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The Pickens sentinel. [volume] (Pickens, S.C.) 1871-1903, November 18, 1886, Image 1

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Ins Detail.
'The State Farmers' Convention met
in Agricultural -tall, Columnbia, on Tues
day, the 9th inst., and was called to
order by Capt. B. 11. Tillnan, of Edge
fiold.
Capt. Tilmau then proceeded to read
an address of which the Columbia Regis
ter makes the following synopsis:
Capt. Tillman stated that owing to his
having been called upon frequently to
speak throughout the Stato the past su
mer, he had acquired somtewhiat" a facili
ty for extemporaneous speaking, but
that as ho coul not follow his subject
with that force of statenteit and logical
sequence that he observed in his writ
ings, he would not attempt to [address
the Convention extenporancously. lie,
therefore, had written an address. and
would read it before the Convention. He
then read the address, which, to bein
with, alluded to the success \ ith which
the effort to orgaiize a farmers' move
mont had met, notwithstanding the op
position the undertaking had received
from the beginning. That opposition
cani usually fremn those who held fast to
the public teat, and a. was umural for
thorn to squeal w hen they' felt it slipping
from their teeth. [Applause. lie said,
however, that despite the cold water
thrown on the movement it wo)uld be a
success and\ would result in onbounded
benefit to the agricultural interests of
the State, which, he was sorry to confess,
had gone down year by year until the
situation was ap)alling. The organiza
tion of the farmers would unite them,
and by their meetings and the ('lllC-eiou3
plans they would certainly dviFC the
tloom would be dispelled and the agri
culture of the State be put on a healthy
footing. If nothing else the methods of
our agriculture would he changed and
something done to avert absoIate ruin.
The farmers, he stated, were ground to
powder between the mnillstomiR of West
era competition on the one hand and
borrowing money at a high et interest
with which to muake their cro1 on thei:
other. The organization of the farmers
would go far towards remedying that
mtiglty evil which threatened to over
whelm the agriculture of this State.
It had been charged, he said, that the
farmers' movement was a pol it ical one,
but it haid no more polities in it than the i
farmers of the State laid a i it to as
similate with it. lie iiiiisel wi'as opp)ois.,
to mixing polities with the nm eunt if
the faimers could get their i" htis with
>it it, butt the farmers now i1itenided to
"i'ht their wrongs, and that v. as al they
usk(ed. ( Applause. he pliiitical fea.
tmres of the movenent w< ( re ti call atten
tioi to the needs of the farmers and
place the situai.ioi as it is b elore those
in atuthority. lie felt pretty sure that
their demands would lbe heedad, and in
case they got what they waited they
would be satisfie', but shouhi they not
receive tle relief they ask at the lroper
hands they would rise in their might and
take what they want ed. AlpWiuse. ] lie
thought, however, that they would get
all they asked, and stated thiat mis one result
of the movement nuimbers o' members
had been elected to the I ,egislature,
pledged to their ideas of refoi mu.
The principal thiing the farmuer asked
was the reduction of the ti: xes which
burden him, and the adoption of :' less
expensive system in condtuetiig the gov
rnment of tihe htat' . They wanted
4bolia1hed all olilees which iad been
estbishied for old fossils and broken
down gentry, andi he prediceted that
something in this line would b le donie
wh'len the Legislature meiets. .\Applause.
IIe p)rotested that his remar.ks east nio
reflection oin present ineimnbenucts, but
were intenided to call aittenutionl to useless
ollices now existing uinder omur govern
mient.
iIo adIvopiated thme total diivorce of the
Agricultumral DIepartment from p)olities,
tud wvants it ilaced in th'e hands to which
it properly bielongs, namely, p)ract.ical,
experiened( farmers. T1he~ dleumnds of
the farmers were that thme ag,rmicujlturail
Pppartment, belonging by rights to
them, shoul lie turned over to them.
[Applause.]1 Ile maintained that farmers
were iellbgent enough to manage their
allairs, and t-imit if the leadinig men in
the ranks would come to the front mand
consult they woubd nmot hamve to go) to
lawyers to kno1w how to get their polities
;wtd be tol how to vote.
