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Edgefield advertiser. [volume] (Edgefield, S.C.) 1836-current, April 09, 1874, Image 1

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JOHN E. BACON & THOS. J. ADAM
?/.At*
iii
VOLUME
A.
; AT PINE HUUSE DEPOT, AND EDGEFIELD VILLAGE
Will Keep Constantly on Hand
HATS, CAPS, BOOTS and SHOES,
And PLANTATION SUPPLIES of Every Kind.
DETERMINED to sell as close as anybody on this line of Railroad, hi
integrity is pledged to give satisfaction in every instance.
The Public is respectfully invited to inspect his splendid stock of NE"^
GOODS.
W. A. SANDERS.
Pine House, S. C., Maa-. 4, Iv ll
MPIRE GUANO!
ANALYSIS BY DR. A. MEANS, CHEMIST AND INSPECTOR OF FERTIL
IZERS, SAVANNAH, GA.
Moisture, determined at 212 degrees Fabr.
?25
45.05
IL58
2.34
Organic and Volatile Matter
Yielding AMMONIA.v.
Soluble Phosphoric Acid..*..
Equivalent to Phosphate of Lime, dissolved
Common Phosphoric Acid.
Equivalent lo Bone Phosphate.
Total Phosphoric Acid. 15.09
Total BONE PHOSPHATE. 32.94
Predpitated Phosphoric Acid. ].22
^Equivalent to Precipitated Phosphate of Lime. 2.01
Undetermined Elements. 33.61
4.10
25.?
5.11
f ^0 TONS ABOVE FERTILISES FOR SALE.
Cash, : : $65. Time, : ; $72 50.
T. W. CARWILE & CO,
Augusta, Mar. 4,
ti
ll
THE DIA.MOJNT)
Cotton Chopper ? Cultivator.
T
? HIS INVALUABLE MACHINE, the recent invention of J. B. UN
DERWOOD, of Fayetteville, N. C., is unquestionably the GREATEST
LABOR-SAVER of the age and bids fair to be to the Cotton Planter what
the McCormick Reaper and Mower is to the Western Farmer. It, at one
operation, chops, bars both sides, weeds and dirts the cotton more effectually
than can be done by the hoe-thus doing the work of from SIX to TW ELVE
men, and from TWO to FOUR horses, with but ONE mau and ONE horse.
After the Chopping, it is converted into a most excellent CULTIVATOR,
in the shape of a Har.ow Sweep, for use between the rows throughout the
season. It has leen thoroughly tried upon the crop of 1873, und bears the
highest testimonials of its perfect success. It took the Gold Medal at the
Georgia State Fair, as the most important and latest improvement in Agri
cultural Implements, and the First Premium everywhere it has been ex
hibited.
Price of Machine, with Attachments, $:>5 and Freight Added.
Cash or City Acceptance.
For Circulars and further information, address
M. A. RANSOM,
AUGUSTA, GA.,
Agent for Edgefield and other Counties in S. C., or
R. M. TA!, BK UT*, Local Agent,
Edgefield C. IL, S. C.
March 4, tf ll
BP
Ij
I
fra
c.
;
1
fi ? *4 il \X ?X
BOUQUET COLOGNE.
THE BK ST m flIE-lPEST PERFUME EXTANT.
PENN'S BOUQUET COLOGNE is prepared with
tjiY? ?(featest care from fhe purest Oils and Extincts
hy W. B. PENN-and for sale at the Drug Store ol
ii. L. PENN & SON.
rn tr-?
1
I
m
CALHOUN, MOBLEY & CO.,
JO TINS TON 'S DEPO T,
JJAVE alway-': on hand a fill I nm] well .?el eel ed Stack of
DRY GOODS,
HATS, CAIRS, BOOTS, SHOES,
Hardware*, Pocket and Table Cutlery,
GROCERIES and PLANTATION SUPPLIES,
./Ali of whir]) we wt i 1 ?-"11 fi' f]>e W.^l prices.
<tta"'> MW liaUll.wW?. NV,. ...... y\.;.-.. y.WtU(|
share of y?TirT>atron?gc.
(KrTHE HIGHEST CASIE PRICE PAID
CA MZOVN,
Johnston's Depoi. Feb 17,_
M T ' igra
, JU tl. 1J
DEUGGIST.
JOHNSTONS DEPOT, S. C.
AGAIN I vrould respectfully inform my friends and Hie public generally,
that I now have in Slote a fnll line of
Drugs, Patent Medicines, Toilet Articles, Perfumery,
GLASS, PUTTY, KEROSENE OIL,
Tobacco. Segara,
In fact everything usually kept in ? Drug Store,-all new and warranted
genuine.
. My prices are as low a? ?nch Goods can ne soldi n ,any market in the
same quantity.
T. TEAGUE.
Johnston's Depot, Feb 17 ly 9
fill: THIJ? (MUSE OF THE COX?
PEOKRA Vii COLLAPSE.
