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THOS. J. ADAMS, PROPRIETOR.
EDGEFIELD, S. C., THURSDAY, OCTOBER 26, 1893. _ - r-? ----- 4> VOL. LVIII. NO. 39. BRANDING TEXAS STEERS, HARDEST PIECE OF WORK IN THE GOW BUSINESS. Duties bf the Ropers, Bulldoggers and Punchers-A Queer Thing About Brands ' is the hardest piece rork that a man in cow business has to do?" "Well," remarked Joseph Keith, of Bolcherville, Texas, who certainly has been at the business long enough to know what he is talking about, "there are a good many things he has to do that haven't much fun in them. Stand ing guard in tho rain or liding around 'em on a dark night would neither one be considered a picnic by most people, but when it comes right down to sweating and tugging and good old hard words, I believo branding beats any job I ever tackled, Perhaps the reader may be; as I was, a littlo inclined to wonder how the mere making of marks on a cow's hide can involve any really hard man ual labor ; but if he once learns the j details of the process all wonder on J this point will cease. Ke will learn, j furthermore, that it requires not only )' muscular strength, but experience and Courage and brains. The average hard-working Missouri farmer would find it about as hard to make a suc cess of branding cattle in Texas as at building ships in Maine. Of course, in order to brand cattle One must have havo the proper tools. Branding irons are of two kinds 'stamping irons and dotting irons. ! The former consists of a wrought-iron stamp containing all the characters in the brand. For instance, if tho brand Were X I T, there would be un iron Stamp composed of these three letters, With an iron handle running back from some convenient point, as the middle of the L These stamps were formerly much in use, but have now become almost completely abandoned, except among the very largest outfit3. Their place has been takeu by the dot ting irons, whicn consist merely of a straight iron rod and a half circle with a long handle attached. "With these two implements any letter in the alphabet can be made, and an as tonishingly large variety of other characters as well. For instance, the reader can easily understand how the X I T outfit makes its brand by five applications of the straight rod. "?" requires one application of the straight rod and two of the half cir cle. This may not make a very beau tiful B, but it makes one which any child that knows its letters would be apt to recognize. If more elaborate designs axe wanted, the simple dot ting irons are found sufficient to pro duce them. The straight rod is gen erally about a yard long, and has a ring in j the \handle end. Tee handle to tho half circle is about the Bame length. They are generally IU-A in ???fcigfe ?ie oa. the open prairie, though on the large ranches there is sometimes a furnace built es pecially for the purpose. For K-.:rv?."ug any class of cattle properly at least four men are re quired. Of these four, one is the roper, two aro bulhloggers, and the fourth is the puncher. As I am writ ing in the English language, I take it for granted that my English-speaking readers all have a perfectly accurate idea of what these words mean. O: course, we all know that a roper ?3 one who ropes. If necessary, one man can do all the roping required, but two men do better. The roper throws his lariat around the neck of some animal to be branded, and then, by the main strength of his horse, hauls it np with in a reasonable distance of the fire. The horse he rides is called the cut ting horse. He is called tho cutting horse, not because he can cut, but be cause he is used in cutting ont cattle from thc herd. Some idea of the hard ness of the work may be derived from the fact that during the branding sea son each roper is allowed from ten to twelve horses for his own individual use. When the roper has driven and dragged the steer to be branded to the usual place, he turns him over to the bulHoggers. These men catch hold of the animal and hold him while the puncher applies the hot iron. Does the reader imagine that he and some other man like him could tackle a big full-grown Texas steer and hold him down? Possibly they could if they knew how, but knowing how is the trouble. Even one good able-bodied man can do so if he can manage to get the right kind of grip. Usually, when there is ouly one bulldogger, he plants his knees squarely in the flanks of his prostrate victim, passes tho animal's tail back between its legs, and grips it firmly with both hands. It might ho well for the reader to remember this tho next time he wants to hold a vicious cow down. The attitude may not be a very graceful one, but ir. gives the man a death-like grip on the brute. The horns may toss viciously and the forefeet pound away at a vindictive rate, but as long as the grip on ine tail holds the hinder quarters stay close to the ground. It is hard on tho cow, but it is al30 hard on the muscular strength of the mau who does the hold ing. For this reason the bulhloggers generally work in pairs. One of them takes tho grip just described, while the other one grasps a fore hoof of the animal in each hand, as if