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Keowee courier. (Pickens Court House, S.C.) 1849-current, July 19, 1922, Image 5

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Tho Boll Weevil Problem Threshed
Out -a-trM coting,
?At tho meeting of county agents
last week at Clemson, the boll wee
y vii situation was gone over in a
most thorough manner by the re
view of the experiences of the old
weevil territory, and after many dis
cussions it all settled down to prac
tically the same program that has
boon advocated all the time, which
facts are stated in the communica
te tlon sent out to the press under date
of July 8th, entitled, "Boll Weevil
Situation Restated."
This article ls worUiy of tho at
tention of every intelligent farmer,
and should be carefully studied and
-% Its conclusions followed by Oconeo
farmers, in the opinion of the county
agent. This article appears under
the above mentioned heading in this
issue of this paper, and deserves se
rious consideration at your hands."
A Testimony gathered from practl
?0 cal farmers through Commissioners
of Agriculture and others who havo
been in close observance of the prac
tices in their respective States for
years all boro practically the same
testimony, whether from Alabama,
Mississippi, Louisiana, Oklahoma or
^? Texas. Farmers in those regions can
give authentic testimony, for they
have been through tho mill by their
years of battling tho weevil in many
ways. Testimony from Georgia would
bo practically as useless aB from our
own State of South Carolina, for the
farmers are still in thY throes of un
certainty, and are ca lng about Uko
drowning men reaching for any
?trew that ls in sight, and tao same
things are tried, in practically all
instances, that wero tried for several
years in tho older territory, and then
fe practically discarded.
Boll Weevil Situation Restated.
Despite the fact that both the
government and tho college have
been sending out Information
through the press, county agent3,
specialists, bulletins and circulars
almost o^ery day for soyeral months,
the statements made hy tho experts
to the board of trustees last Tuesday
are of much public interest. In sub
stance those college experts made
the following statements:
We believe that tho value of enrly
poisoning is greatly exaggerated.
Such ls the testimony by the best |
experlmentors In Alabama, Louis
iana, Mississippi, Texas and Okla
homa, which Slates have boen long
est infested with tho weevil. Reports
arc now hoing received from farmers
from all sections of the State to the
effect that the weevil has disappear
ed from many of their fields. Some
of these holds have been poisoned j
with calcium arsenate dust, somo
4 with sweotenod poison, and others
not poisoned at all. This emphasizes
our oft-repeated statements that tho
corly poisoning is not a mnterial fac
tor in boll weevil control.
The early weevils are but the skir
mishers of the hordes of ovor-wln
4 tered weevils that continue to como
from winter-quarters from March to
July. They keep coming,out even
after tho squares have begun to
form. Most of these old weevils die
a natural death before squaro for
mation begins. Therefore, little ls
^ gained, and often much lost, through
neglect of other farm operations on
account of efforts to destroy those
early weevils. These early weevils
can bo killed hy applications of any
kind of arsenical poison, whether In
a y liquid or dust form. This was dem
*-W enstrated as far hack as 1902.
The weevils want squares to feed
on and lay eggs In. There being no
squares early In tho season, they
confine themselves to tho buds of the
young cotton plant, and aro practi
cally surfaco feeders, something Uko
the potato beetle or tho cabbage
worm, only less so. Littlo injury is
done to tho cotton plant from this
foedlng on the bud.
If all tho over-wintorod weevils
would come out at the same timo, ns
chlckons como off tho roost In tho
.norning, then we could no doubt de
stroy thom with profit by tho early
poisoning. But when wo kill hun
dreds of weevils with one kind of
poison or nnothor In early spring,
thousands aro still In their winter
quarters ready to como out later. By
no ' manner of poisoning or other
control measures yot discovered con
wo kill all tho weevils that aro out,
and tho survivors, together with
?> those coming out af tor tho squares
are formed, discontinuo feeding on
, ^ tho cotton buds and begin to punc
T turo and eat tho Jnsldo of tho squares
and lay tholr pggs thoro. From this
timo on the only effoctlvo poisoning
method known is through tho use of
calcium arsenate, properly applied,
in dust form.
