Oldest Newspaper In South Carolina.
Paper Read by Mr. W. T. W
Agricultural Club and Pu
August 20th, 1885. Co
Mr. Chairman and Gentlemen: At
our last meeting it was decided that
I should prepare an essay on ' The
Advantages of Small Farms and In
tensive Farming." I do not feel
competent to do justice to the ques
tion; nor will I have time to enter
into full details of this matter. >
But as the question is of so much
importance to our country and State,
I would feel like I was shirking a
duty not to say something; and per
haps what I say may be a key to
unlock our minds to the fact that
smali farms are the salvation of our
country, and the only way for a
farmer to be happy-with cash in
his purse to spend for the comforts
I once had a talk with a northern
man, who said that in his country 40
acres was considered a good farm,
and 100 acres a large farm. In
China, they say, a man can support
his family on 4 acres. I told this
northerner that some of our planters
had 2,000 acres of land, aud he ask
ed me if I knew there was such a
thing as being "land poor," and
making a failure on a large farm
when a small one would pay.
It is the dollars saved, not made,
that make men rich. As I have
never owned a large farm, I cannot
speak as to them except from obser
vation; but judging by the want of
improvements, rotten barns and
empty cribs that I see, seems that
only a narrow living comes from
them-and not profits enough to
keep the houses in decent repair.
You all kn<Jw the troubles of farm
ing, that the labor of a large farm
is generally negro labor. We all
agree, too, that it is about the best
there is, inasmuch as the negroes
respect the whites, and were raised
"_iuawig.ua.-They are used to . hard
ships and exposure; and a living is
all they want. And they can live
on very little-happy with a bor
rowed mule and an umbrella on the
road to church. Now who is it that
keeps up all the happiness of the
colored man? The land owner of
course; and the more negroes he
has, the more it takes to keep them
Houses to live in, fire wood and
well water, and supplies are all fur
nished by the land owner. If a
crop is made, we may come out
even; if not, the landlord loses.
With these losses, added to the
heavy, drenching rains and the un
certainty of seasons, we see no
profits in large farms.
So small farms must pay, or
none. But, say some, we have small
farms that do not seem to pay.
This is true. But whose fault is
it? Such farmers do not start right;
they shut their eyes to the expenses,
and leave it too much to the land to
make a crop, without proper help,
following in the wake of the man
with a big farm.
Some think they must pu; in a
large crop,and must take in all the
rocky knolls and gully-washed hills,
when it would be far better to leave
such places alone, and select only
land with a good soil to improve.
Let the large land owner, instead,
select a few acres, that can be built
up to raise 2 bales of cotton or 50
bushels of oats to the acre, and
bring it up to a fine state of culti
vation. Do not let the poor land
eat up the profits of the good lots.
Do not let a trifling tenant eat up
the profits of a good one.
Farming requires hard study.
Lawyers, ministers and doctors have
to scratch their weary heads and
learn the principles and rules of
their profession; and likewise must
a farmer study the nature of his
soil, and the kinds of manure that
suit it. Farmers have to count on
the uncertainty of seasons, and they
also have to study human nature to
deserve and maintain the respect of
These are the elements of success
ful farming: 1st, good labor; 2nd,
good stock; 3rd, gocd implements
and tools; 4th, good manure. 1st
good hands with poor stock, is time
hrown away. 2nd, good stock
with poor land, isa waste of money.
8rd, batt tools, even with good
hands and good land, is a waste of
labor. 4th, all the best labor and
tools and stock on poor land.is most
awful of all wastes. Therefore by
all means ?nunun- ir?//. This is the
grandest desideratum of all. Coin
bine and change the manure. Some,
I know, will say that by t!i" time
Ave procuro good tools, stock and
labor, an I then manure heavily, it
will take all the profits. I deny the
assertion. Without all this, you
alton Before the Eclgefield
blished in The Advertiser
mmon Northern Farms
'will reap nothing; with all this,
you have the power to make good
crops, and live in peace of mind.
Others will say they see no money
in either mode. And truly, by the
way some of us manage, it is a mat
ter of congratulation that ww live at
But let us see if there is not even
more than a living on a small farm.
