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el D orai 3 unmai, Droottoh~ to onrwtr~u dil1)ta, 1cravs, 3,TLtir, Tztrl 2nhihgrna, Cihfdturn, Moritih ~Emringnan, AgrticuLtuu, &e
"We will clinga to the Pillars of the Tempic of our Llerties, and if it nust fall, we will Perih anmidst th .
W. F. DURISOE, Proprietor. EDGEFIELD, IS. C., OCTOBER 5, 1854. "'--"*
THE EDGEFIELD ADVERTISER
IS PUBLISHED EVERY THURSDAY BY
W. F. D U R IS 0 E, Proprietor.
ARTHUR SIMKINS, Editor.
Two DOLLARS per year, if paid in advance-Two
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monithm-und TunaeEE DOL.ARS if not paid before the I
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ly limited at the time of subscribing, will be consider
ed as made for an indefinite period, anl will be cot
tinued until all arrearages are paid, or at the option of
the-Publisher. Subscriptions from other States mtst
INvARaIAnLY be accompanied with the cash or refer
ence to some one known to us.
ADVEnrTIsEMEN-TS will be Cottspicuonsly inserted at
75 cents per Square (12 lines or less' for the first inl.
sertion, and 371 cents far each stubsequent inssertion.
When only published Monthly or Quarterly $1 per
,.quare will he charged. All Advertisements nit having
the desired number of insertions marked on the mar
Kin, will be continued until forbid and charged av
Those desiring to advertise by the year etn do sootn
liberal term--it being distinctly tnderstood that cotn
tracts for yearly advertising are confined to the imme
diate, legitimate butsiness of the firms or intlividinal
contracting. Transient Advertisements must be paid
for in advance.
For announeing a Candidate, Three Dollars, t.
For Advertising Estray. Tolled, Two Dollars, to be
paid by the .Magistrate advertisittg.
WIDows.-Young widows are always bilie.
Thev ever teet. one with a smile and flattering
word. Can any one tell why ? Younr wiefows
pay very scrtptilouis attentiot to dress. None
know so well what colors, black or otherwise.
are best stited to their complexion nor what
freaks of tillinery serve best to ieigliten the
beauty of t heir form. Their knowledge of this
subject tley will put in practice. Does any ont
know why! Yots; widows are apt tobe pleasant
gay and agreeable, through habit. It is said
that .ie whso is married a second tine is a better
wife to ier second thani her first Iusband. Who
can give a reason, if we have not givent it ? Yout"
widows are tle most chartmimg part 0' creat ito,
the envy o' (ine sex, and tle beloved of the
other ; :tInd why ?
DISTINCTIONS.-A Frentclt Abbe. travelling in
a stage, was :sked by a young clerk, a would
be wit and atlteit, if ie knew what difference
there was between a priest :.nd an ass ; and up.
ott being answered in the negative, said that the
priest carried the cross on li, breast, and the ass
on his back. After the lagttlter had subsided,
the Abbe asked if the clerk knew the difference
between a clerk and an ass.
"No," was the reply.
Nor I," rejoined the Abbe.
THE GOOD OF ADVERTISING.-Iaving need of
a corre.,pondent from New York, and not know.
ing with whotn to open : corrIspindence, we
fell upon the Iteky idea of adverti-ing itn the
New York Herald, We eneloed a one dollar
bill wi't a small notice somewhat after thik
.halpe: "Vanted a correspondent fromo New
York." Iast Friday's ntil brougiht us eighteen
atpplications, and (pit Saturday we received len
nore. \Ve merely refer to this as at prctical
illistration of the good resulting front adverti
sing..-A tdersown Gazette.
" PoytrEr, did you take the billet to Mr. Jones?"
" Es, massa."
" Did you see hJim ?"
' Es, str, me jtust did."
How was he !'
Why, massa, ie looked pooty well, '5idering 1
ie so blind !"
Blind ! what do you nean by that ?"
"Vh massa, whens I was itt the room. a gib
bing hini de paper, he axed tite whar was mi
hat ; and ian s t, perhaps you won 't believe me,
he wa'tr ott de top ob my heatd de httulitime.',
L L AY, niggi, houw you sell dent brooms so
mutch cheaper dant (dis inde'rwidual catn do, whent,
between you attd me, I steal de stuff' to mtake
demn wid ?"
- Vhty, y'ou black fool, Pomp ; I steal ttitne
reatdy miad e."
Tw~o Irishmen were itt prison, one for stealing
a coiw. atnd thte oither for stealiang a watch.
" .like," said the cow stealer, one day, " whtat
O'loc.k is it ?"
Q eht, Pat, [ haven't my watch handy', bttt I
thittk it is abottt ntilkinz t imne."
"~Why did you not psoct some of those
pears ?"'said one boy to another, tinobody was
thecre to see."
" Yes thtere was ; I reas there i%#e myself, antd
I don't ever meani to see myself do a mteant
MlETnE.-" First class in saicred mtusic, statnd
up. Hlow matny kintds atf mtetre are there ?"
"Thtree sir-long tmetre. short metre, and
mee~t hecr by moontlighst alonte !"
RINGwoR.--Apply repeatedly a paste of
commton gttnpowder with water.
hloW To MAKE THINGs PLEsANT AT AN EVE
NtNG P'AtITr.-Sprintkle the floor of' thte drawitng
room, whent thse comopany are downt at supper.
witht pepper and sttstf, antd it is astonishin sg how
pleasant thinsgs will be whten thte compatty come
up to dance.
TrHE entire assets of a& recenit batnkrupt were
ninte smtall childrets ? The creditors acted tmtg
nsanimously, and let him keelp them.
*AccoarNG to the Spaish proverb, four per
sons are wanted to make a good salad ; a spend
thrift for oil, a miser for vinegar, a countsellor'
for salt, and a mttdman to stir up all.
The best dowry to advattce the marriage of
a lady, is to hsave in her coutntenance mildness,
int hter speech wisdL m, and its hter behaviour
IT is only thte fellon that never were in love
whett they "were yout hat become irretrievably
entangled in after life. If you wantt to see at
true sexagenarian victim, look otut for someI
hantg-dog, dowttcast, nmopish creature. or somel
suspectful, warv, craf'ty redhaired rascal, that
thtoughst every wvomans had a trap latd for htim.
TIhese are your hopeless catses-these are the
mten thtat always die itn some maysterious mantner,
an~d leave wilhl behisnd them to he litigated for
half a censtury. [Dodd Family.
