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The Newberry herald. (Newberry, S.C.) 1865-1884, December 20, 1865, Image 1

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Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84026909/1865-12-20/ed-1/seq-1/

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TERMS-$1,50 F)n sx y C -.. I ;!N'.v~
At Newlb-rry C. U..
Ki-r i .AN i,:"10 :: ToIs.
I.Payment required imvaraiv :n auvane.
Advertisements Inserted at . per si:are, 1>
first ilsertioll, 1 fr -.eI sbsfoirent i.rin.
Marr'age ioticies, Funer' invi.ai':, ituies,
*d Co 0ammuuiciations of peieal interest chai ged
as3 adve ioes
I$ept'ex t' L 'C s .' ~ .
To express gratitole to GM, in the name
of the people, f r tih preservauin o toe i
ted States, is my fi rst .1uty in idr .ig Vu.
Our thou.hts next revert to t'he death of the
late President. 1by an act f p:rro.nu t
The grief of the na";on .s sti:'i fresh ; it t*::ls
some sohice in the: coniii tion that h.e lived
to enjoy the ighest proo) oU"ti C'n blenc y
entering on the reneed term of' the Cic
Magistracy, to whtich ;e 1) n ec
that hie broa,Lly,t the ei%.. vWr11 , t a! to
aL Close ; thbat his lo"sswsdpolina r:
'of the Union ; andl Cl-o forvi-:n i. he
val cast upon mea n1) e w1. 1' r
than ever devv, d :tl %n :
cessors. 1o t*.- 1 !.,N tru t -.
port an1 co-li.! e t a who -
nc in the va " a e
sind the u ''r
Trekn., the p
'on vo r a--i
'r .e 11ni0: n :,
wans 11 tenl b n
tile sttes the.
shab perpA
evderatitn. iT
L ates, is t
t tin u tu
necver* mo"re
N.'ond ("W,
wvithcns n
carth I T?
the approva
part of a coun
derful tll hi
LIM*l di-wu':
wvere ulLunatc:y \a
'The C- ll :'i i ', to'
er toenCeItt the lass- , I-a t:e:I-:h
sure domes-ie tra:''unty. :In case u* the
usurpationl of the (iveruna[n 't of1 a1 'at C
one man, or an o l'rby, i:* *le'nt 'edty
tee to that $tate t.i a. ..dlinEa v
ernme11nt, anid so to mi ta: the hV oee
eusness of all. He .h ps oft,, ree
'defects ? A si:'ule m.e ef:. n u in.
provrided in the Co~Nstualt 'n1 U -! ti;t itS
conditions can a1vavs be mA,il to 1*:.im toth
requIirenrts otf ialvancin enni z'! 'n. o
toomf is UllowedC even? for t:: t ' ;nt (f a
possibility of' u:s con:ing to an eI. -0
these powers o& vefpeservat'ion' hav a
b)een asertedI in their. emnpl.t int'::' '
t:very patriotic Che 1 . raMhy-e::
and Jackson, not less t.:m by Wdi o
rather of his counry w. il ' et Pre- ient, to
tbe people of the Ui: ~edl~ ttes wa, thi
the free Consti tution, which. wa the work
their hands, might h- I:r i n. t
aind the inungural wd jf Preint J1 ter
bonl held up '"the pree::ai:n of th'e (in :1
Government, in its~ Cont:tuttnal 's-, as
the sheet anchor or our pIace alt hon andt
safety abroad." The.-' co 'jttuto '1 th w* :A
'ef "the people' of tie Un ited itte, - *'nd'
thiould be as ind.. su tibl as th lene
1t is not strance li-t th f:'n'' o (ttL
should not hlave ful:y e>n:i :n utb ex
'hellence of their owna wor' F.eh f:om a
htruggle against arbitrary lp. r, n:. I'at
Dts suffered flrm h:taas,iig t a 4 a
iion of the State Goiermnnt by 'e (t
9tates would b. eak. at.ny a m '., thirc. orb i*.:
Bu't the very gre:tnes ofour cou:ty h'!
ellay apprehen.ion of1. eer'che-. byth
General Grovenmenrt. T he, sub t . . Ime'
'nnouestionaly with n n
fierou~s tha t i t nol is Ye :. ''
h mbarras,ed b
Were it Othie A
beneath the bar' en
would be ent:e a
structed by ex'c
temnptationl to cxr
bf the General ue
than to trespa,s oin '..
