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"We will cling to the Pillars of tile Ircple of our Librtics, and if it must fall, we will Perish aidst the Ruins." W. F. DVNIISOE, Proprietor. EDGEFIELD, S , ARCH 2 THE EDGEFIELD ADVERTISER, IS PUBLISH23D EVERY WEDNESDAY BY W. F. D U R IS0 E, Proprietor. ARTHUR SINKINS, Editor. T ERMS. Two Do..Aas per year, if piid in advance-Two DoLLARS and FIFTY CENTS if not paid within *ix1 months-and TunttF Do..Ans if not paid before the exiiation of the year. All smiscriitions not distinet ly limited at the time of subscribiig. will lie consid ed a- male for an indefinite period. and will be con tined until all arrearages are paid, or at the optionm of the Publislher. Sipseriptions from other States muist invariably be aeccimtpanied with the cash or ref-rence to some one known to tins. ADFr.aTSKMF.NTs will he conspicttonsly inserted at 75 cents per Square (12 lines or legs) for the first insertion. and 37, cents for eaci suibsejuent itmertion. When only pnthiihed .ilowthly or Quarterly $1, per qntare will lie clamrged. All Advertisements not havinig the desired nuiner of inserti.ni marked on the timrgin, n- ill be continued until forbid und charged accordingly. Thmie desiring to advertire by the year can do soon liberal term-it being d istinctly understood that con tr.ir-:. for yearly advertising are confined it the imme diate, legitimate business of tlte firm or individual contractinmg. Transient Advertisemeti ntmust be peaid for in advance. For annonteing a Candidate, Three Dollars, in a lvamnce. For Advertising Estrays Tolled, Two Dollars, to be paid by the .1lagistrate advertisinig. CANDIDATES. I'or Sheriff. J31ES EITDSON. it. S. Ki E. Frl ix E. 11001E. WV31. Q U ATT 'ILEBur, JULIUS DAY, Por Tax Collector. T1O31AS R. R:ESE. TI KJlEOPIUISIL8 DE.AN, 3t. it. W ilTT I.E. CIPIRLES CAIRTER, IIII.P 1 BOYD, tFor Ordinary. JOIN W. SIITH, W. F. DUlItSOE, Por Clerk. PICKENS B. WlEVER. - - . -. - --.--- - t JOSEPhl ABNEY, S [LL, Ihe fottnd :tt all times in Itis Offilc, at V V- Edigefield Court HLouse, near the PLANTER'S r HIOTa.. - H virill aticiid pioiiptly aid strictly to business ATTORNEY AT LAW. IT .As remnmoved his .tiee to the loomis over the Store vf Mr. It. C. lhavas. .la.1 4 3m 51 Operations on the Teeth, BT HORIACE PARKER. t Addlrmeg Edgeield C. I1., or Sleepy Creek, P o.. q. C. 'larch I 152 17 8 BOARDING AND DAY SCHOOL! ruev. N. ALDRICH!, Principal. Min. STUCkLER, Pr.or. or Nlesic, Ft.se. &c Mnr.s. .. Alc2LINTOcK, TEAcitER OF PntIMAnt )crAr.T3:N-r. r'H E TEA C HERS mit this .remdmy grate ...nm-le acknomwklede the liberatl patroniage they lmtve enj..yedi for the pamst yeamr. Tht.y ex~ceedlingly . regzret that thme inconmtveniencee of their limsi it" hitherto. allmrdedl thmem not, opportnitymt for a pulihie examuina~tioni if teir Schliars. it is witit plesiure,l b wev er, they~ atnntonne:e the speedy ereclmtio -*m aj large andm ctivenient huiblitng. A sutiltale lot ha~s alreadyl beenm piri-uredl anmd arranmgemtentts are im pro gres' t.r th immttediamte cotmmoteetimnt of te hiblling wich wvill be hamsteed tio cotmpjletion. Th eitchol will thie' be furntis hedl with till time ne-< e s'arv appatratus for facilitatintg thte Sihotlarm in thme variouts I)epa~rtmenetts of Studyv. antd thec public are 1 ntsutred thtat nio patins will lbe sipared to plce time :Geho'ol on an eujual roioting witht atny itn thme State. rTe exerceises of the Schmool illh be resumed on MiON I)AY, .Jattuary 3d. Trertms mt Tuition th-: same as formerly. It is desirabhle that thme Schltlrs begimn with time opinmg mfith mcSessiont, particularly such as intend to cotmmietnee time highm branes of studyl. Thie Tenehers hold temtselves im readinoess to ae coimmodmiate the Sbeilrs with lBoard at time usuazl pmices, *101 per amonmth. i)ee -,J if 50 Abbey Green Female Institute By issi Sophia Chatpinl. Tr ll IS nst'.tutionm is locamtedm see ie North 1. Edefied C.II., amnd within sight ofEtn P. 0. It is situttedmi in a renttmrkably healthy pmortiimn oft time listrict. andm convetnientt to. am excellet $hprtmg. rTe buildinig is enmtirely tnew, large and co.mtmmdiius. Thme luistroetress, Mliss CumArts, bas the reputation of being aim experienedm andm taleinted Teachler. The~ Elementary, antd all the highmer bratnches of Engmlish, toiget lier withm Latin amnd Frencht are tught. Terms per Sesslion of five monmmths~ for atll bramnches excemt intsie,.....................--.$l0 00O 31nie,'includhing utse of Piatmo.............25 001 G.o-a lio.-rd cant he btained itn the neighborood a.- $7, pe r Mimnthm. For fumrthmer itnrtrnatimon, if de sired, applly tim either of thme undtmersinteud. S. W. NIChIOLSON, .IOSEPIl ADAMlS. Oct 2R 4mn5 41 Bethany Academy. T TiE in.e-eises of this hmstitutiomn will be re -u nc ittn Mondany 31st Janmuary, 1853. The Ru es. itates of Tuition &c., are time same as, l:Le4 year. A ny informnationm respecting the Schoool, l!o r.l. &c., cainm be mibtritneud by addressing thme Suseriber m h: ouhmil Lonigtmires Post Office, Edlgeflield I i~triet. GEO. GALPIIIN, Pnaicram.. Ja-i 12 52 6t RY Blankets. R YBROTiIERLS, have on htand a large as G iort menit of L A NK ETS. oft various kinids. Probab'y sonie oft thte finemst Saxmony Wool fine ftin ishedl. impmortemd.. With a large assortment of Lower Grades anmd Planitatioin lantketsu, wich we are selling chteap. Nmiv 17 tf 4-1 Flour, 80 U.\GS A ugusta Canal FLOUR, fr sae ow Hamburg. Nv29 t 4'; T~an Yard. -___ -IDES will be'received at ite Tan Yard from 4tisdte.. . _ R. T. iIJLIS. )otitical SPEECH or HON. A. P. BUTLER, OF SOUTII CAROLINA. On the suldjrct <f a Rail Road to the Paiific, de lirered in the Senate, Feb. 5, 1853. The Sennte, as in Committee of the Whole. resutmed the consideration of the bill for the pro. tection of the emigrant route nd a telegraphic line, and for an overland mail between the Mis. souri River and the settlements in California and Oregon. Mr. Iter said Mr. President: We are engage-l in the con sidetrationit of a bill of unttsual importance, ine it seems to he assutmed, am I understand, that it is to be carried through this body and through the other Hlon'e h the momentum of its own ma3ignitude. I listelned, as I tisuilly do, with protound attention, to the :hle and interesting remarks of lie hoinorable Senator from Mlliois. [Mr. Douglas ;) but I must confe-s that when he nnonineed that this was an enterprise without 