimed to Ibo wanting;, and.thmIe not unfreglnenat exhiition otf listlessness auud int ditlirence by the otlicers, as well as ptrivutes, plainly showed tht ite nabsemme of exentiing int fleitces, was o:peranmg imjuriously iuponi the true interests of ltht- St:i ic. It is, perhma ps, titnemcessary to assuire yomn that South Cairolittn mhus, heireater, exist aus at ni. try pieipb'. TIhie history utf otnr cotutry, for the hast ltn years, afllrrds abiundant proof th:at, as lotng ais the Uioni endtinies, there is to be nmo pace fori the siaveholtder. Atn eternnil wvarilmre againat his rig'hts oif person atnd propierty, tundere the associated intitegice ohf the people anid States of thme North, andmi thte cenatral power, hais been soleniidy and dlelibenrately dectreed. For this reastt, it is essetial that the commtuity, of wich hie is a mnembter. shomuld be pIrepared, it anyv miomntt, for every enienrency. riThe meastures which tire the btest adapted to pt the State in a conidition of defece; to ini sure an efliciemt ilitary organiizationt; and to notse the vigilanice, the pride, aito the entergy of thte citizent solier, shontid intdica.e yotur path tf ditty itt this lttle. Bya resoluationt of yonr last sess.mn, thte Go veror was req.iied tom itncrease the runnhiter of snmil arums iin the Arsenalus, to, '2.0(D. lit for ser vice, atnd tnt to,piermnit a reduction buahow; it by odiary issues. -To carry inito elitet this im prtat- resolutittt, tIme l,egislatuire neglectted to pit one dollar at tmy dispmsal. Incependenit of $5000) for the-ppurchase aismh distribuimn of armsi, and $l5,0th~ the atmountt that wvas it te trenist ry, to the credit o,f the funrd, fomr the lame obljeci, undelmr the act of '3:i, [.have expetndid and curt rated to pay for tmttskets, rifles,swords, and musket acconutremoents, $I,000i of the apptro prittiont for "military conttitngencies." Ilavin:g received trom the WVar Decpanrment; the qutota of tis Statec, fur '417, 48. and thei lire. sent year, there ha:ye been depiosite.l it. thte A: senals, acquired ftom thtat souarce, ntd by mir. chasa. sintce thte commen,cemient of aty uiindmsa tration:, the ittimbher and chtaraceter of atrims spe eifedl it: exhibit A. The elennued musiaket;, of which thme numbaler is, ptiportionally, very large, anid those that have alwvays been. ini god ordler, show the tug. gregate thait you will ftid in exhibit 1i. Deducetinig th:e repaired gutts, whticht areo very stitble for distribution:, there wi exi,.t a deli ciecey of arm:s in ti:e Arsenals, absolutely re quired for the pttblic service, which:, truist, will readily besutpplied. Ofother mnilittary weapons anti ninaterials, time number neueded. is detailed itn exhibit C, to which I refer you. Tio what extenit it is itivisable to distribtute the p:ublic armis- amontg the peiimile is a m1ues~tiion I submit for your decision. Themi repatired tmuts kets and ritles are the onlhy gunts thamt I hazve con-' sented shmonhl be withdraiwn frotm time Arsmenals, ad to thtis rtule, unltess otherwise directed by the h,egislatuare, I shall genernally adhere. Inorder to asc.ertain: the opimion of tile maihi airy on sevetal ptints of deep pumblic int;erest, I addressed a circulatr to the Mhajor-Genalhs of tle State, regneI.'tinlg thtem to conivente it boartd of ohlicers, itn thecir respective divisionis, fur ithe purpose of anuswerinag mertaint qutestaon:s. Theu replies of the hoards are herewith forwardied. Of sulch iof thteir reconndtiomnits as I iipprove, urd'to wvhichli Insk your noice, a stamtemenatt yoni will flmd int thue paper marked .\1. 1 adlvise ailso the adoptiotn of the following menClsures, viz: at. That, with:thle cornsetit of city i2tcned the magazinte Ito remlovedtt from itsm present site to the Citadel Sqluare, wvithtin the corporalte imits of Charhestona. 2d. rThe city cotnnedt of Charleston paying one-tiad-of the puarchuase mnney, thtat thte l.ot, the property of Dr. WVaring, oni the Soth sitl. of the Gitardi Ilonise Squtare, bo boughtnit a fir vunationi, anmd tltnt there tho erected thtereotn gtun carriage rooms, atnda ettitable butildintg for flie au,miuatinr 31. That, for rho purchase of arms and mu nitions of war, and to meet extraordinary ex penditures, $50.000 be appropriated, and $30. 