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Keowee courier. (Pickens Court House, S.C.) 1849-current, May 11, 1861, Image 1

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VOL. xji,--NO. io.
Extra Session of tho Southern Congress
MON?JG?M??UV, ALA., April 20, 1861.
?Congress assembled today ut poon, in coin
pHanoo with'-'tho proclamation of President
.Davis, convening an extra session.
$ At'. 12.ovelo.?k,r.tho. President of Congress,
tho lion, I?b\?oll. Cobb, took- Iiis chair, and
tho jttov. l?asi? lilanley offered a ferment invo
cation to tho Tiirono of Grace.
Tho Prosidont stated that a quorum was
prisont and tiint Congress was now ready to
t ra usa et 1) us i ness.
Messrs.- boA'ts, Jones, Wlgfall and Orr,
n'ow members^, ??m? forward, took tho oath,
jmd subscribed, to'the Constitution..
Tho,'President presented to Congress tho
annexed communication from a portion of thc
pcop)o of New ??oxico : . t K
MESILLA, Mardi 18, 1801.
To (he Hon. IlowclC Cobb, President of Otc
Congress bf thc Confederate States oj
i ' America:
* Sir : Iii pursuance of n resolution adopted
:at a convention of tho citizens of that portion
'of New" Mexico known as Arizona', held at
this placebo tho 10th inst., I have tho honor'
.herewith to transmit tho enclosed preamble
>nnd resolutions, unanimously adopted, with
.the hopo and request that you will lay them
before tho Congress of tho Confederate States
.of Adorion for their consideration.
Signed by the President and Secretary.
On motion of Mr. Chcsnut, tho reading ol
tho prenmblb and resolutions referred to, wuf
postponed for the present, and the commuul
?cation was referred to tho Committee on Tor
ri tories
Mr. Ochiltree', ot Texas, requested topre
sent to-. Congress, a communication from tin
Governor of tho Territory of Arizona, trans
milting a-, copy'of tho Provisional Colistitu
lion, with thc request-that it bc presented t<
Congress. . -.Tho communication was roccived
and referred t > the Territorial Committee.
' Mr. Josclyn, tho President's private Secrc
ta ry, thou appeared in tho Hall, 'and state*
that ho had.'u message from tho President
Thc ines?ago was then read in a very dis
linet tone as follows :
G?:NTLKMKN I ot Wife CONOIIKSS : lt is in;
pleasing duty to announce to you that th
Constitution framed for tho o<?tablirhmont o
a permabont government for the C?iifcdorat
States has been ratified by Convention in cac
of those States to which-it was referred. < T
inaugurate the Government in ks full propoi
tious and upon its own substantial basis (
t ho popular will, it only romains that election
should bo .hold for tho designation of thc oil
cers to administer it.
There is every reason to behove that at n
distant day, other States identified in polit
cal principles and oommun'ty of interests wit
those which you reprcsoiit-will join this Coi
federacy, giving to its typical coiistollatio
increased splendor-to its government of frc
equal-and sovereign States a wider sphero <
usefulness--and to, tho frienda of constitt
xionaMiborty a grouter security for. its, har iq?
nious and perpetual existence,
lt was- not, however, for the purpose!
.making this announcement that .I have licet
cd it my-duty to convonc you nt an 'carl i
day than that fixed by yourselves for yoi
meeting/ Tho declaration of war mai
against this Confederacy by Abraham Li
ooln, the President of tho United St-ites,
his proclamation, issued.on tho lift cent h d
of thc' presen * moiith, rendered it uocossn
in my judgment that you should convene
tho oa rifest practicable moment, to deviso t
in casu rb .necessary for thc defence of t
country,, .. .