1 parallel in the history of the world, and that .ierefore we were to disregard all the li;hts fr -xample, experience, usage and prec, do it, I felt minewhat astonklied at the attitude in which he Ameriean Senate was likely to be plac-d, by eing forced to adopt a foregone conitisioii vithou;t the advantage of exitmination or the se -nriiy of deliberation; in other words, to ri Al the hazards of a legislative experiment in efiretice to the greatest measure of the kind lie world has ever know. To borrow the lan. unmge of the Senator from Illinois, "a masure vithout a parallel." The rea-on given by the frietids of this bill, vhy we should not have such lights biefore us 1s are usually consulted in such case., i<, because his is a measur-e whose mnigiticence puts at lefinnce every thing that ha.4 preceded it. either in the Congress of the United States, or in aty >ther deliberative body of the world. A measure, lie success of which must therefore depend, nore upon the ehances fif blind fortine, than ipen the counsels of wisdom, or lights of ex 1ertence. Mr. President, I have l-een referred to more han once, and I appreciate the compliment, as >te of the gentlemen who nigh: have some con tituitioinal difliculties in rel tion to this measure. -hall not indulge in a homily upon the Con. tittion. No, sir. I shall go directly to the nerits of this bill; for, independent 'of all my onstitutionnl objections, I shall be bound to po it, on other g:oti ds, such as have no loubt been well indienated by several other gen lemen. Then, sir. I come direc:ly-to the ques ion, What is the bill? It is the boldest propo ition that has ever been brought before this A'gislature for a system of enternal improve. mut.. Igive my.f iend from Texas [.r. Rusk] redit for his intrepidity. I say it is the most ndisguised proposiiion which lins ever been fnughtAt'fefre. thie:Congress or the:Mite' . ~ rmnf, 'areh - of thd' ill upon which this proposition is founded ? .et me ainlyze them. The bill proposes to construct a rond from lie lississippi valley to some point on the Pa. 'fie ocean ; and how ? The P1resi!ent, as I un lerstand it. is to indicnte the termini at the ilksiisippi and the Picifie, mt.d also the mnoun. ain passes I hirough which the roid is to go; and hen lie is to employ engineers to fill up tle itermedinte spnee hy reconrnoissance, or to mnake tch examinatiois as may be satisfnetorr to him. Vhit next ? Afier the Presidient shall have per. ormed this function of saying where this great hannel of commerce shuall run-of having i osed upon him powers so extraordinary, and urh, ns in my opinion, do not belong to the xecitive braneh of the Government, or ever vas before coiferred upon an Amnerican Pre'si ent-we are required to divest ourselves of all (icnutive juridiction and eon'rol over :I nas ire involving the abiding detinies of this Coti. ederney. and perhaps of the world. It is to be ruken from the sphere of our legislaitive judg tent, :nnd be transferred to the exclusive will tid discret ion of the Executiive--a proposition eretofore entlin-ly tinknown in the history of e.de'ral legislatiomn. It is. Mr. President. in myc ipinion, a pre'e'denit of fearful iniport. So much as to the miode. of loenting the rond. Cow as to the meaens nind agenicies to be em iloyed for its iecompihhliimenit. They, ina my ,pinion, as I shall showe, are eqnally unprece-. h-'nted. danigerous. and unwise. WVhat are they! eWhy, sir, 520,000.000 are to be~ suipplied directly 'romt the Tireasury, to be paid out under the ermns and coinlitioins of thle bilt, which in prac ice woul he mere parchmtent prOvisionts, to be hispensend withI, if need he, by an appeal to leg slative libe'ralit y. Be'sider. thuis amount, small s it is in comparison with what it will he ini the rogress of the work, we are to give alternate ectionts of ptublic land, equal in amount to about wenty millions of necree.nntd munch more as ma:ny jelieve. Thus we shall have conitributted, at the cery commecncementm of the- enterprise, means q.euivaulenit to $50,000,000 or $60,000,000, and his is lbut a small index of whaet may lbe the future demainds upon the Treasury, tunder the itispices and favorable indulgence of an inter e~ste'd mnajority. The nmext qluestioni is, whiat agencies are to be e'mployed in the enjoymetnt, directioni, and np propriautiuon of these funds? Why, it is to be a comnronaros, to be invested with a franchise thart mamy be oif immense vailue. and certainily, in its exercise will it be oiie of greait pow~er. It is to be a body corporate that may wield the inifluence of enormous wealth, and neqtuire a title to a tract of country that mary be regairded as an isthmus through the great West teo the Pacific oeenn, anid thus unite, under the inifltience of enpitalh, two of the greatest sections of this vast conitinent, having the elements to inirease and pierpetuate its own power. It wvill wield the lever of modern times-money, mon e-and like the East Itndia Comnpanyv in the ex ereise of its immense moniopoly of pecuniary pow~er, many usurp the attributes of sovereignty. Whant security have we in the ftuture against such a result ? This corporation will have every temptation and inducement to comply with all the conditions of its charter, to enable it to as sumec the itmposing condition which its wealhh anid politienl influence may give it, to become an "impvertumn in imperio." But it is contended by the friends of the bill, that by its provisions, it is stibject to forfeiture for a non-compliane with the ternis and conditions of the gratnt. De penid upon it, Mr. President, there will be no forfeiture if the franchise should prove success fuil anrd profitable, and it is evident tha~t $50, 000.000 will be first expended, before any conl tingency for a forfeiture e~am arise. A fter that, the corporation will still be under legislative favor, if they lavce rueted in good faith. Recent precedents go strongly to show the facil ity with which Congress wilt bestow botinties to indemnify capitalists for any losses they have sustained, or may sustain. Yes, Mr. President, I have long seen that the Federal Treasury has become an insurance office, ' to afford inidemni tv for the past and securnity for the future." Ini the event of the enterprise becoming wholly worthless, there will be no occasion for any for. feituire, for the corporators weould thein be weilling to throw the eniterprise uuotn the Government, t ) be enrried on to completion by the cont ribi tion of unfioreseen sums r1m the Federal Tre~n ury, for which they, or new swairms of speeii: tors, would be appliennts. 