The establislunent of aim .\ gricultural
College, said lie, wouild go far towards
giving educated farmier to the State,
and woul dissemuinate that scientific and
p)ractical knowledge wvhichm the State so
much needed. Hie renmrked thaimt he humd
a letter fromn General Steheni D. 1 tee,
ini which the (Genieral inifornmed im u thait
ai college similar to the Agricultural (Col
lege of Mississippi would cost, exclusive
of thme grounds and expeinmental farm,
8100,000). Captain Tilinman believedl that
thme $80,000 raised from the privilege tax
on fertilizers and the fiund arising from
the land script, in addition t.o a sinuall
appropriation from thle State, would Ibe
amlel to suippor t the college andu haive
all the work (done thatis no;11w donei 1 -
the Agricultural D epamrtmuent.
In conclusion lhe urged conlservaLtisum
upon the farmers in t-heir deumanmds, and
expressed i s confidencee in legislation i
remedy the evils they co)mplainm of. I f
these wrongs wore not righted thbey
would he oni band two years hemmce, iimi
see that the,y wouhl no0 be b amiboozh.dl
in the next chmoic~e of cetk-im~s iAu
plause.j
naited Seinator WV. 'J. Talbert, of E:dg
field, for temporary prai,ident (he bein
the caucus nommee) amit tiat gentlemnn
was unanimously elected by acclamnationi
Mr. ldbert took his phosition at the
Ilorter's t able and1( 1briefly returned is
thanks to the Conventioni.
M'uessrs. ,J. T.'. D )uncan, of Newberiny
and( W.'. Aalhbson, of Abeville, were
tumna iously e'lected secretaries.
Capt. Ti'nmanm now moved that the roll
of counhfes be called and that the chir-m
man of each delegation annifounie the
niames of those sent to the Convention
fronm his county, anid that sunch mitunes
be enrolled as delegates. Adopted.
*The enrolment ocupied some11 tinme.
Nd credehtials werb suibimitted. T1he
bo1unties of Aiken, lriel RBma nur..
Ulicsterlleld, Georgetown, _lory, Ham)
ton and York were unropresented, an<
Union was only ropresented by one alter
nate. Richland had a large delegation
and Charleston ono above the averag<
size.
The enrolment lasted until 1.1 5 P
M. Vlen it hid been completed Mr
Shell, of Laurens, said that a number o:
dielegates wore absont at the Fair and lia
therefore proposed' that after selecting
a comumittee on credentials the Conven.
tion take a recess until 8 P. M. .lr.
Shell's otion was carried, so amendeti
that the Convention should reconvene at
7.30 P. M.
Mr. Ward, of Laurens, moved that the
Chair aplpoint a member from each
county to terve on the crcdentials com
niittee. Mr. Fislhburne, of Colleton,
secured the adoption of an amendment
providing that each delegation elect its
own committeeman, and in this shape
the resolution was carried.
The following members ccnstituted
the committee : Abbevillk, A. V. Jones;
Anderson, J. A. Hall; Berkeley,; T. W.
L. Clement; Charleston, G. I,. Homes;
Cliester, 1. P. Moore; Colleton, Ii. E.
'arker; Clarendon, .J. E. Tindal; Dar
ligton, W. E. MeKuight; Edgetield, B.
BI. Tillnman; Fairfield, Samuel McCor
mick; Greenville, H. (. Gilreath; Ker
shaw, (I. W. Mosely; Lexington, Isaiah
Ifaliwanger; Laurens, J. M. Hudgcns;
Marion, I'. C. Crawford; Marlboro, J.
H. Green; Newberry, 11. H1. Folk; Oco
nee, J. .J. Keith; Orangeburg, F. 1).
Bates; Pickens, HI. C. Shelly; Richland,
J. H. Kinsler; pa:hiuburg, H.. L. Far
icy ; bumter, A. 1. Sanders; Union, John
P. Thomas; Williamsburg, H. A. Eaddy.
At 1.3O the Convention took a recess,
and the committee on credertials, with
I )r. .1. E. Tin d as chairman, began its
session.
i4ht Seneiotu.
The Convention was called to order at
7.30 o'clock.
)r. Tindal, of Clarendon, moved that
the temporary organization be made per
nmnent, and that afterwards the consti
tition be adopted and permianent officers
be elected under it. Capt. Tillman spoke
for this sutbstitute, and it was carried.
The teniporary oflicers having been
made lpermnanent, the constitution for
the Fa rners' Association of South Caro -
lina waii then read by Col. E. T. Stack
house, of Marion. A gentli man from
W\illainsburg imoved to vote on it by
sections. )ut by a vote of 34 to 31 the
Convention refused to do so.
Capt. Tillman stated that he and Col.
Stackhouse had prepared the constitu
tion, but he said he had no objection to
havmng its sections votel on sepratoly.