..Tho occasion is indeed an cxtraordihn
ono. , It justifies ino in a brief review of t
relations heretoforo existing between uS ai
tho States which' now unite ?a warfaro agaii
us, and in a succinct statement, of tho ovci
which have resulted iii Oiis warfaro, to t
on'q^thiit mankind may pass intelligent a
impartial judgmcnton its motive? omi objec
During tho war waged . against Groat ll
tain by hov colonies on this continent, a co
moil ("anger impelled th?m lo a close allinm
and tb tno> formation of a Confederation,
tho torms of whiol?. thc cplooics, styling tho
sol veg. States, entered " severally into a fi:
loaglio, of friendship With .paoli other for th
oom mon defence, tho security of .thoir lib
tips, and thoir mutual and gcporhl. wei fa
binding themselves to ussistcaoh other agaii
all foroo offfered -to,. or, utfitdl<ff"fiuide"trp
tlioin, or any Of thom, on accpu.nt.of r?ligii
I sovereignty, trade, or any other pretei
' whatever." i:i r>,
III order to guaid against any misconstn
' tioii of, thou* oom pact, the sovernl Stntos inn
QxpHoit d?claration, in a distinct -article; tl
u O?oh State rctainii it? sovereignty, fioedi
and independence, and every power, jurj?d
t.ion und right,.which is not hy Ulis. Confe
ration expressly delegated to tho LTnitod Sta
in Congress asgonibliid. * , . . - ;
Undor thhV contract of alliance* thoWa'i
tho ?xivoltiti?p j was successfully wiigcq, o
resulted in,tho, (rcjity o?- pcaoe. with Gr
Ijrijaio Ju. 178-3, hy the tenus of whioln
sovorol States wore, each by name, rccogni;
to bo .iqdoppndoqt. ..'.,... .
Tho articles, of ?onf?deVution^ cpntain?
- olauso whorcby lill alt?rations worp prob il
eoj? Unless, confu'biod by tim Logislaturoi
ovory. S tn to, after being agreed to hy. ?
gross.? aud in obodionoo4t?o this.Jirovislqn
dor thy. froscdpt?pn/ pf'?ongrcssv ?f tho.' ?
Jfebniary, 178?, thc spvora) States nppolq
doleg.ttes wlp) attended a Oon'vontion b for
able and oxpress purpose of revising tho
$plos .ot ,p^^ ond r&po.rt?ng to C
gross Trod Inorfoverul Jjc'g?elrtturcs such ali
allions ji.rjd .provisions thor?ih ns shall, wi
ngr??4.jto \n Qongrp8s,.M? oonfini)Cfi by;
Stitps,' rentier, tjio Pcc(ofal CoDstltutiQii B
qua to to thq-oxigenpies p^ government ?
the ptesorvati?n of tWt?nio^.'?^.^., g.
. ?t.tWis, by tl\b,delegated.olibs?n,-Jb^^fi'?'l
?taV 8tat% :]U|?f?or "rosohitiojp, V*?*t quot
that tli? C?nsiit?vlc.ipf th^tj??tpd States''
States for ratification, as shown by tho sov
cnth ?rtjclo, whioh is in those words :
" Tho ratification of tho Convention of nine
Sudes shall bo sufficient for.tho establishment
of thia Constitution betivccn thc Slates flo
ratifying.tho same."
I linv.e italicised certain words in the quo
I tations just made, foi" the purpose of attract
ing nttcntion 'to thc singular and marked cau
tioln with which tho States endeavored, in
evory possible form, to oxoludo tho idea that
the separate and independent sovereignty of
each State was merged into ono common Gov*
eminent and nation; and. the earnest desire
they, oviuced to impress on tho Constitution
its truo character-that of a compact between
independent States. Tho Constitution of
1787 having however, omitted tho clauso al
ready recited from tho Articles of Confedera
tion, which provided hi explicit ternis that
each State retained its sovereignty and inde
pendence, some alarm was seen in the States
when invited to ratify the Constitution, lest
this omission should be construed into an
abandonment of their cherished principles,
and thoy rofused to bo satisfied until amend
ments Wcro added to tho Constitution, pla
cing beyond any ?- pretence or doubt, tho re
servation, by tho States, of all their sovereign
rights and powers-not expressly delegated to
thc United States by tho" Constitution.
Strange indeed must it appear to thc im
partial observer, but it is none the less true,
ull theso carefully worded clauses proved un
availing to prevent the riso and growth in tho
Northern States of a political school which
has persistently claimed that the Government
thus formed was nota compact between States,
but was in effect a National Government, sot
up above and over tho Stated An organiza
tion, created by the States to secure the bless
ings of liberty and independence against for
eign aggressions, . has been gradually per
verted into a machino for their control in their
domestic affairs ; tho creaturo has been ex
alted above its creators, tho principals have
been made subordinate to tho agent appoint
ed by themselves.
Tho people of the Southern States, whose
almost exclusive occupation was agriculture,
early perceived a tendency in the Northern
States to render tho common Government
subservient to their own purposes, by imposing
burthens on commerce as a protection to their
manufacturing sud shipping interests. Long
an angry controversy grew out of these at
tempts, often successful, to benefit ono section
of thc country at the expense of tho.other.