8o ihat with a boni of $50,000,000 or $60,000.000, or perhaps mor this chartered company mar embark in this it dertil j %, wilh more' oifidence of adviantarg thi of' iazard. to thetnelves. Th,-v will ii With the contributions (of the Governiu-nt, an may well rely upon its gnrantees in their fi ture operations. Since I have been referred to, as one that mai have eonlstitutionailojec*tion's to this n:easure, will present, by way of illustrition, at prosposi tion involving pritnciples tle saml2e as those EI this bill which 2imany thi' lie gentlemen, now at] vocaning it, hav condemne'd :is opposed to part creed, upon the grond that it was subject to Iih Saml11e oijeclions which I might well urge to i now. Suppoce the proposi ion once made, t< construct a Federal road froan 13tfalo to thi c:2v, and bene on to New Ork-ans, were ioi to be revived, what would ,en: lemen say ? Wi that it was olpo,ed to the cinstitutional doc trines laid down ill the B1itimore plat form. 01 to make the proposition more gera 2n2ie o Ith su1ibject, suppose the scheme was to he to exteni the conrtrctic n of this rond from the valley o the Mississippi to the Atlian:ic. Gentleme wAould then t:ke party alarm, and cry out, tha this saviors of a general systemin of inicriwl im proren/, aInd violates the cnrdinal doe rines to the Democra:ie creed. Ii principle, the ease: suppo)sed cannot be distinguished from the mens tire und: r consideration, for I his lill proposes to make a railroad to run through two or mon ofr tie States, west of the m ississippi, i the di reet appropriation of money fron the'Federa Treasury. The othier cases relerred to wonl propose to run a road of a simil.ir kind thirong! two or more States, lying east of the snme river haviig an Atlantic, istead of a Pncifi terminn tion. The diitferetce, then, between these svs tems of internal improvement, is simply it diffe!rence between the words Athintie and P cifie, unless the ditference ca lie qualified by tl fitet, tiat patrt of the Pacifie road runs over ter ritory, and that a desert, belonging to all th< United Staes-a distinction hiat einnot avai gentlemen, uiless they are prepared to give il convie;ion, or p-irty profession<, to the force a interest, aid tile temiptationsoifsctionaaggrill dizement ; to this comp!exion it nutst come a last. 'J he; eanniot event lay the fia"e:ing n. liusn to their souls. wh'ieh seemq to have stu4tain ed Mr. Jefferon, in hi, diregard of te Consti. tiltiol, by the p-irehise of Louii:na, 1pon( thIl broad docrine of Stae n;!.uessitr. Such a doe trine might afford a plaice of refnge for a virtno:1 and wi-e magitrrt, :neting undor the dnress ol I ecessitV, whilst it inizlit become a dangerous Iidin:; pice Aor seldsh expediency or crininal : inbition. Getlemen do not pretend. to plemn this neressity ; indeed, they cannot, for a com-. nii U iCtion wi:i California e:n be now had within tleirdays, Iy the oeenn and Pan:nn:. route, Ard when a railroad sluiil be completed at momli oni tf the many points inl contemplai n -tcros *e Tsthmus, it is very.donhtfitl n he.herti eini point of view, it is a common opinon thait there will lie Ione. These natural faciities of communicntion seem to have been pointed out by the finger of God, whilst this road to be indi. eated, without reconnoiance or survey, will be the work of guesing men. Now, Mr. President, let. gentlemen look at it. Is not this measure of iternal imprvements to be constructed by the directin and the means of tie Federal Government ?-not bv the dire tion ot the Federal Government, in its full mean. ing, but by one of its Departmlents-the Execu. tire. It. is but an illustration or nav or til lessons ot history, that doctrine, nnd principle, melt and crumble under the temptntions of in. terest. Creeds and party platforns,. tire bit as b:irriers of 'nanninst the tide of power, and tile force of local combinations. Allow me to sny, sir, that if we are to have system of interna1l improvements to be com. mlenieed now, in di4regrd:trt of nil our party pro fessioni, I greatly prefer lhat it shall he devised by the Congress of the United Stattes. looikinig to the general Iwel fare anld co ltmmri:nI rezubai tion of aull tile States of the Conmfederneoy, matthei tha~n toi snehl a paia :l systemt of imtproements and commercinil regulatioii, as htave ini many in. stnces been0 comuimitted to several of the States Here, sir, I allude t'i the dotiatioii of publir ilands to several of the western antd northwest. ern Staites, for the conist rucetioni of raiilroatds, and cuitting" of ena-.t~ls. The mecre donatiotn of sntel landls as gratulities, wonhtil be objectionabile, na I partial miode of disposing of the public domatin But tat is not my ma:2in ob ject ion to tii pol icy My objection is, it allows the Stattes receiving such donations to make seltls regulamtions o commerce,1ttot ontly for their own benefil, hn for suchl as imaiy operate to thme prejndice of othle Stattes. To illustraite:1I might conlsent to lr a siatT in tile hands of alnot h:r, under certamin i. eumstances: btit not when I know it is his de sign t o use it nen~intst tmyself. Se'lf-protectioi the first law of nature. A singie Srtte, or onec or two States neti in cominat ion:, utnder thei influence oif locnl am seetional interest, moight yield to the temnptatio1 of nmaking ad versary diverasionas of comnmerce. For instante, the lake Stattes, to muake commin nication thronigh the lakes, to the greait sea-port on tile Nort h Atlatii, whilst Congress. repre senting all the States, would ha-:e every inmduct ment t o make commercial regulation t o subseri the int. rests and preserve the equality of all thi parts. I do not admit, however, that to sue regulations of camtmerce by Congress, that could expect equally int tile appropri:ions I money for suchi putrpo-e'. All that I mean say is, ihatta general system of internal imoprovi meonts, ematnating fronm the comtmon conineil the Confederniey, would be preferable to pamrti: and disjoited regulations of a few of the St-ite: freqtienttly htaving iniducements to make the! ehanntels of comtmerce adversary to all others. Mr. President, we tare standing otn thte thresi old of an eventfful