Take an ordinary ?4-horse farm, and
reduce it to 2 horses fand 2 hands;
let one half of it rest. I think ten
acres of land with a year's rest will
make a bale of cotton more the year
following; or else sow it down. You
can sow this land, reap and house
your produce at 3? dollars per acre.
Or you can do this work in spare
time, with your 2-horse farm labor.
You can raise from IO to 20 bushels
of oats per acre on this land; you
can feed your two horses off of it,
and buy neither corn nor manure.
Hire only good, efficient laborers;
do not take the refuse of the jails
and orphan asylums. If you rent
out any land, rent only to good ten
ants, and see that they change the
land and not wear it out. Turn off
promptly all bad men. Take 40
acres, say, to cultivate, and sow
down 40 acres every year. Follow
this plan. Give your 40 acres in
cotton a liberal manuring, and by
sowing it in grain after cotton, you
have a good stubble and oats to
feed on, besides some to sell. It is
said that an oat crop will impover
ish sand land. I do not believe it,
though my own land is clay. Ten
'years acm T tnnV }artA ti?~* -- -
took two of my best mules, hired 3
of the best hands, and bowed down
40 acres of it. I bought good im
plements and used plenty of manure.
My profits, net, were $800 on this
land. In 1882, changing my ??nd,
I cleared $1,300 on this 2 mule
farm. In 1884, I cleared $1,100.
So I am decidedly of the opinion,
and I speak knowingly, that the
profitable method of farming is on a
limited area, well manured, well
prepared, and well worked.
W. T. Walton.
Death of Mr. Samuel Lott and
Mrs. Manning Simmons.
Mr. M. T.Turner Loses
The past week has been one of
sadness to our town. Death has en
tered into three homes and taken
away loved ones.
In the death of Mrs. Manning
Simmons, which occurred on Satur
day morning about 7 o'clock, a
great gloom has been cast. She had
been sick only about 8 days and her
condition did not appear alarming
until Friday. The physician an
nounced her case as developing into
typhoid pneumonia. Before her mar
riage to Mr. Simmons about 16
years ago, she was Miss Birdie
Srayly, daughter of Mr. Jackson
Smyly, and Elizabeth Tompkins
Sm.vly. All that knew her loved her
for her sweet and modest demeanor.
Self never came first with her, it
was always something for other?,
and especially did this noble trait
manifest itself in the little home
circle. Her hands were ever willing
to do anything for them, no matter
what the task.
Her devotion to her sisters was
lovable to see, and inexpressibly sad
was the fact that one sister, Mrs.
Albert Dozier and her mother, Mrs.
Smyly, were too ill to be told of
her death at the time. Besides her
husband, 4 small children are left,
and one brother, Mr. St. Clair Smy
ly, and three sisters, Mesdames P.
N. Lott, Pickens Kinard and Al
The burial services were conduct
ed on Sunday afternoon at 3 o'clock
by Rev. Beckham, assisted by Dr
Among relatives who came to at
tend the burial of Hw. Manning
Simmons were Mrs. Ella Tompkins,
Miss Grace Tompkins, Mr. J. L.
Minis, Miss Ina Hill, Mr. and Mrs.
(Continued on page 8.)
Group of Ladies who Were Present at the Celebration oflMrs. E. E. Adams 71st Birthday
1 Mrs. Hattis E. Lanham; 2 Mrs. Mary J. Norris; 8 ;Mrs Nanie Griffin ; 4 Mrs. J. A. Holland; 5 Mrs. J. A.
White; 6 Miss Cottie Youngblood; 7 Mrs. O. L. Miller; 8 Mrs. C. B. Blalock; 'J Mrs. Sallie Collett; 10
Mrs. Virginia C. Addison; ll Mrs. Missouri Lott; ?2 Mrs. Emeline Cartlidge; V-i Miss Florence Minis:
14 Mrs. Agatha Woodson; 15 Mrs. R. H. Mims; 1 fl Mrs. Mary Thurmond; 17 Mrs. E. E. Adams; 18
Mrs. J. L. Mims; 19 Mrs. N. L. Brimson; 20 ;-Mrs. W. IL Hading; 21 Miss Sophie Abney.