? CHATTER FBOM GEN JOK JOHN
STON'S NARRATIVE <-F MILITARY
( ?J'K?ATIO.Ws Dujl'lKO THE LATE
Gen. Joseph Johnston, in bis
lui ih-eoiuing work, give.? tito lbllow
?..pjpwft^fcfwj'viev. of the ii ae caueee
of the downfall ol the Southon; Con
federacy :
M neb bas been written and much
more said of the cause of the over
throw of the Confederate States in
their great contest for independence.
One class, and much the largest-for
it includes the people who were vic
torious in the war, and those Euro
peans who watched the .struggle with
interest, as well as many of the
Southern people-ascribe it to the
superior population ami greater re
sources of the Northern States. An
other, a class of Southern people, at
tribute our defeat to a want of per
severance, unanimity, and lue conse
quent abandonment of the Govern
ment of the Confederacy in its efforts
by the people themselves. In my
view both are far wrong.
TUE CAUSE OF THE SUBJUGATION
of. the Southern States was neither
want of wealth and population, nor
ot devotion to their own cause on the
part of the people of those States.
That people was not guilty of the
high crime of undertaking a war
without the means of waging it suc
cessfully. They had ample means,
which, unfortunately, were not ap
plied to the object of equipping great
armies and bringing them into the
tield. A full treasury was necessary
to defray the expenses of a great
war. The South had the means ol
miking one. in its cotton alone. But
its Government rejected those means,
aud limited ils linancial efforts to
printing bunk notes, with which the
country WAK soon Hooded. The ne
cessity of actual money in the treas
ury, and the mode of raising it, were
generally understood in the country.
It was that the Government should
take the cotton from the owners and
send it to Europe as fast aspossible,
to bc sold there. This was easily
practicable, for the owners were ready
to accept any terms the Government
might fix, and sending to Europe was
easy in all the first year of the Con
federacy'?existence. Its Government
went into operation early iii Februa
ry. The blockade of the Southern
ports was proclaimed in May, but not
at all effective until the end of the
following Winter, so that there was a
period ol' about twelve months for
the operation of converting 4,000,000
or 5,000,000 bales of cotton into
tunney. The sum raised in that way
would have enabled the War Depart
ment to procure at once arms en-'Ugh
for five hundred thousand m.-n, and
j*ifi er tL..i ?Xpiaaditure
* THE CONFEDERATE TREASURY
would have been much richer than
that of the United ?States. By ap
plying the first money obtained in
this way to the purchase of arms and
military accoutrements, or using for
the purpose the credit which such an
amount of property would have
given, the War Department would
have been able to equip troops as fast
as they could be assembled and or
ganized. And as the Southern peo
ple were full of enthusiasm, live hun
dred thousand men could have been
ready and in the field bad such a
I course been pursued at the time when
j the first battle was actually fought
the 2l8t of July, 1861. Such a force
placed on the Northern borders of
the Confederacy before the United
States had brought a fourth of the
? number into the field, would proba
bly have prevented tho very : idea of
"coercion^" Such a disposition of
such an army, and the possession of
financial means of carrying on war
?or years, woduN? .?ecureJ the
?meiy ?d?jsrfion " oi' such a financial
system would have secured to us the
ne?hs of success, even without an
?xtraordinary importation of arms
ind the immediate organization of.
large armies. It would have given'
the Confederacy a treasury richer than
that of the Uuited States. We should
thus have had, to the end ot the war,
the means of paying our soldiers;
and that Would have enabled such of
them as belonged to the laboring class
to remain in the ranks. This class,
in the Confederacy as in all other
countries, formed the body of
the army. In all the earlier part
of the war, when the Confeder
ate money was not much. below that
of. the United States in. value, our
troops were paid with some regulari
ty, and the soldiers of the laboring
class who had families fed and clothed
them with their pay, as they had
formerly done with the wages of
their labor. And- so long as that
state of things continued the strength
of the Confederate armies was little
?impaired; and those armies were
maintained on such a footing as to
justify the hope, which was general
in the South until the Fall of 1864,
that
WE WEBE TO WIN IN THE CONTEST.
But after the Confederate currency
B ! ' ~~ HWiliiiiml worthlesa irhrn
l?'BD?cllerTr-ia^tU.'s1 pp ?'?^T^a^tcar c e -
ly buy one meal for his family-and.
that was the case in all the last pe
riod of ten or twelve months-those
soldiers'of the laboring class who had
families were compelled to choose be
tween their military services and the
?strongest obligations men know
their duties to wives and children.