future. We are aibotit I enmbark upon a system thiat w~ill swallowv til a othersx, and will increase the tendencey of th Government, once a free confederney of R epnl liran States, to become a conso'iidat, d entpir WVe aire departing from old latndmnarks and ente ing upon0 a boundless wvilderniess of untknowi powers, without ebart and without compass. We are comnmittig our destinies to the disers tioni of irresponsible legislattion, instead ot a lowing it to be cottrolled atid protected by II obligations and the gnatrantees of a writtetn at once respected Constitution. I feaur, Mr. President, wve aure approaching perioid in the history of this Government, win we shall have to esceape from abuses and dot gers by revolution. intsieed of resorting to form, under the dictates of jiust ice antd the pr scrip:ion of ackntowledged foirms of Cover mentt. But in all this, I know,.sir, I hauve ii the sympauthy, nmuch lets tihe support, of t majority of this body. I shall therefore spa it the ungrateful task of listening to anmy di cussion ot my constituotional opinions Ott th great and often-considered subject. I neqi myself to the country by referring it to t opinions of the greantest statesmen whlo hat a-hornm d the Republican school of polities this country, If the opinions of JetTersn Matdisont, TaizewellI, Crawiford, I layne, Rown Ranidopi, and oither (list ingntishled Demiocra! Rbjnobiienne are to ha disregarded, mion in . not be e p-e'ed to ive any wi'eignt upon yonr teIibberaitis:1'. No. Mr. Presideint, I have lived too lin. ind seen tpo umch of the pre-determi 4 nntioninpoin subjecto ofsthis kind, to enter up on dis-n-sions tit nre.rignrded nq the stale no tions of int lneRtorq, tider the tid- of what .' called pr)'reecire D ,nrr.-rcy. Ye4, sir, I n have seen enough to COTtine t me that the mn d chinerv of this Govern- jn. in itq netu alopern - tion, 1i ftrongmer thini Ie Constiintion. The law of pirogres has s'iippeded the law of the v Constitution. I was reied hv a friend, no 'I longer than -int night, st'he flitility of resist ing what is clled tie pogressive tendency of f the nte. I was asked Ie- fqu.tion, Will you con:inne to think with yjur nnestors? I will rive t he saine reply to .eu. that I a:ive to him I im willing in obey theli n-of pro..ress, for we would not fulfil the greadesiinsof Providence, if we were to opposeg.. But to conform to th:t law, :.s I wnuId'Jmrve it observed, it muswt be regninted by wkitdr freedm, nnd jiutice; lotherwie it bi e s gr l .sAish !, id n~rre. sive-rurnninr inlo thf-- trine. " mit.:i make, rilit." Under the infi nee of thi; ia, ,A i have lieard it .o often. interprMt d upon this floor. conscrvative .#rt tint and gunidance nre looked upon as stupididppediments, restraiing the wisdom and supp ssing the genius of t Yinn America. In lookinr st all nntni, I find there are ualu f inry vetoes upon the un strained enraics and impulses of proarees. A nntion. or great peo p!e, eve-r attnined securi and greainese. bya disregard of the iWvek stons, and a disreanrd of them, even in our o history, ebarncterized as it i livsnleh wonder I developments, woul I ibe like Apoll. iving uto Pliaton the reinsof ithe horses of the Sun. t is a law to be con duet ed very much as-th toneerns of societv are, under the impulsive e gy of youth and the restritnintr wisdom of e. I once hird my v ernble precept or, Dr. I Maxey, when I w Lq a ung man, preach a ser lmon that struck mc wj great force. The oc Sasion was nion tha enuth of a yonng man remirkable for his ene . gallantry, and every qui ility eileitlated to 4 A.ss. ilself to the f1avo table consideration'oa thyrouthful. In that sermon hie .aid it - i'for young men to die, for if the great m inery of this; life were committed to old ag nij with all its timid wkidom, society wtn' erome slnganit. The impukiive motive po of youth, combined with tIhe ubdued wi 1 of old age, was ne cess-iry to carry oii Ih e:it concerns of socie ty.Ye, sir, one i n as necessary as the other; and le reima that if vout were to commit tle whole erns of tihe world to youthfi energy. with the restraints and the controlling wisdoi o -, you would unake a great mistake. It w be a prolane opposi tion to fihe laws of i uimvcte n4 nwni-14 - by the - , Shil judguit an unr. trol Il T Iress, i I the wh wher r spirit of the Gnstitulion to save ns iroim the tIaigrert of aceleration, and tle consequences of transfr s-ion. And now, so far from my !tulTering the Con slituiition of the United Staites to restraim this great law of progress, I s:ty a Ilint iL onght to have been consulted, and its expansibility ought to have been developed, in order to embrace everythinug that would accommodate it to this Ilaw of pro'gress. Sir, the Consitution withini itself contlins the very element of selt-exist ence-the provision of amendiment. Have you not, practically disregarded the provision wich allwed the Consti.nution to expand with the progress of events? Let this be answered; tuere stands ihe Cotstitution a dead letter, in i many respectu, I will not say in all. You have noL expanded it by thi: wise interpositioi of the Legislatureallowed by the intrument itself' to amentd it according to the exigencies of' the chtaige ofI humani luttfairs. But wvhat hatve y'>u done I imienud to speak ld~ly, aiid freely, andI fearlessly, biefore the Senate upont that subj.:et.-1f I hatd the eloquenme at' Cicero, I igt piay a de'cenit tribute to the memory ot the Consu.itution. btut I could not restore iL, no ' more thtan lie could restore the life anid virtue of the Romtan Senate, over whieb lie wept in, Isuch strainis of' etoqunenco as have surtived -Itotui itself, .iud givent immnortality' to the miem-| .ory of' the viciated ins~titutions5 otf the Cotton- I wealth, aus it existed ini the daiys of' its primitive| r purity and impljicity, antd before they were tatr t tzished by Au;iistati cnstdtry, or imiperial pollu r tioni.--The Conistitutin ha~s not, been amteinded and expanded to accommoidate itself to the pro-0 - gress at' event~s. hut what has been resorted - .to to supply that, wise,~ prvoviin ?-onstruc ion-a cotnstruttion like Ingdiarubber, that ac c :nmiodaites i self to the interests of those whoi chi.