A Change for the Better.
The life-long domicile of an old
lady was situated several feet south
of the dividing line of Virginia and
North Carolina, and when that sec
tion of the country was surveyed it
was discoveredthat the line ran afew
feet south of the property in ques
tion. They broke the news to the
old lady that from then on she was
to be a resident of Virginia.
That's cood." ahAPTi-loi'mo/l- 44T'..
It costs you nothing to enter. We
have absolutely no ''string" to the
contest- We do¬ even require
that you be a subscriber for the pa
per in order to ?fer/the contest. It
viii be conducted, as. heretofore,
purely for the public ;good:.and not
for our personal or private gain. We
pay the prize mopey and you do the
rest, i. e., enter the contest and
make all of the cojrn you can.
forced to work, and forced to do
your best, will breed in you tem
perance and self control, diligence
and strength of will, cheerfulness
and content, and a hundred virtues
which the idle never know."
State Summer School.
The announcement from Win
The second attraction of the lyceum course, the
Eureka Glee Club, will be given next Tuesday,
March 14th at 8:30 p. m.. in the Johnston School
Auditorium. The members of the club are not
amateurs but have been before the public for ll
years, and each is indeed an artist in his line. They
never fail to delight their audiences with their
varied program of the highest order.
? The repertoire consists of difficult classical selec
tions, both secular and sacred, folk, sentimental,
plantation and humorous. The Glee Club claims
the largest set of musical chimes of any organiza
tion of the kind. A unique and pleasing feature is
the. crayon and chalk work of one member of the
club. The varied program will provide entertain
ment for all. The music lover will be captivated
and the fun lover delighted to the fullest. You
cannot afford to miss this entertainment by the
Glee club, one of the best of the season. Tell your
friends about this attraction and urge them to go
Remember the time and place
Tuesday night, March 14th, in
Johnstons School Auditorium.
H. D. GRANT,
W. C. CURRY,
Johnston, - - South Carolina
WORK IN THE
You Have a Big Opportunity
by Working in The Adver
test. We have Added S
Besides the Beauti
Let every contestant do her best
this week to win the $5.00 in gold.
You just have until Saturday night,
March 11th, to work for this offer.
Now for another one. We will
give 5000 free votes for every ten
dollars worth of subscriptions sent
in by any contestant from March
the 7th to March 18th. All sub
scriptions dated between the 7th
and 11th will count on the free
votes, the $5.00 in gold and the
handsome prizes to be given at tho
close of the contest,
Why You Should Work in. the Home
You should work in The Adver
tiser's great contest for a number of
reasons. One reason is on account
of the fine Ust of prizes offered.
With this list of prizes every con
testant who really works will be re
warded. Then we would call yor
attention to the fact that it is a home
enterprise and that it is gotten up by
Mr. Mims on his own accord and
because he has faith in his paper
and the county's support of it.
Edgefield's Best Paper has the Grit to do
We are sure that every person in
Edgefield county appreciates the
fact that The Advertiser has the
grit to do things on its own accord
and that Mr. Mims is willing to go
down in his own pocket in order to
offer these opportunities to any who
may enter the contest.
A Word to the Merchants.
imivlUOClO Atc ii (J ti Ul'OUglll IO
the notice of the readers in the field
which you may justly consider your
R. V. Bidez, Contest Mgr.
Rules Governing Contest.
Rule (i) All collections made by
contestants must be turned over to
the Contest manager within one
week or votes will not be allowed.
Rule (2) Subscribers should take
receipt for all money given to con
Rule (3) The Contest Managers
signature must be affixed to votes
before same are of any value in
Rule (4) Ballots cannot be bought.
The Contest will be run on a square
IRISH POTATO PLANTING.
Select a Loose, Rich, Mellow,
Well Drained Soil. Fertilize
Liberally. How to Avoid
Potato planting time is drawing
near. This is evidenced by the in
quiry just at hand, which asks some
practical questions relative to this
crop. This first thing of attention is
the soil. It is true that the potato
has been grown on almost every
soil, but this does not lessen the im
portance of selecting for the potato
the kind of soil best adapted for it.