The Convention adopted th. constitution
as a whole, as f~lLtws:
1'IREAM i.
\Ve, the fariimers of South (Crolina, in
Convention assembsle, recognizing the
wislomn of the saying that in union
there is strength, have determined to
!orim an orgdnization for our, mutual
protection and benefit.
Its objects shall be the prolimotion of
all branches of agriculture ail the in
auguration of a more rational and remu
nerative system of farming. These ends
are to be secured by organizing agricul
tural clubs throughout the State to meet
and discuss the situation, and then bring
the influence of the organized farmers to
bear upon the State government so as to
obtaiun lrotectioi against fraud and im
position, and to secure that fostering
care so imperatively demanded by oi'
languishing agricultur i ntcrtet.
While we shall as muchi as possilble
eschew politics, legaslation wiich alIects
the farmers injuriously or overlools
them entirely will be our first care till
a remedy be l,d. We claim the right
to do this as citizens and taxpayers andl
invoke the assistance of all classes ani
p)rofessions in securing reform in our
government antd in placing our agricul
tural interests on a more secure and
priosperous5 fondahtion1.
To0 this end we have adopited thme
following:
t'ONsirr .os.
.~ mw o: I . This Association shiall lie
konas the Farmers' Association of
South Carolina.
ArT. I[. Thie oflcers of thIiis Associa
tioni shall be a P'residenit, seven Vice
Presidents --one from each Congression
al District- -a Secretary and TIreasuirer
and an Executive Coimmittre oif nine
one from each Congression-d IDistrict
and two at large- - -atll to be chosen by
the members of this Association at th'e
annual meeting in Novembeir, and to
hold their oflices for one year, or until
their successors are duly elected :pros i
died, that the Executive Committee hold
their oflice one, two and three years,
three being elected annaldly.
The first committee alil determine
by lot the length of their respective
termis.
Auar. Il l. The President shall have a
general supervision of the all'airs of tIhe
Asasociation ; shall preCside at its meet
ings, h!reseive order, and( regulate its
discussions accordling to ordinary parli-.
aiientary rules, and shall bie ex oil icio a
muembler' of all comimittees. Inm his abi
sence one c1 the VicePresients shall
act.
Thme Secretary shall attend all mecet
ings oif the Associatioii. keepi a record
of its l>roceedmngs, as also those of the
Executive Committee, andi attend to the
corresondten ce.
Th'le Treasurer shall mreceivYe and keep
an ac"ounit of all funds, and hay out the
sammo by order (if the President, counter
signed b y the Secretar'y, making an an
nual repoirt of such recipts and oxpien.
dlituires to the Associationi.
Auir. I V. The E'xecutive Committee
shiallI have the geineral muanagemniit and
conitrol oif all lbusiness oif thme Association,
shalil priepare aiid issue ia prograimme for
its animal mieetinigs, anid mauke all needed
airraingemuenuts therefori. Tey shiall take
whlatever st(eps they miay deemi prloper to
secure thle origani/ationl of farmuers'
clubs ini every Couuty of thle State, (very
Townshipi if possibh.. mnd until this is
doneW they may apipoinut origaiii.ers to do(
this wvork.
Amr. V. Terglrana et
ngofthe Associationm shai Ili e held ini
the city of Columbhia the reon!d Tui(s
day in Novemiber', and sp;cial umeetings
may lie called by the Excut ive Coniniit
tee when deemed necessary.
AlT. VI. Each Cony Centiral
l'armeors' Association shall he'entitled to
fiye representatives, who shalil be
elected by said Associations at their (Oc
tober moeings in each year. Whiere Iu
orgamization exists, a rhamss meeting of
farmers mnav ielec .eoj5 bu th.i.
1hall only be allowed once, as the value
l of this Association will depend on its
- permanent character.
Each County Association shall deter
ine for itself the jlualilications of it
members, and shall meet at least four
tunes a year, and they shall not charge
more than lifty cents per uiember for an
nual (ues.
The Governor of the Shtto shall be
cx ollicio an lonorary member of this
A ,sociation.
A ai. VII. There shall be a standing
counuitlce of one for each County, ehec
ted by its delegation immnediately after
the orgauizat"ioii is completed, to whom
all resolutions or business propositions
are to be referred without debate, 'and
this comn ittee shall prepare business
and be crr powered to make such recon
mendations as it shall see lit, to be acted
upon by the Association.
Arr'. Viii. This constitution may
be altered or amended at any annual
meeting by a vote of two-tlirds of the
members present.