iu the fervor of a double handshake. When it is a colt that is being branded tho atti tudes are varied. One man holds the head down, ur .sits on it, white the other sits down Hat on the ground and grasps the upper one of its hind legs firmly in both hands. One might think that for two men to hold a caft down is not very hard work, but when it comes to doing so for hour after hour the work becomes exhausting. Even at best the bulldogger's position lacks a grrtat deal of being a sinecure. The time of year when most cattle are branded is in the spring or fal!. Most of the calves are of suitable ag? in the fall, but for grown cattle the spring is preferred, because they shed most of their superfluous hair then. Calves arc branded any time after they are two weeks old, but from three to six months is tho usual age. Stock men say that a full yearling is the hardest animal they have to brand. If any man thinks one at that age isn't tough aud muscular just let him try to hold one down. There is one pecu liar feature about branding calves; and opinions in regard to its cause vary widely. Sometimes when a yoting calf is branded the brand will grow a3 the calf grows and when the animal is full grown will be fully twice as large as it was originally. Then, again, some times it will remain just as it is, not growing a particle. This seems to me really a remarkable phenomenon, but it is undoubtedly a fact. Some stock men account for it by saying that it depends upon whether tho calf is branded in the dark or the light of the moon, while others are inclined td think it depends more upon the depth to which the branding iron burns the hide. It is a fact that branding is sometimes done much more deeply than at others. If the iron is hotter than it ought to be-red hot, for inst ance-the hair may catch fire and a needlessly sore place bo made on the animal. If it is just hot enough, an application for two seconds is long enough. If the iron is getting cold, it may be kept on the animal for half a minute. Sometimes the bulldogger have to hold tho animal down for ten or fifteen minutes, while the puncher goes and heats his irons a second time. Perhaps the reader understands by this time that branding a big herd in volves a large element of real, bard work. Ho should also understand that in selecting a new brand, a cattle man has to exercise a good deal of dis? criminating judgment. To originate a really good brand is about as hard as to devise a catching title for a modern book or story. In fact a now brand is selected very much as is the title of a modern novel. It is not ce:- j essary that either one should mean anything in particular, provided only it is something nobody uses. To get an altogethrr new brand in Texas is now a very difficult feat. Every letter in thc alphabet has been used long ngo, many combinations of letters, and all reasouablo combinations of figuress. A man must bo very hard up when he would devise one like this i (7777). A student, by the way, would read that ' 'seven thousand seven hund red and seventy seven in parentheses, " but the cowman calls it "four sevens in brackets." Sirrilar ones are as ?oh* lowt,: (9999), (663). These three are well-known brands iu actual use in Western Texas-St. Louis Globe-De* mocrat. SELECT SIFTINGS. Liverpool, England, ships 40,003 tons of salt yearly to Africa. Naval salutea to the flag are as old as the time of Alfred the Great. Percussion caps wero first used in the United States army in 1830. Every gem known to jewelers has been found in the United States. Breast-plates inlaid with gold were found in an armorer's shop in Hercu? lanenm. An onyx seal ring belonging to an ancient Athenian was latley dug up a*w-Athens.-? There recently died in Maine a man who had spent forty-seven years in au insane asylum. Six hundred and ten pairs of twins were born in Boston in 1393, and nino sets of triplets. Several flutes, still capable of mak ing music, have been taken from the Egyptian catacombs. The Emperor of China has had two astronomers put to death for getting drunk va the night of an eclipse. At the Bombay (India) Zoological Gardens the skin of a sea serpent sixty four feet in length is on exhibition. The. White House, at Washington, has cost the Governmont in repairs and maintenance about.$2,500, OOO. The skin of a rattlesnake exhibited at Jefferson, Ga., is seventy-nine inches in length and has twenty-one rattles attached. A pair of shears with blades ten inches long is among the 6poils of Pompeii. The instrument belonged to a tunic maker. New Yorkers are said fco prefer oys ters that have laid for some little tima m fresh water, as it makes them plump and white. A black basalt statue covered with fine inscriptions has been found on the site of the great palaco of tho kings of Babylon, where Belshazzar held his feast. Mrs. Joseph Donnally, of Evergrc ? o, Ohio, died from the effects of rain water which she drank. The water was caught from a roof that had re* cently been painted with white lead. A baby boru to Mrs. Hales, of Knox ville, Teun., weighed only one pound aud six ounces when three weeks old. At the age of seven months and two weeks the child