>oe to avatil thtemselves of the Constitution, whentever on dv'atage IS to be gained lby any tttmeasure. At d Compromnises where there is nao - visionofthie Conustitution. I say, deceptive 'watedaevro '~comfpromfiseS, to be violated s nvrtere it temfptiitioni to dtO so; anid platftormis, deceptive, fallacious platf'orms,5 to whip parties into0 hartness, and to keep them there, andt scarcely for aniy other purpose. C TIhese are the mtiserable-exipedienits that, htave h I n resorted to, to supply the place of amnend i. t it's to thle '2onstitution. If I nm to be re A rahdbecause I auppeal to the spirit of that " sacreid inustrintnent, allow m~e to saty that I have -beetn doing mnore to preserve this Unioni, anmd the initegrity itf thte inustituttionis of' thtis Con flIIveeac, than those who blindly obey the ag gressive spirit of' progress. Pr:irogress, bft entirely to legislative discre Stion, is aL lawi withiout limit or certnin directioni, andtm must var'' aecording to the fiuctiutions of Ithe tiines and the temptations of meni. It is as easy to obey' it., as to float with the enirrent, butt would be as unwise as to follow that enr rett withtouit knowing over what entaracets it r: maiy f:.l1. It wvould lie like comomitting the yes n smel to the witnd, without rudder or comipass. To mauke it safe itn a piolitienl point of view, it Smust have a right, direction, and be ikept with in constituttioi al limits." e fso much up~on that general subject; tind I stir d noi'v, withtouit going itito cotnstitutional discns sion, that this bill, in principle, if it bo correct, a aillows yout to apjproprtinieO money to any' extent nfor a system of' internal improvemetnts any.v -where antd every where. Genttlemettt enunnot get c- over t ha~t proposit iont. I reheat it, thait they' -may' runderstatid it. It is to aphpropriauto motney ii- from the Fe-Jera;l Trenisury for a system of inter it naul itmptrovlements. To be sure, this i's an itnter ie unal imp~roveme'nt throiuh Texas. or Iowa, or re A rkatnsas antd Califori'--But it' you tennr go sm- throug~h one State yot ent n githrough ten; is aund if yont enn at~prpriaite 20,000,000u, y'out it ean appropriate .950.00,000. It' thle principles ie of t'uis bill be admtitte&, there is no limit at all ;e to the system of mecasures, thatt can be necomn in p'ishued by the apptriprutioni o.f monitey by this Gvn rinment. it doctinie, it is bit a plrelndie to (i thier meas'tures of the sne kind, sneth as the ic esta blishmetnt of anu Agrientitur;l IUntreanu and a iw Natona niivsten. hath of' which htuen been made the subject of pubeie meetings and popi. lar declamation. I Iaving made these general observations. I i come now to the sperille provisions of thi bill c and I intenid in deal With it wilh glove.4 Off. I tl say it is premature, nndigested, mid experiment- o nI ; and I think neidher of theme three proposi- t tions can be very well denied. It is prematuire, :1 bICanse we do not know where the road is to t run. It is undigested, becanse we have had no o survey, no reconnoissance. ino means of intelli- t gence to enlighten onr legislat iVc jindtgleni, :nd a it is experimental for the w.nt of these data. I t know it is very convenient to transfer a legibi- il tive jndgment. to execentive conscience; but I S say we lalve notlilg 143 guide out h-frislative 1) judgJmeint. I live we any reco misa ice, ny f SurveV to cnible us to say where t'ie road shall b run ; how high this or that monlntain is which d has tc be passed ? I heard :iln able engine -r, no I longer ago th:1n last week. say that tihe great e di'liulny in this enterprise was the want of water ai along the ronte from which i rke steam: atid It lie said that uless Erricsson's distovery of cal- e orie as :I motive power, could be bron'ght into r reqtisi ion, it would be a doubtful proposition a' to undertake to e:rry a ste:*m ear from the val- ti ley of the Mlississippi to the Pneitic ocean, .nd surely no one will dispute the wisdoim of thi6 I remark. That is one of the dim .iilties that may exisL I do not siv that it will exist, beceuse I I have heird it said tiit it you will giVe an engi- h neer money eniolugTh le will go anywelire. But p when we within onr sphere of leiklalive jndg- t ment, have the option to saw which of four or live routes is the best, are we to ie deprived of that privilege ! NMw, suppose three corps of g enIgineers should be reInired to survey this i route, and come in, aInd not heave it to conjec- a tire, but demonstrate that there would he water o upon one route. :Ind that upon it the road could b he built tor half the mioney that it would cost by - the other routes, shond I inot have a right to C miake a choice 1 And I transfer my legis.lative tI jndgment upon this sulject to the Executive? tI Am I to avoid the responsibility, and throw t< npon him a duty with which. int my opinion, the FV Constitution of the United States never intenl. r< ed to invest him 1 It is, therefore, I say gain. bi premature, becaise iwe have not this survey v and the knowledige to gnide us. a It is undigested, I uidertake to si', to the U Seiiator from 31assacluse:ts. [Mr. Davis.] be- i cMuse its provisions are conflieting in many re- d spects, and beenuc it resorts to agiles htere- P tofore unknown to Federal Legislation. I a know it has been said there w:s io more objee- ' tion to employing a corporation to c:rry oni the plans and policy of the Federal Government g than there was to carry out tle policy of the el State governments. If centiemen of tile Re. en publiean school have a mind to bre:k down all ti -- -' ,and say that the Fer'er l Gov- ti - plenitude of sover-ignty that It. . then he is entirely right. Bit St r delegated powers, they are t< riling to tiny doet rine of trut. . the right to tranifer them to ist-dihtrde them ou:.s. si s:id that this is an experimtent. ri - that this rond can be built? 0 -V: But have I suielt stuisfactory l vou'd authorize ine to go on. 0 in the way pre!cribed by th is P bill, when I have an 'plion to choose wi it may ', prove a better? If it is demonstrated that I i can have a better route. will yin (eprive moe of the opportunity of selecting it I What has I taken plice here 1 There have been three bil's presionted-onie by the honorable Senitor from . California, [Mr. 