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(Prepared by the United States Depart
ment of Agriculture.)
Effective drainage usually should be
the very first consideration in connec
tion with the location and design of
any road. This statement requires no
explanation, because the action of wa
ter in changing clay into mud and in
causing all kinds of soils, except sand,
to give way when a load is applied, is
familiar to every person living in a
humid climate. The following sum
mary supplies a few suggestions as to
how water may best be removed from
a road bed :
1. The road surface should he
crowned so as to shed water oft to tho
side ditches as rapidly as it falls on
2. Wherever the road is in an exca
vation, suitable side ditches or glitters
should be provided along the sides so
that the water may be conducted to
some point where it may be turned
off from tho road. The accompany::1.::
figures show typical cross sections for
earth side ditches. The cross section
shown in the first figure is suitable for
steep grades where the depth of water
in the side ditches must be kept low in
order to prevent washing of the soil.
The second figure shows a modified
section which gives a greater capacity
for the same widths of ditch than the
cross section shown in the preceding
figure, but which can be employed only
on comparatively flat grades if wash
ing ls to be prevented. Figure 3 shows
a cross section adapted especially to
flat grades where a considerable vol
ume of water must be carried. Ditches
of the cross sections shown in figures
1 and 2 have the advantage in that
they may be constructed with an or
dinary road grader, which is not true
of ihe sectioc shown in figure 3.
3. Where it is impracticable to con
struct side ditches that will carry the
required amount of water without
washing, paved gutters should be em
ployed. Suituhle cross sections for a
cobble gutter are shown in figures 4
and 5. Where it is impracticable to
construct gutters, earth side ditches
frequently may be kept from washing
by the use of breakers.
4. If the material composing the
roadbed consists ot springy earth, some
form of underdrainage is essential. A
line of farm tile laid to proper grade
under each side ditch is, in general, the
most satisfactory way of securing ade
quate underdrainage. Either four-inch
or six-inch tile is employed for this
r>. Culverts or bridges should be con
structed wherever it is necessary to
carry water across the road.
G. Avoid turning water from one in
tersecting road down the side ditches
of another. Also avoid draining adja
cent fields into the side ditches.
The proper crown to give the cross
SUFFICIENT FOOD FOR BEES
Every Colony Should Have at Least
Thirty Pounds of Honey-White
Clover ls Favored.
Sufficient food is essential. Every
colony should have at least 30 pounds
of honey. White clover honey is best,
although any white honey is good.
Dark honey should be used sparingly;
and honeydew honey not at all, on ac
count of the waste it contains. Bees
never deposit fecal waste in the hive,
but retain it in the large intestine,
where it causes dysentery unless soon
passed out. In attempting to rid them
selves of this, the bees fly forth on
cold days, become chilled and never
find their way back.
AND GRAVEL ROADS
zssz^&&W ROADWAY" j
section of a road surface depends on
two opposed factors:
(a) It is desirable to pet water away
from the surface as quickly as prac
ticable, so as to prevent thc surface
material from being softened by sat
j oration or washed by water collecting
( in, and flowing along, ruts,
j (b) It is desirable to keen the cross
! section of the road as flat as is con
sistent with good drainage, because
traflic distributes itself over a flat road
surface much better than over one
that is heavily crowned, and an even
distribution of traflic makes towan!
uniform wear and comparatively light
maintenance. There is also less danger
[ of skidding on a road of flat cross sec
, tion than where the surf ace is crowned,
j In general, the amount of crown
I should be greater on grades than on
1 level stretches of road, because the
1 tendency for water to wash away the
surface by collecting in and flowing
along ruts depends largely upon the
steepness of the grade. Also the care
with which a road is to be maintained
may have an important influence on
tlie amount of crown that should be
given to the surface. It is evident that
a road surface maintained in a smooth
uniform condition will shed water off
to the side ditches with much less
crown than would he required where
ruts are allowed to form.