They obeyed the strongest of those
obligations, left the army and re
turned to their homes to support
their families. The wretched im
pressment laws deprived the army of
many valuable men of a ckss less poor
than that just referred to. Those
laws requited the impressment of all
articles of military necessity that
could be purchased. The Govern
ment had the power of regulating
? the prices? to be paid bv it for all
I such commodities; and its cominis
Isionera appointed for the purpose
I fixed them much below the market
lvalues. No one would sell to the
(Government, of course, when he
'could get fi om his neighbor* twice
the Government price lor his horses
oi-grain; consequently tin-officers ul'
the Government Could never pur
chase, but had always to procure sup
pi i es by impressment. Nu ru es tor
their guidance were prescribed ; none
at least that were observed by them
or known to the public, ami they
were tubjet-tud tv nw KI> Jv-i-y >-iou . '.-VII I
the property of Confederate cTtTzeTTS ' -
applicable to military purposes was,
therefore, under their absu.lutc Con
trol.
TUE BAD AND INDIFFERENT OFFICERS
impressed what they were culled
upon to furnish, in the manner least
inconvenient to themselves, usually
on the nearest plantations or farms,
or those where opposition was not to
be apprehended. The farms of sol
diers were generally under the man
agement ot women, and therefore
were not unusually drawn upon for
much more than their proportion.
Hence it was not uncommon for a
soldier to be written to by his wife
that so much of the food he had pro
vided for herself and his children
had been impressed ; that it was
necessary that he should return to
save them from suffering or starva
tion. Such a summons, it may well
be supD08ed, was never unheeded.
The sufferings of the soldiers them
selves, produced by the want ol'
proper clothing, drove many of the
least hardy out of the ranke. Want
of food also ia said to have had the
same effect, especially in the army
before Richmond in the last Winter
of the war. It was by such cau>es,
all due to.un. empty tieasury, that
our armies-were so reduced in the
last months of the war. As to the
charge of want of loyalty or zeal in
the war, I assert, from as much op
portunity for observation as.any in
dividual had, that no people ever dis
played so much under such circum
stances, and with so little flagging
for so long a time continuously. This
was proved by
THE LONG "SERVICE OF TH? TROOPS
without pay and under exposure to
such hardships, from the c uses above
mentioned, as modern, troops have
rarely endured ; by the voluntary
contributions of food and clothing
sent to the armies, from every district
that furnished a regiment; by. the
general and continued submission of
the people to the' tyranny of the im
pressment system as practiced-such
a tyranny, I believe, as no other
high-spirited people ever endured
and by the sympathy aud aid given
in every house to all professing to be
long to the army or to be on the way
to join it. And this spirit continued
not only after all hope of success had
died, but after the final confession of
defeat by their military commanders.
But. even if the men of the South
had not been zealous in the cause,
the patriotism of their mothers, aud
wives, and sisters, would have in
spired them with zeal or shamed
them into iu manifestation. The wo
men of the South exhibited that feel
ing wherever i J could be exercised
in the arrufes by-distributing.clothing
made with their own hands, at the
railroad stations and their own home*,
by fe% ding the marching soldiers,
and, above.all, in the hospitals, where
they rivaled Sisters of Charity. I
am happy in the belief that their
devoted patriotism and gentle charity
are to be richly rewarded.
The Reply of Ex-Secretary Itlem
miuger to Gea. Joe Johnston?
A FOBCIBLE DEFENCE OF THE FISCAL
POLICY OF THE CONFEDEEATE GOV
ERNMENT.
CHARLESTON, Mar. 27,1874. .
To the Editor of the Neios & Courier:
. I observe by your paper of yester
. day, which extracts a passage from
Gen. Johnston's book, thtithe fdljows .
I the anot?nt example of our forefather
6 fruit ofITgen
er?i.U?>?fl?B [y^b-me other p?ruo?>
?Teat^B K: ^nJni-? of the South
ern Con?t^|H^ftQ tlie blunder of
the Groverrjjtuen}, a^its first institu
tion, in n?V possessing. itself of the
cotton crop th?vT? in the binds of the
planters. ?l?5>eottou (according to
the 6enera?#?buld have bien ship
ped in antuW^ion of the blockade,
and it woui?T?heii have Ittrnisbed-a
basis for future:credit.' As I waa-ftt
that time ID charge of the Treasury
Department, the responsibility of this
failure would rest chiefly on me; and
you will theiSgjf^e not consider it out
of place that Ifould correct .misap
{irehensions wliiih seem tohave mrs
ed yoursejf^??a^l a . Gen. Johnston.
The Go(?0Ufc Government was
organized in IJ??ruary, the blockade
was instituted,in May, thus leaving
a period of jf?ee months in which
the whole cotton crop ou,, hand, say
foui milk?s*-*?. bales, ought, accord
titi* to the military financier, to have
*&jaen got into the hands of the Con
federate GW^nment, and to have
been shipped'abroad.. This would
have reqmre^p fleet of four thous
and ships.'TS?orong one thousand bales
to the ship?5?Vbere would these ves
sels base bflf^procured, in the face
of the notification of the blockade ?
and was nojjjas) much of the cotton
shipped by p^ate enterprise as could
have beenJgB?feed by the govern
ceeds-of '^e^o^vere in most cases
sold to thflt^ernment in the shape
of bills ofep?bai)ge. The superior
advantage ?gfejs plan is evinced by
the fact tha?jjjtliroughout the year,
the governz?wt exchanged its own
notes for bills\ on England at par,
with which itpaid for all its arms
aud muuitiomnof war.