000 for the contingent fund, subject to the draft of the Governor. ARICULTURAL SURVEY. In a state so strictly devoted to the cul ture of the earth as South Carolina, it is surprising that no inniry by the constitu ted authorities has been instituted to as certain- her agrieultur.1 resources; aut in directly her capacity for commerciel and manufacturing enterprise. Of this know ledge, easily acquired. andt importan:, if its true interests he consulted, to every class in society, probably not one member is ac curntely possessed. fr is- frot this cause mainly, that only about 2,500.000, of near ,20.000,000 of acre-, of our arable xrounds, are anmrally in tilth; that th the best soi!'s the prough is a stranger;-that the intrinsic value of the pine landa, comprehending over 6.000:000-of acres, is unappreciated; and that the swamp region, of 2000 square miles, generally well adapted to the must valuable crops, continues unsubjected to a trial of its productive powers'. Fi it, there fore, wonderful that the spirit of emigr-atin' should, ;it times, have been awalkenetl;'that sections of the State should retrograde, or remain stationary in population; and that a feeling of tisquietness has been genera. ted,-which time, under the circumstances that exist is incapable of subduing? If full- and- authentic information. for their guidance, were in possession of the people, the prominent motive being withdrawn, but few would- elect to dissove the tie that connects them with hone, kindred and ft iends. It is personally known to me, that there are millions- of acres-of fertile highland, aiiable to the richest crops of the world, still in a state of nature; that where, from exhatstion, extensive tracts have been abandoned, the means of resuscitation are at hand; and that an immense area of swamp and- low ground,. valueless- in its present= couditibn, is ready to reward' the efltrts of ordinary industry. My late tour through. the northern Jlt icts has convin ced me, that whilst the railways and'other roads, in-the progress of construction, will eiFect a,radlical'change in- our agricultural habits and'practices, they n:ill introduce the people of the tddle and lower coun tries to ;i'regir n' unsurpassed fur the min gled beauty and'grandeur of its mnountain scer.ery, purity of water, invigorating at mosphere, and for the various purposes of extensive and profiiable farmiog. aud-outer. industrial occupations. To ascertain with correctness the' t' sources of a country which a beneficent Heing has so prodigally endowed, is among the paramonnt duties of the representatives of the people. Their development and improvetuent, when ascertained, might properly be entrusted to ttre people then selves. As inseparable from the enterprise, should the wisdom of the Lagislature de. termine to prosecute. it. I recommend the careful collection of statistical information on all the branches of industry. By the posses,iun of facts and mtterialu, lucidly interesting or instrnctive to our citizens antd their rulers. Under our politicat or gantizattion, annd! in the cond it ion of' society which the Souitherni Stautes exhibit, the val nie of this kntowledge will- sonbem moanifest anid tduly esti'nated-, t will tenid materially to faciilate mianty of the mtost important dutitis of the public futnctionary; enahale the Legislature to adjust and- reau late the varioius interests of society, and- to reduce a chaos of details,.on' matters re guiritng their action, into order and system. Nor will the people thtetmselves be less bentefited. To know all tha. cottcerns the land of their birth, is a matter oft pride atnd deelp iuiterest. If the results of an ag-ricul turul exploration atisfy th'em that South Carolina, itn al- thme elements of strength and prosperity, occupied at higher rank amtonig the tmembers of ottr great political family, than' is now generaully coneeeded, conentment. with its inspiring concomi tunts-, will impart hncreased etnergy to the armt, and infuse new blond into the veins. The late geological survey having laid the foundation fbr the graduates of our coh leges to erect a superstructure upon. con certnn atn irnportttt bt anch of knowledge, a practical anad more satisfying ellert should now he miade to difl'use the betnehits- which ant acqutainttance wtith the resources of th-e State aro so w'eli calculutedl to bestow. Undler this convictiot, so)und-l policy atnd the public good induce me to advise, that a competent personi be chosen to miake a horunghi agricultural anid physical exami nion of South Carolina, atnd to collect full statistical informtation ott every in dustrial Ipursuit, with the addition of vital slttics ; further, that thte task of collec ting tatistical inifurmat ion- be renewed ev ery tOn years. RALROADS AND OTilE1R PUBLIC' liGIICWA Y'S The railways itn thtis State, already inisheu and itt progress, futrnisht strong