AN incorrigible wag who lent a tniniater a
horse, whticht ran atway and threw Isis ceierical
rider off', thtought he shtould have some credit for
his aid in spreading the Gospel.
IT won't do to conclude that a man is always
hmppy when hse is smiling, or thsat hte is a housec
huilder because you always find htim with "a
brick in his hat
To-.MoluoW.-TheO dasy on which idle ment
work, atnd fools give utP their folly,. and sinners
repent and believe, atnd reform their characters
atnd life !
Front tihe Lexington Temperance Standard.
GRANITEVILLE AND TEMPERANCE.
When we co'nsider that the history of Gran.
iteille for the last eight years, is closely iden.
tifled with the history of the teuiperance cause
in South Carolina, it must be a matter of con.
gratulation not only to the friends of Southern
enterprise, but also to ihe friends of temperance
and morality, to learn tha9t thk institution is in
a prosifto US condition, and that the expectations
of its friends have been fully realized. There
are several moral causes which have contributed
to rendter the efforts of the Graniteville Maui
facturinig Coimtpiny successful :n1d protitable.
The fir-t regulation which was made for the
gvermnit otLhe village, was the ent iie pro.
hibition iero the sale of iitoxicating drinks, :id
we elieve that the credit for enacting the first
prohibitory law in our State, belongs to this
Comipany. And for their efforts in thus altemp.
tinig to proiote the principles of temperance
an'd oond order, they have been amply reward.
ed. Tleiy have at all times paid great atten
tioln to the phiyical, moral, and irtellectual wel
I'ire of the iithabitaits aid operatives in the
flictory, and for that purpose h:rge sums of mon.
ey have been expeided. Throughi the persolal
effiorts of -everal of the stoekholders, inl cotnee.
tiotn ith the regyulations oi the Coipany, Il).
wards of one hand.ed men have been reclaimed
from ha lii bits of gross inteiperance, tl1a1V of
whom had maide repeated efforts to reform, but
tile temp:aiions by which they were surroItided
rendered their reforimation next to impossible.
Tlirouzh the entrealies of their families and
friends, they were induced to remove to Gr:i
i:eville, where those temptations could not beset.
them. They are now reformed, the tears of'
j, and gladniess have eliased from the eyes of
their wites anlid children, the bitter tears of sor
row and distress. In the place of povertv, in
'Jolenee and w-ait, thiey are now blessed with
plenty, industry and contentment, and their chiil
dren who at oie time were pests to tle com
mntivities in which they lived, are ntow regilar
in their attendance at the school house and the
touse of God, and promise f'air to hecainie lion
arable and useful members of Society. All this
imd inuch more has bien accopil ished by al
trohibitory law inl connection with the habits (o
ntd ustry, which have been encouraliged by tle
1terprising proprietors of tlis village. Antlih
:r cause of the success of this eataiblilet,
t -y be found in the ability, inteyrity and hu
iatiitv of those who are pilaice-d at the head of
ts affiirs. 'lievy consider it their duty, not oi.
y to promote thei peciniary interests of the
:0mpanyity, but to advance the general wel'fare of
he oliera:ites. While other Manufiact urinr
onm panies, at thle South have imported their
Superintendents and overseers from tle North
rn States., and ihiced them as taskmasters over
sur, people, have paid io attention to tle morals
ind comfiort of the operatives and have given
milt little entiiuragemenit to nitive enterprie
tiud oative talent, the Uraniteville Company has
:wer displIved a dispo.iaion to foster and en
ourare a spirit of enterprise and industry
itmioiigst our citizens, and w.,enever native talemt
ms been developed, it has by them been pro
noted aid rewarded.
lit so doing their efforts have beet attended
vith abiidait success, while those who have
mrsued a dillerent policy, have invariably fiiled
ai their elforts to render their establishment
lit the Granileville fi etory we believe that all
lie overseers. with tile exception of two :ire na
ives of this State, aid the others are fron Eng
and, and are imei or ability and character.
inoiig the native uverseers we will name .\1r.
\lartii llook, who is a native of LexingtoII
)ist rict. Mlr. look is throuIlly nelai lted
'ith the Manifacturies of cotton gooads, and
,tlnds very high in the estimnation of the Cuim
N'u eiternrise can fiil when it is condneted
v such ieni .s William Gregg, James M.\lt
,omery, John J. Sentell ni B. C. Ilard, who
io v stand it the heid of aflkirs in Graniteville.
File graid secret of their success lies in the
iigi stimdard of morality which they have main.
.iied, the means of iiitellecttal improvemeilt
.vbich they' ha~ve estaiblislhed and cherished, andh
hie unremciitttig care an id attention whl i thbey
1:1e at al1l tim es paid to the genueraul welltrue an d
>rospcriiy of the opheratives. 'lThe fate of stmi
:ir enterprises, whlen compared with thle history
if G raniiteville, presents au beautiful illutstrat ion
.f the ill a:xioim that ini ai lie vauried deparit
nen.~ts of humantii I le, moraiity temperatnce anid
tidustry are aull essential to the~ hapipiniess weathd
odic prosperity of the plei. Snecess to thle
G raniteviile 31aieii trinhg 'omnpany.
Savis'; SWEE~T POTATO YINEs FoHi SEED.
A. P. St roibel sends to9 the Georgia Th.elegrapht
te folhowinig: ." Sweet potato vinies may be sae
ud duritig the winter, anid used the follonwinig
srintg iiinhropagatinig a niew erop. I have tried
the expieniit during this year, to myi) entire
sati,,fictiont. linth tidi al (alny time before frost)
theu vinie tuy lie cut ini :any contvenienit lentgthI,
:tid plaiceid iin hayers, on the surfitwe of the eairtht,
to the depth of twelve or eighiteen iniches, cover
the viines wvhilest daimip, w ith partially rot1ted
straiw, (cithecr pitie or wheat will alnswer) to the
:epth of six inches, antd cover the whole wvith ai
liht soil about four inchtes cheep. In this wiay
thie vines will keep durnog thle wvinter, atnd in thte
sring they wilIliput out sprotuts its abundiiant ly
is the potato itself wihuen bedded. Thie drawis
or sprouts can be planted irst, aind the vine
itself can be subsequently~ cult anud used as we
generaly'plaint ships. This expierimnent is wotr
th the coibiderationt of farmers, as it will sav'e
a great maiiy seed potautoes, (particulirly oin
lrge plantaitions) which cain be used for feedinig.