Of course fi?k vast amount of cot
ton could only have been procured in
one of three ways-by seizure, by
purchase or by. donation.
Certainly no one, at the first incep
tion of the Confederacy, would have
ventured to propose to seize upon the
crop then in the hands of the plan
ters, and which furnished their only
means of subsistence.
Could it not; then, have been pur
chased ?
At thc commencement of the gov
ernment the treasury hud not funds
to pay for the jabb- on which .the sec
retary was wnlnig; arid the first, pur
chases of the Government made
abroad were made on thu private
draft of ihe secretary. There wu.?
not to be found, in thc whole Con
federacy, a sheet ol b ink note paper
on which to print a note Eoreua.-t
ing this need, the secretary had or
dered, from ?llglainl. a consignment
ol', note paper and lithouruphic ina
tevia**. thuAg^l uwithining winch
ivvui capto.'*?** ^u?r roe-Ttrgrr stfas", 'Tint'
many of the friends of the lute Col.
Evans, of our- city, will remember
that he nearly -lost hi.% lite in the at
tempt to briug across the lines .>. sin
gle parcel of note paper. It is with
in the memory ul the printers of I
these notes, that months elapsed be- '
fore bonds or notes could be engraved
and printed; and these constituted
our entire currency. How, then, was
the cotton to be paid for?
And when the mechanical diflicul
ties were overcome, the financial pre
sented an equal barrie!-. 1 he scheme
for raising money, adopted by Con
gress, was to issue Conf?d?ral.!.' notes,
funding the redundant notes iu in
terest-bearing bonds; and all pay
ments at the treasury .vere made
with these notes. The daily demands
on the treasury exceeded greatly the
means of .supply. Now, il instead ol'
applying the notes lu the daily pay
ments required at the treasury they
had ben used to puicha.se cotton, the
treasury would have found itself fill
ed with cotton, without any money
to meet the wants pf the government
uutil that cotton ^:ould be shipped
abroad and sold.
If, instead of payment in notes,
the bonds of the government had
beeb used to purchase the cotton
crop,1 S?ieiS tonds would hilve been
thrown in the market to meet the ne
cessities of the planters, and their
value as a means of funding the sur
plus currency would have been de
stroyed. It is obvious to any one ac
quainted with finance, that this would
have broken down the Confederate
currency within the first year of its
existence. Whereas the plan pur
sued sustained the credit of the Con
federacy until brazen down by ca
lamities under which no credit could
survive.
The. only remaining mode in which
the cotton could have been procured
by the government was by donation
from the planters. So far was this
donatiou from being pussible, that
the treasury actually had to issue a
circular iu response to applications to
the government for aid tathe plant
ers in making loans to them, and not
a bale of the crop of that year1 was
contributed to the government. An
effort was made to get pledges of the
next year's crop in exchange for
bonds of the government. ??o accom
plish this it was deemed necessary to
allow the planters to ge their own
price through their own factors, with
out allowing the government to fix
its price, and the whole amount thus
pledged did not reach fifty millions,
or about two months' expenses of the
governuvenJ^of which perhaps one
third wasi?ever received.
Every one conversant with the
politics of the day knows that it was
the current expectation that the
blockade could not be continued for
a year. The Confederate Congress
were so informed when they-adopted
the ioternational agreement as to pri
vateers. The Government. of the
United States equally supposed that
the war would be of short duration,
as is apparent from President Lin
coln's proclamation calling for troops
for ninety days. There could, there
fore, be no motive to induce the Con
federate Government to store np cot
ton as a basis of credit. When it be
came apparent that the blockade and
the war tyould continue, the govern
ment theu made arrangements for
using cot ton as the basis of a loan ;
and the large foreign cotton loan ne
gotiated jin Europe by-Messrs. Erlah-;
ger furnished abundant resources to
the, goveTnment: for.its supplies from
abroad. But even to *ne lasfcitBpow
"?? over the crop was restricted by th
-lttjwuiuuii<?<;.^k^,Li ynjiriY***0 fc&ftj
which could not be pnix-n aWojrt- ?il
At no time that I am aware of wa
it in the power of the government t<
get possession of the cotton crop, un
less it had seized the same by force
and by the same force compelled pay
ment in a depreciated currency; i
high-handed course which could nev
'er receive the sanction of the states
men who administered our govern
ment. The only ar proximation to i
was in the shape of a tax in kine
when the currency failed to commanc
supplies, and which was made as jus
and equal as any other tax.