evidence,. that the foresight anid enterprise of our citizens htave been awakented on this inportantt question of itndustrial pr'ogress. When 0:reenville, Spartanburg, and' Aab'. bevile, daall have been' conniected with the great Western Coluumbia branch, it is sttpposed that not ani avenue of corn imutication, which can profitably be' opens edi and :nuantainecd by steam power, nill remain utnestahiished. To consummate a put pose t inttimately contecied with the prosperity of thte State, I trust that the pover of thte L:egislature wtilh tnot be wi-.h hl, should assistance be required. The three principal railroads und-er con tract, audi the lesser ones on wvhichnopera tionts .'ay shortly be expected to commrence with the Columobia atnd [Iamnburg RI-oad and its branicheA will exhtibit, whlen comn pleted, a net wmk of railways, equal to an extetded linte of $I mniles, ini a territorial arat tf 3o,00 sqtare miles.- Etreept t-he tain trunik, the glent work w.ill-have beent exccuted tby the planter atnd his slaves. and at a cost-, ton; plobably lower thean any similar unudertakiuw itn -the Untited St ales. As these iron- roads will soon have mrono. m)liz/edl the public fr getteral trahliic, it betotes imaport at, in vie w of local corn municaioni, that the 4urriage ways of the Stat.. s..,ti.d be rendtred as efficient as Plank Roads in localities, and a better scheme for working and keeping in per mauent.repair our common roads, suggest matter of no'oi'dinary interest. Ifthe for:ner,be a question lr the people determine, the latter is one frr legi,lative decision. They positive and collateral Genef~ts of good roads are to obvious for speciel comment.. The increase the de mand for the products of industry;- create new m'arkets;' d'evolop commerce; save labor and time;. diminish expense. and exercise accumulative moral and' political influence on society, which has rarely been properly esti r.ared. From long personal examination and inquiry. 1 have arrivedat the conclusion. that our ptesent road sys ten is radically defective, burdensome to the people, and utterly unsuited to the-end it was inien:led to accomplish. I rhere fore submit, with great leference, h-ew ever, the elements of a new plan in the paper marked R. which I feel assured will be- attentively considered by your I<n orable l;ody. -ubstanti:illy. it is-the-same that was presented to: the Ler,i"lature by the Grand Jn'ry of Newherry, in l822. DIAfNAGE LAW-BOARDTO 1W. MOVE OHSTRJT1fTIONS IN STRE AMS. F svgcest'the espediency of institnting a commission, consistiog of scientific and practical men; to digest the ,eneral princi ples and details of an efficient drainage la%;- also; the instit-ttinn of a- hoard in each dastrict, parish. or precinct somewhat resentling the Boatd of Commissioners of Roads, to supervise and enforce the ro moval of those obstructions in the streams from which the general health of the coun try so frequently suffers. 1. The necessity for a comprehensive law of drainage arises from the inability of the proprietor, in many instances; legal ly to reclaim his lad' or relieve himself of the malaria arising from stagnant wa tur. t oftimes happens. that his own premises do not almit of the fall neces sary to'carry off- the water, and, if obliged to conduct it by the proper channel to the land of his neighbor, he is liable to an ac tion-as-for a nuisance. This puts-it w-ithin the power of the latter, if he he nbstinate; capricious, or lacking in public spirit, to. defeat any measure, of whatever degree of agricultural profit, and to fasten upon a whole community a pestifurous annoy ance,.htowcever, easy ofremoval. 2. The second measure is nearly as es sential as the present road system. Wa ter courses are cholted tp, lands overflow ed; bridges carried away, and entire sec titans of country prostrated with disease formerly o in the summer and fall; but latterly in Ria winter likewise--all arisin from inattention to logs and timber, rafted down and logedrin rainy sen4ons. An in ,considerabie perii n of the tax laid to re plbteethe bridgez, would-have-remoted:the causes by which the disaster was-accasion ed. Perhaps a teitli part or the physi. cians' fees, arising from diseases generated by ptttrid:wtnter, would clear these streams of all the obstacles that inped-e their no tural ctrrront The crops lst by overflow, - ear, defray the ex1>ense of car a q+tarter-of a century; C might be gained by re etions and allowing the ......