I 4 General Control Methods
Again Used.
Tho farmer must remembor that
it, is at this point that the battle for ,
tho crop really bogins. It is now. that
the following control methods, re
peatedly published, should be dili
gently and thoroughly followed:
1. As the bulk ot tho cotton crop
in South Carolina is made by share
croppers, the women and children
should be used to pick squares. This
should be BO supervised that *t ls
don?:with groat thoroughness, other
wise lt basilio value whatever. Bo
gin picking the squares os soon os
any punctured squares fall, and pick
every infested square on tho ground
and on the plants every Ave days/.
2. Practice frequent shallow cul
tivation in order to prevent grass
and weeds, and to keep tho plant in
a healthy and vigorous condition.
This is important because it pro
longs the fruiting period and helps
to prevent shedding. Tho boll wee
vil is not inclined to attack the bolls
if he can And squares.
3. Wo realize that by far the great
majority of cotton farmers aro not
in position to use poison this year,
and l\ is to these^.that recommenda
tions 1 and 2 especially apply. Great
progress- has boon made in perfecting
the machinery for applying calcium
arsenate dust. We hav? every right
to expect that dusting\jnachlnery will
eventually be so Improved as to moot
tho needs of every class of cotton
farmers. For the benefit of those
who are using calcium arsenate dust
tho following aro the conditions un
der which profitable results may ba
(a) On high yielding land.
(b) Where weevil infestation is
(c) Under reasonably favorable
weather conditions.
(d) With proper uso of approved
j dusting machines.
I iPolson only when the air ls calm
I and the plants aro moist, usiug from
five to seven pounds por acre for
each application. Use no calcium ar
senate that does not comply with
Federal specifications. Because of
the unusual conditions this season,
the first application should ho made
when the cotton begins to fruit. The
second application should be made
when 10 per cent of squares have
been punctured. Infestation counts
should be made frequently and can
bo made by any farmer who follows
tho slmplo directions furnished upon
! application. The object is to keep
I the cotton thoroughly dusted until j
the weevils are under control, if
weevils should becomo sufficiently
numerous to severely injure the
yoting bolls, ono or two moro appli
cations late In tho season should be
made. In case of a heavy rain within
24 hours after dustig. tito applica
tion should be repeated immediately.
After all, weather conditions dur
ing July and August will have more
to do with cotton production in
South Carolina than any poisoning
program. If theso months aro hot
and dry, comparatively little weevil
damage will be sustained, regardless
of what method of poisoning was
used, and even if none is practiced.
On the other hand, if weather condi
tions aro adverse, poisoning with
calcium arsenate dust, in strict ac
cordance with government specifica
tions, will, wo believe, gl,ve tho larg
est money returns.
Watch for Mexican Bean Beetle.
The "boll weevil" of tho beans and
poa crops is now reported on tho
rampage in several mountain sec
tions of Oconeo. The Mexican bean
beetle is his name, having come from
Mexico, as other great posts have
dono. It seems that he prefers gar
den beans, then cowpens and soy
beans, having tho lonst appetite for
velvet benns. Both pods and leaves
aro his food, leaving tho stalks for
tho people who planted the beans.
Tho groat danger lies In tho two
facts that tho bean beetle propagates
or lucreasos In number very rapidly,
Uko tho boll weovll, and worse than
Prof. Conradi, entomologist, of
Clemson, will visit soveral sections
of tho county from whence speci
mens have been sent with the county
agent and remedies showing groat
C8t promlso will be tried against tho
If tho writor remembers correctly,
from tho description given rocently
in "Tho Country Gentleman," tho
beotlo has sixteen spots across his
back. Tho shape is roundish and
rather flat, aUhough about tho samo
slzo of potato bugs. Tho young boo
ties hatch on tho under sides of tho
boan loaves, and when young aro
yellowish in color and have spines
sticking up over tho body.
A more accurato description will
bo published next weok.