A'hd the danger of disruption arising from
this cause was enhanced by tho fact thal
Northern population was increasing.by immi
gration and other caus.es in a greater rath
than thc population of tho South. By dc
grecs, as thc Northern States gained prepon
dorancc in tho National Congress, self inter?s
taught their people to yield ready assent t<
any plausible advocacy of their rights as !
majority to govern tho minority without con
trol j they learned to listen with impatiens
to" thc suggestion of any Constitutional imped
inio.nt to the exercise of their will ; nnd si
utterly have the principles of tho Constitutim
been corrupted in thc Northern mind, that ii
the inaugural address delivered by Presiden
Lincoln in March last, ho asserts ns an axion
which he pluinly deems to be undeniable, tba
thc theory of thc Constitution requires that ii
?ll cases thc majority shall govern ; abd ii
?mother memorable fnstnuco, tho same Chic
Magistrate did not hesitate to liken tho rein
tions betweon a State and tho Unitod State
to those which exist between a county and
State in-which it is situated, and by which i
was created. _ "This is thc lamentable and fun
dainental error du which rests'.tho policy, th?
has culminated in his declaration of war agni ns
these .Confederate States. .. . .
.In addition to tho long-oontinued and deer
seated resentment felt hythe Southern Statt
nt the persistent abuse of thc powers they hu
delegated lo the Congress, for the purpose c
enriching tho manufacturing nnd shippin
olasses nt tho North "nt tho expenso of th
South, there has existed for nenrlyhnlf a eer
tdry-nnother suhjoct of discord, involving ii
te rests of such transcendent ?ingnitudo, as i
all. ti in cs to create the' apprehension in th
minus, of tunny devoted lovers of thc Un io
that its permanence vas impossible. ,
Wheii the several States delegated portal
powers to tho United States Congress, ii harp
portion of the laboring population consiste
of Afr?ciiu slaves imported into thc colou'u
.by tlio^uothnr.cotmtry. " In twelve. WU of tl
thirteen'Spite's, jiogro slavery existed and tl
right'of property in slaves was protected t
law. ; This property was recognized in tl
Constitution,, and-provision was made again
its loss by thc escapo of tho slave. Tlio ii
crease'.in thc4 number of slaves by further in
portati?n from'Afrioa was also seen red by
ola usg forbidding" Congress to "prohibit ti
slave trade anterior to 11 colvain dato ; and i
no clause con there be fou lid a hy delegatio
of-powor to tho Congress authorizing it in an
tVifiniicrto legislate to tho prejudice, Jotrhnoi
or discouragement of the owners of that sp
cies of property, qr excluding it from tho pr
tc'Qti&n of the Government.
"' Tho'olininto nod soil of thc Northorn Stnb
soon proved unpropitious to thc oontinunm
bf shivo labor, whilst.thc converso was tl
\0ns6 nt tlie Soutli. . Undor tho .Mirostricti
freo intercourse botWeort tho two sections, tl
Northern. State*} consulted thoir own iiiterc
by selling their slaves to the South, and pr
hlbitlng ' slayory within their limits. Tl
South were willing purchasers'of a propor
suitnblo to thoir wnuts, and paid tho prion
.tho noquisition Without hnrbor?ng a suspioh
that tjioir quiet possossidiy Was tobo disturb
hy th?se Mth? >Vcro inhibited, no* b.hly by wa
I of CphStitdtipiial Authority, out by good fail
ns yondoVfii frot?? disquieting'^ tillo ctuaiifttii
/rom thoiusolv?s,. , V - \\?-? . >Yt'?J > ?
? .lAfl-aoon. ..ho.wov?r^'e? t>lio Northern Stat
that prohibited Af>loati.slavery \vithijj th<
'Uipi?* hadrouehpd. i> uulnher suf?ioiontto gi
theW representation a controlling Volee ititi
Congressy a persistent' ahftprgttn?zed systc
of hostile mc usn ros ngh i ust tho rights of t
" ? .4
owners of slaves in thc Southern States was
inaugurated, aud gradually ?xtondcd. A con
tinuous series of measures was devised and
prosecuted for tho purpose of rendering inse
cure thc tcuu.ro of property in slaves. Kunat- I
ioal organizations, supplied with'money by !