weighed fivo and one half pounds. During a recent thunderstorm near Vienna, Austria, hailstones fell so thickly that the railroad tracks near by were covered to a depth of threo feet, thereby impeding travel for many hoars. In the house of aPompciian sculptor were found ^thirty-two mallets, fifteen compasses, three levers, several chisels, together with jacks for raising blccks, and nearly thirty statues and busts, in every stage of manufacture. Shells were tho original trumpets of mankind. The fishermen of New foundland blow a Strombus gigac as a foghorn ; the Welsh once employed the same shell as a dinner call, and tho miners of the Guernsey granite quarries used it as a blasting signal. While digging at the foot of an an cient tumulus near Kertch, in the Crimea, a workman carno across tho colossal figuro of a lion carved out of tho finest white marble and of the best Greek workmanship. This interest ing effigy, which is over seven foet in length, weighs about 6even hundred weight. The Dogs ol Paris. Late returns show that Paris hna 30,000 registered dogs, or one to every tweuty-eight inhabitants. The larg 2?t number are in the poorest quar ters of the city. It cost S2,()0U,000 per annum to feed them, but the dogs in turn nffbrd a living to twenty-fivo inauufacturers of collars and rauzzleE, four bakers of dog's bread, fivo fac tories where dog biscuits, consisting af meat fibre, are made; threo special log pharmacies, a dozen infirmaries ind two dog hospitals.-Chicago Her lld. j OVER THE STATE. INTERESTING BITS OF NEWS PICKED UP AT RANDOM And Boiled Down iii Readable Shape For Hasty Readers. Treasurer Bates is feeliug good over the rise in price of 6tato bondj>? the last four a ?alfs being sold for 104J. Clerks Bartlett, of the railroad com mis8ionfc?.:., office, ie busy prepariug the reports of the commissioners for tho month of July, August; Septem ber, October and November. Tho July report will be issued in a few days. Chief Clerk Laval, of the treasury, says that notwithstanding the exten sion of tho time for the payment of taxes considerable money has already been received at the office, and iu amount compares very favorably with preceding years. Another ono of tho train wreckers on the Short Cut bas been arrested and has been lodged in jail at Flor ence. His name is James Love. It is to be hoped the whole gang will be caught soon, and that a good term in the penitentiary will bo tho portion of each ono of them. People generally are wondering when the metropolitan police thum screws arc to be applied, or if they are to bc applied at all. Those nearest the governor express the opinion that he does not wish to put the law iu op eration at all, aud that he will not do so unless ho finds that the polico of the cities and towns do not do what he conceives to be their duty. The constables arc working up the case of the looting of the dispensary at Lewiedale. A telegram has been re ceived 6tating that two hundred and forty-seven bottles of liquor have been recovered by the state's officers. It is charged that the entire stock of avail able liquor wo8 taken out of thc dis pensary and that a good portion of it was found in the yard of an ex-liquor dealer. Tho Charlotto Observer observes: "No mon may now have liquor in South Carolina in any other than a properly labeled dispensary bottle,and this is somethingthat all men liable to go thero should kuow. It is a custom of many men going from home to put a flask of whisky in their grip for fear, ? ' - ?.i.. . * . . - .? ever is guilty of murder Bhall suffer the punishment of death provided, however, that in each case where the prisoner is found guilty of murder the jury may find a spocial verdict recom mending him or her to the mercy of thc court, whereupon the punishment shall bo reduced to imprisonment in the penitentiary with hard labor dur ing line whole lifetime of the prisoner." Adjutant Watts is anxious to have the work tn the Confederate rolls com pleted as soon as possible. He thinks that most of thc companies have sent in their rolls and tho others have been arranged fi.r. It is highly necessary that this important work should bo finished and that the record ?hould be put in some permanent form. As it is the only data that it is to be had of the men who fought for their state duriug the late wur ?6 contained ou sheets of paper that aro filed awav iu a cabinet in the office of the adjutant general. The rolls have never been published, and should anything hap pen to the originals now on file they could hardly bo duplicated. Owing to the refusal of the legisla ture to make any provision for au ex hibit at the Atlanta exposition under state direction, whatever i?? to bo done must be done by the enterprise of the communities and individuals iuter e8ted or who may hereafter become interested in the project. Charleston has taken the lead in the work and will certainly make up a good exhibit of local productB and resources and probably tho best one that will be made. Other communities in the state cannot do better than to unite their forces with Charleston and work with Charleston, so that together we may ninke up a collection that