'Gwin.] who his delivered :i speech upon it, Which L 1Io not intenl a:nin to eoinpliment. Another bill was proposed by tile Cc ionorable Senitor from Illinoi. [.Mr. Dnn hs.] tI and the one now pending has bcit reported by the honorable Snat or from Texas, [.Mr. Ru-k.] The second bill is said to be better thin tli first, and the third hetter than the second ; per- b hmps a fourth nty be inirodieed to-mtorrow I better tian all. Ilt it is said that we are not to u wait to have one hetter than this-that we must a -nil ourqelves of the temptations of opportin- i1 nit v ; and if we do not come and m-ike Ihe ex- si perimewnt by ai t rial oIf this bill, we c:tn have no s measure; that Is, in other words. we ennnt N wait ten mon01ths for a great entterprise of thist kind. I saty ten monthe, biecaitse I suipose on.r til the next meeting of Congreass there will be tI ito great dillienity in get titi to C.iforuiia over- p land through tile diflerent routes ait presentt In C' use :tnd I doubt very mntehi wvheter the route ts by water is not better thtan any onei lby land cain be~. There is nto great necessity why thtis mna- it sure shoul be pressed just at' this 'time. Be cause it is of sneh immentse ima~gnitude, are we it to forego the opport unity of' makin~r the ordi. ti nary investigations whlich regutlate pmn bt n' men d in the manatgement of their oni n concerns ? I V kntow, sir. that zeal somteltmes has delutsions as well as its salutary conseqnences ; but in the zeal which some of these gentietnent have m mi fested, I ami very mitch disposed to thiink ithatt they overlook the rraver counsels, the surer a and wiser dictates of prudence and wisdom. Ih htave a great deatl of confidence in the sugge.s- I Iton otf timle atnd experiencee, andi I have some lL tolerable reliartce upon the ligrhts of' sciencee. . I But ill those are to be disreg::rded, and ait ex periment is to be made. I say, therefore, thait . his miensre iS preimaturtie, undtiigested, and ex-t necriimentail. anid shoulId tot be carried otut. t *Again: Whlat right have we to tiansfer to theL President the power of deciding beuween the dilkerent routes? I live in the State oft South Ca rolini, upont the sotnthern Atlanutiei seaboard ; and itoughi this road~ may tnot contfer aniy imimediatei asdvaittage utpont that sectiont ot' contry, I most be permiitted to say thtat I have a great iinterest in the loenitiomi of it. The Sosutthernt Atlanitie State~s have a deep irnterest tos know wvhere its termini shamll he, and I want to have a voice upon it wvhen the diliereint plaits shall be brought hero for deciiion. I have no idea of parting witht that power. I have no t ideai of griviit the Presdent atuthority to regtu late commierce by nmaking a roadl whlerever lie imay think proper. I atm not willing to give to the Presidentt the irrevocable power of tixing the route for a great chann.-l ofeconmm'rce,:ni d au htighway for the transposrtation of pa se iger.<, or a miilitary road, as you may thiink 1lprope to Iregard it, anywhere upon the ?lississippi, from its source toi its mouth, to anovwhern on ithe Pacitie. This is the greatest nuargint of txecu tive powver that htas ever been allowed upon0 ainy patper pirojct(. It. ntay be said that hie will exer cise it well, beenise hte will be Presidenit of the . IUnited States. I do niot a it invidliou:J~y ;but I mutst sayv that the Senate' has ntot beent free Ifrom th Itooperatiion oif eanpitalists : inot thatmt gen tienten have suitrered their eairs to bse polluted by anyl hing like a direct propositiont to swa~y their juidgntents: bttt captitalists have iniltteenced1 public opinion, anid emspitailists have mude' t heir waty to the Legislitulre of the counitry, andsi entpitalists have inlbienced the judgment iof thte Legislature. The Presideint of the Ummi ed States, virt nua~ as I knowv him to be, cannot see, catnnot guatrd thte avenues of emtpitalh. Sir, lie invasionis of' capital ar'e irresistible. Caitmlists are not going to ndvert iso you that thmey wvant yonl to vote 'or this or thtm't project in wvhiich thteir intter'ests mre iutvolved, fitr thin reason: Trhicy at'e mten sif talent, aitd thtey employ melt of talet, anid the~ aventnes tos the Press.lenits jtidgmtent ott this subject, will be thronge.d by l..ion. I h..-ave s.cas h-..c ir &br.ars a. temit!, o guari themselres against undue intinences I the appli-atioi of thie power of paido.i, but ieu could not do it. And if this niasure is arried into effect, yon will subject the President D influleles to which no one human being mtht to be subjected. You subject him to a'i [ie rair and to aill the sinister inliences of talent uid of cipital ; and what is more, you require ic President, blindfolded, to take the statement r engineers and seientifie men who may be :de-r the influence of capital. Could we gnard giinst it? I do not know that we could: but iere is something very wise in the instinets of iterest;and perlps :ifter difllerent propositions lihll have been brouight before this body, each ne of us maiy elicit something, or make satis Ietory explniations, so as to bring the truth to L-ar. Furthermore, if I were to consult the ietaies of pruidence on this subject, I would are three sepairate independent corp of igincers, who should be bound, if possible, by i o:tlih not to confer wi:h each other, but to lie separate .surv-ys. And if they should )ncur, there would be some assur.nce that the lte they recomniendo-d would be pr.iemi-able, id such as would commend itself for adop. on ; nnid if they differed, they might give us iir re-asons for their dill'erence, and we could vestigate and decide for ourselves. Therefore, oppose this neisure on the broad ground thvit hive as-sumed, and I oppose it upon the still igher .rround that it is enlargving Exceutive 'mer tar beyond what I think a vigilant legisda ire should allow. I coine now to the next objection. What is le age'ncy to be employed to aecomplish this eat enterprise? Why, we are creating an in-rise corporation; to which we are to give, lthe beginning, forty, or fifty. or sixty millions dollars. And what then? If the enterprise ipros-perons. they enojOy all the profits, re rainable only be this consideration: That ongress retains, by one of the provisions (if is hill. a potential supervisii to this extent, at " Congress may, at all times, regulate the Ils to be charged upon p-issengers and freights, as, with art economical nianagenent of said ad, lot to reduce the profits of said company !low eight per cent." According to this pro ion, Congress cainnot reduce Ite tolls beyond certain minimum, but iily :illow them to run a to any anouit ;and who supposes for a mo. elnt thasit Congress will ever interpose to re ice the profits of this corporation ? With a -ofit of thirty cr sixty per cent., and wielding i inlilIence perIips of hundreds of millions, e company can always fortify itself aglinst a1ngresion-il interference. So fir from Con. -ess ever interfering, either to forfeit this arter or to ctrtail the profits under it, if tie mpany goes into -utcessful operation, I make e prediction it will not even retiise to renew e chirter when it expires. The company will Lye all the elements of perpetuity. Its- own iceess will increase the duration of i;.i exis lee. I know it is said that we cn protect onrse!ves id produce a forfeilure. As I have alread. -ted, I have.not.the least idea that - We.