voluntary subscriptions, wcro assiduously en
gaged in exciting amongst tho slaves n spirit
of discontent and revolt ; means wcro fur
nished for their escape from their owners, and
agents secretly omployod to entice them to
abscond ; thc Constitutional provision for
their rendition to their owners was first eva
ded, then openly denounced as a violation of
conscientious obligation and a religious duty ;
men were taught that it was a merit to (dude,
disobey, and violently oppose tho execution of
tho laws enacted to secure tho performance of
the promise contained in the Constitutional
compact ; owners of slaves wore mobbed and
even murdered in open day, solely for apply
ing to a magistrate for the arrest of a fugitive
slave; the dogmas of these voluntary organi
zations soon obtained control of tho Legisla
tures of many of thc Northern States, and
laws wore passed providing for tho punish
ment by ruinous fines and long continued im
prisonment in jails and penitentiaries, of citi
zens of the Southern States, who should dare
to ask aid of the officers of thc.law for tho
recovery of their property. Emboldened by
success, the theatre of agitation and aggression
against thc clearly expressed.! Constitutional
rights of tho Southern Statos was transferred
to thc Congress ; Senators and Representa
tives were sent to the common councils of tho
nation, whose chief title to this distinction
consisted iii thc display of a spirit of ultra fa
naticism, and whose business was, not "to
promote the general welfare or insure domes
tic tranquility," but to awaken the bitterest
hatred against the citizens of sister Statos by
violent denunciation of their institutions j thc
transaction of pubho affairs was impeded by
repealed efforts to usurp powers not delegated
by tho Constitution, for the purpose of impair
ing the s curily of property in slaves, and re
ducing those States which held slaves ton con
dition of inferiority. Finally, a great party
was organized for tho purpose of obtaining the
administration of tho Government, with the
avowed object of using its power for the total
exclusion ot' tho slave State's from all partici
pation in the benefits of tho public domain,
acquired by all the States in common, whoth
er by conquest or purchase ; of surrounding
them entirely by States in which slavery
should be prohibited j of thus rendering thc
property in slaves 'so" insecure as to bo coin
punitively worthless, and thereby annihilating
in effect property worth thousands of million*
of dollars. This party, thus organized, sue
ceeded, in the mouth of November last, in tin
election, of its candidate for the Presidency o
thc United States. i '
In the meantime, under thc mild and geni
I al climate of tho Southern Stales, and the in
creasing care and attention for the well-bciii}
and comfort of ' thc laboring class, dictate'
alike by interest and humanity, the Africni
slaves had augmented in number from abeu
000,000 at tho date of thc adoption of th
Constitutional compact, to upwards of 'J-,000,
000. In moral and social condition they ha<
been elevated from brutal savages into docile;
intelligent and civilized agricultural laborers
and supplied not only willi bodily comfort*
but with careful religious instruction. Undo
thc supervision of a superior race, their labo
has boen so 'directed as not only to allow
gradual and marked amelioration of their ow
condition, but to convert hundreds of thom
ands of square miles of the wilderness int
cultivated lands, covered with "a prosperou
people; towns and cities had sprung into e>
istenco, and had rapidly increased in weall
and population un'1er the social system of th
South [ tho wilily population of the 'Souther
sjaVeholding States had augmented from aboi
j,250,000 at the dato of the adoption of th
Constitution, to more than S,500,000 in 1800
and the productions of tho South in cottoi
rice, sugar and tobacco, for thc full dovclo|
piont and continuance of which thc labor <
African slaves was, and is, indispensable, ba
swollen to an amount which formed nearl
three-fourths of the exports of thc whole Un
tod States, and had become iibs?lutoly necc
sarv to the wants of civilized men.
vVith interests bf such overwhelming maj
nitude imperilled, the* people of tho Souther
States wc rb driven by tho .conduct of th
North to tho adoption of somo course of n<
tion to avert tho danger with which thc
were openly menaced. With this view, tl
Legislature of the several States invited tl
people to select delegates to conventions to I
held for the purposo-of determining for th.cr
selves \yjiatf measures wcro best adapted
meet so alarming a crisis in their history.
. Herc it may bo proper to observo that fro
a poriod. as early as 1708, there had existe
in allot tho States of the Union a.party, i
most uninterruptedly in tho majority, bas<
upon tho creed that each State was, in tl
last - resort, thc sole judge ns well of i
wrongs, as of tho mocio nm), measure of r
dress. Indeed, it is obvious, that under tl
law of nations, this principle is nu axiom
applied to tho relations of independent sov
reign Statos, suoh as those which hud unit?
thotneejves nndor tho Constitutional compnc
Tbd Democratic party of 'tho United Stat
repented in its successful, canvass of .185
tho declaration mado in numerous previo
political contest?, that lt would " faithful
abide by Hud \iphold tho prin?iples" laid dov
in the Kentueicy mid Vltjgirtin resolutions
1708, and .hi tho r?port Of Mr. Madisob
tho Virginia Legislature Ju A??S ? n,,?
adopts those principies os'constituting ono
thc main .foundations of ifs political brooti
Tho principles thus empbatieally nunobne
ovnbraoo that to which AI - havo already a
vort?t?, the right bf oft oh State to judge <
ami redress tho wrongs of willoh it eoihpialr
?These principles were maintained by ovc
Whelming.majorities of tho people of nll.t
States of;tho Union at dlfferont olootions,/?
nodally in the elections of ,Mr. Joffcfson"
.460?, Mr, M?aif^a-?TO;.Wiin<iro?