"Trhe absolate .e Tc
ofi the mahijonty" u a th be t
'century, enft rce by - I ' ''
prfincil of republe, h
last four yeas hav.e esta' te. ct It
forever, thtat there .l no .:e, I -
The nmaintn:2v:'' tO It e t
!t "the supoar t ' he4
all their r~i.:ts: ht thle
tights~ of any 'm- ie *''
its own pKe m' to' -
laws ofte ni. n
be malit. to
the Fe.deral Yve''''
peal fromn its 'a
branche o
Ce'islativ4e aa . . . . o1
her ait4X,v~>......
euage of the Comfeeracy, and not the l,n
(uge of th Ccn.titution. The latter con
tais the emphatie words: "The Constitu
tion, and the Ims of the Uniited States which
s! talle md e in pursuance thereof, and all
treaties made or which shall be imade under
the authority of the 1-nited States, shall be
tle .ipremne law of the land ; and the j udges
in every tati shiall be bound thereby, any
thing in the Constitution or laws of any State
to the contrarv notwithstanding."
er'tainly the 'Government of the United
States is a limited government; and so is every
Stat governnent a limited government.
W ithu this idea of limitation spreads through
every forin of administration, general, State
and 'm1ui'ipal, and rests on the great distin
r1Iwing principle of the recognition of the
rh of man. The ancientrepubliesabsorbed
the individual in tihe State, prescribed his re
li:in and controlled his activity. The
American system rests on the assertion of the
egcal right of every man to life, liberty and
tle pursuit of happiness to freedom of con
:-ietce, to the culture and cxercise of all his
'eutiies. As a consequence, the State g,%v
u-rent is limited. as to the General Govern
mnt in tihe interest of Union, as to the indi
vi-m! citizen in the interest of freedom.
.tates, with proper limitations of power,
are essential to the existence of the Constitu
tin (t the Uted States. At the very comi
me:cement, when we assuied a p,ace among
p vers of the earth, the Duclaration of
I nUnelenwe was alopted by States; so also
were the A ticles of Confederation ; and when
"the po'e f the United States" ordained
:nl estOihed the Constitution, it was the
n ofthe St-tes, one by one, which gave
i 1via:ty In1 the event, too, of any amend
t o he icn titution, the propusiti.n of
. - ::ecds the confirmation of States.
\%V Itat one -Ie:t branch of the Leg
uw ),t would be wanting. And,
h\Vhn: t me letter of the Constitiu
n nh(iter ' of ,r c>untry, its ea
c.,:;prh -nding within its j1ridic
n continu.l empire is due to tie
i 't es ' The best security fir the
S nee 7 of the S ateS is the "sia
S t a "f the Constitution of tihe
T i e pvrpetuity of the Cn
%N, ith it the perpetuity of the
- 'na reIation imakes us what
. r :I plitical systemIm their con
x vble. The whole c:innt ex
:,t r the parts wN' mit ut
,) au. s tile Con,titution of the
e-'s, the States wi.l en
a ion of the on isz the de
S 1;.. h;%, O - le p1-strVa.%tln of te
artvtin of the oythur.
nmv views of the mnn
* U i;titUrliIn:nl the Suntes
11 *."!" the pri:lci;rs on which I
n a to s ite mnomenltous u uu
e' a, the ta!1in Clliculethat
Ie t- encemenft.t ol) mA
* * I SeC %V, L dOlIa-t G
to ci swar (if "r men'tary
n .d tl e la healing p
:etalandunlChangmg- pri.iics of
a "''ates suffKurng from thme efle't
Rei.,tee to the Genend. wV
e . 1e to havye exhuist ed it>elf.
T an:h had recovered poisses.imi of
Sa ! :n enuals ; anid th i'ir ari me
we I he i'iinpa:rtion of every State whith
h:ni:steted to .seede. W hethuer the terri
t. v wihn thre limiits of these States should
be I::da congneri-ied territory, under military
authorin mainrg from the President as
th ha o f the a~rmyi, was the first question
':a pre-en!tLd itself for decision.
