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r. w mm, ,. > ?f ' ^ ' $ V ; / f '" ' / ' r i keowee Courier. " TO TIIINB OWN SELF UE TKUE, AND IT MUST FOLLOW, A8 TUB NIG1IT TUB DAY, T1I0U CANVr NOT THEN EE FALSE TO ANY MAN " 1 VOL. 1. PICKENS COURT HOUSE, S. C. FRIDAY, MAY 18, 1849. NO. 1. ?? - J? THIS KFOV KK COURIEIC, vrix.lo and fl'dmhukil wjekkl.y by W. II. TETMMIER. NORMS <t KEITH, Editor*. ^ TIMS. One Dollar and Fifty Cents for ojio year's subscription when paid within three months, Two dollars if payment is delayed to the closc of the subscription your. All subscription* not clearly limited, will be considered as mode for an indefinite time, and continued till a discontinuance Is ordered and nil arrearages paid. Advertisements inserted at 75 cents per equaro for tlio first insertion, and 37 1 -2 cts. for fcach continued insertion. Liberal deductions made to those advertising by the year. (QS" All Communications should be addressed to the Publisher post paid. Written for the Kkowek Courier. A FllA 1MENT. ?y anous. "There is a Ood,n tlio flowers smile, Ilia name is whispered on tho winil; Tho gathering clouda?tho mountains wild, And rolling rivors speak "of him. IDeop?docp beneath tho ocean's wave, The gentle spirits breathing tell His praises, in their coral cave, And wake with joy tho wild sea-shelL The dewy morn and evening gray, The still night with its thousand stars; And every voice and'every lay ? Of earth and heaven, his nuitid declare*. Thun thus, in* nil her count loss tonoa, Great nature sings in lofty (strains, And something i' the heart that mourns, Echoes with joy "Jehova reigns!" Ho reigns within the poriceful brenst As deep seas sleep beneath their foam, And they who sink in faith, to rest, Aro wUh Him in thqir, ffoldo^|ieqiQ. EXTHACT niOM A LECTURE ON THE INmt'l'ii "AIS 1J THE BUUTIi, Delivered before tho Young Men's Mercantile Library Association of Cincin nati, Obio, January 10, 1849. BV ELWOOD FIFHKR Tbe progress and prospects of tbo Northern and Southern sect ions of this Union involves some of the greatest and gravest questions of the age. Each has u form of civilization peculiar to itself, and to modem times. Tbe confederacy which has been formed by their union has astonished the world bv its Micro** but tlio world, as well as the two sections themselves, differ very widely as to the causes of this success, and the agency of the two respective systems of society in producing it. This controversy has long been advancing on the country, and now, in consequence of recent events, it has become goneral. In this part of the country, however, we have had but one side: nr?d as tho subject is one of the ft'rst magnitude, I have thought it highly important that it should be well examined.? In a Commercial Institution like this, it is peculiarly proper that tho causes* of tho wealth Ki d the sources of the commerce of the country should be well understood. When the Constitution of tho United States was adopted, the population of the two sections of the United States was nearly equal?uuch being r.ct quite two millions of inhabitants, the South including more than half a million of slaves. The territory then occupied by the two was, perhaps, also nearly equal in extent and fertility. Their commerce W<ik als6 about the some; the North exp6rting about $0,800,540 in 1790, and the South $9,200,500.* Even the property held by the two sections was almost exactly the same in amount, being ab'out 400,000 millions in value each, according to an assessment for direct taxes in 1790.* For the first quarter of a centurv of thft nrAnAlif mivpinmoni. nr* tn j? IE 16, the South took the lend of the i, North ii. Commerce: as at the end of ' ' that period tho*exports of trie Southern States amounted to about thirty millioai of dollars, which was five millions more than tho Northern. At this ,itime,* in 1810, Hfllth Carolina and New York were thJi two greatest exporting . States of t?ho Union, South Carolina exporting moro than $10,000,000, and New York over $14,000,000.