Poison Right or Not nt All.
Eight thousand pounds of calcium
arsonato wore practically wasted on
a cotton .field In Sumter county re
contly. Tho owner visited tho field
and found a few punctured squares
on the ground and immediately
started poisoning. Had he made an
have found that there was hardly 1
pery cent infestation. He was wasting
money because ho did not go to tho
trouble of making this percentage
count. Farmers in ?coneo aro likely
to make the samo mistake unless
they will make this infestation count
before poisoning, as it has not been
found profitable to poison before 10
or 15 per cent of tho squares havo
been punctured, except under unus
ual conditions. 1
F. S. Holleman, of Seneca, has a
good cart-type "one-mule machine"
ready to dp some poisoning, but in
counting his infestation last Friday
it was found to average only about
G per cent, so his machine will re
main under the shelter until an in
festation count reveals over 10 per
cent punctured over the field. Then
Circular No. 162 should be followed
Making Infestation Counts.
By all means, an Infestation count
should.be made before attempting to
poison with calcium arsenate dust.
Make t.he count in this manner:
Make a count of one hundred
squares in each of the four corners
of the field and one In the center,
thus making five hundred squares
j examined. In fields of over three or
four acres, another division may bo
advisable, so that a good average
for the field ls obtained.
In examining the hundred squares
for punctures, count ALL squares on
tho stalk except tho small, poorly
developed squares, which are found
usually near tho ends of branches
and near the top of the plant, which
squares ore usually not bothered by
the weevils. Do not count bolls not
squares In good bloom. Place all the
punctured squares In tho pockets,
continuing to count. After one hun
dred squares have oeen . counted,
empty the pockets and see how many
of the ono hundred you examined
wore punctured. That gives you the
percentage for that part of tho field.
In examining tho 100 squares it is
best not' to examine more than 25
squares along together' in one row,
but after examining the squares on
two or three stalks go on a few rows
further and do likewise until 100
squares have been counted.
Fruit Growers Will Tour.
Fruit growers and prospective
fruit growers of Oconeo and several
Piedmont counties will journey tn
autos into the peach and apple sec
tion around Cornelia, Ga., on Thurs
day, July 27th.
With the coming of tho boll wee
vil Into tho hills of Oconee there ls
bound to be moro interest taken in
commercial orcharding, and thb sec
tion around Cornelia ls admirably
suited for a study of tho possibili
ties along this lin?.
.Persons interested should writo
tho county agent for more detailed
information. Goo. B. Briggs,
r County Agent.
Salem School to Open July 24.
The Salem school will open Mon
day, July 24th. We hope all pupils
and as near all tho'- patrons as can
will he present on the opening day.
We are looking forward to a vevy
successful year In our school.
P. L\ Green,
. J. A. Sloan,
H. H. Grant, Trustees.
Pecot Edging
Will give your work my careful
P. O. Box 108,
26-29* Walhalla, S. O.
All persons indebted to the Estate
of Morgan H. McJunkin, Deceased,
aro hereby notified to make payment
to the undersigned, and all persons
having claims against said Estate
will present the same, duly attested,
within the time prescribed by law,
or be barred .
W. H. McJU?KIN and
Administrators of tho Estate of
Morgan IL McJunkin, Deceased.
July 5, 1922. 27-30
All persons indebted to tho Estate
of J. E. Woolbright, Doceased, nro
horeby notified to make payment
to the undersigned, and all persons
having claims against said Eetate
will present the same, duly attested,
within the time prescribed by law,
or bo barred.
Administrators of the Estate of J. E.
Woolbright, Deceased.
June 28, 1922. 20-29
Of Hts Theory Mid Methods in tho
Matter of Boll Weevil Poisoning.
Hurtsville, S. C., July 15, 1922.
Editor Keowoe Courier:
I notice appearing in ali of the
dally and weekly papers this week aa
article from Clemson Colloge pur
porting to give advice as to- the lat
est and most approved methods of
handling tho boll weevil.