Let everv tinirmer, however, ma:ke the experiment
fr himiielf, and be govened by the reauit."
YANKE!E DooDLE.-In the sunmmner of 1775, the
British army, undher command of A bereromtlfie,
lay encamped on the east batnk of the lludson
River, a little south of the city of Albany,
aiwaitinig reiniforcemtents oft mnii:iau from the
Eastern Slates, previous to marchitig uponi
Ticotnderoga. Durinig the month of Junie, these
raw recruits pioured into catmp, comnp:imy after
compainy, eaich man differently aurmed, and eqtuip-.
pedh and acceootred from his neighbor,i and the
whiole pre.sentinig such a spectache as was never
equalled, unless by time regiment of merry Juack
Falstaff. Their out re appearance furnrished great,
amusenment to the British otlicers. One Dr.
Shackbnrg, ani English surgcon, composed the
tunte of Yankee Doodhe. and arranged it to words.
which were gravely dedie-uted to the new recruits,
Tlhte joke took, n'd the tune hats come downt to
SUnirtus WH~EAT tN INDIANA.-A correspon
dent of the Oswego Times, writing froum La
port, Indiannia, says that fromt 6,000 to 7,000
bushels of wheat per day are being received ait
that place, and that there cannot be lessu thani
$1,000,000 worth of surplus gratin matrketed it
that country during the presenit season.
A LITTLE FAnRM WELL TrILLED.-Th le Motn
treal H-erald gives the followinig, as thu total
produce of a Farm comprising sixty-three aceres
of land in the town of Bomansville, Catnada
West: WVheat, 1,600 bushels: Oats, 250 bush.
els; Batrley', 300 bushels; Potatoes, 1,0(00 busht
els; Carrots, 300 bushels; Tunips, 5,500 bttsh
els. Total, 8,950 bushels. Spring whieat yiel
INTERNAL IMROVEMENTS AND THENEXT
Ve pursue the discus-ion of the Sparilan's
attack on the Blue Ridge Railroad, and we eal
not help remarking here, that our cottpeporary
has shown a dikposition to pick ip imperfect
information and una Ut henticatid statmints,
while the full and authuoritative exhibits of the
I Company ara passed by. We noticed a glaring
instance ot'this in or article of F1idav.
Again, the Spu'rlan selects for its comments
the I'residett's jre-port at Claytonl, whica was a
brief summa ry only of what had been done in
relationU ut the Georgia portioin of the Road
since the previous meetiia leld at that place,
whti:e it mtust, tor ought, o, have seen in thle
Charlestoni papers a tull re-port, made to a net.
in-g here of thle toekiolders under the South
Carolina Char er, in which, repor t is a stat ement
of expeitaiture inl detail, accompanied also by
the report of the Engineers, andt every infortna
tionu necessary to a proper understanding of tLte
position anl condition of tie several Compaties.
Whi the report to tie Blue Ridge Railroad.
under tle Georgi;t Charter, wa d ade at Clay
tonl, only a small portion of the Rtad iin Guor
gin had becit sub.et, :id io payments hud e
Made, so that there htaitig beent no expenditure,
exceptl fr Enginleuring, there was, ill fact, no
account of expenditure to be furuikhed. Nor
Vats it nleCe.sary thtat anythinug sho ud be said
abolut lte Cstiuiated cuo,t of that part ot thlie
itoad, becatuse that had been twice statil :ilreatdy
int the reloirts to the Iwi;iat tre, in l 52 andt
1853. which were pu i,btied, antid which tihe
Suir/tan culd hardly have tfailed to see.
The Spartan sayts that while the reptort show
ed a strong probabiiity of an early ctttpletioni
of the road through Teniessee atid Kenttcky,
and would conviey the impression that the.e
roads were to be conunectedl with tlu ille Ridge,
so as to mtake ai great tritik lite between Ciuu
einnati anod Chiarle.,ltit), the peoiple of thesee
States, who were to own and builh these roads,
had declired agaiusut Ihe propre:y of making
the Blue Ridge Itailroad aty part of itue rat
truintk line tinentitled." Na"w inI all of thi...,
statement the Sp;.rtiu is utterly mitaken. It
is qIite true that a large tiletiag was held. Mid
I comtpItamty fortmeld, to col4rit a road i tthigh
tle Cuiberland (a i ;is stated, bt has any s-til
Scriiioi t any kind lcen matde to this raad.?
te have not leard of iny. The Spartin is
wrong alo in statinu. or coive ing th t imrs
iau, that tle Kentueky charter was conIin ed to
a road to pIss through the Cumberland Gap.
Oin the contrary, tlie two parlies titted to ret a
charter from LExiutgtaon or P1ris soutl to the
Tenntessee fine, mud tie charter p iinits the to
pass througrh Cumberland Gap, or Wheeler's
Gap, or both, as they Itight clooe: and we
state, beyond all fear of contradicinen thImt a
eomtpanv hat been formed for the coastritetini,
of thue hitear from Kioxville, at the tead of
which is V. Sr. Cozu.:, esq. of KnUoxville.
Sirvers have bten madle, and toreover re.pee
table snbscripations along tie lite Iave be
Otlained, ht-avii'g no tiimtner of d.oubt that it
wil! be built. .need, a p;trt'y had contreted ii
as Was sutijpPosed, for its c-onstruction. but we
lerin that it hias uinit been cn:tstmmatedl, owig
probabbl to the dillietuhy of tlhe times. Be "it
rememlered." tlerefaore, tlint lhe Cunberland
Gap is not the aly poi t-a that hast been fixed
for passing tle Cuttmberlainid Mountains by tle
In estimating t' disthmee he iween Charlesatn
and 1lleXH, tI SprItan. :u all oathrs wlom
have sh.aw hiostilit v tm the ]lte Itidge Railrod.
atsume that the coiimitxion miti. niuecessarily Ie
by way t Ctolutiaid: t1d tht. inl tIhe face of
the fati thatt the Legislature granted at the Ilst
stsian the privilege tat the Gretnvillo Mnd
Columtbi 1t.ailroad, to constrtuct a Rtload from :
point near New Matrket tat Aiken, and thut every
vilort is beint made :tt this timeto tt construlct
this Rand. That this Ratad will to built is a
matter heyoid doubt, whet her the lue Ridge
Railroaid is ever cisttructed tar iot. TheV t teces
situis orf all th W tern plartialtn of tie State
demand..; it. It i:! alike esential to the intere.tk
(f the entire counn- iehw, aunad and ble'yotid
New Market, to liw ext ritmi y if' truadte and
rvel, its it is to thme Grenitvilte atnd(XiItt C laia
Raiload :itand it. is egntally importntl to tthe
coutryi~t~ beha~w .\iketn ta, Chltestand uuit, thae
entire. Sothti antd Soitthwesternt totionat of the
State boauntded lay the Savannahutl Ri ner.