We also adopt the following
BY-LAws.
First. 'rhe President shall appoint all
committees, unless the Association shall
determie otherwise.
Second. '.'To E:xecutivo Committee
may fill all vacancies occurringg in any
otlice, as also in their own num ber, until
the next annual ieeting.
Third. Elections for ollicers shall be
by ballot.
Fourth. A fee of live dollars slall be
paid annually by each County Assoeia
tion sending deklgates, and the delegates
from no county will be allowed to vote
until this fee is paid.
Fifth. The regular order of business
shall be;
I ;t. Boll call alid enrolling delegates.
2d. Beading minutes of last meeting.
&d. Correspondetce.
itl. ieport of special conunittees.
5tn. 1eport of standing committees.
th. Unfinished business.
7th. New business.
Sixth. These by-laws may be altered,
amended or susp)ended by a two-thirds
vote of the members present..
uiTi'TON 01' 1o i.:liIts.
The election of oflicers followed. Mr.
Boyd, of )arlington, ntomlinatd Capt.
B. 11. Tillmani for president. (al)t.
Tillnan said that he felt that he could
do more for the cause he had at heart by
serving in the ranks or in some other
capacity than in the presidency; he,
therefore, begged to declinc.
Mr. Farley, of Spartanburg, nomi
nated Mr. 1 . K. Norris, of Anderson. A
delegate nominated President ''al)ert,
Who dehined. On motion of Mr. Fish
burne, the Chair cast the unanlitnous
vote of the Convention for MI'. Norris.
h'le aunouneenle'nt of the vote was
greeted with hearty applause, which was
resumed wvhieni Mr Norris wa;s l('(ortcd
to iihe chair by Messrs. lBoyd, TillnaI
and 'i idal.
On taking the eluir Mr. Norris ex
pressed his high sense or the honor which
had I)eein conferred upon him in his
selection to p reside over so representa
tive a body of South ('aroliiians. .1t
would be the privilege of the mnenbers
of the Convention, as citizens, to coln
sider the things that afficted theml as
citizens, and looking to their interests as
agriculturalists to advance them with tout
antagonizing other intterest:;. It Woldlt
be their duty to coisider as faners and
to suggest to the (ieneral Assembly
1leaisures for the relief of the farming
interests. They had goie to the )acti
cal walks of life for a unaun to till their
chair, and with a knloledge of his iii
experience he relied upon their indui
gence of his shortcomings as an ollier.
The other oflicers elected were a:s fol
lows:
Vice-P'residents-Col R. S. ledon
of Colleton, for the First Congressionail
D)ist.rict; lion. W. ,J. Tlalbert, of Edlge
hield, for the Seconid D)istrict; Capt. Jlol1
Beard, of (Oconee, for the TIhird D)is
tricti G. WV. Shell, of L aurens, for the(
F'ourthi District; W. A. Ancruiu, o,f ker
shaw, for the 1'ifth District ; (Gen. -l T.
Stackhouse, of M\arion, for the Sixth
DJistnict; J)r. E. ,J. Itembhert, of Sumtrer,
for the Seventh D)istrict.
erery--J. T1. Dunimcan, of New
Treasurer-W\. P. Adldisoni, of Abbe
ville.
Thle standing commn'ittee wasii elected
as follows; Abbeville, ,J. Th'lor:ton; An
derson, J1. 13. Watson; Berkeley, F'. Y.
Legare;( Chiarleston, WV. It. kinsman
Chester, C. W. McF"adden ; Colleton,
F. C. F'ishiburne; Clarendon, .1. i. 'Timi
dal; Darli ngtoii, Ji. W. I)easley - Idge
ton,( eo. Mosely ; L exingtoni, 1I. J
SeibeIs; Laurens, .John \y. i liges
Lanctaster, Ri. L. Mickler; O)ranigebuirg,
J. E. Xannamiaker; Sumter, A. K. San
(drs; Uiiioni, JTohin P. Thlomlas- WiI
liaimsburg, IF. M. Britton; Mlarion, E;
T1. Stackhouse; Marlboro, R. WV. 'eges
Newberry, J. C. (Gogganis; Ocone, ,j'
J. Keith; P'ickenrs, I1. C. Shirley-; Ii'ic
hand, .J. .H. Kiinsleir; Spartanburg, IH. I
Farley.
A numiber of resoluitioiis, touiching
upon01 various mautter's, weie no0w initio
duced, and recferred to Ithe staniniig coin
nuttee.