1 nm sorry to take issup with . tho
weevil experts of the college on this
matter, but feol compelled to do so,
as my own experiments and those ot
many of the best farmers in the State
lead me to differ from them in im
portant particulars. Clemson College
is supported principally by the farm
ers of South Carolina, and I submit
that where lhere ls important evi
dence available from many of the
best and most reliable farmers in
the State, lt should be given at least
equal weight with that of tho "ex
perimenters in Alabama, Louisiana,
Mississippi, Texas and Oklahoma.
, Tho boll weevil has been In South
Carolina foi;_ several years, during
most of "which timo the government
and college experts have advocated
a method of weevil control which
was expensive, which required much
judgment in its application, and
which involved night work. Besides
In practice last year the government
method proved to be dangerous in
that some crops were severely dam
aged by plant lice after two or three
applications of thu calcium arsenate
in dust form. ^
I havo abundant, evidenco that the
early poisoning of the weevils by tho
molasses-calcium arsenato method
is a success, and is so cheap and
simple that it can bo put into uni
versal practice. I think it a fair de
duction from the results obtained
that, when put Into universal prac
tice, it will greatly delay the rapid
increase of weevils and allow the
whole crop to fruit for spine time
longer than when early control meth
ods are not applied.
The experience of Mr. McDuffle,
farm manager for Ex-Governor. R. I.
Manning, on his Meredith placo is
sufficient on this subject, although
it is confirmed hy practically every
ether farmer who used tho molasses
treatment in time. Mr. McDufilo poi
soned his worst infested field of ten"
acres on or about May 2 1, at which
time there were no squares upon tho
cotton. Up to that time ho had pick
ed weevils from this field frequently,
and upon tho day of poisoning was
getting at the rate of about 200 woc
vils per acre. Mr. McDuffle poisoned
this field several times between May
21 and .lune 27, on which day ho
told me that ho had frequently and
carefully examined this field during
that interval (May 2 1 to June 27) |
and had sent hands into it lo search
for weevils; also that Ex-Governor
Manning had been with him on at
least one occasion searching for wee
vils, and that ho had boen unable to
find a single live weevil in this field
during that period;'that he had beon
carefully over *he field during tho
past few days and had found but two
small spots In which any squares
were being punctured. (These, of^
course, he had carefully picked up.)
The cottor?' referred to was planted
In March and was carried to tho ond
of tho period of weevil emergence
with practically no Infestation or
damage. About one week later Mr.
McDuffle told me that he had just
plowed over a 65-acre field and had
offered his plow hands five cents for
oach punctured square. They had
turned in about 100 squares, or 1 %
squares per acre. .
I could quote W. A. and George
Stuckey, of Lee county; J. W. Good
son and R. P. Gillespie, of Harts
vllle; A. H. Rogers, of Spclety Hill,
besides my own forco of experiment
ers, and a host of other farmers in
this section, to the effect that appli
cations of tho molasses mixturo ap
plied for tho first time from May 24
on up to June 12 and oven later upon
cotton which was at the time badly
Infested with weevils resulted in tho
prompt and practically total destruc
tion of tho weevils.
It is hardly reasonable to suppose
that tho weevils chose the particular
date of May 24 to disappear from
tho field of Ex-Governor Manning,
May 30 from the fields of Mr. Good
I son and June 12 from our own fields
' (these being tho dates upon which
those three partlos mado the first ap
plication of poison.)
It scorns to mo no less than fool
hardy to do nothing to control tho
boll weevil until squares have form
ed on tho plants, and of course somo
of them hoon punctured by the old
weevils. It is perfectly feasible as
settled by tho Clemson authority, to
kill tiloso early weovlls by applica
tions of arsenical poisons. Why is
!^it not equally feasible to koop on
killing thom for a period of thirty
days whon a method which will cer
tainly do this ls offered nt a cost of
about twenty cents per acre per ap
saves systematically. For instance, if you are paid i>y
the week, if you save any money you will haye to save
by thc week. The same theory will apply by the month
or hy the year.
and deposit your savings with us. We pay a substantial
interest on your savings by agreement.
with your financial troubles. Our officers and directors
are successful business men and farmers? Tell us your
financial troubles and let us hejp you solve them.