-shall - sort f IYTo irure. The corptratt~ilFI i i with onr mtoney as long -nm it lasta. The st filiy miles will be finished tromt Memphis somneltwhere in flit neighborlhood. The com. Lly will get the rich land which lies there. he is entitled to take land six miles on each le of the rond thrigh the States, and twelve ils on each side where it rins throngh the erritories, making a ;trip of twenty-four miles rough the Territories. Mr. Rn-k. They only get the niternate see. irs for twelve miles on each side. Mir. Untler. I kiiow that. but as soon as the imany gets tihe first sec:ion, they will qnickly ke the other. Mr. Rnuk. That is not the bill, though. Mr. Busler. I was;. not going to alitde to that 11 one. tiing that I wi-h to alhirile to is the atiful phraseology of this bill. It is the 0.4 ac-coimtioidiig phraseology that ever I saw el. It allows the enany to select 111111 d ll ernate steiois for certain distane-s on each le, and if that knoil should be ovelnpied, or oubt not be lit for tie purpos,. where do you iIose they are to take it ? Adje -nt lands ? 00, sir, not :uljacient. nor lands wilt h lifen or renty' miles, as othier comopamies haive be->n striched to; not iln this Stile or that State. is Territory or that Territry;v but at :any >int, or at ainy distaince too that mai~y b deemi I by the company the nearest, heavi'ng tto themn decide the questionl ot distaonce. In this so cition they haive a widle mnargini of eboice. They Iay een go to one hundred, two hundred. or r slught. I know, one thonlsanmd miiles to taoke p thetir lands: :rnd I very grealtly fea:r their de rmin.ot ion of thIis mtitler of itistanice wilt cdin 00 small Idegree upon1 thne -inality anid lne of the lond. Mi-, Rusk. Tiey are to select those lanrds at, e nearest point. . Mr-. Butler. Ent five hundre-d miles may- be ie tne trest point whreres they can get goood hadt ; ad yout mnly be snre they will seltet the best md ther- enn tiind. and10 inste:iol of selectingr rids tha't aIre wvorth $1I.-2., they will take larnds orth -$10 ant ae-re: ando if itey ennttot get handi -ong thle line of thme ro: d they. in ty go ootf into regon or Calhfornin ; a nd I will answer for it, teni they comeI to the nieares-, point tio get it, icy wilt tindl the nearest pioint to be just whiere iey c:mt find~ thre richuest ioases. 'i'hem Senlator liro Illinoris, the ot her day, s iid [s extenrsive, w~iihl de-ert wv:s interspersed ansd niivenred aond re-fre-hb-o by mrasny oases. Per SIps when tis route shouldo go into operait ion, ie mtv have something like another Pahnytra city oft merchants anid factors to distribute rim throse oases the goods which ha~ve been arried from diI-rent pioitnts. Bitt utnless we ave sonie:hing ot tha~t kind, I saty it is imiprac eible. Still, I rmay be miistakeo-it mat~y be ra.ciea.ble. Bint is there nothing ini a great sterprise of this kindo which sholuld irndree us 0 wait until at least we give posterity a chance o exercise somne ot the rights whiich we are .botit to usurp I It is said tthat we owe it to Jaifooria. Why, sir, if Californuia conatintues or ten years to incerease as raupidly as she haus loe within the last, two, inisteado of htelping saliforrnia, we shtall hasve to call tupun California o help us. If California goes on multiplying n strength arid resources, as I hope shte wilt, lie will catrry on her commerce as sh-j lhas done teretofore-by ships-by going across the thmus of Panama, or going~ through this corn ermplated ermal across TIehutanit-ece, when it is No. sir. The commnunications with California re intcreaising in their facilities. These faeilities vill be impjroved,ats we harve every aissurantce,by nore~,hain onet rouLte ac-ross the isthmus of Cen rat Ainerica. T1he comnpetition for these routes s a guatranitee that they will be opened, and hat, too, in a very short perisod, ma~kinig the ime oaf the passage betwreen New York and Sant Francisco niot greater thani fifteen or twenty hays. Anid besides, there is another view oaf Iis snblject. These routes will be open to tire mjoymiient, anod will inivile te commtferce, of all le woorl, arid thns nidd to the revenutes of this luovernent;an wtil ill piosess none of the at. ributets of a monopoly which belong to a COm-. any. Isirm not a nmercharnt, antd therefore I make le assertion wvithr caution ; If I were an under vriter to-morrow, arnd thi~s ronid we~'re made .Iississippi to the Pacitic, I would much roonLe insure goods to go round by water than to eb upon this land route, unless it should oe budet up with cities, and these rich lands, so mucl: spoken of, should be found for the proiisin -. settlements that seem to have excited theimaIg nation of some of the gentlemen who have spoken upon the subject, and whose imagination h ive imparted an interest to those landa far be. yond their real value. All accounts of the' engineers who have passed over them, concur-in one cominon statement-tllt a large proportion' of the lands over which this road must pass is a deiert, and unfit for the habitation or man. Sone portion is said to be an arid, sterile,: m ountainous range, without water, and without graiss, re-embling more the description of tho Dead Sei, than that given to it by the eloquent Senator fromn Illinois. All the richness they h-ive, I fear, is what they have received frotn eifusions of rhetoric-their poverty is the gift' of nature. This road itself is, thus f.ir. very much in debted for the favor it has received, to zeal and eloquence. They have poured out upon it tlie fir'4 steam it has ever received, and I trust the last, until we have received better information as to the choice of routes and general practica-. hility of the