The truth is, that if Gen. john
ston's recollections of history were ai
vivid as his knowledge of military
tactics is great, instead of censuring
the financial administration of th<
Confederate Government, he woulc
have discovered no instance on recorc
where a war of such dimensions, in a
constantly decreasing territory, hai
been sustained for four years by mer<
financial expedients, without the aid
usually derived from taxes-for ii
the whole Confederate war but one
general war tax was levied, and ?
great portion of that was never col
lected. C. G. ME MU INGER.
I append, as part of the history ol
the times, one ol the circulars of the
treasury department on this subject
CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA. '
"TREAST/KY DE7AKTM??TT.
RICHMOND, Oct. 15, 1861.
The Commissioners Appointed lo Re
ceive Subscriptions to the Product
Loan :
GENTLEMEN-Inquiries have been
made from various quarters
ii Whether during the'eontinuance
of the blockade, effort should be made
to procure further subscriptions.
. 2. Whether the government will
authorize promises to be held out ol
aid to the planters, as an inducement
to such further subscriptions.
The first inquiry seems to imply a
misunderstanding of the scheme cf
the subscriptions. Many persons
have supposed that the government
was to have some control of the pro*
duce itself; others that the time of
sale appointed by the subscription
was to be absolute and unconditional.
The caption at the head of the lists,
when examined, will correct both
these errrors. The subscription is
confined to the proceeds of sales, and
contains an order on the commi-sion
merchant or-factor of the p'anter to
pay over to the treasurer the amount
subscribed, in exchange for Confed
er te li ?mis. The transaction is .sim
ply an agreement by the planter to
lend the government so much money;
ami, in order to complete the trans
action, a tin?e and place are appoint
ed wu efl nm! "Wtrere -tue patries- msy
meet to cany it out. The important
point is, that it shall certainly be
completed at some time, and that is
secured by the engagement of the
planter. vVnether that time be De
cember or June is simply a question
of convenience, and works no injury
to either party. The government is
sure of ibo eventual payment, and
derives from that certainty so much
credit; arid it loses nothing, because
it giws its bond only when the money
is paid.
It is obvi us, therefore, that the
subscriptions arc quite as valuable to
the g-r. eminent during the blockade
as alter it. The blockade simply sus
pends the completion of the engage
ment. It becomes the interest of
both parties to wait for a good price,
and the government will readily con
sent to a postponement of the sale.
You perceive, therefore, that it is
desirable to continue your exertions
to increase the subscriptions; and you
are authorized to say that the "overn
rneut will consent to a reasonable ex
tension of the time appoiuted for sales.
2. The next inquiry is as to a prom
ise of material aid from the govern
ment to the planters.
In answering this inquiry, I am to
spettk in advance of any action of
Congress. What that body may see
fit to do, it is not for me to determine
I can express merely the views of this
department, and these must govern
your action, until reversed by a high
er authoi ity. It would be a sufficient
answer to the inquiry, to say, that
the action of the government is set
tled by the constitution. No power
is granted to any department to lend
money for the relief of any interest.
Even the power of Congress in rela
tion to money is confined to borrow
ing, and no clause can be found which
would sanction s > stupendous a scheme
as purchasing the entire crop with ?
view to aid its owners. But it may
be said1 that the constitution of the
Provision? 1 Government may be al
tered by Congress, and that it is the
duty of ?x\< department to prepare
the way for such alteration, if, in its
judgment, the financial necessities of
the country demand the change.
I am not disposed, then, to close
the inquiry with the abrupt answer
thus made by the constitution ; and
will proceed to consider the subject
upon its intrinsic merits.
Two plans of relief have been pro
posed.. The one is that the govern
ment should purchase the entire crop
of the country; the other that an
advance should be made of part of
its value. lu either case the pay
ment is to be made by the issue of
treasury notes, and, therefore, if we
put aside for the preeent the many
and serions objections to the posses
sion ..transportation and management
of the crop by the government, it be
comes simply a question of amount.
To purchase the whole crop would
require its whole value, less the
amount of the subscriptions made to
the government. If we estimate the
whole crop of cotton at two hun ired
millions and the subscriptions at fifty
millions, the purchase would then re
quire one hundred and fifty millions
of treasury notes, and, if to this sum
be added the amount of values for
other agricultural products, which
would certainly claim the same bene
fit, the sam required would probably
reach one hundred and seventy-five
millions.
The amount called for by the other
plan of making an advance would
depend upon the proportion of that
advance. Few of the advocates of
tinton haye, pot it lower than five
cents per pound on cotton,
the same rate on other^profliic
may, ^therefore, T)e7*>?ry;" Sir
down af about one hundred rai
If we consider first, the lei
jectionable ol' these plans, it
tainly that which requires the
est sum; and if this be fonn
practicable, the larger must of
sity be rejected. Oar inquiry,
may be narrowed down to a pr
that the government should issi
hundred millions of treasury
to be distributed among the pit
community upon the pledge <
forthcoming crop.