Now. by, ~ivat Aikn and th Blua lie Ridge'..
te di-itnce fromtt Chlttestonl to Knttxvil le willI
be as ftollaws:
Chartlestnal tot A ikeni . - 1 20 ihis.
Aikaen tot Atnderson, viat Newt .iarket [14"
13. it. Rtad in SauthI Catrolina - 51jA "
Geotr~rgia - -17"
ii I. ii N. C~arin - 66 "t
it i i~ Tennesseeo - 54 "
and ntot 453 miles, as statedl by the aSpar/an.
From Kntoxvilleu toa Citncitnati by Whelueler's
Gap is 241, atnd firm Knuoxville tat Louisville
tabtut 215 toi 220. Sit that te distauneo frmt
Charleston In thte pints above nameiid, woutld
be respectively' 6-t3 tad 622 miles. iGy Spatrtan
burg~, the distanuce betweeni Charlestont anda
Ktoxville is said tot be ::07 miles, the sutrv'eys
thus far being patial. uand te dishautee conjije
t ual; but thent t he 1l iilRiadge route has thte
Iinest imable adlvantage of it connecmiti with the
Cotl mtines (of l'onlk coauty , andit withI Chitta-n
noogau, fromti which sectjin a hiurge bustine'ss ta
the oeni, antd itncreatse to thte trade oi thet Sttte
is toa be expuected. Atnd its to thte valley of the
Ohio, ahlotuh the mapit mttay shouw a shtorter' air
hine f'ruom thue Frenuch Broatd, thrtoutgh Cuimbter
land Gap to Cinucinntati. yet recenut surveys provte
that thte rotute is next ta an imtpoassible ane: anod
that whiethuer thte Frencth Iirottlad r the Little
Tennessee be selectad foir thet pissuige of' thte
Stoky MounttttinsKnotXVIlle mttt ben a poit itt
the rouitte ; su t hatt by tie Fretncht Broad. C in
inati catnntot be renched undethr 638 miles, tma k
img a dlilcerenice tat' otnly 4 miles int favor auf thte
a tter, intstead taf 116 til~es its stated by the
BRaEADSTUFFS DEI~NNG.-lt is forttinate for
poor people tat somnethting is likely to be chteutp.
and thue maint articles of conisumrpt io its raooda.
Nealy all graides of flotur, satys the New York
Advertiser, aire dec.lining, noitwithistan tdinig the
seere drouight, atnd the prediction that prices
wotld reach .815 a $20 per barrel dunrinig thet
fll and winter. Th receipts f'romn thte Satnth
and WVest atre rapidly inicrein~tg ; prodinucers, hbav
ing becaute pretty well satictid thtat piresentI
hgh prices catnunot be suistintedl for anty greut
lengtht of timne, are puushinig t'orwaird their stocks
with cotnsiderable vigor. There is nto deatnand
for export, atnd each suncceedinug stleamuer front
Europe confirmns thte impiression, whtiebt has nowtt
becme pretty genenrtl, that tnt a single barrel
of flour will be wantted fronm thtis cottutry, eitthetr
itt Etngland or on the 'ontitnent. The best
grades- htave declinetd in Newv York $1 50 per
barrel withini a wteek, aund htolders cn only mattke
sales by conttinually submitting to lower prices.
THlE ExGttstu Cttors.-Theo Etnglistt papers
are full of glowing accotttts of' the beautiftul
weather aind prosperous harvest. Tlhe whlole
land wasR cheered hby the augreeuable intolligencae.
re cheap loatf for the cotitnar year was now at
thuing certain. "tEvery day's 'sunshinte is set
do,,., its w.o..h, .. millin. of pnds."
1R. EDITOR:*-Iin Yours of 21st tilt., you
published the first in third numbers of a series
of article signed "NQP,:MEmEP." We now en
elose second and fo'th of same series, which
should have been plblished in- regular order.
TIle mistake occurred by our giving you No. 3
in place of No. 2, 11s e intended.
From the C rieton Courier.
THE AUGUSVA BRIDGE, No. 2.
Tihe flaw in the ile of the city of Augusta,
is alleged to beconttd in the de'ed from Judge
Earle, to Saimuel l - That deed conveves the
lid on which the ble stands front low water
mark to Market. s:reea It is said that Fair owned
to the middle of tie r. That the State bouiht
from Fair all his rin , and that when Judge
Earle sold to SamldTull, he retained ite bot
tom (' the river. Lawyers say that the b-ottom
of ant unna:1v igIble riv r pisses with tile grant tof
the adjacent soil, unlems ph iily reserved (Noble
vs. Cuninirigham, Melf. 289) and if Judge Earle
intended to reserve tft@ bot toin of the river, he
shouwd have said so .ipres-ly. Thus the futn
dation of the argume nt ermnbles at the first
tonh: but f1or the sike of argument let it be
enedeted that Judge Earle reserved thie bottom
of the river. lie Ilid not reserve tle, abutment,
for it seemts that he expres"ly conveyed that,and
what is more, receivnd for tait abutnent and
strip, (of haool of no- .dntie except in, contection
with it, 5.000. Ilowttlen does the State claim
the bridge after hatinig sold the abutment?
Front thik enquiry thLre is no escape but by a
True, say the fientdp of Shnitz, the State sold
it to the City i' Atigu'sta, but. they sold it as an
altment to tho Bridke, and by r',servinli the
ittittom of the River they reserved the BridtIe
tierefire the abutmeilt belongs to tie Bridge,
atid the Bridge belonizs to the Stile. Henry
Shnz was a moniomapine on the subject ol' this
riige. After uellinall hl interest,and receiv
itt, payment, more than once, and exectlimgt a
H elease to the purciasers, he never eeased to
rnew his claim in the fiace of his own deeds
ad rtpeated jndg'enets of every Court. o which
tie ciould carry the cac. People who were led
atrv1ay by h:is plassionls, liay be excusable for
hilikiig ft tie Staid c.ln treat a contract in
this way. flut if lte-State took the Georgiam'
mtoney in return for a quibble like this, we momught
to have soie polite term to express whiei we
speak of the grant, iti idea Iihat is nw convey
d by the word - swindling."