N,ni:it:r y e*ver nmnents, estalished( for
:m''' i' ie pe: i d, wvould have offered no
s iyfor thei early suppression of djiscin
ten ; u h have ( dvi led the people into thle
va:c:i he: an te vanquished, and wouldl
b en- ie haed rather than have re
ei, luitto hei cntinuance wsconcelva
W. They I w .il have occasionied anl inealeu
hr''0 :ui ~exba nst ing expense. Peaceful emi
rat 'in ti ad f;omr that portion oft the cann
tryi~ s 'in' of the best means that can be
:h' t- o the restoration of the harmruony;
co hte:anier'ation would have been preve'n
Ie -i for hi emaigrant from abroad, nX hat in
::st: I ns citizen at home, would place him
c.t wiin-zX um:ler ilitairy rule? The chief
K 'er s who11 woul haii Iive fllow1ved in the traini
oftearmy wo(ul have been dependent -on
the GIeneral Governmient, or men who e:spec
tid prufit fiom the miseries of their errinig
mUl viu-citizens. The powvers of patronage and
rul whIich world have been exercised, under
the l'eit, over a vast, and p 'pulous, and
aa::ywealthy, region, are greater thian,
une 'sc extrme necessity, I should be wXilling
to enttu,t to an one!v(ii man. They ar,: suech
a for '1yself, I coul n4iever, uinless on (ecca
"- ns of reat em'rgecyrZ. consent to exercise.
The 1 (4ls ofK suh powXers, if continuedi
throgh pild o'f years, wvould haive eni
.re the purity of the gveneral admiinistra
ton ad thce lrie of thre States which re
main ed loil
Bedsthe. plicy c f military rule over con
K r0 ter:i"t Xy wim!dh have imnpl id that theC
at Xs wose~ inhatitants may have t;mken
pe ie rebuilon hal, by the act of tlh'se
nhabit:mi'mI:.1 to exist. But the true th'eo
r1 i\ that ti pretended acts of necessi n
er rmthe begininrg, null and vi id. The
t c"m:lt cinunrit treason, nor screen the
X 1 citiLte::s u ho may:i have comnmit ted
n,' '*i an mre thian they can make vali
* : e in' bi lwful commerce witn
a ''' pmver.'' The States attempting
placed themiselves in a condiitmion
h-their functions suspended, but
I,'> any ""tat neglects or refuses to per
t'ite, ther e is the more need thart
the <;en d Governent should mnaintaina all
i t~. uth.rity, 'mi, as soon as practicale(, re
smne. te exerc''e of all its functions. On
thi ori ee Il hav acted, and have gradua:l
1- a: y, and byX almnost imperceep tibled
at to retoriie the righ tfull enle gy of
1n o l ver'nm'ent and of thre States.
Ti ' t c l'rIOXvitoal Gjovernors have been
the States, Conventionts were
c - ( ""5 s elcted, Legin-"tures arssem
hb -i1 r d >rs rid liepresentatIives chosen
t i' C v e it ofte fUted Sr:ates. A t the
-'l to:', A~'Curts of thre Uinitedi S:r:tcs,
' '.mbe (done, haove been re-opeCned,
* .~ h'.AS'f thre hinited Stats nmay b's
enforced through their agency. The - -
has been removed, and the custom-h1ses re
established in ports of entr, so that 1.he rev
Cle of the m ted tL. n P7 .co.lected.
The Post ( ilice Dkepartien t renews its ccase
less activity, aii(d the General (ovCrnlmlnt is
there', enabled to communicate promptly
with officers and azents. The courts bring
secerity to persons anid property ; the open
ing of the ports invites the restoration of in
dustry and comnierce ; the post office renews
the facilitie- of social intercourse and of busi
n es. And is it not happy for us all, that the
restoration of each one of these functions of
the (eneral Government brings with it a
blessing to the States over which they are ex
tendeI ? Is it not a sure promise of hariony
and renewed attachment to the Union that,
after all that has happened, the return of the
General Government is known only as a ben
eficience ?
I know very w-l that this policy is atten
ded with soic risk ; that for its success it re
quires at least the acquiescence of the States
which it concerns ; that it implies an invita
tion to those Stateshy renewing their alle
giance to the United States, to resume their
functions as States < f the Union. But it is a
i.sk that muit be taken ; in the choice of dif
ficulties, it is the smllet risk ; and to dimm
ish, and if posibAe,.to reiove all danger, I
have felt it i;ncum1bet oil ine to assert one
other powel of the (General Government-tlhe
power of pardon. As no State can throw a
defence over the crime of trea.-on, the power
of p:1rdon is exci uiveIyv vested ill tie ExecI
tive Government of the United States. In
exercisijig that power I have taken every pre
Calition to colileet it with the clearest recog
I mtion of tIle bilidinug foice of tle lws (,f the
United States, and an unqualified acknowl
eIgement of the great social change of coni
tion in rea;trd to slavery which has grown
oit of the war.