will bo creditable to the state. There is much to bo done and but little timo remains in which to do it. The legislature appropriated S10, 000 to the militia this year, aud under the provisions of tho new law this money will be distributed under tho direction of the board in such a way as may be deemed best. Under the old law it was distributed pro rata, aud tho company having tho largest turnout received the largest slice of the state's appropriation. Thc new law ?8 intend ed to change this, and the chances arc that the money will not be used direct ly by the companies, but will prob ably bo used for tue purchase of uni forms, equipment and such things. Noshing has however been decided in this direction. It is expected that the now appointments willie announced in the course nf the next two wrnkfi At that time the brigadier genoral for the 4th brigado will bc named. Reorganizing tho Militia. It will not be long before tho militia of the state will be reorganized if tho present plans aro carried ont. Under the provisions of the recent act the adjutant general is given very much more authority than ho has heretoforo had, and Adjt. Watts intends to exer cise that authority. Together with the governor and a mnjor general tho adjutant general will undertake thc j organization of tho entire militia lo j snit the idea? of the present officers. It is more than likely that the matter will be largely kit to Adj. Watte, and as Le is yuuirr, f?ll of ambition, and desirous of making something out o' thc militia. Ke intends to get hard at work and sec what if anything can be done. There aro now two hundred aud eleven companies in the volunteer service of the stale. To use an agri cultural pbfase, tho companies will be weeded down to a stand, by reducing thc number to one hundred. The new law provides that the mili tia companies "shall bc distributed among tue several counties of tho state as nearly equal as possible." Under this provision of the law it is intended to divido the state militia, and not concentrate the companies as much as they have been for the past few years. If the plau as conceived is carried out it will act as a boomerang to several ol the counties in which thero are half a dozen cavalry companies, and where thero are as tuauy colored military commands. Tho intention is to divide the huudrcd companies aa nearly among tho counties as eau be done, and then if the commands do not come up to the scratch they will be retired and room will be made for the companies that may he on thc outside waiting. THE CONGRESS. THE NATIONS' LAW-MAKERS RE SUME OPERATIONS. The Proceedings of Both Houses Briefly Epitomized. THE SENATE. The senate re-assembled at noon Thursday after the holiday reee?s of about ten days. About thirty senators were present when Vice-president Ste venson called the body to order and more came in during the reading of tho journal. Mr. Quay, of Pennsylvania, introduced his proposed amend ment to the urgency deficiency bill, amending tho tariff Jaw by striking out all provisions for an income tax and substituting a new wool leu schedule, including a duty on raw wool. At 2 :30 o'clock the eeuato re sumed consideration of the Nicaragua canal bill, Senator Morgan speaking. After the presentation of sundry reso lutions and memerials, Mr. ShermaD, from tho committee on foreign affairs, reported, and the senato passed the resolution heretofore introduced by Mr.-Lodge, of Massachusetts, calling on thc president for the correspond- j ence and other papers relative to the delivery of the United States consul ! at Shanghai of two Japanese ! prisoners to the Chinese authorities, j mi. _ --rent ovc md tho | td ed to t caragHa ie floor but bef jn mot: sf _._0 M HiuN v<uu lavorcu mc ..... motives other than patriotic. Ho ele- J feuded the constitutionality of the present bill, which had been attacked. THE HOUSE. The holiday recess being ended, the house presented an auimated scene as it was called to order by Speaker Crisp Thursday. The galleries were crowded and over half tho members were in their seats. In the diplomatic gallery were the Japanese minister and his secretary and many prominent personages looked down on the foren sic arena from the reserved gallery. After the call of the committees for re ports, Mr. Quigg, republican, of New York, attempted to offer a resolution relating to snlaries in the New York postoffice, but Mr. Springer, in charge of the currency bill, cut him off with a motion to go into committee of the whole for tho further contideration of that bill. Accordingly the house went into committee, of the whole, Mr. Richardson iu the chair, and Mr. Black, democrat, of Georgia, a member of the banking and currency committee, took the floor in favor of the bill PRESIDENTIAL NOMINATIONS. Tho president sent the following nominations to the senate Thursday: Herbert Walcott Bowmen to be United States consul at Barcelona, Spain ; Andrew J. Patterson, of Tennessee, to be consul at Demara, British Guina; T. Frank Clark, of Florida, to be at torney of the United States for tho western district of Florida; Walter P. Stradley, of California, to be commis sioner of immigration at