TIhe Convention thenci adjouirned till
9 o'clock oni the morning of thle .10ith
imstant.
M,rrondia nv.
Th1 e Convention ass4embhledo at 9
o'clock, bult took aL recess till ellevei
o'clock, in ordeir to heaIr Ih I report of
the commnittee on reslut ions. (tapt.
'Iilhlman readl this report, as follows:
'riu-: ei,Ar'oIuM.
A fteir dure con)sideration (If thle vartious
resolutions referredl to us, and11 taking
inito c'onidierat ion tI h oweri investedl iii
urs to mtake indleplendlent recliinnenIa
tions of our oiwni voilit.ioni, we sub mi t thei
following platfom as emilIb ini the
suibstancie of such1 resolluit iin s a I1
acetedl up)on favoralyI by thle commitee
andl as5 mdicating thel reform and) ll mns
ures wIihih we dIeemi of greit iL mporitane
to our11 initerests as farmneis aind ctize1i.
'We, the farmers of South ('>ina di n
Conve~tiioni assembhledI, after maituire de
liberation 1and( aifter' all the hlight andi( 'e
lperieceiC gaiined smerie our lant (Con 'lei
tion from~u the fullest dis5cussioni amoui
ouirselves as to the general objects toI b
a ittainedh, hereby ex press our11 cont in)
and uniilhakeni conid ence in omi Farm cir
.\ssoemation s o organized t ce
pihgatgo'od forl tilh' State if pr'operly
condui~ct and kept within legitin11e,
bounids, and we hereb y ireiterof '' .
terniIlunat ilon thait threre shiallhe hem.e-iio
mittee of ive be appointed to take steps
to have the legislation recommended by
the Convention presented to the General
Assembly, and passed, if possible. This
evoked another discussion,
'" Capt. Stackhouse thought that the
executive comniittee should be entrusted
with the work.
Another delegate thought that a com
mittee of three would be suflicient.
Their expenses would have to he paid,
and as the farmers la4d been preaching
retrenchmeniit it would be0 as to well prie
tice it right here.
Finally it was agreel that the con
mittee should consist of three memibers,
to be selected from the exceutive com
mittee. ?". e
''nri: NEw Altn'U iru, n oAl1>.
('apt. Tillmai next suggested that it
would he necessary to be prepared with
an agricultural 1boird in case the Legis
lature decided to turn the bureau oer
to the Association, as recommnii'idel in
the plat '!t:n lie maovcd that the coim
Iniittee on rtintions he instrutled to
name teii ilu iii ers of the Assoeiat.ion,
who by reson of their chiacter, ability,
earnestness and zeal will conluuand the
respect of the farmers of the State as lit
to lie the first 1'oni of the reorganized
bureiu.
This 'evok ti a long discussion, iii
which (apt. Till ban took an aet(ive lart,
exp)laining his views and intentions.
The motion was finally adopted with an
ainendmnent reqtuiring the Ialnes to 1
sullmitted to the ('onvention for conlir
1nition.
('apt,. '.'ilhn!e' n(xt, wit!h nll ap ology
1for the ti pienV of his oecupanc of
the floor, stat(d that it was kntwn that
iin some of his letters 1nblisheds last. win
icr he hait used wtids in 1(1(14 nee to
the State Agricultural Society which
might be considered too st.ron. lie
said lie laId b)eeni holest. iii whet l- llid(
said. It was stated lv iuily of the
m"emblers of the State Socity that this
Association was antagonistie to taint
botdy, and was intended to siper"st.it" it.
Hit for on(" remcmbhretd that <durinig the
dark days of liadical ile in t ht' State,
the Stit' Agricultural So'ie't y wl Ir
hii>s the oily orgiaiizedil ittly of whitt
mci in the State. tie lesi red i to <tlnyi
that he had the 1(st feeling of ie t
Iment or distrust for tlintt socictv. lie
desired that hiarmonly aund ('onic'rt of
action should exist be'tweei the twio
bodies, :nid with int view h' inlovt d
that a c)oImmnittet' (it thI " e Iappoiinted
to invite the State Agriiltaitl Societ v
to meet this Association iii joiint 4nmvi'.1
tion---a kind of ltivef("ast this t"vuning at
7.80 o'ehick, inl order thnt 11ee mu ight !
be a union of the two wings tof the '*niiii !
army of farini's. A Apulanse. 'E m, 4-,
tion Was inuiinimullotsly adoltted, ail lie
('IIvenition) ti iC ti t,k a it ( n iii il
7.:i) P. \1.