Instead of crowning the road sur
face sufficiently to prevent water from
flowing along the traveled way and
I causing washes on steep grades, resort
Is sometimes had to "water breaks,"
or "thank-you-ma'aras," constructed
across the road at short intervals.
These water breaks may consist of
either broad, shallow ditches or flat
ridges constructed at a slight angle
with the road so as to turn water from
the traveled way into the side ditches.
Such devices usually are much more
objectionable, especially to automobile
traffic, than a rather heavily crowned
road, provided the surface is not con
structed of material which becomes
very slippery when wet, and they
should de dispensed with except in ex
An exception to the general rules for
crowning a road surface perhaps
should be noted as applying to cases
where the roadbed and surface are of
'Jrh^rrrr- KOAUWAY^I " 1
bles-hard. round stone 6"to IO" longestA"
I ?3 meter.
id bedding about 2? thick,
ncation of gravel or broken stone.
I sand. In such cases it is preferable
that the cross section be flat so as to
retain as much moisture as practicable,
though in cold climates a slight crown
may be desirable in order to afford
drainage when, the surface is frozen.
But sand roads must be surfaced with
some other material if they are to be
improved to any extent, and in that
case the surface of the traveled way
would have to be crowned as usual.
Also, where curves occur in the align
ment it is desirable to "bank" or ele
vate the outer edge of the roadway and
thus make the crown one way.
Cobbles-hardroundstons 6 to
10" longest diameter.
Sand bedding about 2 thick.
Foundation of gravel or broken
METHODS OF PLANTING CORN
Higher Yields Obtained by Alternat
ing With Early and Late Maturing
Varieties of Crop.
Methods of planting corn by which
one or two rows of an early-maturing
variety alternate with one or two
rows of a later-maturing variety
planted alone, according to the annual
report of the bureau of plant indus
try. Where there is likely to be a
shortage of moisture during certain pe
riods of growing season, dependence
should not be placed in a single va
riety; under such conditions two or
three varieties which differ consider
ably in length of growing season
should be grown.
The Believer and
A Study in the First Epistle
By REV. W. W. KETCHUM
Director of Practical Work Course,
Moody Bible Institute, Chicago
Tho First Epistle of John might well
he culled the Epistle of Assurance, for
it tells us cer
tain tilings that
we may know,
abd how we may
tilings it sots be
fore us clearly
the believer's re
lation to sin.
First, it tolls us
that bis sins are
fact a soul bur
dened with the
guilt of sin needs
to know, and to
the believer in the
Loni Jesus Christ it Is said, "I write
unto you, little children, because your
sins are forgiven you for his name
sa ko" (2:12).
Perhaps someone reading these
words has never had his sins forgiven.
He is carrying the burden of his guilt
?IIKI knows nothing of the joy and
peace in believing in the Lord Jesus
Christ. To such a one comes the
words of Paul. "Be it known unto you
therefore, men and brethren, that
through this man is preached unto you
the forgiveness of sins: And by him
all that believe are justified from all
things, fron! which ye could not be
justified by the law of Moses" (Acts
13:28-29). It is possible, you see from
this, for an unbeliever to believe in
the Lord Jesus Christ and have nt
once the forgiveness of sin and to
know that his sins are forgiven him.
The Way of Cleansing.
Then notice next that this epistle
tells us of the provision mude for the
believer's cleansing from the defile
ment of sia. This is set before us in
the first chapter, seventh verse, where
we read, "The blood of Jesus Christ,
his Son, cleanseth us from all sin."
The word "cleanseth" makes it clear
that there is a continual process ever
going on in the believer's life by
which he is made clean from sin. In
two ways God has provided for the be
liever's cleansing: First, through the
blood of Jesus Christ; and, secondly,
through his Word. We have the first
method mentioned above; the second,
when Jesus said to his disciples, "Now
are ye clean through the word which I
have spoken unto you," and in Ephe
sians five, whore wc read of the "wash
ing of the water by the word." The
ever-present cleansing, which Is the
believer's through the blood of Christ,
is perpetual in its effect and assures
him that before God In Christ he is
cleansed. The cleansing by the Word
has to do with his daily walk, and in
measure as the believer permits the
Holy Spirit to apply the Word to his
life it cleanses and keeps him from
the defilement of sin.