The first remarkable featu
this scheme is, that it proposes i
new government, yet strugglin
existence, should reject all the li
of experience and undertake
which no government, liowevei
established, has yet succeed*
effecting. The " organization <
bor" has called forth many inge
attempts, both speculative and
ti cal, among well-established go
men ts, but always with di s as
failure. With us, however, tb
p?riment is proposed to a.new
ernment, which is engaged in
gantic war, and which must re
credit to furnish means to carr
that war. Our enemies are in pc
sion of all the munitions and v
shops which have been collect?e
ring forty-five years of peace
fleets have been built up at our.
expense. With all these on 1
they yet are obliged to expend i
ly ten millions ol' dollars per i
to carry on the war. Can we ea
to contend with them at less
half that expenditure ? Suppc
that it may require two hundred
lions ol' dollars ; then the propos
that at a time when we are ct
upon to raise this large sum foi
support of the government, we t
raise a further sum of one hum
millions for the benefit of the pl
ing interest.
For it most be observed, first,
the government receives no bei
whatever from this advance,
money is paid to each indivi
plaoter, and in exchange the goy
ment receives only his bund or i
-or, if the cotton be purchased,
goverument receives only certain b
of cotton. That is to say, the <
ernment pays out inouey whici
needtul to its very existence, and
ceives in exchange planters' note
produce, which it does nut need ?
cannot in any way make use uf.
lt. must be observed, in thu, II
place, iliat treasury notes have i
become tue currency ut ihe ctuu
They are, therefore, at present,
measures uf valu?, lu thia vie\
is the duty ut the guvcrument to 1
it their issue, as tar. as practical
*-1-tii?Mtn,Hfrt which.Is the^iijrai
its currency. Every person acquai
ed with this branch of political i
ence is aware that if the currei
passes this point it not only becoi
depreciated, but it disturbs tue j
relations of society precisely as thoi
an arbitrary authority should chai
the weights and measures of :
country. If the currency of a coi
try should be suddenly extent
fronrone hundred to two huudi
millions of dollars, that which v
measured by one dollar is now me
ured by two, and every article m
be rated at twice its former pri
Of course all contracts are disturb
The debt incurred before the increi
is discharged by paying one-hall
former value ; and each article pi
chased must be paid for at double
former price. The government, fr<
the necessities of war, is the larg?
purchaser, and thus, "by a kind
suicidal act, compels itself to pay t
dollars for what one would have f<
merly purchased. And, at this ra
of advance, two hundred millions
dollars ean^affect no more than o
hundred millions of dollars wou
have effected before ; or, in otb
words, one hundred millions of di
lars are actually sunk in the oper
tion.
Such a condition of the currenc
the government has anxiously e
deavored to guard against. The w
tax was laid for the purpose of ere
ting a demand for treasury notes, ur
a security for their redemption. Tl
redundancy has been carefully guan
ed against by allowing them to t
funded in eight per cent, bonds,
necessity shall compel the goveri
ment to issue.for the defence of tl
country and to keep out two bund re
millions, it is plain that every accei
sion must impair and may defeat a
these precautions.
If the government should unde;
take, for the sake of private inter?s
so large an increase of issues, it ma
hazard its entire credit and stability
The experiment is too dangerous, an
relief tor the planters muot be sough
in some other direction. And ma
not the remedy be found ?
In the first place, let the plant?i
immediately take measures lor wie
ter crops, to relieve the demand fo
grain and provisions. Let them prc
ceed to divert part of their labo
from- cotton, and make their o wi
clothing and supplies. Then let ther
apply to the great resource pr?sente*
by the money capital in banks ant
private hands. Let this capital com
forward and assist the agricultura
interest. Heretofore the banks havi
employed a large part of their cap?
tal in the purchase of Northern ex
change. Let them apply this por
tion to factors acceptances of planter*
draft-: secured by the pledge of th
produce in the plauters' hands. Ai
extension of the time usually allowee
on these drafts would overcome mos
of the difficulties. The extension
could safely reach the probable tiin<
of sale of the crops, inasmuch as thu
suspension of specie payments through'
out the entire Confederacy relieve!
each bank from calls for coin. The
banks are accustomed to manage loam
of this character, and will- conduct
the operation with such skill as will
make them mutually advantageous.
The amount of advance asked iron:
the banks would be greatly less than
if advances were offered by the gov
ernment ; and all the abases incident
to government agencies would bc
avoided.
It seems to me, therefore, that it is
neither necessary nor expedient that
the government should embark upon
[ ?bia dangerous experiment. It is fur
I better that each class of tbe.,c^prau
..nity should* ?n(ie*vor f?-e?eu% .ita
lfoWn existence by its own exertions,
and if an effort be at once made . by
so intelligent a class as the planters,
it wiil result in relief. ?elay in
these efforts occasioned by vague ex
pectations of relief from the govern
ment, which cannot be realize!, may
defeat that which is yet practicable.
Respectfully, your obedient servant,
0. G. MEMMINGEE,
Secretary of the Treasury. ?