- . ,-en their own channels. The adoptinn by tle State of ho scheme ' aave so briefly naoticed, if faithfuilly ear riedl oat, woulad aot only replace sterile fieblas andl an atmnosphiere poisned by ma laria, with a proadtuctive soill attd a healhby climate, but greatly redusce thle revenue nowv expondead lay inadividtuals in visiting ether regious to naid disease, or to reno vate consiitutions itmpairedl by protracted illness. COLONIALHISTORY OF SOUTII CAROLINA. The pspcrs hereni ih submitted, will put you in paossession ouf very gratifying informaaton on a deeply interestinag sub ject-. Tihey shaow th:at a rich nmass aaf anthentie maerials, illustrattive of the early haistomry of otur Sitate, anda oaf the public character oaf several of her citizens, las bteeni broaugth- to, li;,tt. The examisnatin by a puiblic- spirited' citizena in-the State officers;- the dliscoveries in the archives of the Senate by the clerk of that-hbody, anal by thec special agent- of onte of my pre decessors. charged' with thte duty nfasccr taininag the numbecr andr character ofthae docutments in reitin t) Soth- Carolitta itn thec Colontial h)epairtmenat oaf England-, are, iny judgmtient suhlicienti to juisify tlte aduption- taf pr~omt ttmasures by at eu lighltenied- Legislature, to rescue fromi ob livian those precians relics. faccordintgl'y recommaiened, th;at the Governor nte authior iied tat appoaint an agent to- make, in te first pl;ace. tan index, of thae manuscrip)ts-oni this subj,-et in oar State oflices, to copy its manaty as are becaoming illegibale, or may be in a decayed condhitiont; afterwards to visit Londnni; Paris atd aMladrid, for the purpose, tinder the auspices of thec ministers of thie Utnited States, at thaose capitale,. oft a thorough- ianspectiot oaf the historical: re cordls. conceriting- the State, t hat are ktnown to exist, atnd might' be Ihund- int the Col onial or othter i)epartmetitsof Englanad, France iad Spain, and'to select anad trans cribte such of ahemt as are worthy off per-r CENSUS OF~1S491 The retttrns of thte Centsus-tlkers.you will find in the adlice of Secretary oaf State. Thle accompanying abasttract makes the presen'. white p->pulationt to be 280.:385, an increase int thue htst ten years otf2&~2G. The itncrease betweeni 1829) and 1839, was only 6174. ESTABJLISIMENT OFl TRUE BTE R IDIAN LTNES. By te'letters of P'rofessoir Williams natl repoart of Capt. Parker, youi will be fully infoirmed concerndig thae mnatter entnted to their executioni. '-evented by ollicial eagtements from commtetncing his bors ati the desirajale iame, local diflicuabies greaalr rea-tied the operations of the lat ter. Ihis elabiorate comuanaication, hotw ever, is- tnore thtan an eqaaivalemtt for the apparent tardliness with which the task assigned himn hats been accomlished. itn avising your arquiesence in the stugges tions at the coanclusiuon of his reptont, I wuld further rccommenid that,for the convenience of the stirveynors ina the tapper districts, an othder poin t of observati-am, with a vieaw to ascertuiin thec variatos of the magnectic tanedln itn nsunhiltah.Jt Geenvill. REVISION OF Ti1' CRIMINAL COlYE I repent the recommendation of one of my predecessors on this subject. A divis. ion of the- labor among the Solicitors, would be a very ready mde of electing the o.ject. The punishment fior certain offences i. not ol indetertminate, but un justifiably severe. Not les, than l2crimnes are punishable with death in South Caro fina. If, in your opinion, the scheme of a Pen itentiary would be a' wise and ,salutary modificatinn of our present system, I n ould respectfully suggest. whether the absolute req'irement atiual. the funds ateotmmand, to put the State in a proper condition of defence, does not- present an obstacle in the way ofestaulishing such an institution, at tis tifile, not easily surmounted. DUTIES OF' STsTE OFFICERS. lie who is elevated to a station of profit or htontr, in the gift of the State, is moral ly, as well-as' legally, bennd, faithfully, to discharge its functions. This can only be (lone in person. H aid be needed, let it be procured' but to constitute the ass tant the chief, and to de#ulve upon him -h'e burdeh of-the office, is to- shift the res ponsihity upon a siraoger, not elected by the Legislature. nor amenable to law. An noxious desire't filf'l my ebligatihns, as Chief M i'st'rate, has. front the apparent neglectof others, repeatedly placerl'me in an enbarrassing situation. nuder ttb con slitution, the- powers of the Governor of South Carolinas are very limited, yet, by law,.they are mnde so' numerous, that to execute thetn with fiilelit'y req'bires the un ,rearied exercise ofall hisenergies. But'ex elusive devotiot to hir offI-ial engegments will he fbund' weak and' insullicient, unts the olfi'eers, especially those connected with his department. are always at their poets'. ft is worthy of- l'egislative ingtiry,. whether a certain long-con'inued: practice in sever al public stations-, the result probabl'y of' inadeqate cotn pensationR,-is-not opei'ating injuriuusty on the public interests. To other matters, chiefl y of dotnestiC' concern, I shall claim your attention i' w few days. WH ITEMARSiI B. SEABROOK%. GrF.astt SEtTLEuNr.