At half-past 7 about nue hinidrecd
llicininCbrs reasseinlid at the aiial aiit
the iiceting was talled to ordcer 1y tlie
president, Mr. ). E . Nori'c.
The first Ibusiiness Ibe'foe tIhe expected
lovefeast was Ile anno1uniet'h ent of i
new 1board of agrieulhtr iin cuse the
Legislatulre should i lopt the reeiimn li
datioli of the ('oivention at ta"nilsfer
the luanageiuont of the I tur'aul of agrli
culture to the F"neii rl:s' Assoceintion.
Th'Iie al)pointiaelts, as anioUtcetthtv
the cotii)ittee (n btusint's'., ar': I). lx
Norris, 1it-lrsun; .11. L.. I)onaltls. n,
(h'een\ille; F. ''. Stttekhous, .iarin;
Ii. ''ilhutau, 'lgeield ; ). 1'. I )uie:u
l'ui(tn1; A \Ian,ou dhsoni, Nc cl:ewihr; dlohin
soii Iagcdii, hliriwelI; I . A. I .oe
(Chester; F .i. Ri'eves, (irilestion; A.
E. )avis, Fairlieh(l.
(.i iiiotiau of Mr. Shell, of Iiur("us,
lie report of' the coinia itt ccwias adopjt il
Thke mnemberis ofi thle (Conventioin we-re
then re<ilest ed to) 4ccupiI y thIe chanirs in
the left oft the hal, t'.aving~ those on t'
right foir the m ieaihters of theic Statiie AXgri
culItuiral an<d Mechaiciin!t Sc itv , whoii
hii1ad bee inv.i ted Iio att eI c a jociait. iet -
iug, andl a recess was tken unltil S
(Captaini Tillimain iniovedc to adjourn'i. .\
declegati' asked wiiit haid heaiine of the
lovefeast at which thle St ate A grici tui n
and1( " '\lianical Siociet y was to haive as
siste<l. Th'Ie chacirniaii repliji that thei
o'cloch aili hac wiiited fori theii; tluat
inuch to his regret thiey hiad niot aph
pieared', anid as die Jail Ihiadt beeni lprtornised
tc the Suirvivr- of thle Walbaee II locse
at half-past S o'lclckl hi dlidn't see how
On )inolutioni, the ('ciivention thienl ccl.
TIhie41 repiter of thle .\ ws andi t c
rier aLd(s this statcaenet :' \\'ithouct
beingib informedii'c ats to thei caulsi., wichinI
ven'iture'c tic siy thait thIe joiiint loingi
proposed5(4 waiis imniet icenhte forth' reIa-c
siin that the Soicict y was noot ini ses'-.n,
its aninual mieitiing heing appiloiiit l forl
the' next nighit. Nic hah I the pn,perluci ':
exphmalictionis will lie inun V'.
t'rocedinao of thelii I's,'.lii er '14
poistuiiisfter's ofl Monthic ( ':rocl~ccin iu 1
list iiighit clStanil's~ l:cll. Tlii. c,v
Iiin origaimi as i fol low s:
i 'rsi th-i . A.'c's i ller,It I-> Ic icic. if
I )iie \'i .
4i cras of anapienisa- ticoi.
The foI llning ci c de - ii ciri
repre.ut-ct Sucth I ('aroclini i thle i
dune at Chii catgo.icc I'..\ s Io
a ncc b u r g ; i i ' i 1 \. cin e \c I
cie "11.ll F. iicnner u I 'olci
ter ( ecu-ral ickniiow Ii incg the- ire'eric
ican i c u iita e Ii aii I ili. iincc' in?-, thei cc ci
vert il. 1 .'.!| - a.
/'ii n, \ lie a i ctii c c
icitih helter ico Si.tin ii 'ill ilici tic ccui itl
halit l- ill yery well, its w.-ln is to ti
hoiciiw henlcc 4 im'lis lhair begius to 'ccii. 'i
ill*'Tii' i iI t\DWilIN .
Iln' op I'.w Nl'nt ni1 1'retenaded l yles are
Dieteeted.