-.-,
The Confed?rale Collapse.
A CRITICAL EXAMINATION OF THE
FACTS CITED BY GEN. JOHNSTON,
IN SUPPORT OF HIS VIEWS OP THE
CAUSE OP THE FAILUEE OP THE
SOUTH.
To the Editor of the News <? Courier :
The News dc Courier, quoting from
the forthcoming work of Gen. John
ston, gives us the views of the au
thor as fo the canse of our failure.
Those who ascribed it " to the supe
rior population and greater resources
of the ? orthern States," and those
who attributed our defeat to " a want
of perseverance, unanimity and even
of loyalty on Our own part," are, in
my view, says the general, both "far
wrong." We are inclined to believe,
there is now a third party wrong."
The Confederate Government, the
general thinks, had the means of fill
ing its treasury, but the "government
rejected those means." " The neces
sity of actual money in the treasury,
and the mode of raising it, were gen
erally understood in the country. It
was that the government should take
the cotton from the owners and: send
it to Europe as fast as possible, to be
sold there. This was easily practi
cable, for the owners were ready to
accept any terms the. government
might fix, and sending to Europe was
easy in all the first year of the Con
federacy's existence. Its government
went into operation early in Febru -
ry. The blockade of the Southern
ports was proclaimed in May, bot
was not at all 'effective until the end
of the following wiuter, so that there
was a period ol .about.twelve mon t bs
for the operation of converting four
million or five million. bale8:?of cotton
into money. The sum raised >.? thai
way would have enabled the war de
p irtment to procure at once a?ins
enough for five hundred thousand
men ; and after that the Confederate
treasury would have beeu much rich
er than that ot' the United States."
Let us examine the laois ai j ion
which this theory rests, and rriihour
i be supp rt of which it must, necessa
rily fall to the ground. Tue '< crop
of cott"U available lor this schemi?
must necessarily havedjeeu' that of
1860-61. lt could hot have been the
crop of which the seed was Jiot yet
put in thu ground when the govern
ment was formed at Montgomery,
What was theo the crop of 1860?-61 ?
Was it 4,0.00,' 00 to 5,000,000 leales,
I anti was it accessible for immediate
exportation ?
The crop of 1860-61 was officially sta
ted at ?,849,000 bales.
Of tills quantity the eon s ump- j
tiou of the Southern States
took off ? 193,000 bales.
Leaving for exportation 3,656,000 hales.
Let us now see what proportion
of this quantity was available in the
way described by Gen. Johnston.
Up to the 28th of February, the
month that gave birth, to the infant
government, 3,000,000 bales hadibeen
received at the seaports, and the
great bulk of it had been exported
to Europe or been sold to the ?New
England spinners. By the let of
May 586,000 bales more had j been
received and sold. England and the
Continent took 3,127,OOoh)ales
The Now England spinners 654,000 bales.
It will thus be seen that before the
new government was fairly organized
the entire crop was already beyond
its reach.. Another crop lollow?d, it
is true, but no part of it was ready
for market before the month of [Sep
tember ensuing. This all will agree
in ; and they will also agree that the
exportation in any quantity was an
absolute impossibility. There were
no vessels in the ports pf the Confed
eracy ; the last had left before the
expiration of the sixty days allowed
to foreign tonnage under the block
ade proclamation. The only vessels*
that took out cotton after that time
were the foreign steamers that ran
the-blockade to ..-procure cargoes of
cotton for the owner?. * They ?carne
in small numbers, and one or two at
a time; Had the government seized
one of tbem for its oWn uss, or pre
vented them from leaving " with cot
ton, they would have ceased to come.
IT.
The Atlanta Seraldmys : Joseph
LeConte, who was taken to the Paci
fic Slope some years ago by; the
tempting oner of a high position in
the California University, has made
up his mind to return to Georgia, and
Will carry out that intention at an
early day. Georgia is always ready
to reclaim her exiled sons, and she
recovers a lost treasure in such' men
as LeConte. And be comes id the
nick of time, for the State has* use
for him. We have" never communi
cated with the Governor on the sub
ject, and have no knowledge of his
intention, but we would suggest that
if Professor LeConte will accept, he
cannot make a better selectio? for
State Geologist, created, by the last
Legislature. He has all the scienti
fic qualifications necessary, for the
position, while to develop the wealth
and. greatness of his native State
would be to hun a labor of love.
fgf Many Roman Catholics hove been
deterred from joining Granges on account
of a canon cf their church which forbids
connection with secret societies. A Cath
olic member of the Minnesota Legisla
ture recently applied to Bishop Grace for
leave to enter tho order, and the Bishop
referred the question to the Pope, who
replied that the petitioner might join ii
he found.nothing the^i :> conf?c?ng with
his conscience or creed.
jS?f" Where shall I put ttds paper so aa
to be sure of finding it to-morrow ?" in
quired Mary Jane of her brother Charles;
"On the looking-glass," was her broth
er's reply.
r r ...t.-:- ,:o j.
lt y ./
iii
I
.FOR SALE BY
E. E. JONES & CO.
192 BROAD STREET,
THE BEST STOVE
IN THE MARKET.