* According^ the asBessmcnto made by authority of tflfc-Fe^orfil Oo/eminent in 1815"fov direct taxes, the va^uo of propty in the Southerrf States risen to $850>5.'74,0d7i the white population be- j ing then, according to*n avefrHge bf the I of J $10 and that of 1020, about j Pitkin. i 4 0 '*< >, * . \ SBImmitei?? rtHif-.. id- ninJri'rtfot^ i 2,749,705, or about $312 per head, whilst the property of the Northern States amounted to $1,042,782,204, for 4,020,550 population, or only $240 per hjad Even in Manufactures the South, at that period, excelled the North in proportion to the numbers of their population. Tn 1810, according to the returns of the Marshals of the U. Slatca, the fabrics of ..wi, wwii iinu linen, mnnuiacturca in the Northern States, amounted to 40,341,274 yards, valued at $21,001,.'525, whilst the South fabricated 34,786,407 yards, estimated at $10,771,724. Thus, after the lapse of the first quarter of u century, under our present form of Government, the South had surpassed the North, in Commerce, in Manufactures, and in the accumulation of wealth, in proportion to the number of citizens of the respective sections. Since that period a great change has occurred. The harbors of Norfolk, of Richmond, of Charleston, and Savannah, have been deserted for those of Philaddt? phia, New York and Boston; and New Orleans is the only Southern city that pretends to rival its Northern competitors. The grass is jjrow'n? in the stre 8 of I those cltics of the South, which originally monopolized our colonial commerce and maintained their ascendancy in the earlier years of the Union. Manufac turcs nnd the arts have also gone to take up their abode in tho North. Cities have been expanded and multiplied in the same favored region ' nnd canals have been constructed, nnd education has delighted there to build her colleges and seminaries. These phenomena have made a profound impression on reflecting minds throughout the Union, and particularly in the South. By her leading statesmen, these result have been ascribed to the policy pursued by the Federal Government since 181G. It'was at this pcthat the system of direct taxation was fiitalK' abandoned, and the whole interest of the public debt, then so much ; augmented by the war, as well as the increased expenditures of the Government, were made, chargeable on the foreign commerce of the country, except the slight income from the public lands.? And uti tit the close of the war, the principal articles of export, in exchange for winch, we obtained our foreign goods, consisted of cotton, tobacco, and rice, it , was held that the new policy was a peculiar burden on tho States that r?ro duced those staples. In addition to fh;j, the establishment of a Bank of the United States located at the North, with large deposites of Government money, and enabled by the confidence of the i Government to maintain a large circulation, which would naturally be devoted to the promotion of Northern commerce, it was thought also adverse to Southern oflmmnroinl rivnlrv I'lioon J. ^..wvv,?w ' measures were the work of a Republican ' Administration of the Government, but , they were strenously opposed by the State Rights party. On their passage in Congress, it was declared by John Randolph, one of the most profound and sagacious statesmen, Virginia, or any other country ever produced, that a revolution in our Government had occurred, whose consequences no man could calculate. The result verified this prcdic uon. uur population is now twenty millions, unci yet it is thought by nil parties that twenty-five millions of dollars per annum is enough for the support of Government in time of peace. Yet sixteen years ago, when our population was hut little more than half of what it is now, this Government exacted $32,000,000 as duties on our foreign imports, 1 itJi i- * tmu Limt u>o, wnomj, in consequence of this heavey hurdeiFon our foreign trade, we only jjbpoHed 04,$00,000. The Government took half the value of the imports, as a tax on foreign trade. This 41. -< ? ' ? uuKiago nna uiu uuusc OI OOUU1 UttrOllllfl nullification. Now the power of the Federal Governor \ over foreign commerce, is, by the Constitution, precisely the spme as that among the States. It is a power to regulate only. And the South contended that inasmuch ar. the imoorts from abroad were the proceeds chiefly of her staple exports, and wore therefore, to all intents and purposes, the product of hor industry ana capital, that thore was no moro constitutional right to tax them on arriving in our ports, than to tax the products of tho North, when shipped to the South. When, therefore, the sta'esnfSn of the South reflect on the great <x>mmercial nntt manufacturing prosperity of their country in the days af direct taxation, and behold now her dilapidated cities and deserted harbors under the chango of syst em, ia it wonderful that t hey have majir *W lL-n_ -? uniw ui congress eloquent | * 4 / * ' Till". rM' Jit.. k with the ruin