The next step which I have taken to res
tore the conStltitional relations of the States,
has been an invitation to them to participate
ill the high olice of amendiig the %oI'mstitti
tion. Ev cr patriot. mulist wish for a general
amestV at the earliest epoch consiw.teit with
pub4 1i'n saf- tv. For this great end there is
nel of a eoneurrence of all opinions, and the
iit of mutual conelluttim. All parties in
tie late terllible colHt imst wIk togther
in harmIony. It is nt tlo iluch to 'IAk, ill the
Ine of the whle po.le, that, on tile oell
s4ie, the plan of resoration shall proceed in
eCC it y;: with a ilingness to ca<t the dis
o rf the 1past i:to oblivion ; and thiat, on
the othe r, the evi.lence of sinceritV inl the fil
t mainl't-kunc- kf t:e U:ion -hal be put
hV0!d aN dto::bt by the raLtifiCtin1 Of the
pr os atiaedilct to the Constitution.
w ih prvi 0 for the abohIlition (if slavCr
forever witinl the limits (of our country. So
long as the adjption of this anelndmtilent is de
hy s-\%. l i l ill iul,t, and jealousV, il
U:w:k;tv prevailJ. This is the icasuirel
wLich wilielh ce the saI e eiCry of the last
t :h a which wvill most certaily
call populationl. andi capital, and11 security to
tie parts of 11he Union that need them
m .ist ided, it. is nltot too ltlch to ask of
t1 Z tt, 11 .1 are 1low resunaing their pla
ee in the famihi- If the Uion to give thi
i. ig f perpeinal loyalty and i.eace. En il1
it i- done, the past, hiwever mu)1ch weC mlay
d esir i t, will not he forgot ten. The adop t ion
of tihe amiendament re-unites us beyond all
power of disu rptiln. It heals the wonad tha t
is still impiterfetly cilosed ; it remloves slavery.
theC elemlen t whlich h::s so long perplexed anad
dividedl tile coiuntry, it mlakes us~ onice more a
uni ted people, reniewed andl strengthenied,
bounad Inore than ever- to mutual affection anad
The amtendmnent to tile Cons t ition bein
adijpted, it would remnainu for thre States, wI 0se
owers have been so lonig ill abeyance, to re
.ume their ph1ees in the two branches ef the
N ation0111al 1 gila tur e, anid thiereby coimplete
tile work of restoraItion. I lere it is for y'oui,
fellow-citizens of tile Senate,. arnd for vou, fe
iow-citizens5 of the House of liepresentanves,
to j udge, each of you for y-ourselves, of the
eletlins, returns, and nualifcationls of your
own meinhers.
The full alssertion of the powers of the G en
eral Governmentill requires the holding of Cira
cuit Courts of the Un ited States within tie
ditricts where their authority has been i
terruptid. in the present posture of our pub
lie alff>irs, st long ob jectionis have been nirged
to h: hd dg those cou rts in any of the States
where tIle rebielion hats existed ; and it wais
aset rtonned by inqulijry, tha:1t the Circuit C'omit
of the United States would not be held inl the
Ditrict (f Vir gin ia dor inig thle autruum or
eary winiter, roer until C.onigres shollld have
"anl opportmt. ity jo consider eird act oil the
whole subhject" To y-our debiberatlions the
restIrat ion oif this hi alchl of the civil authoi
it v of the United States is, there-fore, necessa
riv refearred, u ih the hope tha early p)rovis
ito will bie miadec for the resuniltionl of al its
Iigran:it in charlacter, h as been couit ited.