^ Augusta, Ga., Mmj
SOLUBLE PACIFIC GUA
WE take pleasure in am iou
our friends that we have i
the Agency for Edgcfield and I.CX?ML
Counties for this excellent and sfcuidart*
Guano. Will keep ample stockaorimnd*?
at the several Depots along ti ic line of
C. C dc A. R. R.
Planters can have their orders lilied
through R. B. <fc T. WATSON,
Ridge Spriug.
CLINTON WARD,
Ward's T. 0;^.
J. M. RUSHTON,
Johnston's.
J. MONROE WISE,
Pine House.
HUI KT & BATES,
Batcsville, S. C.
Mar. 25, 4t 14
REGULATOR
T-HE FAVOflME HOME REMEDY.
This unrivalled kedicluu is w?rrantod not lo con?
?iln a t\utlk p irrlcv iii Mr.c?;tnnr, JOT any Injurioua
mim r ?UulMinjic?-..but is . ?-- - ^
PURELY VEGETABLE.
Conlafnin? thoa?:k>uilierui"ti?<rti*??Hja
oil al.'-wiic Providence lis* ?..'?H'.II in t<
Liver DUa*ce mort preta/'. It will cornall DJ
eas?* caused by Derangement of tho Liver and
Bowels.
Simmons' Liver Relator, or Medicine,
ls eminently a. Family Medicine; ainl by I>eiug k
reidy fur immediate re*>ri will -ree many-au hour
f suffering uud nuuiy a ?lullar m time bini doctor*1
bills. ' .
After over F'Wty Yvor*' iriaMt la Atilt receiving Ute
moat nnijnalifledteati montais to Ut virtues Hmm per
sona of ibo highest character and responsibility. Eml
uent physicians commend il as thc mont -
EFFECTUAL SPECIFIC
For Dyspepsia **or Indigestion.
Armed willi Ulfa ANTIDOTE, all climates and
chang?s ?if water and food majvlM* fared without fear.
A4 a Kemi-dy In MALARIOUS FEVERS. BOW KL
oM PLAINTS, lit?TLKSSNFSS, JAUNDICE,
NAUSEA, .
IT HAS NO.EQTJAL.
It is the Cheapest, Pnn-*t :md Ki-st-Famlly Medicine
in the World!
M.VNUKACTUEKD otrtx BV
J. II. ZRIL12V & CO., .
Xi ACON. OA., ?.id PHILADELPHIA.
Price, $LO0. Sold by all Ihxggists.
Ftb. 17. " ly 9
~ S. COHEN,
176 Broad Street,
Augusta, tia.,
BEitS leave to inform
. the people Qf Edge-. .
Held that he is receiving
a large assortment of
Watches, Mocks, Jewel]
GUNS, PISTOLS,
MUSICAL INSTIRUMEJ?
CUTLERY, NOTIONS/ .
F ANj&Y^JTJO DS, <fcc.
.^^Watches, Clocks and Jewelry rev,
paired at short notice, and warranted. \*JF
:-Also -r
On hand an Extensive Assortment of
DRY GOODS,
CLOTHING^
Boots, Shoes, Hat*, &?,
All of which he-wUl sell lower than any <
other House throughout the Southern
States. Give h im a-call and con vince
yourself. . . .r???*?
No trouble to show Goods;
Remember the place-1J6 BroacTStreet
_Aug27_._/\_ lv36
PIM ???TH?
Are 'tinually receiving
LARGE AND COMPLETE STOCKS
- Of- .
New Furniture !
I -. . I Aft) . ?
Comprising all the
LATEST STYI.ES AND PATTERN'
--Of
Parlor, Chamber, Dining Room
And
OFFICE FURNITURE
'FROM THE HIGHEST GRAD]
TO THE LOWEST.
And consists of every "article ?f FURNl?
TURE required to furnish :a He
Office complete.
Call and examine at our Wari
Undertaking-!
Always on hand, at thelowest pricf*, ^
Beautiful Caskets amt l'as<iSA *
Of our own manufacture.
PLATT JBBOTHEKS,
212 and 214 Broad Street,^
AUGUSTA, GA.
Julv2 iy
FBiffOH S?OEEI
?r. RIVA;
J 230 BRO AB St., AUGUSTA,- <G A.
(Under Central HoteL)
KEEPS constantly in Store a splenc
assortment of
CANDIES, CAKES, FR?FJ
NUTS.CANNEDGOODS,? . iLj
BASKETS; WINES." LIQUORS, *
ICE CREAM, WEDDIN/* CAKES
Which he is offering at reduced Pxii
CANDY MANUFACTORY
Augusta, Ga., Mar. ll.. irxr
? 4P'

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