^rtir '
In;.-thc exorcise of a right so ancient, so
well established, and so necessary for Bclf-pro
scrvation, the people of the Confederate States
in their Conventions, determined that thc
wrongs which they had suffered, and the evils
with which they were menaced, required
that they should revoke tho delegation of
powors to tho Federal Government which
tliey had ratified in their scvoral Conventions.
They consequently passed ordinances resum
ing all their rights as sovereign and indepen
dent .States, and dissolved their connection
with ibo other States of thc Colon.
Having dono this, they proceed ;d to form
a new compact among themselves, by new ar
ticles of Confederation, which |??H0 been also
ratified by thc several States wiJi an approach
to unanimity far exceeding that of tlio Con
ventions which adopted tlio Constitution of
1787. They have organized their new Gov
ernments in all its departments; thc func
tions of tho Executive, Legislative, and Ju
dicial Magistrates arc performed in accor
dance with the will of the people, ns displayed
not merely in a cheerful acquiescence, but in
tho enthusiastic support of thc Government
thus established by themselves ; and but for
tho interference ol' the Government of thc
United States in this l?gitimai? exercise of
tho right Ol' a people in self-government,
peace, happiness, and prosperity would now
smile on our land.
That pcaco is ardently desired by this Gov
ernment, and people, has been manifested in
every possible form. Scirco had you assem
bled, in February last, when, prior even to
thc inauguration of thc Chief Magistrate you
had elected, you passed a resolution expres
sive of your desire for thc appointment of
Commissioners tobe sent to the Government
of the United States, " for tho purpose of ne
gotiating friendly relations between thatCov
crnmcnt and (he Confederate States of Amor?
iea, and for the settlement of all questions of
disagreement between tho two Governments,
upon principles of right, justice, equality
and good faith."
lt.was my pleasure, ns well ns my duty, tc
co-opcrnte with you in this work of peace
Indeed, in my advice to you on taking tin
oath of office, nnd before receiving from yoi
thc communication of this resolution, I*hat
said, as a necessity, not a choice, wc hav(
resorted to the remedy of separation, mic
henceforth our energies must be directed t<
the conduct of our own a ila i rs ami thc per
petuity of thc Confederacy which we hav<
formed. If a just perception of mutual in
terest shall permit us peaceably to pursue on
separate political career, my most earnest dc
sire will havo been fulfilled.
lt was in furtherance of these accordan
views of the Congress and thc Exeoutiv
that 1 made choice of three discreet, able nm
distinguished citizens, who repaired to \V ash
ington. Aided hy their cordial co operation
and that of the Secretary of State, every ci
fort compatible with self-respect and thc dip
nity of the Confederacy Was exhausted befor
I allowed myself to yield to the convictio
that the Government of thc United State
was dctei mined to attempt thc conquest <
this people, and that our cherished hopes (
peace were unattainable.
On the arrival of pur Commissioners i
Washington, ou thc 5th of March, they pos
poned, at tho suggestion of a friendly iutc
mcdiary, doing more than giving an inform;
notice of their ?nival. This was done wit
a view to afford time to the President wi
had just bced inaugurated, for tho discharj
of other pressing official duties in the organ
zation of his administration, before cngagir
bis attention in thc object of their missioi
It was not until thc 12th of thc month th
they officially addressed the Secretary of Stat
informing him "cf thc. purpose of thoir ari
val, and stating, in thc language of their i
structions, their wish " to make to the Go
eminent of thc Unifcd StutC? overtures f
the opening of notrotiations; assuring thc (lo
eminent of tho United States, that the Prc
ident. Congress, nnd pcoplo of thc Ccmfcdi
atc States earnestly desire a peaceful soluth
of these great questions; that it is neill?