Personsl who are charged with its COnunhisiSSOn
shoub have fajir and impo1aitial tils in the
i hest tiirinails of the counitry, in order
thi t the Co.,titution andl the laws may be
fllv vindien te 1: the t ru th clearlyv estali shedi
and :irm. led tiat teasonh is a cime,t' thait trai
to. .hul be puni.shed anld tihe (olenIce miole
infam.ns, aul, at the sa -e tunie, that the
quels tin mayl he judhiciily settle.d, ii
I "\rIn forever, tha:t nio State, of its own
w il 1: s tile n.ia to ienoounce its place iln the
The reatiion:s iof the Gieneral Governmrenit
th w: - a~ caKi Hiti ireen.lm, has enigag&'d
r.y n.ist sei:u conrsiderati,m. Oil the pro
pIt'' if attemptiag to maiker the freedhmen
eletorR by the p,rochanal:tionl of tihe Exeru'ive,
I too for~mv coiosi! the (Consti t utiln itself,
the irpetations oIf that inStrumenlCrt by its
atho,.rsid their contempioraries, ad recent
laiJ.tion hc Cn;;ress. Whren at the fr
mlV'ovement tlwans inl~e'per nee tile Con
r. o the Uni:ted Stat es inrstructedl thle e-(
eral > ttes to ristitute (Iovernme ts of tOenl
OW, ther left eachl State to deide for it elf
te cond(hions for thC enl1iormen.t ofth elee
tle anh Ilse. lalrng the period ,if the Con
fer:cy, there conlticd to e(t ve~
'rent idiversity ini the qualiileitions. of h-an
i tile rieral States - andt even) nI thin a a tate
a diinc:t'rin .' quiientionrS pi evaiiled. withl
epe' a the k neels. who were to be co..
The~ onst~ition ii the I ited StateS re-i.
- 1,.e 'Jrcn.ic u~ hen it c,oi)oS thlat, u
the choice of memitters of the Iouse Of Eep.
rcsentatives of the Unlitel Statt-s, "tile flec
t,rs in each State shall have the Tl:ilill(:ti"1ns
requisite fr -electtrs of the MOst numerous
branch of' the State Lgishtture." After the
formation of the Constitution, it rem.aiined, as
before, the uniform hsage for each State to
enliargc the body of its electors, according to
its own ju:l,,ent ; and, under this system,
one Stal after another has proceecded to in
crease the number of its eledors, until uni
versal suffirage, or something very near it, is
the general rule. So fixed was this reservation
of power in the habits of the people, and so
unquestioned has been the interpretation of,
the Constitution, that during the civil war
the late President never harbored the pur
pose- certainly never avowed the purpose-of
disregandin. it ; and in the Acts of Congrcss
during that period, nothing can be fonm
which, during the continuance of hostilities.
much less after their close, would have sane
tioned any departure by the Executive from a
policy which has so uniformly obtained. More
over, a concession of the elective franchise to
the freeduien, by act of the President of the
United States, must have been extended to all
colored men, wherever found, ant tmust so
have established a chance of sn!frange in the
Northern, Middle and Western States, not
less than in the Southern and Sith-west,rin.
Such an act would have created a new class
of voters, an(I would have been an assumption
of power by the President which nothiin," ill
tile Constitution or laws of the Unlited States
would have warranted.
On tile other hand, every damer of con
flict is avoided, wA-hen the settlement of the
question is referred to the several States.
They can, each for itself, decide on the meins
tire, and whether it is to be ad11ted -t once
and ab.soluitel y, or introduceI gradually and
with cn ietions. In 111V m udmienlt, the freed
mren, if they show patience and mannily virtuv5,
will sooner obtain a participatjion in the elec
tive franchize throngh the States than through
the (eneral 'Government, even if it had pow
er to intervene. W hen the tununt of en;otons
that have b)een raised by the suidnness of
the social chllange sha1l have slhsid<l, it mlay
pr*ove that they will receive tire kindliest
usage from 5omle of thIose on w% hoi they have
hereto!",re l,ost close y. dependIt. -
BlIut while I have nO doubt that now, after
the close of the war, it is not competent for
the Geleral GoveIruII,I lent toextend11 tile elective.
falhlise ill the several States, it is equally
ear that L:no( faith ruires the security ()I
thie !rce(men in th:eir hlberty and their ll
erty, their ri,it to labor, a,0i their ri.h-It to
Clahn the ja t returl of their labr. I Can*ot
too -st rogIl urge a ditassi5oinate treatme'nt
of this subject, which should be carefill!y kept
a!of froml all party strife. We must eciln.aly
aidh1a1.-y ll)tiolls of any natural 1111
ility for the two races to live side by
sidte, ill a !ate of mllu1tal Lenefit and good
wI Ill. TI exllerintli11 illvolves us in no in
con: t ::ey ; kt us, theni, go on1 : I k1
that expi?iiinent il good faith, and not he too
eaily di,heactened. The country is in need
of laiior, id the frcdmen are in need Uf emnI
pIlr m ut culttre arid protection. VV,ile
their I iZt of voll11M tlary latitln and exat
riaton is nIt to be qu e '-tionledl, I wouldI nit
advise their' frced removal and colonization'.