and wrong (hat they have suffered? Or it is wonderful that the North whilot it cannot believe that what litis been so conducive to its own prosperity, should be detrimental to others, should yet toko the South at its word as to its decline, and seek for other causes of such a result. This has been done, and negro slavery law with extraordinary unanimity been fixed upon as the greaUand efficient of Southern decline. And ibis now assumed that tho South, particularly the older States, is undergo mg me process ot impoverishment, depopulation, and decay. At the North she is continually spoken of by almost all classes. ir\ terms of mingled condemnation and pify, and pride. She is advised to emancipate-her slaves, and emulate the North, in enterprise, industry, and civilization. Tho first object of civilised life is to accumulate wealth, as on that depends improvement in science and the arts, and the supplv of the multipied wants of society in that state. A.wi :* 41?* t\.~ ci?.ii. J iiviiw lb in billtb UlU lOUUlll IN U?clared to be falling behind the civilization of the aire, and is advised to abandon her peculiar institution in order to avoid the. disastrous condition of ignorance and barbarism that awaits her. Now in an age like this, of pre-emin nil, intelligence, wnn tne schoolmasters all abroad?with (be universal diffusion of the press, and the. post, and om a question like this, of the first magnitude, and tho k-??t complexity, and vvnu&t tT?e people of the two sections aro continually travelling amongst each other, and engag cu in uiscussions "wiin one another 111 stages and steamboats, in cam, in hotels, on the Stump, and in Congress?it is scarcely credible that a universal mistake prevails as to the facts. Yet in opposition to the existing opinion on the subject, I maintain that the South is greatly the superior of the North in wealth, in proportion to the number of iL - ?V* < - "* * * * meir citizens respectively; nrui tins will appear by n comparison and progress of tlie white, people of the respective sections. The North, and even ninny In the South, have assumed a decline in manufactures and commerce, to be a decline of general prosperity. This ia an error. The p licy of the Federal Government, and the domestic institutions of the South ern states, nave indeed been unfavorable <o the latter in those pursuits, but the agriculture of the South has maintained and advanced in prosperity beyond that "f onother people. [to he continued next week.] EMANCIPATION IN KENTUCKY. The Kentucky papers inform us that the late :Convention of the Friends of Emancipation in that State, which assembled at Frankfort on the 25th ultimo, \v;lS im\'sirlr>d niwliv <~V1 TInnm ru.,.. i j of Bourbon county, assisted by Henry Wingntc as Vicc President, and Frank Ballinger as Secretary. Tlie Lexington Observer gives the following as the plan of action resolved on by the Convention. " This Convention, composed of citizens of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, and representing the opinions and wishes of a large number of their fellow citizens throughout the Commonwealth, met in the cnpitol on the 25th A pril, 1849, to qonsider wh.H course it becomes those who are opposed to the increase and to tho perpetuity of slavery in this Stnte fo pursue, in the approaching canvass for members of the Convention called to amend the constitution, adopts the propositions which follow, as expressing its judgment in the promises: "1. Believing that involuntary hereditary slavery, as it exists by law in this State, is adverse to the prosperity of the Commonwealth, inconsistent with the fundamental piinciples of free government, contrary to tho natural rights of mankind, and injurious to a pure state of morals, we wo of opinion thnt it ought not to be increased, and that it ought not to be perpetuated in this Commonwealth. 