their interest nor their wish to make any d
maud which is not founded on the stricte
justice, nor do any act to injure their hi
To this Communication no. formal reply w
revived until thc 8th April. During.tho i
temi tho Commissioners had consented
waive all questions of form. With the fn
resolve to avoid war, if possible, they went
far even as io hold, during that long peru
unofficial intoreonr.se through an intornicdini
whoso high position and character hispir
the hope of success, and through whom cc
stunt assurances wore recoived from tho Gc
eminent of tho United Slates of peaceful i
tentions, of tlio 'determination to cvaoui
Fort Sumter j and further, thnt.no uionsur
changing the .existing%Status prejudicially
the Confederate. States, especially at F
Picke.ns, w'as in contemplation ; hip that,
tho event of any change of intention on t
feiibjeot, iiotieo would be given lo the Cn
missioners. The crooked paths of diplom:
can scarcely 'furnish"' ail example SO wnnti
in courtesy, in candor^ and directness,'ns^
tho course, of tho United States Governm
towaj-ds our Comlin 188101101? in Washingt
For proof of this I refer to thc nittipxod d
uuients marked-, taken in connection w
further faots which.T' now proceed to rein
Early iii.April, ^hc attention ?f tho wh
country, as well as that of our Commission!
Was attracted to extraordinary proparati
for nu ofctorisivo miiitaA^uid naval cxpi
tion in N^JJ, York nnd Other Northern po
These pi'opnrations coi??inone?d in se?re
for an expedition whoso destination fros c
cealed, o? .ybooauiO known whcii nWly ci
ploted, and on tho fuh, 6th and 7th Af
transports and Vessels of Whr, with trot
munitions and military supplies, sailed fi
Northern ports-bound southwards. At&rr
bjrso ofctraordinnty-n demonstration, the Ci
m?8slqnor8 requested, tho ^liVety'of ian
?wer to thoir official communication of
12th March, and thereupon rccoived, on tho
8th April, n reply dated on thc 15th of tho
previous mouth, from which it appears thut, I
during thc whole interval, whilst tho Com-1
missioners word receiving assurances, calcula
ted to inspiro hopo of thc success of their
mission, thc Secretary of State aud thc Pres-1
?dent of thc U?itcd States had already deter
mined to hold no intercourse with thom
whatever; to refuse even to listen to any!
proposals they hud to make, and had profited j
by tlic delay created by their own assurances, ,
in order to prepare secretly thc means for !
effective hostile operations.
That these assurances were given, has been
virtually confessed by the Government of thc
United States by its sending a messenger to
Clinrlcstqn, to give notice of its purpose, to'
lise force, if opposed in its intention of sup
plying Fort Sumter. No more striking proof
of the absence of good faith in tho conduct of
thc Government of thc United States towards
thc Confederacy can bo required than is con
tained in thc circumstances which accompa
nied this notice. According to thc usual
courso of navigation, thc vessels composing
thc expedition designed for the relief pf Fort
Sumter, might bc expected to reach Charles
ton' harbor on thc Oth of April j yet, with our
Commissioners actually in Washington, de
tained under assurances that notice should be
given of any military movement, the notice
was not addressed to tlum, but a messenger
was' sent to Charleston to give the notico to
thc Governor of Souih Carolina, and thc no
tice was so given at n late hour on tho 8th of
April, thc eve of thc very day on which tho
fleet might bc expected to arrive. That this
mameuvro failed in its purpose was not the
fault of those who contrived it.
A heavy tempest delayed the arrival ->f thc
expedition, and gave time to the commander
of our forces at Charleston to ask and receive
the instructions of this Government. Even
then, under all tho provocation incident to tho
contemptuous refusal to listen to our Commis
sioners, and the tortuous course of thc Gov
ernment'of thc United States, I was sincerely
anxious to avoid tho effusion of blood, and di
rected a proposal to be made to thc command
er of Fort Sumter, who hud a\ owed himself to
bo nearly out of provisions, that wo would
abstain from directing our fire on Fort Sum
ter if ho would premiso not to open fire on our
forces unless first attacked. This proposal
was refused, and thc conclusion was reached
that tho design of the United States was to
place thc besieging force at Charleston be
tween tho simultaneous fire of tho fleet aud
fort. There remained, therefore, no alterna
tive but to direct that thc fort should al once
bc rcduood.
This order was executed by General Beau
regard, with tho skill and success which wcro
naturally to bo expected from thc well known
character of that gallant officer j and al though,
tho bombardment lasted but thirty-three
hours, our flag did not wave over its battered
walls, until after the appearance of thc hostile
fleet off Charleston. Fortunately, not a life
was lost on our side, and we were gratified in
being spared thc necessity of n useless effusion
of blood by the prudent caution of tho officers
who commanded tho fleet, in abstaining from
the evidently futile effort to enter tho harbor
for tho relief of Major Anderson. I refer to
the report of the Secretory of War and the
papers which accompany it for details of this
brilliant afluir.