whole scheme. Yes, Mr. Presi dent, I will repeal, that thus far parliamentary elonence and conjectural estimates have super seded all other agencies heretofore resorted to, for the laying out and construction of railroads.. They have superseded the surveys and maps of enigineers. They have made conjecture bIetter :han faicts; for iL has been g.asnely said, if we wait for a survey the road will never be built,', and thus we are'required to commit ourselves by the way of experiment, as the surest way of involving us iii this great enterprise. Are not. such questions as these, Mr. President, perti. nent ? Is there a sufficiency of water, oil any if the routes thus far brought to notice, to supply the steam for the propelling power of'. this road ? Some gentlemen have said, that if water would not be found on the suirfice,. it would be found by digging into the earth. An other question: Have we any survey of th'e height of the mountains! No, sir, we have not. But the broad ground is taken, that with money nough all these difficulties can be overcome.' Yes, sir, the Federal Treasury is to Supplv water, level down mountains and provide all the other agencies that may be necessary for the construction of this great road. I wish to be understood, that I do not take the ground, that some road may not be practicable- fait has been said, if you will guye an engge! money lie will go anywhere and under. the light of science, which is now blazing out frot s many sources, I do not, know that . there taro any physical itnpostibilities-in the-way ofth e'nius of main; Developments are matke 'thst' will even superside wate! ,or steam as r.ot. agents. The facilities of commueniation, m ne part of the cearth (odie other, %eem4tkep pace with the demands of mian. allow mnedo say one-thing in reference to what fell &om ~honorable frie d from Mass. Mr. Dwis -esm phieni'ten6 : l f in ... , ime. Ie s:id that, it 'cenInthe-gfeUaprov dence of. God, thait the facility of communkh'-. tion from one-con itry to another has'- kept ipU with tie proygress of discovery. The ancients thought the Pillars of Hercules the ultima thule D: the enrh ; but no sootner was the compass riscovered thin Columbns found America; and sarcely had America been discovered, when the meanis of establihing a comniuniiication between it and Europe were round. Searcely had that bon elTecied, when this great power rof steam, o which the honorable Senattor nlluded, cano *orth,and it may he reserved for another pow.er o arrv us over drv lands. It, my be that the livery of enimirie, as a miotive power, is one wvhicli will enable us to tfulltil that beaut-ful providence of God, that 1m:it shall not be. a trancger to mnan, if lie consults the great prinei iles of science and truth. It may be that this mitive pIwer will supply the place of steam, lmiJ that we can go to the great Pacifie ocean by [t nid of fuel alone, only requiring water to suippy te wants of mn. I sny it m iy be so; but weI we urge these tings with too much rapilit ytunder ihis doctrine of progress, let me tell 'ut gentlemen that there is daniger im the~ temerity of necceleraution. You have no right to atntielpatec for posterity what perhaps posterity mwv necomihih with the ligihts before it, whent it shtnml be piroperly called upon to act, and un derake to say, with an nrrogamnce that may be. regardel ats s~,mewhat presumptive, that you ennt do it hetter thtan it can de. for itself. For my sef, I prefe~r trusting the ordinary nmethod of etting round to California in thirty days by. iteaihiip n-trigation for some tin yet to conme, than to rush headlong inito thme field of' wvid ex periment. An~d in any point of view, if, my vote is to havo a'mv inifluence over tihe measure, and Inam forced' tovote for one route or the other, I wish to ha.'ve sotne latitude in my choeice. I do not wish to be compelled to give 'a decision upjon one route alone. I wanit light. I want the informatton oh seiemtiitiue :and praictical moen. WVithi the light at presentt before tme, I aim not sure that I would not select several routes in preference to this one. But upon01 that subject I do not commit myself, aund for a very obvious reason, that I mit'y not have the holdness other gentlemen have exibi:ed of their reafliness to leaip itt the dark. 31v notions nre illtust rated by the f.utiiaur remark mide concerninig children:'" they should crawl before they walk." This bill revecrseS that, and nissumesc. tha~t the child cant run before it can crawl. It is Yonng America, out and out. I have sceen in a hook of heraldry, ambition, reresnted'c, lhv at serpent crawling tip a smooth clmttn of datigerous amti diflieult ascent, the dangers inicreasing with the progress of the as. ent, and with these signiufiennt words issuing frmn its month: " Sat cito si sat tuto." .This is ipplinb!e to miore passions thani ambition, and innlates a lesson of wi-lom and eatitn. There is another provision of this bill to whielh Iwish to draw the attemntion of the Senate and the cotunhry, anid that is the eleventh section. It assmts thit Congress not only has jutrisdictioni over the subject of internal imiprovemenits, by. the specific provisions of'any particular law, but an authority to restriet. State~s and Companies from the right of making railroads, rexcept i stuordinationm to its authority. For fear I may do injustice, I will here insert, the section itself. "&ic. 11. And be it further enacted, That Congress may, amt any time huereaftecr, authorize inidividuals, companies, or States, to form a cont m e~ti be; ween said railroad amnd any ratilroad'or' rauilrods tunder their control, respectively," &e. This making ni State trihutary to, or dhepend-' ant upon a corporation, of Fecderal erentin, is i.t blow tipon the rights of the sovereign States~ot this Untion, to which I shall ntever give my assent,. mid in my opiniomn, that alone is eause enoutgh'toj seal the fate of this bill. I have I huts intimated some of my objection+ to the amendment introduced by the honornbte Senator from Texats. I may bum asked what' course I woul recommend in relation to fii Igreat policy. I atm tinder no responsibilIty to' give aniy opinmion beyond the subject beforea, tnd the specific onie:on which Inmitrht he require'd . to ast my vote. The first quostion,.,then,;oeN on the amendment offeredl by the honorable.8dSbi' ator fromn Pennisyvaunini, looking to the infai'