1 " 2. That no attempt ought to be made j( now, or at any time, tp set slaves free by compulsory emancipation, without just compensation, after rights of property have been allotted i-6test in them; but 1 that ev^ry soltfSie for the compulsory ex tinction of slavery in Kentucky ought14 to begin with those bofn after the com- 1 mencement of the scheme, and^that tho ' removal of the liberated slavedJ ought to 1 form a part of every such plan. " 3., JThat we recommend tho following points as those to bo insisted on in tho new constitution, ajj^l tbat candidates be run in every county m the State favorable to thes6 or similar constitutional pro- 1 visions: 1. The absolute prohibition of 1 >t * A . ~ uie impoixation of any more slaves into 1 Kentucky; 2. The complete power in the people of Kentucky to enforce and 1 . - '$ * * * M - :^WN! perfect, in or under the new constitution, a system of gradual prospective emancipation of slaves. "4. This Convention confines its recommendation to the question of negro slavery, and makes no expression of opinion on any other topic." The Convention (the Ofcw.rver remarks) was not very numerously attended, but twenty-three out of the one hundred and three counties in the State being represented and by about one hundred and I fifty delegates. There was, nevertheless, | miu n vespecianiuty ana talent in the Convention, and three-fourths of .the body are reported to have been slave-holders. The principal speakers in the Convention were Judge Nicholas, Rev. Dr. William L. Breckinridge, lion. Wm. P. Thomasson, Rev. Dr. 11. J. Breckinridge, Samuel Shy, Esq., Rev. John C. Young, C. M. Clay, Esq., and Rev. S. Robinson. The Editor of the^ Observer protests against the platform adopted by the Convention ns indicating that the emancipation question is to he made a prominent issue in the election c.i Delegates to the Convention to revise the Constitution, and, professing to know something o*the public feeling on the subject of slavery, asserts that "no body of men, however lofty their names or dear to the hearts of the people they may be, will be able to change the settled Convictions of the people in regard to it." From tlio. JY. Y. Sun, May 4. Yntovr.HtiimfC from Cllili. Wo have received Via Panama, our regular packages of Chilian newspapers, to the 5th of March, from which we make the following extracts : The meat tide of vwi&iuviuu TVAliVsU 13 setting towards California from all parts of the Pacific coasts and the States has aroused a fear among tbe Chilians, that unless active measures are taken, that country will be left in the lurch. A new vein of silver lias been struck among the mines of Copiapo, which proves to he of astonishing richness. The last steamer brought into Valparaiso over a million of dollars in silver from these mines, besides five hundred thousand dollars in gold from California. At Co- j piapo me miners arc excavating in pure silver. Tlicy advance hardly a yard per month, in consequence. The recent explorations at Copiapo have given rise to the opinion that the Chilian mines will yet rival, if not.surpas3 those of California. By Telegraph to the Jour, of Commerce. LATER FROM MONTREAL, Address to Lord Elgin?The Governor still absent, (6c., d'c., Montreal, May 3d, noon. Since the issuing of the address of the British party calling upon tho people to prcscve the peace no more riots have occurred. The organization of the various wards for ulterior purposes, if the n-ws from England should render them necessary, is rapidly going on. The military guard still continues in the place where parliament meets, and in tne Government office. Several French addresses, expressive of confidence in the Ministry, have been presented to Lord Elfin. O * It was reported this morning that the j Governor would come in from his country seat, but he did not. Groups of persons were waiting about all tho morning in expectation of his coming, but it is not believed that any further violence will be shown to him. The Ministry have sustained a quasi defeat in the Legislative Council. For three days the Ministerial partisans have been trying to get up an afldrcss to the Governor, similar in tone to that of the Assembly, but it would not do. Tfl.Hav htr n ?1 ~ - J > "J " U1 ViUJ UIIU VUIC, the debate on the matter was postponed for ft fortnight, in order to get a full House. It is said that the Upper Canada radices have refused to allow the sittings of ^hnt House to be transferred to Quebcc. ' From the Montreal Herald of Tuesday. Aftev the release of the prisoners on Saturday afterday afternoon, overy thing ptomises quiet. On Mondav raominty thn wr>r/> 4 # o #M V,*V I [us muefc as usual, till towards the middle J of the day. Tho House? met in the Bonsecours Market at 10 o clock, though it transacted no business, in consequence of tho determination arrived at on Saturday to present the address voted on that day. The only topic of public consequence which was mooted in tho streets, was the appointment of Jfthn Young, Esq., to tho i ? ->?QIUV1UVU \Jl HIQ Vlljfi illAllll IIIIU ! clay it became generally well known, that the Governor vjjftteral was to coma to town to