In this connection I cannot refrain from a
well deserved tribute to tho noble State, the
eminent soldierly qualities of whoso people
wcro so conspicuously displayed in thc port
of Charleston. For mouths they had been
irritated by the spectacle of a fortress held
within their principal harbor, as a standing
monaco against their pence and independence.
Bu'lt. in part.' with their own money, and its
custody confided with their own consent to an
agent who held no power over thom other than
such as they had themselves delegated for
their own benefit, intended to be used by that
agent for their own protection against foroign
attack, they saw it held With persistent tenac
ity as a means of offence against them by thc
very Government which they hud established
for their protection. They had belcagured it'
for -months-felt ontirc confidence of their
o\vn power to OM pt ure it--yet, yielded to tho
requirements of discipline, curb-'d their impa
tience, submitted without complaint to the
unaccustomed hardships, labors and privations
of a protracted siego ; and when ot-,length
their patience was rewarded by the signal foi*
attack, and success had crowned their steady
and gallant conduct-even in thc very mo
ment of triumph-they oy i ii ced a chivalrous
regard for thc feelings of the brave but unfor
tunate officer who had been compelled tolowov
his flntjJ All manifestations of exultation
Wore ciiooked in his prosonco.
. Their commanding G?nerai, with, their cor
dial approval and tho consent of his Govern
ment, refrained from imposing any terms that
could wound tho sensibilities of-the comm an li
er of thc fort Ho was permitted to {. tire I
with thc honors of war-to salute his flatr, to
deparC freely with all his OMntuand, and was
escorted te the vessel in whioh.h?'erhbarked,
with t)ie highest marks of respect from ttioso
against whom his guns had been so iecontlj
directed. Not only docs cyory ovent connect*
cd wiyh tho siego reflect tho. highest honor on
South . Carolina, but t\io 'forbearance of her
'people^ and bf this-Government from making
any li a vs i uso of a?victory obtained undor cir
cumstances of ??iuoh peculiar provocation, ac
utest to thc fullest cxtout tho absonce of any
purpose beyond securing their own tranquil}-.j
tv, nnd the* sincoi?? desirev to avoid tho calami
ties of waY. : -
Scarcely had the President of the'Hutted ,
States received iiVtclligor.oo of tho failnro of
tjhe scheine whiob lie had doyisot? for ihq ro'
iiiforoemoot of Port Sumter, .when ho issued
tho declaration of wnr against, this Confedera
cy, which has prompted mo to convok?you\ In
tills extraordinary M?duoti6n, thnt high'??nO"*;
tib'nary affects totalignorance of tWcxfstchW
of a n i ?depen dent GoVeVn men** ?"\*h ich ?pos- '
Bcssin^-tho ontiro and enthusiastic- devotion of
it? people, is exercising its /unctions without
question over soven sovereign States-over
more than five millions of peoplo-and over a
territory whoso aroa exceeds half a million of
square milos. Ho terms sovereign States
" combination* too powerful to be suppressed
by the ordinary course of judicial proceedings,
or by thc powers vested in the marshals by
law." Ile calls for au anny pf soventy-fivo
thousand men to act ns a posse comitatus iu
aid of thc process of thc courts of justice in
States where no courts exists, whoso mandates
und decrees nie not cheerfully obeyed and re
spected by a willing pe?plc. He avows that
" thc first service to be assigned to tho forces
called out, will bo, not to execute the process
of the courts, but to capture fort? and strong
holds situated within thc admitted limits of
this Confedorae.y, and garrisoned by its troops;,
and declares that " this effort" is intended to
maintain tho perpetuity of popular Govern
ment." He concludes by commanding \* tile
persons composing tho combinations afore
said," to wit : thc five millions of these States,
" to retire pencenbly to their respectivo anodes
within twenty days." :
Apparently contradictory ns are thc ter HM
of this siugulnr document, one point w?? un
mistnknbly evident. Tho President of tho
Uuitcd States called for an army of. sovonty
five thousand men, whose first service Was to
bc to capturo our forts. It was n plain decla
ration of war, which I was not at liberty to
disregard, because of hvy knowledgo that un
der the Constitution of thc United Stntes, tho
President was usurping a power granted ex
elusively to the Congress. He is tho. soto
organ of Communication between that country
aud foreign powers. Thc law of nations did
not permit mc to question thc authority of tho
Executive of a foreign nation to dcelure war
against this Confederacy. Although I might
have refrained from taking active measures for
our defence, if the States of the Union had jj
all intimated thc action of Virginia, North
Carolina, Arkansas, Kentucky, Tennessee,and
Missouri, by denouncing thc call for troops na
au unconstitutional usurpation of power to
which thoy refused to respond, Twas riot.nt
liberty to disregard thc fact that many of tho
States seemed quite content to submit to tho
exercise of tho power assumed by tho-Prcsi
deutof thc United States, and wore actively
engaged in levying troops to be used for tho
purpose, indicated in thc proclamation..