the port of San Francisco. Colonel Normal Lieber, assistant ad vocate-general, to be judge advocate general with tho rank of brigadier general. Lieutenant Commander Franklin Hanf orel to be commander. Past Assistant Engineer Robert W. Gult to be chief engineer. Assistant Engineer H. G. Liepold to bo past as sistant engineer. A LABOR DEMONSTRATION. Shoo Workers Determined to Break Up the Contract System. Haverhill, Mass., witnessed a big labor demonstration Monday forenoon. A procession of shoe workers, num bering four thousand, marched to Chick Bros. and to Spaulding & Swett's shoe factories. At Chick Bros.' factory nearly all women stitch ers, numbering about 125, including those who work in Barrow & Cald well's shoo stiching rooms, in an ad joining building, left their work and carno out. About one hundred men including all the lasters, also came out. About 150 employes quit work at Spaulding & Swett's factory. Upon thc return of tho marchers a mass meeting was held in tho city hall. The shoe workers say they are determined to break up thc contract system ^.d also to secure tho adoption of new price Msts. Will Not Give Up His Office. Surveyor General Bickford, of Wy oming, does not intend to surrender his oiliee to General Thompson, who waa appointed his successor, without a tight. General Thompson has tele graphed friends nt Washington to lgpfc after his interests. FROM WASHINGTON. NEWSY ITEMS PICKED UP AT THE NATIONAL CAPITOL. Sayings and Doings of the Official Heads of the Government. - Senator Davis, of Minnesota, a member of the committee on foreign relations, says that the war between China and Japan will result in a great extension of commerce between the United States and both of these coun tries. Guarding Against Disease. The commissioner of pensions has issued an order which will prevent clerks in the pension department from praoriciflg medicine while off duty. The order Btates that if any clerk or employe of tho pension bureau shall attend patients as a physician or medi cal advisor it will be regarded as suffi cient ground for removal from the bu reau.' The danger of bringing conta gious diseases to the other clerks is too great, so the commissioner thinks. Moreover, it is a calling likely to keep tho clerks and employes up at night and thus unfit them for work during the day. * : Wanted Carlisle's Scalp. Inklings of an unusually sensational story; leaked out at Washington Wed nesday. The story, too, has many of the ear-marks of verity. It relates to Secretary Carlisle and the rumors of his removal published recently by the New York newspapers, and comes from- a southern congressman, who gives Secretary Carlisle himself as his informant. It seems that on Monday J. Pierpont Morgan, the big New York banker, called on the president. He, it is ?alleged, made a formal demand upon the president that Secretary Car lisle's resignation bo asked for. He presented also a letter from the bends of many of the strongest financial in sti'utions in New York. He-informed the president that, in case this was not done, the administra tion, instead of securing the aid of the New York bankers, would meet, with their opposition. President Cleveland, it is reported, politely but firmly as sured Mr. Morgan that he would not ask for Mr. Carlisle's resignation, but, on the contrary, he told him that Mr. Carlisle was making a splendid offi cial, satisfying both the oountry ?nd the administration, and, instead of re questing his resignation, he intended to back him up in his financial plans to the fullest extent of his power. Mr. Morgan is said to have returned to New York in high dudgeon. The dissatisfaction over Mr. Car known in this country and then launch ing legiumtion which t?ok away mucb of their value. The Census Almost Complete. The eleventh census will be practi cally completed within the time allot ted by congress, March 4th next Colonel Wright, the acting superin tendent, stated that there wan no question of the ability of the office to complete its work by that time. The only volumes where manuscripts not yet in readiness for printing are the last volume on population and part of the volume on vital statistics The latter cannot bo completed un til the former is finished. Twelve reports are at the government print ing office out of tho control of the bureau, and several volumes a month will hereafter probably be issued. The text of the final report on manu factures, farms, homes and mortgages, pauperism and crime, and one or two other reports are in courso of revision. The force of the office has been reduced to 290 and dismissals will bo fre quent during tho next two months, probably about 150 remaining on Feb ruary 1. FORTY-ONE KILLED. Awful Fate of a Christmas Party in Oregon. At Silver Lake, Lake county, Ore gon, Christmas eve,while a large party was attending a Christmas tree, a lamp exploded, causing a fire, in which for ty-one persons were burned to death and fifteen injured. The gathering had assembled at a hall above Christ man Bro.'s store and consisted of children who, with their parents and relatives, were having a grand time, enjoying what Santa Claus had brought them, little