receiyt ttie address at half past * ?, 4 . I two o'clock; apd the people gradually passed round the Government I louse, as on Fridayend Saturday. In the meantime numerous bodies of t? x>ps were stationed in places near the Government House. But the people continued to assemble and the streets presented an appearance much more thronged than on the preceding days. Prose uV the carriage appeared, and its appeavunce was the signal for a pro jvu uiiu groan irom the assembled multitude. As his Excellency passed, the Guard House, some persons standing in the gateway, which goes to the Campde Mars, continued, during tho whole time he was passing, to throw eggs into his carriage. The members deputed to convey tho sense of the House to his Excellency, presented the addrest of the majority of what are called the representative of tho Sovereign. Ilis Excellency replied as follows: * * * * My confidence in the good sense, moderation, and loyalty of the body of the people is however, in no dcgrco shaken by what has occured. It is satisfactory to me to receive tho assurance that the course of justice and impartiality which I have followed, in tho \.e ii. - c-?.?! " - uicjviuu^.C Ui I luiClIvIiS 01 !*!y office meets your approval. That coureo is prescribed to me by my duty to my Sovereign and to the inhabitants of tho Province. A free people ca*> hardly fail to discover in the faithful observance of n\\ constitutional guarantees, the best security for the preservation of their rights and liberties. No efforts will be wanting on my part to secure tho preservation of tlie peace of the city, and I sincerely trust that by tho exertions of the Legislature and Executive authorities, nr.'! the co-operation of all the friends of order, this object may be accomplished. The people wait the egress of the Governor General. Instead of returning + TA . .... ? impugn i^iiinu street to the IJlaco d'Armes, the carriage proceeded in tho other direction, and was travelling at tho most rapid paco towords Sherbrooko street. Some of the persons who had been standing about Gosford street, were of course aware of what whs going on, and these followed the carriage as speedily aa possible. Others took cabs, calecbes^ every thing that would run?It was a chase. At length His Lordship was overtaken at Mr. Molson'3 <Jbrner, between Sherbrooke street and the Main street of the St. Lawrence subums. At tins point a lurious attack was mado with stones on the carriage; the back of it was completely smashed in; and ita course, which appeared , at first, to bo directed by way of Sherbrooke street, was changed to the road which goea round the bach of the mountain. In this sad manner did his Lordship depart yesterday, from the capital of ller RrifcnVmiA Majesty's possessions in North America. In addition to the foregoing qarticulftrs, we learn that the Governor General, in coming to town, was pelted from the end of Great St. James Street, and that on entering the Government House, ho carried in his hand a largo stone taken from the bottom of the carriage, and that Colonel Bruce received a contusion in the Knpl/ nnv+ r\f ' *" 1 * p..? u wid uoau vy owjius inrown into the carriage. FURTHER FOREIGN EXTRACTS. PER, AMERICA AT NEW YORK. [From Wilbur <fr Smith's European Tinea, Apil 21.] FRANCE. Much sensation was excited in Pflris ort Sunday, and continued the whole of tile day, in conm/uence of some person of persons haviher the niirht nrfivirnm down tho tree of liberty 5n tho Place da la Croix Rouge, where six streets meet. The tf&e^as completely sawn through at the root, and lay on the ground. Tho police made the most active exertions to discover the nerson whr? tTiA . . - J ..1W V4IW. WUV ?Ul, UUb in vain. The only reparation that could bo rtmdrt under the circumstances was made, namely, tho planting of another tree, by o^der of tho mayor, on the same spot, and decorating it With immortelles and tri-colored ribands information was received that nn bn/i -..-t ---- mvvii VfUUUlU" tod on in conKoquence; but bodies of polico had been from fin early hour stationed in every part of the quarter to suppress the first attempt that might be made, and nothing occured. A hostile meeting took place on the i4th, at 5 in the evening, between M. Tj(?dru flrtrJ \f T1?ir?rvt? ?>?? ? ~ ; "VT *** vqo Post de Ncuilly. The parties were placed at twenty paces distance. M. Ledm Rollin fired, but the pistol of M. Dettjoy burtg five. 'Ilio second^ then intefpoMv. 1 he National aniioirafes that the GaH# VI i * Jf IA&.