Bank of West Union,
Phone 3- West Union, S. G. -Phone 3
Bathing Time
Wc have a good i,kS ck of Ladies', Boys'
and Men's Bathing Suits.
Big stock of Plumbing Supplies, Bath
Tubs, Lavatories, etc.
Tennis Shoes, Balls and Rackets for all.
See us for thc Feeny Dusters and the
stuff that will kill the BOLL WEEVIL.
Ask your Mr. Briggs as to DUSTER.
Whitmire-Marett Hdw. Co.
(Phono No. 30.) (Phone No. ll.)
plication for materials., or say $1 por
aero to completo the Job? The ex
perience of many In this section will
show that it IS porfectly feasible to
We are not going to get perfect
boll weevil control anywhere this
season because In no section havo
all the farmers poisoned thoir crops
and picked up squares, nor will wo
probably get weevil control to tho
highest degree in any season, oven
in sections whoro tho molasses poi
son is used in time and frequently,
unless the farmors are vigilant in
finding tho spots where the few wee
vils who have probably escaped tho
poison aro laying In tho squares.
I believe firmly, however, that
when every farmer In tho State poi
sons his cotton before squares aro
formed, and continues this treat
ment often enough to keep the poi
son on tho cotton until the last of
June, and where he continues vigi
lant In detecting and picking up the
fow punctured squaros that the oc
casional unpoisoned weovil will lay,
wo will have a method of control
which will protect tho whole cotton
crop until lato in tho season, and al
low normal crops of early planted
oarly varieties to mature.
In order to secure $he unjvorsal
adoption of an agricultural practice
lt ls only necessary to convince all
tho farmors that the practice ls pro
fitable. Tho uso of tho Williamson
plan of cultivating corn very quickly
became universal In this section be
causo 1 ts boncflts wore so manlfost
thnt even Gio powerful opposition of
many government exports and ag
ricultural advisors could not stop its
spread. Tho uso of fertilizers is uni
versal In tho oastorn part of the holt.
Tho general adoption of some
mothod of boll weovil control at onco
cheap, simplo and practical enough
to como within tho moans and appeal
to tho common sense of overy farmer
should bo much easlor than eithor
tho Williamson plan or the uso of
fertilizer, because every farmer has
direct and vital interest in prevent
ing his .neighbors from raising wee
vils which will destroy his own top
crop and thus will use his Influence
to seo that his neighbors use control
I am in hearty concurrence with
Clemson College and tho government
in their advice to plant early, uso
early varieties, uso acid phosphate,
cultivate rapidly, pick up squares
and destroy tho old stalks some timo
before frost. I must continue, how
ever, to advise the uso of a control
method which has carried up to July
15 with practically no damago those
crops to which it had been applied
before the squares formed and which
has carried our own crops (original
ly badly infested) up to tho same
dato with much less than Ave per
cont Infestation, although the first
application was not mado until many
of tho first squares had been punc
It should be noted that in this
soction wo have had only one period
(frmn June 6 to June 18)" which was
favorable for boll weevil control. Tho
bnlanco of the growing season has
been showery, with many heavy
rains, making control methods ex
tremely difficult and more expenslvo
than usual. Tho total rainfall at
Hartsvillo from Jan. 1 to date has
been 39.7. The May rainfall (which
mostly fell during tho latter half of
the month) was 4.53; Juno, 7.79,
and July (up to and including tho
14th), 3.80.
I liavo great rospoct for tho work
of Clemson College. Its presldont,
director of extension and many of
its professors aro personal friends.
In rogafd to boll weevil control, how
ever, I must accept the evidence of
my own eyes and that of my own ex
perimental organization and of reli
able farmers In this section who aro
also my personal friends. .
David Ii. Coker.
Dolls are said to bo becoming pop
ular as mascots among business men.

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