But Judge I1arper's anbrity is inivoked
tow far it ,ustains the friends of Shuliz, in
aiming the Bridge for the Szate, we will next
From the Chrleston Courier.
THE AUGUSTA BRIDGE, NO. 4.
The distiction between a Bridge and a Char
ler, is just the smne as that between Whitney's
Uoton Gin and WIhitiamy's patent. The ma-hine
I the tangible corpi :-&,esibte oboj'et; the pa
ent is the privilege enjoyed by the inventor of
using that miachine alone. In hicd, a charier is a
tatentt. It gives to a man the mole right of
ransport ing passengers and mierchaidize iteroms
he river for a limited time, ji:.st as if lie had
ride it discovery of the art of bridge build:ng,
aid had got a hiw to prevent any person u-ig
is disciovery w% ithout paying hini for it. Mr.
Suii. really lauord under the lelisiotI that lie
was art invien: or, or somethinug o100re, aid as he
s the firt ntn that had put up a bridge at
.\ gusa to stard, lie comieliided, and ca:used a
'reat marny oiple people to believe, that tie had
n inualienable anti natural rigWt to the bridge,
wib may account for what would otheirwi-e
iear to Ie very reprehetsible ini his coidtet.
The mistAke of Me.w-rs. Jtiis and Kennedy,
s to suoppiose that a man's bridge cannot be made
iseof by him nuiltess lie has a1 iatent. It would be
ist as reasinable to argtle that if Whitney had
oit lwi a pateit, lie would have had141 no rilit to
ake motey for li-wing people how to get out
their 'ott ly tiimtchinery.
In their justilienion, ihose gent lemen claiin
for our State half the loll which the city of Ati
ust have received since J 848, as if it was an
i~a.fuh ihinug for a tian to take toll whten lie
has nit cbarter. Th'le distinct ion is betweeni tak
inmg t'll whicb beloigs to another, aid taikinig
toll to whiebl ito one e'lse has anty caimi.
Now it i-, impossible for Messrs. JonesM and
Kenedy to produice a case, whtere' a mian has
been iro-.ecnted or convicted mere'ly for taking
ienl . lie itay be stued for ta.king toil to the im.
j ry of a ehia '-tered bridgte. B ut if there be nto
biriLe witini~ three mileis, and ant individuoaf will
be ati thei exptense of ntiakiing a bridige and ouent
ing facil iis t'or t ravel, hie is etiitled to compf en
satio front thosse whio use his iimp~roveme nt. A
pirivate bridge is expose~d to die competitirn of
rivals ; atmd whlat is miore- if somte rival shiould
get a eht.trter for his bridge, thte owiner of the
riate bridge will ha~ve to give way.
TIhie Letgislaito: has htiterto contsidered fiat
bridges aind ferries are proper stiects of pritiee
ion. It is thiou'.ht that to ensure goop bridges,
it is necessary tuo protect the business, anti to
prevenit any mtiin frorm competing with the owii
r of a charitered bridge, lest lie shtul d fronti
t'spetit iotn he a lnser by his efforts to accommno
datie the public. But ito oine can finid a ease or
ai tut h ority to puttish a man for erecting a bridge
for thei pilIie u~e whiere there is iii bridge.
The I, Le itutre have a right to protect this
seie f ir.dustmry, antd they may grant a chbar
te r a hbrid 'e, which like a patenir, exeluodes
compept irition t what wvould the putbiic tiink of
gi ig"' lr. .lones a pattentt for hia neighbors' it
vetont 2 Yet, that is just what they ht~ve done ?
T 1hey have givenl )1r. Jonies a ebiarr er, auithiorizinlg
hi to take toll for ai bridge belonging to the
City of Augusta. In the worst timues of hiistotry,
amtoig all lie abuses which disfigure the govertn
eit of James tile First, previouts to the cele
brated act of Monoipolies, 21. Jnc. 1. call. 3. nou
ahne so. wanton as that comitini ted by theo Legis
ltire uof Soulth Carinua, in 1853, catn be brought
to ight. The act eann otnly be ascribed, to sur
irise. It was ptssed against the fornis of the
CostItttin, withoutit, thlree readoigs, mt a thin
house; on the last nlighit of the' sessiont; and the
marvel is, that anty one should be f'ound htardy
etough to vi mdiente ani atl, which has foUind its
way into the Statute Botok clandestinely, in vi's
ltion oif every principle of constitutiontahlaw
or privte right.
So muche for the law of then casc. As art at
tempt is adte to justify this unheard of' violation
of tfe ordinary principiles of justice, as a pro
eein called for by the policy oif thet State,
some rermarks catlled on that fiead will appear in
our meXt. No ME3MBER.
AN ANSWER R3QUE1ED.-Thle question has
been asked why it is consideted impolito for gen
themant to go itnto the presence of' hadies in their
stirt sleves, wvhilst it is conisidered in every wny
correct for the ladies themnselqes to appear before
gentlemen without any sleeves at all?
A WHiEAT-GRowVtNG COUNTY.-It is estimta
ted that the Canatdats will riaise the presenlt seat
soi a surplus of 12,000,000 bushels of wheat,
which, of course, will look abroad for a matrket.
By the new reciproecity treaty provincial grain
and flour come into our markets free of duty
and upon an equal footing with the productions
foi noenwn farrnars.
From thu South Carolinian.
THE ELECTORAL QUESTION.
SWEET SPRisGs, VA., Sept. 3,1854.
My DEAR SIR: Your kind letter was forward
ed to me at the White Sulphur, but I had no
timfe to answer it until now.
You Pay, " are you inl avor of giving the elec
tion of Electors to the people!' You also say
why don't you publish your views?" &c.
did not suppose that it was the slightest concern
to ary one what my views were, and it might be
intrusion to give them.
- When the subject was first presented in 1844
or 18415, I was in our State Senate, and I op.
poses the change at that time, because there
was no interest felt then about it amongst the
people of Edgefield, and. the mode of voting
which we had adopted from the commencement,
had produced no dissatisfaction.