Deprived of the aid of Congress at tue mo
ment, I was under tho necessity of confining
my action to a call on the Slates for volunteers"' -
for thc common defence, in accordance.with ;
tho authority you had confided to me boforo *
your adjournment. I deemed it proper fur-*
thor to issue proclamation inviting upplioa
(Lions from persons disposed to aid our defence
in privnto armed, vessels on tho high seas, to
thc end that preparations might bc mudo for
the immediate issue cf ?citen; of marque-and
reprisal, which you alone, under the Copstitn
tion, have powor to grant. I entertain no
doubt you will concur with mc in the opinion
that in the absence of a fleet of publie vessels,
it will be eminently expedient to supply their "
placo by private armed vessels, so happily
styled by the publicists of tho United. States
" thc militia of tho sea," and so often and. .
justly relied ou by them ns nn eflicicnt and
admirable instrument of defensivo warfare. I
earnestly recommend thc immediate passage
of a law authorizing mo io accept thc puuicr
ous proposals already received. ? . -
I cannot closo this roview of tho aots of
tho Government of thc United States without
referring to a proclamation issued by th'cir
President under dato of tho 19th inst., ;,h
which, after declaring tint an insurrections
has broken out in this Confederacy against >. .
thc Government of tho United States, he an
nounces a blockade ?f all the ports of these
States, and threatens to punish as pirates nil
?tenons who shall Uiphj&t any vessel of tho
Jnitcd States under letters of marnpie issued'
by this Govomment; Notwithstanding tljo
authenticity of this proclamation, -yoi? will
concur with mc thnt it is hard to believe it
could have emanated from a President of the
United .Stale.*. - tts announcement of a mero
paper blockade is so manifestly a violation of
thc law of nations, that it would seem incred
ible that it could have beeu issued by author- *
i ty-but conceding this to bo the enso so lar/
ns the Executive is concerned, it will be dim
cult to satisfy the people of these' States that
their late confederates will sanction its deelur
ntions, will determine to ignore the usages of
civilized nations,-end will inaugurate n war
of extermination on both sides, by,treating' ns
pintos, open enemies acting nuder che pu- ?'*
thority of commissions issued by an orgno
ised Government; If s?ch proclnmntion wo? '
issued, it-ouhl only have bcou publish odun
der thc sudden influonc? of passion, "and wc
may rest assured mankind will bo spared the
horrors of the oonfij?t ii seems io invito.
Por the ^dctniii of the ndmiuistratiou of t)ip
different departments, I refer to tho report?
of* tho Secretaries willoh accompany, this
message -
The State Department lins furbished, tho
npeosRary. instructions for three Conunissiutf-'.
Nfcrs who hnvo been sent tb England; ?^jsoo?
llussia And ilelgium, since your ndjbnYnmcnt,
rtobak our'recognition S6 a ofemner1 of tho
family of nations, and to make with each
of . those powers trostlos of amity ,nn'.d
commerce. Further stcj>s will ?bo tafeen
to enter into like negotiations with tho other .
European npwor? in p'ursu?rjjcn of; your roso- ?
lntions passed nt 'tho Inst session. Su??oi?nt
time har, not yet'elapsed since1, thb', departuro
of thesb. Cotumi$sionei-9 for tho re>bfpt of ihv -
telligence from them. As I dooin it desit'a
We* that' Commissioners or oth?r diplomatic
agent? should also ho-sont . bt an Wrlv^eH^
to tholudeppnd<^ Of
our Confedora>yf wUh (di of whom it in ottr
interest phd bjtrtK^t .wish .'to maintain' tho
most ootdi'nl utid -frtcmlfy relations, ? suggesij
the expediency-bf hi?Vlhg ,'tl^.'ttp>'ess^iry!.^?^
ptopriatio?s for that purpose.
nftviBtt bcon'dfJn?l?lty- notified by tlu> pub'.,
lio nn^pritic? of th? 8>& of Xj^rnfttnlr

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