Then we come to the third fact,
which tells us how we may be deliv
ered from the power of sin. "These
things write I unto you that ye may
not sin" (Revised Version 2:1). When
we ftifp this truth we fae'* one, of the
most solemn truths In the Word of
God. We may have been afraid of it
because we have known certain teach
ing that has led into grave error, and
ns a result we draw back when any
one talks about the possibility of the
believer not sinning, but what ls .the
significance of this expression "may
not sin," If lt does not mean thai
there is for the believer deliverance in
this life from the power of sin.
It is very evident from the context
that the apostle is not teaching the
eradication of sin when he says "may
not sin," for he says, "if we say we
have no sin (that is the root or prin
ciple of sin) we deceive ourselves nnd
the truth is not in us." But In the
face of this fact that sin is in us, the
apostle says "these thing? write I un
to you that ye may net sin." By
this he means the practice of sin, and
so he thus sets before is the possi
bility of the believer being delivered
from the practice of sin. Well may we
ask. "How?" The answer is, "through!
But what if Ave should sin, is there
any provision for us? Yes. says the
apostle, "if any man s'n we have an
advocate with the Fathfr. Jesus Christ
the righteous" (2:1). This blessed
provision is made not that we may sin,
but in case we do sin. Just as the life
boats are placed on the transatlantic
liners not that they may go down, but
for use in case they do go down ; and
so if we fall into <in, the apostle tells
us what to do in the words: "If we
confess our sins he is faithful and
just to forgive us our sins and to
cleanse us from all unrighteousness"
(1:0). Our pari in the restoration into
fellowship is t"> confess our sin. re
membering thar before God stands our
Advocate who pleads by his presence
our case. Th* ideal, however, for our
lives is for UJ not to practice sin. We
nre altogether too ready to excuse our
selves on th? ground of our sinfulness,
and so we set a low standard for our
lives. Gods ideal for us is that we
sin not. Lave we made it our ideal
for our lives? If so, let us look to the
Lord .TesTi' Christi who by his divine
pm?er Is ible to overcome sin within
Winthrop College ? Scholarship
and Entrance Examination.
Thc examinai inn for the award
of vacant scholarships in Winthrop
College for the admission ot now
students will be held at the County
Court Mouse nn Friday, July <?, at
a. m. Applicants must not be
less 1 han li? years of ago. When
scholarships are vacant after -iulv
(j they will be awarded to those
makin? the highest average at this
examination, provided they meet
the conditions governing the
?ward. Applicants for scholarships
should write to President Johnson
for scholarship examination blanks.
Those blanks properly lilied out by
ttie applicant should be filed with
President Johnson by July I.
Scholarships are worth $100 and
free tuition. The next session will
open September lit, ll) 17. For
furtbei information and catalogue,
address President D. B. Johnson,
Rock Hill, S. C.
Airs. J. A. Cox, o? Al
dersea, W. Va., writes:
"My daughter . . .suf
fered terribly. She could
not turn in bed .. . the
doctors gave lier up, and
we brought her home to
die. Sl'.c had suffered so
much at. .. time. Hav
ing heard cf Cardui, we
got it for her."
The Woman's Tonic v&
"In a few days, she be
gan to improve," Mrs.
Cox continues, "and had
no trouble at... Cardui
cured her, and we sing
its praises everywhere.
We receive many thou
sands of similar letters
every year, telling of the
good. Cardui has done for '
women who suffer from
complaints so common to
their sex. It should do
you good. too. Try
tual Insurance Associ
Property Insured $2,500,000.