Le t US raIthecr enr 10 get~ thleml to honoi rable
andi uisefuliii ndutry~r, where it many be bene C
icial to thIeinCeh-es ad to1 the coulntry ; and
a11d, inIste:nil of1 hasty aticiipat ions of the cer
tainty of faIilureC, let therIe be nothing wanrting~
to the fair trial of tihe extierimenlt. Thie
charnge ill thleir condition is thle subastitutioni
of laf>or by contract fur the staitus of slavery.
The freedinan cannot fairly be ac:cusedh of uin
wih ingness to work, so) long as5 a doubt re
mainls abou'lt hiis freedo o)ll(f cIIoice in 11is pur1n
smTts, andrr tile certainity of hIis recover in hmis 1
stiuiitedl wages. Iu this thle interest of tile
emp!oil veri anId thle em11ployed1 ~ II c inc. TheI
enpl ~ver desires in his work men spirit an 1
alecity , anid th1;ese Caln be prermtianen rtly se
cured in no othler w ay. Anrd if the one ough rt
to he rble to enforce thle contract, so oug'ht
he other. The pub lic inaterest wiIl be beist
prnrtedl, if the sever-al Stat!es will provide
ade1ura:t e pirotection and remiedies for tic
fi ceidmen. Entil this is in somile way accom
pished, there 5is no chance for the2 il advatal
genu ise oS(f thelir labor ; arnd the blame of
ill-success will not rest onl thecm.
1 know thlat :!ncere phibmltrrpy is ealrneMt
fr tile ilinediate real.:ationi of its lrmotest
aimIs ; bunt time is always 011 celeent inI re
for. It is one1 of thle greatest aicts on record
to have broughit four iiona s of p eopl e inito
fedlmI. TIhe career of free irndusiry mtIIt
be faiirly opene1d to) themt ; aund thlen their fru
ture pul uisperity ol condiiion mt,'r af tern all,
rest uninl~y on1 themse5ilves;~ if they, fil, an;d
perish awa1y, let us be carecful thait the fri ure
shall1 rnot be ait triburitable ti anyV diai1l ft jIS
tie. Iln all thalt relates to the destiny~ of thie
f:'id TnenI, we need( rIot he too a;;nxI us to re'ad
the funtur'.; mrl'ny incidleIts. whi h, froml a
spe(cuilti ve p. int of view, mighi2t rai Cle l aIll,
w,ill quietly settle themselves.
Noiw th;at sIavery is at ain e:nd, or near its
eird, the greatness of its evil, in the poinrt iof
view of publAic econo>my, becomes miore anad
m;ore :1apaent. Sla vety w asT551 Tseinally a 111
nooly if lbribr, and11 as such lacked theC >te
whee i p ei, agin11Wt thle incOriil2 of fcee
:llstry. WhereIC labiior waIs the proper'ty (f
the cp'ilt:lie..t, theC ub1.2 man was e.wi"'ed
f iAm emlimenut, on hail but the 4cn e
chance o.f ' n'ing It; and the 1' in ini
!gTlnt turnedI -awIy iam thre Ie-::1n .VLe!e
ii conir onul A1 w I ia e so ~in *a.n -
WithI the deui~~tction of' th1e mTn ply Iree
lor u ill hastn fi om alhl part of 'do ei
ilizid wold to a--.ist ill develrin uii s vannS
States neanret the GA u1f1of Mexicoi,Vi ha -a of
exubmlantT friity,T a ;i'at tliitoy to lin i
fiiundr I-sye t in anly par t 011 ourcou'ry .\X ad
th' futire aM!u x oIf pIpub:tean to the ui 'i- lie
mai'nly, fr'~ma th;e Nor'th, or 60m thei n112 t '' 1
tvte.l nations of Eurp. FrIonii the .nr
la't stugle, lt us loilok\ a to the i r
w hi tis sure to be- hlen for thIn u\Ii
ater- iroisnerity than' has' even heK r ibeIen'
slae labor i- a pledge thtat those teina CiI
ar pl'eld hv a nume.rI'ons arnd enIterpr: mhig
poula;'Til, 'wlhc wv AillwI anyV 1 in
wen I jin;inwlity.: nt a
n-*e for the people-not the peq,le Fol the
G)verniment. To thein it ::ws uegianeice
f-om thcm it nist de rie l ' emirage,s trnth
,id wisndo. But while tie (overnminit is
tlIml- bound to defer to the pCople, from whoim
it derives its exi.tClce, it Thould, from the
very consideration of its origin, be strong in
its power of resistance to the establishment
Of inequalities. MollopkIlies. perpetui ties and
rlass legIslation are Ccmtlr: V to the genius of
free govweniet, and ohII:t not to be allowed.