The cu'rent nunber of the 'eaian's I
Art edournal contains complete t paper 1
on ')isputed IIandwriting,'' prepared
lby its editor, I). T. Ames, the vell i
knowii ptualtship expert, and read be- I
lore tue Business Itucators' Conven- t
tion. The suljeet is of such broad and ,
,;'u ral interest as to warrant the repro- I
ductiot of the article in these colunuts:
''This is a subject that has been grow
ing greatly in intportance luring the <
iast few years- that is the legal investi- 1
gation oft questiuns alrising froum hand- c
writing in our courts of justice. W'ith t
reference to the value of such labor as
experts are ale to perform in this re
spect there is a wide diffeiirece of opin
ion. Mauy of the jurists of our day t
esteem it highly, and many not quite so i
highly. The question really comes to t
he - is there any such t thing as scientifie t
and satisfactory investigation of the c
various phases under which handwriting I
tlpears in our courts. We all know that r
forgeries are very nunterous --that. i
scarcely a week )asses in this city that I
there are not tried causes involving in <
solue iinnter the genuiness of hand
writ ig. Most of those present are
fmnilimr with the methods resorted to by i
forgers in produeing their work. The t
great nuijority of forgeries are not by f
lersosl who are sk:llel in the art of
peniuanshil); ninuy of them are of so e
iniperfeet a claracter that a good judge l
would wonder that there had 1b een any t
ipestion raiset respecting it. I have r
been calied to investigate forgeries 2
where there was scarcely a sentblaine to t
the genuite writing sought to be itni- 1
ted, others whero ilare would be it t
general ouitline, 1but the character of the t
wvor k w1ould at oncte statnp it. ats spurious. i
llie gre it prn"oportion of the forgeries of t
signatures are perpetrated by nttitns of v
racing the parties inaking an outliue a
lnith a pe iel and Iten writing it in with
ink-torgergies of that class are very
easily letectel when carefully exi mined
wtith a s ld gilss, and esp,eeial:y with at
gtootd ni, ('ol>'e. Anothier cliss, and
the ln,l tI hingei"'li?, are prepar'ed l)\'
skit 1lll1 ie-s taking a signatiire and 1'
Intetirin iut 11 it, as tuon ai cop y, until c
it ein ihe r(pIrtodieed by the forger with
a toien'ible legn"'e ' of nccuracy. some- Ii
tiun es to anu estonishing degree. I luve t
seen such signatures where it wlls imupos- u
sib le to deterine with any degree of 1
t"ertailty w hether the signatures was 1
sp)uious ur geniune. F'orgeries executed n
1by the tniiug process are invariably '
denionu:t iat ed i la such, I belie e, lie- e
cause no aii canl at the first following t,
of a inteing iiutke a i;ignature which witl f
deceive it person who is faniiaiar u ith the v
g~ulttine -lit shutdes wvill be tiilterent,
ail thu :"trengtl: of the lin w'ill ie t
ditlretit. alldt winie there itre short- t
collli:, ini thii respuect they havhe to be I
oe('i ret 'V letracingie. ThIlt'e wit tl,tear I
llider the glas in ()Vir-hitpping ha era uti
itk. 'this will also be true oft f''rg '
siganttres that are initee hv hi'Ioldilg I
thni to tle light, as to it pane of glass
or to a light, but there is also t difi'ferent I
1oinelit'lt, itnl Ibenee diYerint iquality
ofiit line-- thtre is thut ii the w riting I
Wilch shitows it is niit written wtithi the 1
ontlirtry and nlttiural niution of the 'ni
hoal. T'hurt will also b e a nervous k
trin:or, Ulti It slower the iul is h
11101cd tlwe Iln ire app)artent w ill thiis h", o
if o t sigi,at i' is pliiettd over ;nr ut her tI
;tntl foiund to t"uVer it in tever' respect, it. u
:; inev\shtly the t'aUe that on'e is a forg'- Ii
r c. h os; forg'eries art liskilfully exe- o
uignigt belt called at pen lrtist. M.ly 11n- p
n:tle Iy c'itirks I get all idea that they
('all reprtodice tiheir eiployer's signt- rI
tun-:t the have lhad very gotod oi)>rtu-tii~I
ine,2 yt rarlely tail ti l0 d,tected. iiu
Onei ofi the ist fr'eiquent phaslees in 13
dlisguil, tatalw~orit ing in the' orn of f~
'alli'il., b'i-k-t 02i 11' ihn-ten tiing or i
if Iiin etties. PeI w mll famiOSliar lethr ai
\h hialiltt t< n lle:tOll. eli e.-it to. b yl
5itent to hih hiii spia of uhl ia itits g<
lit, !vnr tils os say01 tVil iii durng gJ
.iiiih