Since then a general law has been passed by
Congress, fixing the d ry of election before the
conritntional meeting of otir Legislature, ren
dering it. necessary for us to make some change
in our mode of voting. As it is now,it is trust
ing too nitrehr to the umere will ot a Governor to
call Iln extra session of the Legislature in order
to secure our vote in the Presidential election.
As long as we are in the Union, our casting Vote
might, perchance, be of tie deepest moment to
the country, and a corrupt or selfish Governor
might place us in a position to cause everlast
ing regret. Besides, our constitution has vest
ed ill the Governor the right to call an extra ses
sionr only in "extraordinary cases," &e., and it
might be made : serious question whether to
vote merely in the Presidential election, was an
"extraordinalry case" contemplated by the con
titution. All executive power Ehould be strict
ly construed. Here is a case or occasion, aris
ing under the regular laws of the United States,
perating for years at regular periods, well
known to our Legislature, and which it has am
ple power to provide for. and it may not be the
extraordinary case" which the constitution pre.
supposes could not. be provided for, and where
it, therefUre, gave the power to the Governor to
:all an extra session. Under these circuinstan
ess, a case might arise where the Presidential
election would turn upon the vote of South Car
ulina. If there was such excitement as there
was in 1850 or in 1844, when the whrole country
was divided into great and bitter parties, not only
for per'onal success, but involving great and
it:l lrinrciples, we mighrt feel tire dee1) respon
ibility of our poiition. On tire success of the
Democratie party in 1844 depended the triumph
uf great meaures lvinrg at tie foundation of the
'tovernmlent itseif. It is the seizure of tie ex
meutive power by fraud or force whieb has cur
rupted or overthrown every republic onr earth.
if in such issues as those turning solely upon
te vote of South Carolina, a question of dispu
ted " returns" or disputed I-election" should
he made-, whero is tire tribunal to decide it 1
South Carolina, under the power of tire execu
tive, calls an extra session of her Legislature to
east her vote. The point is nade that the exce
utive has no such power, or that tie " extraor
dirary ca.se" contemplated by her constitution,
did not exist, &c., and that, ilierefore, the reA
turns of ier vote shall be questioned. The con
stitution of the Unted States provides tzhat on
a certain day tire Vice President and Senate shall
proceed into the House of Representatives, and
there, in tie presence of both houses, shall open
thie returns in tire Presidential election. When
Souri Carolina is called objection is made to
ier returns and her electii, and who shall de
ide that, whIen tire decisioni may involve such
itre.its as to shake the republic itself ! It is a
1 asris ormissus" in tire conatitution. Upon that
restion being made, tie Senate would instant
lv retire to its own chamber and decide for it
elf, or it would be absorbed by the House.
Both bodies would sit it jrdgmrrenrt upon tie
question, and if they decided diifeernrtly, it would
nd tihe goverrment, or it would be settled by
the sword, which would end tie constitution. I
rhink we ougrt to avoid plhcinig our belived
State in so unpleasant and responsible a posi
tiur. As lotig as but two candidates are select
ed and run, it is by no means nimpossible that
'astinr vote may depend upon a single State;
ind it so, SotthCrrolina would ungnestionrably
be thre State selected upon wich to tmarke tire
gret barttle for tire seizure of tire executive
power of thre reprrblie.
Burt, irrdcpenrderrt of all this, I am one of thiose
who lirmuly believe that as lrrng as we are inr thre
Uiorr, we rundrt to act crordially arnd zealously
with tire greatdemiocratic, or rather repu blican,
parry of tire cmonrederacy. Th'lere is rno hopejr of
ustice or limited cornstructionr of tire federal
Lompact without their atid~anrd thrrrtugh their
Union. I knrow they harve commnritted errrors,
ard that there are farctionrs of that party who
have ultra arid di~organizinrg views. Blut with
out tire great repeubliean pa:rty, inn its general or
aniztion, where would we be ? We must bear
with smraller evils to garin greater poinits. It is
tre part oh wisdom to bear and forbear in order
to sarve whlat may~i be essential, or those great
jud vital principles wich, at Ilast, rmust control
tire destinry of tis mighrty conrfederac'y. If thre
South or thre State shonuld ever de'cideupo OiiSep.
aration, that is one thing ; but as long as we are
in the Union, we mtrst act faithfully, anrd resort
to every fair anrd hronorarble meians to advanco the
soud prinrciples of tire constitution. Under ex
isting cirecumstances, I aem decidedly aigairrs' iso
hiting Southt Carolina fromr her sister States of
tire S~ourth, or separattinig lher from tire greart re
publicnr party of tire cnfederarcy. I would riot
enlist her ini pursurit of tire ofl'rees of' federal
power, (I trust'I have always showvn a dilferenrt
feeling;) but I would placo her in poisiion to
give a cordial arid mainly support to great meni
sures, arnd to great party moves in order to se
eure and advance those measutres.
Unider such ciretumstarnces, I should be in fa
vor' of electinrg hrer Electors ats tire others of the
other States or tire South do. To settle the
gestion now would be ton take a subject of argi
tation out of the hands of dermagogues, who will
alwas keep it up to un'ee~ut lcal results and marnke
party divisions in our State, whrere we should
hrave ronre. If it is not given to tire people now,
it wil form tihe barsis of' nrgitaition, which mar~y
lead to other farr more levelling and serious
As to the argumnent that it could affect tire
present power of tire loiwer country, I think that
view hardly worth considering; for I could never
im~gine thrat ainy canrdidarte for the Presidency
of tre Uinited States woeuld ever comne out urponr
our local interests mierehy. The Parish of St.
Luke's rind A nderson District would always vote
for a President on nratioinal principles alone, and
both periple coerud never be otherwise thain Iden
itifed ini great, and leading measures. I cannot,
see how it woiuld affect otir distribution of pow
er connected with local interests.
Whlen the compromiise ini our constitution was
nade in 1808, distributing political power in our
State, a totally different state of things existed
from what, exists nowa. T1hre lower country hard
tre wealth anid were then imure generally edtuea
ted than tire upper country, and the presumption
wis thart, virtue belonged toe education and wealth,
and hence threy connected politicatl power with
weaith as an expedient of education and sup
Btt since then there has been a great change.