Here there is no room for favored classes or
onnopolies ; the piiciple of our Governmen'.
is that of equal laws and freedom of industry.
Wherever inonopoly attains a foothold, it is
,lre to be a source of de.:ger, discord and
trouble. We shall but futil our dutiov.es as
'egisl:itors by according "equal and exact jus
tice to all InC," spea 1I ivilegts to I (o.
Fhe Government is su;ordirlate to the peloph-;
but as the agent and repre:-entative (f the
people. it must be held supilor to m.mopo
lies, which, in thems-es,e ougIlt lever to be
granted, ard which, where they exi.t, must
be-suboidinate and vield to the ,overniment.
The Constitution conf'crs on Congress the
right to regulate commerec among the several
States. it is of the first necessity for the
maintenance of the lion, that that Com
nerce should be free and unobhstructed. No
State call be justified in any 'vice to tax the
transit of travel and Commerce between States.
The positioi of many tates is such, that if
they were allowed to take advantage of it for
parposes of local revenuie, the commerce -1)0
tween States mlight he inj1urioisly burdened,
or even virtually prih3- ed. It is best,%%ile
tihe ColltrV is Still VU1,, and while the tcn
dcy to dangOVipo)lis of this kind
is Ztill feeble, to use the power of L'oigress sO
as to 1revenL!rlt any seli-h impedI'iilnt to the
free circulation of inen and ierchadize. A
tax onl t avel and morciandizv, in thir tran
sit, colst,it u tes one of tile % wo. st formil0s cf ,10
nopolv', al] the ev:l i iicre:i'sed if coupledkJ
with Ia denial of the clicl-e of route. Wh'llenl
Lhe vast extent o-f' our coitry is considered,
it is plainl that eve'-y obt':N* l to tihe free cir
culation'of Co1immer-C iw ulleen tile States
ou'ht to be Sternly111 :rded aailst by ap
proi ite leg.dations, wihin the hinitS of tie
Co St itu tc .
The report of the Sec't::ry of the interior
explhiins tile colition of tie public lid 's. the
tranlsactionls of tile 1t iee and the Pen
Sil Bureall, tile nO'''l..ent of our Ildiml
aflirs, the Irgr''ss inadhe ill tle constructioll
of the ':eilic lRa-llroal, Il' f'l-islhes inform
ation ill refcrence to inatters of local interest
in the District of Colunlbia. It al%o presen"ts
ev(vie of the oucceiul ope:ation of tile
11ome1stead A ct, Udei L'r the poifOViAnS of
wlich l1,ul acre4 of the public lands
were eCtCre( dIring tie last fiscal year
ore t.an One-f4 oIrth of the Whole 11m.1he1)cr of
acres sohl or oth'rw ise dispTosl of during
that p-eriod. It is Ctimatud tlh:at the receipjt
deliived from this soilCe are Sufliviviot 1to
Cover the expellses 11widet1A to th! e survey and
dikp-Isal o' tile lands C?:.:Ved uider th-is act,
amtl 01:zt navmlents inl eash! to the extenlt OC
frn f-oI tV to fifty I"wr cclt. wm he iIllale tby
Setle S, who may hus, It any% tune :wTr
title befJre the eXlir1 0 of the peild at
which it woud th:wrevet. Th llIme
stewl:ol poli was est:ihed only afteri long
an.d earne ct resista1ce expecrien Ce pr1oves its
wisdom. lhe land1(1, ini the l;ulod5 of inodtls
L ti'us settleris, whoIse labor0l ci entes wealth
and1( contrib~utes tco tile puloic resoutrces, are
worth more to tile Unlitcd S:ites, thani if the'v
had beenl reserved as a so:iudle for future
putrch11a sers.