dreaming that many of them would never leave tho building alive. Tho Lakeview Examiner suys: "Some one attempted to get where he could see and hear better by jump ing upon a bench in the middle of tho hall. In doing so his head struck a lamp hanging from the ceiling, caus ing the oil to run out, which immedi ately caught fire. "People were compelled to go through the flames in order to reach the door and frantically rushed to their doom. Five of the injured will likely die. The building was a two story structure, including the post office, and the entire stock of goods of Christman Bros. was consumed." Silver Lake is over a hundred miles from Klamath Falls, and a Btago with Lakeview papers brought the nows to the latter place. Ex-Seuator Fair Dead. Ex-Senator James F. Fair, the bo nanza millionaire, died nt San Fran cisco Friday night. Tho cause of his death was diabetes and Bright's dis ease. He leaves a|fortuue estimated ai $40,000,000 and by Ibo terms of his telegraphic will, mado some two months ago, this vast sum, it is stated, will be equally divided between his tbree surviving children, Mrs. Her niDU Odriehs, of Now York; Miss Vir ginia, now studying with her sister in New York, and Charles L. Fair.of San Francisco. THERE are some people so good that ar? gpqd for nothing. THE NEW REGIME. ?EW YORK'S REPUBLICAN OFFI CIALS TAKE CHARGE. Horton Inaugurated Governor and Strong Takes tlie Mayor's Chair. At Albany, Tuesday, Hon. Levi P. Horton was inaugurated as governor if tho state of New York for the ?nsuing two years. He is tho irst republican to assume the du its of this office since 1879. In mguration day broke cold and clear ?nd the sfreets of Albany were enliv ned by the gay uniforms of stuff and nilitnry officers on their way to the apitol. Although the inaugural cere-monies rere set for ll o'clock, tho assembly bamber was comfortably filled an lour before that time. The ceremo iie8 were presided over by Secretary if State Palmer. It was but a few niuutes after ll o'clock when Rt. Rev. ?ishop William Crosswell Doane open ;d the exercises with prayer. Gov Tnor Flower then welcomed tho gov (rnor-elect. Mr. Morton then took bc constitutional oath of office and der ivered au address. Mayor Strong Installed. For the first time in twenty-two ?ears a mayor not of the democratic loliticism is at the head of the New fork city government. Shortly before noon Tuesday the lutgoing and incoming mayors met at he city hull. After the usual formal ties an interchange of greetings and he introduction of the several heada i the departments to Mr. Strong, ?Lomas F. Gilroy took his departure rom the mayor's office, and, as he has .nnounced, from political life. The new mayor will have a clean late to work on, as Mr. Gilroy loft lothing unfinished in the routine Fork of his office when he retired. The new board of aldermen will not irganize until next week. Th? new herjff,.Mr. Tamsen, entered upon the luties of his position and so did the lew coroners. Conditions for the new ?fficials will be somewhat different rom those that have prevailed hereto ore. Under the new state legislation ?very species of gambling is prohib tcd and classed as a criminal offense, ?umors of intended resignations of oany officials in the city departments re rife, but it is generally believed hat the men in possession of these 'ery coveted places will hold on until hey see whether a power of removal ?ill will be passed at Albany. ni*AT. TN PHOSPHATE. tavoyuuu ; vice-preside?i, JU. _. -.u_ on, of New York ; treasnrer, R. W. tatterson, of New York; secretary and .ssistant treasurer, H. P. Richmond, ?f Savannah ; directors, George W. Scott, of Atlanta ; H. M. Comer, Joseph lull and H. M. Comer, Jr., of Savan lah ; R. W. Patterson and M. F. Knud on, of New York. Tho organization of the Per.ce River 3hospbnte Mining Company is the big gest move that hos been made in phos ihato? in South Georgia and Florida n several months. The matter has >een conducted very quietly and little ias been known about the intentions if those at the head of tho enterpris? mtil tho meeting was held in Savan lah. The company is a consolidation of ,11 tho companies now operating on 'eace river-the Peace River Pho1? ihate Company, the De Soto Phos ihate Miniug Company, tho Arcadia 5hosphate Company and the Charlotte larbor Phosphate Coiflpany. The lew company control about ninety ailes of the bed of Pence river and the djacent valley, amounting in all to bout 2-1,000 acres of phosphate land. .Tie territory of the company begins at ?owling Green and ends at Charlotte larbor, Punta Gorda being the ship ling point. JACKSONTILLE STATISTICS. nterestlng Figures Regarding Truffle," Marriages, Births and Deaths. Somo of the official statistics of racksonville for the year 1894 aro of pecial interest. There wero shipped rom that port during tho twelve nonths ended Monday night 92,542, 135 feet of Florida pine lumber, of vhich about 04,000 feet went to do nestic and 8,000,000 to foreign ports. There wero also 1,S08,000 cypress, ei ilusive of crossties, shipped to coast rise ports. This output of lumber eas by water, tlie railrood shipments >eing also very