Our territoriral representation in tire Senate, it
was supposed, would guard and protect the
..l...:.. inteest ... our..lave were then principal
ly in the parishes. But sinro then our noble
College at Columbia, under the berificent pat.
ronage of the Stato, has diffused education and
general scholastic knowledge into the whole up
per country. The academics and other colleges
that have bten founded and located in different
parts of the upper districts have been deeply
felt, and in fact have made education more gen.
eral in the upper country than in the lower coun
try. They may be more defective in the more
general forms of conventional society, but in all
the attributes of real information or practical
virtue we are certainlv at present not the infe
riors of the lower country. Besides, the upper
division of South Carolina now actually h:1s
more slaves than the lower division. Wealth in
lie last twenty-five years has increased far more
rapidly in the aggregate in the upper country
than in the lower country-the reason the terri
torial representation which was originally fixed
to guard and protect slaves does not now exist.
A Senator from Edgetield, representing, as lie
does, 23,000 slaves in as much a guardian of
that interest as the Senator from Christ Church
parish, who does not represent the one-third of
that number. I, therefore, do not even consider
territorial representation, as at present fixed, a
very vitl point. While I would not disturb it
unless sonic more pressing neceesity than at
present exists should be urged, and unless with
the kindest and most liberal co-operation of the
parishes themselves, yet when properly analyzed,
I do n't .,ee in it anything very ruinous to any
great and real interests. In the progress of
events the political power of the parishes might
be iuportant to cheek and balance the power of
Charleston. A population is fast flowing into that
city which in the progress of time may separate
it in interest from the landed interests of South
Carolina. Every ten years we take a State cen
sus, and distribute our local representation ae
cording to the increasing wealth (or rather tax
ation) and white population of the districts and
parishes. Our whole representation in the low
er House is fixed by the constitution at 124, 1
believe, and in the Senate at 45, and the former
have to be di.,tributed every ten years amongst
the districts and parishes according to their tax
ation and white popubition. If Charleston goes
on to increase and become the great city many
desire her to be, she will, under this system, in
the next fifty years, absorb the power and repre
sentation of the State in the lower House, -and
I can at present see no check upon this tendency
of things but the parish representation. If you
will alter the constitution so as to limit the num
ber of representatives to Charleston, say to twen
tv, then a different state of thi is would take
place. I believe most of the large cities of the
Union are thus limited, and there is no reason
why they should not be; onl the contrary, there
is great reason why it should be. A city popu
lation, if very large. soon becomes absorbed in
their mere local interests, and, to a great extent,
have but; little interest connected with the gen
erail taxation of a State. They have a corporate
existence and are a body politic themselves, and
a representation of twenty can as well represent
all thlir corporate interests as a representatton
of twice that number. I never want to see the
day When the population of CHarlestoa.ehall be
100,000, and under the present provisions of our
costitution coming into our State councils with
a representatiOn of fifty or sixty, fresh from a
stormy and turbulentepopulace, with a forcian
feeling infused into them, to dictate law to the
farmers and planters of our State.
I have thus spoken freely and frankly, for the
present generation uumay yet see our beloved State
distracted and divided. It is not the part of
wisdom to agitato in advance of events. A
practical man iust act according to circuustan
res as they arise, and according to the necessi
ties of the case. All wise political systems are
built up from necessity, attd no peoplo can live
together in harmony without kind and liberal
cuomlproinises. But; there is one priiciple in our
constitution which I consider sacred, and not to
be touched by any considerations of expediency
whatever; an'd that is where it fixes that for
every sixty-second part that the taxation of a
parish or district bears to the taxation of the
whole State, it is entitled to one representativo,
and for every sixty-second part that the white
population of a district or parish bears to the
white population of the whole State, it i enti
ted to another representative. I have no cont
stitution before moe, and have not read it for
years, but believe I state it right. This is the
most philosophical and wvise prinlciple that exists
in any constitutioni. The other principle of the
costitution, wvhich makes it necessary for the
State to take its own census atnd ascertauin its
taxation every ten years, anid to apportion over
anew the representation, makes it a perfect sys
tm. It is, in fact, carryinig out the great princi
pe of our revolution, of matking representation
follow taxation as well as population. It is this
which gives perfect protection to property in our
State. This in part is the great vital principile
of the comtpromise of the constitution in 1808.
I trust in God it will never be touched, and that
it will stand a~s firmly imbedded in the hearts of
our people as the everlasting htill~s upon our soil.
This, with universal suffrage, gives population
power enough to satisfy its self-respect, and
property the conscious power of self-protection.
This it is which will make our people ever con
servative-guarding their public honor and
plighted faith, as they wvould do the virtue of
their women. Save this principle, anid no dema
gogue with us can ever plunder the people to
advance wild schemes of political power.
The first speech that the great William
Lowndes ever delivered in our Legislature was
upon this very principle, embracinig the repre
sentation of property and population cotnbined.
The whole State had been deeply agitated, and
there was a threatened disunion of the State.
The lower country denied entlarged representa
tion to the upper country. Robert Goodlow
Harper had written his powcrftul pamphlet in fa
vor of enlarged representation ; and it excited
such interest, that I believe he was returned at
the same election as a member from Spaurtan
burg, and also a member from a parish in George
town district, and also a member of Congress
from the Edgefield district. He aceepted the
lattr, and was afterwards Attorney General of
the United States and settled in Baltimore.
The Legislature met under the deepest and
most bitter exeitement. Govenor Alston, from
Georetown, had taken the popular side, and
carried several Georgetown parnshes with him.
HeI lead off in an eloquent speech, and was fol
lowed by william Lowvndes, who in an elaborate
speech showed those great traits of purity and
wisdom and intellect wvhich afterwards made
him one of the first meni of atny age or any eoun
try. The epeech produced the pro3foundest imn
pression upon all sides, and whetn ho ended
there was a kind and compromising inifluence
shed throughout the whole house Mr. Abranm
Blanding, a very able and ready lawyer, after
wards of the greatest eminence, drew that pecu
liar amendment in our constitution, giving rep
resentation to property and population comn
bined, which was adopted and secured a lasting
peace, and whi-h I trust will stand forever, anda
carry the names of Lowndes and Blanding down
to the remotest posterity, embalmed with the
most consecrated affection from every South
There is a prevalent mistake in our State,
which supposes that under this principle slaves
are represented. There is no such principle in
o... .. ,tit.t:o.. ru, two-thirds of our it
es have been invariably raised from s-ve--s
(which has been a great error in our policy,)
and the amount of that taxation hrs been repre
sented ; but the Legislature can at any session
change the objects of taxation and raise the rev.
enue from other sonrces, and the representationt.
would follow the objects thus taxed. They are
not compelled to tax slaves at all. If the Leg
islature were to tax objects of luxury or expo
nents of accumulated capital, which they ought
to do, or to tax all houses over $500 in value,
the next apportionruent of representatiolt would
differ from apportionments where two.thirds of
our taxes are raised from slaves. No! the prin.
ciple in our constitution is far wider and pro.
founder than the narrow one of representation
of slaves. * It follows all property-and if we
ever should have no slaves, (which I trust will
never be the case,) still this wise and profound
principle of the constitution would pervade all
society, and save us from demagogism, political
profligacy and bankruptcy.