The lnmentablie events of tile last four years,
and tile sacrtiees Iirole bys the .:miiot l:en oif
our armay anod na0vy, have sw elled the recordl
of tile l'enitSon Bulrealu to anl unrcdne
ex tenlt. (On the .20th day of JuneI last, theL
total Inmber (of peitiers;' was 85. , re
quiring~ for their annua i I, exeln.0-ive of ex
pen1ses, tile st1uin of ',>:;,4". The nolu:he ir
of apicaii'tions) that laIr been i aIllowed Shince
that (date. will reoquire a iirg'e incr'eaOSe of thtis
:uo:mlit for tile noext fi'e!a. Th~i le meanOis
fr tile paymenClt of the' slieldS duel, undlerl
existing laws, to ouIr ( dahl soliers and
sailors, and to theC famIili's oft such as hlave
perishled in tile servi'e of Ihe countryi'), will no0
doubt lhe cheerfu!iyv a'd prmoptly granted. A
erteful peopole wiil not hi.,itate0 to Sanenien
any IlCO m 'ere h1a1vmIg foor thi ir ob j et the re
l-I'of' soldiers mu lti!oted and1 f-nuiiles liu:le
fatherless in) tile efe:ts to l.reservec our lia
tionlal exi:,tecie.
The report of the Pcs! mste'r (Ge,eral pre
Se'nts anl encCouragtli((n exhibit (of tihe opetra
tions1 of tile Post (O!!'i e Deparltm.-n't d<iming
thte year. 'The revenuelis of the p:.St yeil'
frn thle loval States alIne, eceededC' thle
mlaxi:numi ain~nual retct it.- f; iOm all the >cates
previous5 to theC rl(i oni, iln tile so;n of
of~ reCvenueI during tile h:-t foutr y1ears', coml
priedl with the~ revenull' of th four' year'. 11
The r'evenuesi oof to'- la''- 2.-ad'yeir OidiI'
to >-.l O.,55,h.n and tie expoe:nlit ures to
$l3;4,7z2 , vlvin a1 sup! ofil-. receipts lover'
madte Ilin -o eteing~ the r i,.a sen'ite ini the
"outh ierin tts ~S The views prseted byv
tie l'ostmas cter-GenelOP :I':tint the poo'- of'
crIltiuig theo1'l' tro. 'y em 1 :1 hht
the 'omnltion for iW a n to tce is
;:e e::nin arei' I, '.: I' nd t oitc t htie care
it aplpears , irml the r if theC CeretOIry
<. th '\ Pu y, thaot '. hi .t ! eC :lomecie :nte t.
e.,m:is..ion il 117, with '"'g1s atal l%12
mItn. liy this prompt 'du in 'oif the' it vb!
Sces t expnf :'I e urmnthv
quadrons'0 hav'.e beoeni re- hot malc cont
i't ot vesseb : n:ch w trc il It r.'t th:: those5
riliona. 'lhe su.ti'n forc the en t1'ar
menit of the na ' -ya: i-. t- tesiallyfr h
i'''.i>nnt fc 0n' cn iroh. te~r l'r iron
el ' esslO 'ee v: f c n blr to ,a
Ini the rt t : I ar,
- i th,,: ily in h t The
CTpera.ti('ns ''f Ote 1u)1
reau f the \\v Dtw -K AV Nst
veanr arL 00% Wb, vi a% :de A
t:e appr, &is i ::1 i' for
mli1t" ry 1, - i , ctTil!I1l ' -
tir the :0 th M b I T e i atOcl
Ililiita'll-v er ! t . . - ;i 5 Iiulll
beredI 1,t0 ,. 1; 1 1L to r
dice the li.t to L
f"otl"--, emop of'1
nuit~ by n ih q;te;ik 12AMS if the
tu I TI, 1.' 1 il W b t
nu~~~ Itto apec
tl tile K ja It i.: -t:: I
oa i i , h K i> ma
PWIbM, %, r t f h
11, 111 K C v:l .'=' i1 KvL upirval 0i
tiahle ) .4 noutl it i, I i l a~L ch.-i
tbc um . e th- 4 ret rin
a: 1 ' t' (tt I -
:or! the n, l : I
a: puP I:: , f r warwn
st, I . iI I . t -I- 'tli iALO
tiu a P t t e
dation I ernen i !:e reor
%ol h A, W, f
lii~~t, 1' ul C." *~*i1 t
ti. t A r t v '' i.
I. V V 1' 11luLt'
t0i saw ni =u po t ii Uie 1viel
t ae 1.; lit'if
Thst asr , aw up ',oW , vv i ? NO lmh
suje ct of i i v t t to ! prc
li:,t it i h:a a un
is ,I, C it .2!l e- :
me~~' th:proab
:i - th I n:w, 11 In( c ntn
*.. u i i a- :: r: :
ittlIt>. Ii I s 1 t
t tl
ut 1:s e m.:ns; um tt1:ae t a
I e tn i I~
the na u n d itd
at ( 1 u 't
inty '.hencon reli t C nien les ii

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