large. During the arno period 907,277 boxes of oranges rere shipped from the port to do uestic points. Tho fire department ros called ont 143 times duriug the ear, 112 of the fires being insido tho ire limits and thirty-oue outside. The oss by fire was very light. During 1894 there wero 4G4 mar iage licenses issued in the county, 157 o white couples and 307 to colored, h the city thero wero 002 births, of rhich 233 were whites and 369 colored. ?hti deaths in the city were 597, only tine short of the number of births, he division being 234 whites and 359 olored. Thirty-eight of these denths rere from violence or accidents, and eventy of them were of nou-resi lents. With a normal population of 17,000 this makes tho death rate only . fraction over 2 per cent, or about wenty to tho thousand. MISSOURI'S LEGISLATURE Under Republican Control for the First Time in 25 Years. Tho general nssembly of Missouri was called to order at Jefferson City' Wednesday and after thc new members were sworn in, the republicans, for thc lirst linn: in a quarter of a century, Found themselves in eontrr.l of the leg islature. Thero were uo contests and Ibo proceedings occupied but a few minutes. Highest of all in Leavening P< I CONTRACTS WITH FARM LABORERS. In employing farm laborers it is always advisable to have a written con tract. In this should be specified the terms of the agreement, which will be binding on both parties. Thus the question if a hired man should have his wages and board paid for during a temporary disability by sickness would be settled by the agreement. As a rule, the man is paid only for the time he actually works, and when he is idle, for whatever cause, his board is charged to him. It would be most advisable for every employer to make a written agreement with his work men as to all the various canses of dis pute that arise during the working season.- New York Times. CUT BONE. Fall and winter are the season in which to use cut bone. Many far mers neglect to feed it and give only grain. The results of suoh an exclu sive diet are readily seen in the re duced number of eggs. Others, again, considering the trouble and expense of cutting the green bones, substitute bone meal therefor. They forget that the great value in the green bones li?e in tho perfect fresh animal food they contain, and which is necessarily lack ing in the bone meal. This animal food is rich, succulent and easily di gested ;- besides, it is of a composite character, containing all the elements necessary for the support and de velopment of the body as well as for the production of eggs. Green bone is unique in its effect upon the ohick en frame.- New York World. WINTERING CABBAGE. Oabbaee will endure a good deal o? leaves . .. tightly as possible ; 'rhfe-iaouthjjf the barrel is filled with some straw ~?T leaves and covered with a board or some old carpet. The cabbage may be taken out at any time ail winter un frozen and in good condition. If the outside heads are frozen one layei deeper in may be taken, and later ic the season the frozen ones will bc found to have thawed out and to be uninjured. Cabbage to be pr?serv?e for marketing in spring may be pulled and laid on top of the ground in rows, and a furrow plowed from each side upon the inverted plants. The worl may be finished with a shovel. The plants should only have the beach covered, the roots projecting into the air. In this way they will keep per fectly until warm weather.-American Agriculturist. ONION GROWING. It requires rich land to grow good onions, and it must be fertility thal has been gradually imparted to the soil. You cannot take ordinary farm land and in a single season fit it foi growing onions. If stable manure is used, it makes the soil too light while it is decomposing. The best onions are grown on mucky soil that has several seasons been cultivated to shallow depth, and that is then kept in fertility with some kind of concen trated manure. There needs to be a hard stratum of soil three or foai inches below the surface. This makee the onion roots spread out near the surface, producing onions of flat shape. When the soil is mellowed too deeply a large proportion of the crop will grow to scullions. The seed from scullions will produce scullions in re turn. As there is a constant tendency to deterioration it is highly importanl that only the best seed be used. The skilful seed grower understands thu difference, and his seed from oniom that have for many crops been selectee from tboso having the best form ii well worth the extra price that is askec for it. The best profits in growing onions are now made by starting the growth the previous season, planting very thickly and saving tho sets whih they are small. These are transplant?e in spring, and produce an earlier croj than can be got from seed. They als( are much less trouble to keep frei from weeds, as tho rows of younj onions can be seen within a few day after planting, and they grow ver rapidly.