WRITE OR CALL on the un
dersigned for any information you
may desire about our plan of insur
We insure your property against
FIRE, WINDSTORM or LIGHT
and Jo so cheaper than any Com
pany in existence.
Remember, we are prepared to
prove to you that ours is the safest
and cheapest pian of insurance
Our Association is now licensed
to write Insurance >n the counties
of Abbeville, Greenwood, McCor
mick, Laurens and Edgetield.
The officers are: Gen. J. Fraser
Lyon, President, Columbia, S. C.
J. R. Biak*, Gen. Agt., Secy. &
Treas., Greenwood, S. C.
A. O. Grant, Mt. Carmel, S. C.
J. M. Gambrell, Abbeville, S. C.
Jno. IL Childs, Bradley, S. C.
A. W. Younirblood, Hodges, S. C.
S. P. Morrah, Willington, S. C.
L.N. Chamberlain, McCormick, S.C.
R. H.Nicholson, Kdgefield, S. C.
F.L.Timmerman, Pln't. Lane, S. C.
J. C. Martin, Princeton, S. C.
\V. II. Wharton, Waterloo, S. C.
J. R. BLAKE, Gen. Agt.
Greenwood, S. C.
Jan. 1st, 7.
Pays 25c a Month ,
for Perfect Health*
For 15 years. E. A. Little, Bessemer.
Ala. has paid 2Hc a month to keep ia per
fect health. Read what he says:
"I d'f Iro to add my endorsement of Granger Liver
Reculator. I ban not used any other medicino for
fifteen year?. 1 know lt is tlio baft for all liver
complaints, and will euro any caso of indigestion
kr. .?ii. Winn I fint commenced to take your
(i-ann r Liver Regulator tho l'ecram-Patlon Ilms;Co,
wa? buying it by tho doren. Now I am told tliry hny
it ly tho tm*. I u.o ono bm each munta and
would nut bo without it for . .thins."
?0 strictly vegetable, non-alcoholic prepa
ration, and is highly recommended for sick
headache, indigestion, biliousness and all
stomach and liver complaints. Your drug
gist can supply you-25c a box.
Granger Medicine Co., Chattanooga, Teno.
CoDTiiaht 1909. b? C. ?. Ziniv^rman Co. - No. 51
E is no doubt about
money in the bank, it is
sure and positive, Maybe slow, but there
is the satisfaction that it is sure. Posi
tive in every way, both that it will grow,
and that it is safe.
OFFICERS: J. C. Sheppard, President; B. E. Nicholson, vice-President
E. J. Mims, Cashier; J. H. Allen. Assistant Oashier.
DIRECTORS : J. C. Sheppard, Thos. H. Rainsford, John Rainsford, B. E.
Nicholson, A. S. Tompkins. C. C. Fuller. E. J. Mims. J. H. Allen.
'?0111} SQQ?KfeP ?F0O?D
a Theatre or
Function, or ^
don't forget to have
? Anti -
with you. They are in
valuable for Headache
and all other Pains.
25 Doses, 25 Cents.
IF FIRST BOX IS NOT SATIS
FACTORY, YOUR MONEY WILL
ERING DESIRED RELIEF*.
"I have used Dr. Miles' Anti-Pain
Pills for some time and find them
an invaluable remedy for headache.
I have always taken great pleasure
in recommending them to my
friends, being confident that they
will bring thc desired relief. I am
never without thom and use them
for all attacks of pain, knowing
that they will not disappoint nie."
MRS. W. H. BENSON,
TVcst Haven, Conn.
BARRETT & COMPANY
Augusta - - - - Georgia j?
ARRINGTON BROS. & CO.
Wholesale Grocers and Dealers in
Corn, Oats, Hay and all
Kinds of Seeds
Corner Cumming and Fenwick Streets
On Georgia R. R. Tracks
YOUR PATRONAGE SOLICITED
See our representative, C. E. May.