This noble principle of conservatism lies far
deeper than slavery-it was drawn from the
deep wells of English liberty. But I must stop.
I have trespassed upon you much more than f
had any idea of when I commenced this morn
ing. True, I have but little to do in public mat
ters, but if there is any thing on this earth in
which I do feel it deep and anxious interest, it is
the wellare and honor of my own home and
country. I pray God that no reckless hand
lildi innovate or tamper with the interesta of
South Carolina, and that those of you who now
control her destiny and guide her councils will
be animated solely by the spirit of those great
and good men who have made us all that we
I have the honor to be, very respectfully,
yours truly, "F. W. PICKENS.
To Hon. MR. ORi.
PEACE! PEACE ! WHEN THERE IS NO PEACE.'
& Let us have perce. We can neartily second
the'wish of our ec.emporary of the Baltimore
American, that the country possessed some
statesman, elevated in' patriotism and command.
ing in influence, whose voice could be heard.
throughout the land rallying to his aid the con
servative majority of all sections, and bidding
Northern fanaticism and Southern ultraism,
Freesoil aggression and pro-Slavery agitation,
alike be still. We are tired of this everlasting
commotion about negroism, the Southern people
are tired of it, and they vrant peace and quiet,
if it can be obtained without the sacrifice of
their inalienable rights."-Richmond Whig.
We have placed, as a fit heading to the above
extract, the venerable words of Patrick Henry,
when the peace party of the Revolution were
seeking to palliate and avoid the alternative
whieh English aggression was forcing upon the
colonies. It would really seem, from the re
tuarks of the Whig, that the South had been
hitherto demanding some thing else besides
peace. But when has she ever sought more?
When has she ever aimed at depriving the North
of a full equality in all the advantages of the
Union? Wht is so flsAlytrumpettedas"lave
aggression," is nothing more than the effort of
the South to progress int wealth and power
equally with the North, maintain her just*ih
in the councils of the nation against the schemes
of abolition, and to gather, by fair means. suffi
cient strength to protect herself-in the Union,
if possible, and out of the Union, if necessary.
The Whig wishes for some statesman, whose
influence would be able to control the conflict of
parties, and give tranquillity to the country. It
is a hopeless and futile wish. If the united in
iluence of Calhoun, Clay and Webster, was
insufficient for these things at an earlier stage
of the controversy, who can hope that mightier
men will arise to sav it now? The man who
canl, in the present s-pect of Northern politics,
discover any -ymptou of peace, reads the stars
with clearei eyes, and a wore hopeful heart,
than we are favored with. Every convention
which sits, every move taken, betokens agitation
in a more virulent form. Does not the Whig
see thisu? Is not the party to which it has been
so long and zealously attached, gono over to
the enemies of the South? The cry for peace,
therefore is as little suited to the times and
enerencies as it is without a chance of success.
rTe South has not obtained it thus far, with all
her eloquent pleadings for justice. and the safety
of the Union. And she will never obtain it by
such means. The only peace she will ever have
will be won by her own vigilance and firmness.
MILrTnu TaAiNIN.--Our South Carolina
apostle of temperance, the Hon. Judge O'Neall,
in writing to the Temiperance Standard, expres
ses thte following opinion of the prevalent mili
" Before I go further, I trust that!i may, with
out offence to the powers that be, be indulged
in a remark or two in reference to militia train
ing. Some yet remain who will remember that
I passed fourteen years of the prime of my life
in every grade (except that of.mxajor) from cap
tain to major general in the militia service. My
experience then, and my observation since, con
firms me in the belief that musters are useless,
and worse than useless. No one ever heard of
any one being properly trained by militia mus
ters. But I mainly object to the system on ac
count of drunkenness, bhsphemy, and fighting,
to which it gives birth. The late review s in
this district, if!I am rightly informted, have been
signally marked in these respects. At one of
them. I, understood that a temperance man was
so abused by one of the whiskey-loving mnen,
that at last "his ancestral Irish blood could not
bear it, and he thrashed the man of the spirit
land to his heart's content. So mote it be."
A Lr HUSBAND AYI A LirmE WiE.
The Sandusky Register is responsible for this:
Two little children-a boy and a girl-aged four
and three years respectively, were missed by
their families, and search made everywhere for
them, but in vain. The day passed, and consid
erable alarm existed. Persons were out in all
directions, and the bell-ringer had been sent for
when passinlg a thicket of bushes in the garden,
the mother thought she heard low voices near.
Pnling away the leaves, there were the truants
with their night clothes on, locked in one anoth
er's arms, and very comfortably stowed awvay for
the night. The precocious lovers were stirred
from their nest, but the boy expressed the ut
most indignation; "for," said he, "the hired
man had married me and sissy, and that bush.
house was his'n, and they were agoing, to live
there till it rained." The'denounetiment so comi..
:al that it was concluded to let the babies be
married until they had a falling out, which oc
curred the next day, and now they live apart-a
separated man and wife.
IMFORTANT TO TiHE HEIRS oF TmoSE Wwo
FELL AT THlE ALAMO, TaxAuS.-It is stated that
there is.due the heirs of those men who fell
with Travis, at the Alamo, and with Fanning, at
the maassecre of Goliad, the following quantity
of and,/viz: To married men, 4.605 acres as a
bendright, 1,920 acres bounty, 640 acres as do
nation-total 7,165 acres. Unmarried men, I,
47 acres headright, 1,920 bounty, and 640 4
THE END OF THE oE)LD.-The Millerd
have been holding a series of meetings at S
euse, N. Y. and have now fired on the 19 0
May, 1855, as the day when the world will posi-.
tiely comen to an end.