-Boston Cultivator. HOW TO MOVE LARGE MAPLES. To a correspondent who asked hov to move and prune some large mapli trees, six or seven inches in diametef the editor of Garden and Forest rs plies: In removing trees the root are generally injured to a greater o; less extent, and those which ar< bruited must be cut away ; it is gooc practice to prune in the branches to'i corrcspoueliug extent, no that ther will be not more leaves than the root can supply. Norway maples of tb tize indicated cannot be removei without the loss of many roots, am pruning will be necessary. Sue] pruning will bc perfectly safe, asthes maples are not injured more than an osher trees by this operation. A grea dod of this pruning can be effected b thinning out the inner branches, bu there should bo no hesitation abou Dwer.-Latest U. S. Gov't Report FEW PURE catting back limbs where this seems i necessary. When the ends of the branches are pruned they should be cut back to a limb, the wounds should be covered with coal tar, and no stubs should he left to decay. In removing such large trees it is good praotice" to prune the roots back by digging a i trench about the trees, say five feet from the trunk, and if this trench is i filled with good soil new feeding roots i will start out during the next year, so that the tree will be in excellent con dition for removing in a year from the coming winter. Large trees can ha removed with success, but it costs time and care and money. Persons who do not choose to go to the extra expense, however, can console themselves with the reflection that, as a rule, it is best to plant small trees, and that a tree ten or twelve feej; high, will probably ( be as large in ten years as one planted ; at the same time when it was twenty? ' five feet high. HANDLING CORN FODDER. John Howat, Iowa, tells in the Homestead how he handles corn fod der. Ho says: Take an oak pole twelve feet long that will square three or four inches, set it in the rear end of your hayrack, bolt it to the cross bar of your rack, use two pieces ol 2x4, one seven feet, the other nine ; bolt these to the same crosspiece as the pole, then bolt to the pole at their upper ends, bracing it afc two plaoes, (?wing to the different lengths ; use a 2x4 five feet long to brace on the iaz--*^ ward side of the pole to the bottom of rack ; nail on ; take 'a 2x4 twelve feet long and fasten with a pivot on the pole, five feet above the floor of the rack, fasten the other end with rope nr nliain wron or oinriif fflAt. lon O' to I as ic swings up. uou u j?cb? u? cop* ^OJLevery shock, leaving them on till you uoiPAiiyjvhen yon can use the der rick to unload^ K<y_our stack gets high, shorten your rope froa-pole to swinging arm, raising the lutter, giv ing more room for stacking high. By this method all the fodder is saved, and all the unpleasant part of hand ling corn fodder avoided. Two men can tie and load ten shocks in twenty minutes. We did it, and ''what man has done, man may do. " For a pivot, I used a large staple driven into the pole, with the bolt taken out of an old neckyoke, with an eye on one end through which the staple was put, and the arm driven on the bolt. FARM AND GARDEN NOTES. Make your stock comfortable. Milk quickly but not hurriedly. Let "serene" good nature prevail. Feed at regular intervals, changing the food occasionally and cautiously. The farmer who attends to his poul try and gives it proper feed and shel ter makes it pay well. It is easy to stunt a growing animal, but by no means easy to undo the evil. Bear this in mind. A clean pen and a clean trough, good nourishment and proper exer cise, are the pathways to success. Many farmers neglect their oppor tunities. They might to know that hens will pay well as their cows, sheep or hogs if taken care of. Good fences are an important thing on every farm, and they need to be kept in good repair. Keep weeds and brush well culled out of the corners. Do not neglect your vegetable gar den. No other portion of the farm is a better-paying investment. leep some of your luxuries for the home table. During tho winter months small potatoes may be cooked with bran, and cut clover seasoned with a little pepper. This makes a most excellent hash for fowls. It should never be forgotten that poultry need some kind of green food at all seasons of tho year. In winter they can be given cabbage, onions, turnips or chopped ?rye. Whenever you have any milk left over, whether it is sweet or sour, give it to the poultry. It contains much of the needed egg-making material and can in no other wily be so profit ably utilized. Poultry make a good adjunct to thc dairy. The advantage of meadow or pasture grasses for cattle and sheep are that they afford a variety. Animals have, preference for certain foods, and thrive best when they caji select food which is most palatable and necessary for supplying their wants. No well-regulated farm is without - its flock of thoroughbred poultry. There is, in fact, no better paying stock-taking into consideration cap ital and labor invested. Keep also turkeys, ducks und geese. They ara all prolitable on the farm. It may bo possible to take off profit able crops and maintain the fertility of the land without the aid of stock but the average farmer cannot do it Selling from tho farm constantly and restoring nothing to the land is only selling the farm away piecemeal,