-A letter in the' Anderson Gazette,- deted Pickens C. N'.,. Oct. 30th says: "'We have just learned; that Col. yoseph, Grishat. has-conclutled' the sale of 15.0001 arres of landIt i- tle upper part of this District to-a' enthny of &Ermansthree-or four hit ndred in: number. .1'his mnove,.we'hope. will benefit those honest Germans; and. atso the citizentbP this rapidly itnproving- District. There are many thousand acres of good lan'ad' thte baso of the mountains, now lying waste, which needs only the hands of industrious' and honest Germans to codvett it into'bemt tiful furns." In this S'tate; there is a wide fibld open for the industry and enterprise tfGerman' emigrants. What these hardy people have don. Pir the State of Ohio, ani other northern and' western sections, we shoul.lt - he pleased to notice in Georgia. Already' large numbers have located themselverit the upperII"irtioin of our State and in the- . corermnn . runew ..,- .,,,.---., nn c.mta we hope. in a few years, to see theirl'a hors resulting in an increase to their phyu ical eomforts, and' adding largely to: til' commentce of our State. WVhile we'de- * sire thus much, we shatl be pleased to heat''e of thec prosperity on'the settlement itn Stouth' Caroiina'.-Augusta Republic. Ttr:' Ct'.m..wr Dyso-.-The Gi-and'! Military Funeral ioiionor of~ the illustatt--~ ed dead, Mlajor G.eoeraf WorthI, Col. Dan an antd Slajotr- Gates, ttook place itt Newv York, Ott Thursdlay. Trhe flttgs of the shippitng in tito tarb.or were displayed' at' half-mast throughout the- day, and the btildintgs itn thte city were draped with ithe' insignia of mottrning-. fThe pagent is said' to have presente.I a solenin and very int' posing appearance; lte various mnilitary pomnpanies-their ofIitr wearing the-sum bre bage sorrow--and: the slow anti solt etmn peatls of martial mutsie,. that reverbe-' rated through the quite; and'Jensely er-.wd ed linte of march, must have rendered ihe' spectable exceedingly imtpresbive, and, worthy of the occasion.-I3hiimore A'mer can, .1yth inst'. Ntw Yontc 11I3t't wsH asEr.r.-The' por Whligs w ill begitt to-regard the-tel' egrapht pretty mucht as' thte Frenchtman' ditd Illonsieur Totnson-as a-very urgty atod' ubiquitous customer., Jt appears thaer afer all the'ir foss, New York turns not' quite a Democratic State-the Demno ers having the best part of the ollicers run' uittg- on thte general'ticket. a' pretty wells ascertained majority ont joiot ballot itt the Legislatture, antd;a prerty decided ttmajitrity oftheo poplarU vote. And thiti, too, not. withstandtoing- the- Democrats were only prtially united-ine the St-ate, and int des fitnce of colored- Whtig votes, and the tuniti ed patrotnage- otf thte State, the city, anod' the General- Goverttnents. Whtat a re liuke of the- admninistratiott, its bluders, attd its'-intrigues. The Whigs may as welli prepare temtselves for the' dom thar' awaits thtem.-Ponnsylvanian. Thte Columbia Teleg'raph', of the' ht' itttt., says :--A telegrapie despatch re ceived last evening, ittftrmts us-of a tragem" dy wich tank place in Mlobile. Gen. Thomtas Holland was- killed-by ii. G:. AleClinttock. a Cleik in his employ. McClintock surrendered himself to- the' proper authorities. antd' great- excitementt has been protduced by thte ailtir, which is mpposed to-have been intstigated: by jel >u sy. Alr. R. WV. Walker, a represent-aStive int te A labsama legislature,- from 'Tuskegee, hs given notice thtat hte will early in the Sssito, bring forward a htill authorizng - lte State to putrchase 100'negroes, to be sent to Calif'orinia to work in thte gokt nines, antd tite profits of their lar to be devotedl to the paytnetnt ofthe public debt utl Alabama. Tu1AcoN AND CttARL5sTON- bil ha teett inttmantced into the Georgia Legislar' ttre, itroviding for the contstructiott of a Railroad frot.n the Eastern limits of the' iy of Mlacont, through Louisville, to the City of Charlestotn, itt South Carolinas nosintg the Savantnaht river at any pottDt Ct..t~d by t he S tock holders.