The ideal soil for this crop should
be one so light as to offer no great
resistance to the growing of tubers,
and having such supply of organic
matter as to contain moisture to
furnish an unfailing supply of fer
tilizing ingredients. A rich, sandy
loam, abundantly supplied with or
ganic matter, and naturally well
dnined, is preferable. Stiffer soils
may be rendered suitable by drain
age and by the incorporation of
farm manures; or better still, by
plowing under green crops. Very
heavy clay should be avoided if the
farm contains any lighter soil. New
ly cleared ground suits the potato
exeeedingly well. Sandy soils may
be titted for this plant by the addi
tion of organic matter. The claim
is made that potatoes grown on
sandy soil are of a superior quality
to those on a stiffer soil.
The potato requires a rich soil,
but even more important than nat
ural fertility, is a proper mechanical
condition of the soil. Artificial fer
tilizers may be substituted in part
for natural fertilizers, but they are
effective only when the soil is in
such a condition as to furnish a
constant supply of water. The po
j tato should have some of the best
I toil on the farm, since it is more ex
r to Win a Handsoms Prize
tiser's Great Voting Con
everal Beautiful Prizes
ful $400.00 Piano.
and fair basis for all. Votes can
only be obtained by securing sub
scriptions, either prepaid or re
newals, or by cutting the nomina
tion coupon or free voting blank
out of the paper.
Rule (5) No employee of The
Advertiser or a member of his or
her family will be permitted to par
ticipate either as a nominator or vo
ter in the contest.
Rule (6) Candidates will not be
restricted in securing subscriptions
to any territory, but may secure
them in any place in the United
Rule (7) Only one nominating
coupon, entitling each contestant to
one thousand (lOOO) 'votes, will be
Rule (8) All votes must be in
The Advertisers office by Saturday
midnight of each second week from
issue or else they will not be count
ed on the minor prizes that will be
offered during the contest. Votes
cast on these prizes will also count
on the piano.
Rule (9) Votes once issued can
not be transferred to another con
Rule (io) Contestants in contest
must agree to accept all rules and
conditions in the contest
Rule (ll) The right is reserved
to reject the name of any contes
tant for cause, also to alter these
rules should the occasion demand.
Rule (I2) Anv nn/>o*!->? ft,?*. -
mern, until tney are cast your
standing will not be published.
Rule (15) If any party stops his
or her paper and transfers it to an
other member of the family of the
same address it will not count as a
Scale of Votes.
1 year 2,000 Votes.
2 " 5,000 "
3 " 8,000 "
4 " 11,000 "
5 " 15,000 "
Renewal and Collections.
7500 . "
acting in this respect \ ian the other
crops, and since the ,v, oduct of an
acre is of greater val :ie, generally
The success of tlu pot ato ia large
ly dependent on the crops preceding
it in the rotation. When the clover,
cow peas, or other leguminous crops
have been grown, the stubble of the
same furnishes a good supply of-ni
trogen. Perhaps the best rotation
isjthat obtained by growing corn
after sod and following with pota
It is not a good idea to grow over
two crops of potatoes in succession
on the same ground, although we
often find a plot of ground that has
been continuously used for potatoes
for five or six years, or even longer.
This latter course taxes heavily the
fertility of the soil, and as a neces
sity calls for liberal manuring, and
also involves a considerable risk
from fungus diseases.
A clean crop of potatoes can not,
as a rule, be grown on land that pro
duced scabby potatoes the preceding
year. The germs having once ob
tained a hold in the soil must be
starved out by growing thereon oth
er crops on which the scab has no
hold, such as grass or grain. These .
immune crops should be grown for
three or four years befo? e planting
in potatoes again.
Practical experience has proven
that a deep and thorough prepara -
tion of the soil is important for this
crop. Plowing can scarcely bete?
deep, unless the subsoil is brought to
the surface in so doing. If practica
ble, the plowing should be deeper
from year to year. While on an av
erage, the tubers are formed within
about 6 inches of the top of the
ground, the roots feed seyeral in
Regarding the manuring, will ad
vise liberality in that line, as the
(Continued on page 8.)
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