wee in.t. whuich lli pacaist of atnchol yitousy
letterisp ltvi i>t heen brout eto iyt s
'hanic tii ivestition. t thlani of th(i
threatent i; th l 'ive s'no peopli t*ir
tIbn,'i'iptie s arIt gon iiroig outihes,
~a' fi'iries ill r ey etndrd
lnte thite frIin th poiet or tor li an..iar
illge n's of ion ho luhtel bengheas- 11
IInedi whsit dlath'b suppotstyled eIploes.1
Slli unine gi ut ilinlauo eothe- torby
\tirne then' u letters,a- snhn printed
lIna-iines' 'otilyb'an. lishi thell eecutlie
"1111 W"ltrlig o te dtity of the Iwitr
ro' veylp rns :i wrlitet thelI ex-t
Ihe w"lorttf l \i'ulitii ng t te ives-'alty
.100a tl wolole iJhit ofi aschool boyli
writingl ho oisljei not netedude
0rnisuie wh' i.inpate any ind
vhb;ouity-e -ori tpefor''iyt ies iting.)011
Ilhj t tiiier tof wi(tingO sutld rite
li ltter tal Iit g ittiII 10 (illt115tehth li upi,'i) ialtly whne- l
hay sylt hei iitiheIi'' tlbe ocongs.ri
hiswitvber. woi 11par t i the'0 itandard
lpersnahltycIi of) the3 witr 11(5t hler twas10
forth in South Carolina an organizatior
for the protection and advanenent of
our agricultural interests.
in furtherance of this pULrplose and aq
embodying the present views of th(
State, we respectfully urge up)on om
(eneral Assembly the necessity and ad
visatbilit.y of the following measures: 9
L. The establishment of a real agricul
tnral college, separate and distinct from
the South Carolna College, ad modeled
tfter those of Mississippi and Michigan.
We believe that the necessary funds to
build and equip this institution can be
secureU by lopping oil needless ex yendi
tures, and abolishing or consolidating
useless offices without increased taxation.
We further recommend, as a means to
assist in building the institution, that
the dill'erent counties of the State ho em
powered to bid for it by oflering bonds
or land.
2. ''hat an experim1entl station should
be established at or in connection with
said Ain i. ultural and llechatnical l'ol
lege, I;he sone to be under the charge of
its faentv, and that we nltemioriatlize Con
gress to pass the bill introduced by Mr.
hatch and now pending, which appr
priats .15,010() annually to each StItt
for the purpose, and that we ask our
Senatr" aid ('ongressnen to use al
legiti,n;itto means to secure its passage.
.. '?hat. in order that our agricultural
adm t lration may be divorced as far as
p0si,k fromt p)olitics and 1pOliticians,
and f lc men blest tnualificd to perform
t*hese Itllortint duties be selected by
those cou 41nipetent to judge, in order
that We niay seclr( a Iboard of agricul
ture at once ellicienlt, zealous and repre
senta:i\4', who know our needs and will
try to "t1Iv tI 1em1, we urge that instead
of being (";enu by the ILegislature they
be elected by this Farmers' Association.
The board of agriculture should consist
of ten members, five elected annually.
They should have the power to elect.
th"ir own secretary, whose duties would
correspond with those of the preswlt
colnlissioner. Their duties would be
the same as the LatwV ilposes 01 our pres
ent board, except as the collection of the
phosphate royalty, which should be
given to the comnptrollcr-geIeral. In ad
dition they should havc cont rot of the
agricultural college and exp(erimental
station, and should by means of farmers'
institutes build up and keep aliv, coining
agricultural associations.
I. 'That the system of u spe( ction of
fertilizers is now defective, and no ade
tlate punishment for frauds p'rovided.
\\e therefore urge such add; ional legis
lation as N ill secure the needed protec
tion w ithtout imposing unnecessary re
strints upon the nwtt limfacture and sale of
lertilizers. (ottolt seed rueal, whether
sold as a fertilizer or as feed for stock,
should be intspecttld 1n(1 its adlteratioll
l)nlltishled.
.P. W\e 1urg the' I,eg;islature notot to
lutalder thu State's 1ro1perty 1y illon -
itg tlo' wholesale exportit 1ion1 f pih)s.
p hates ait mterety tnmnl prlces, and
that w' th a view of le :oning the burdens
of taxation, they take ieto consideration
the advisability of increasing the phos
phate royalty.
1 Ve 1 econnnend the p a1ssaty- of such
legislation as will protlect tihe farlers of
tie State pgainst imposition and fraud
in the weighting of cotton.
7. We respectfully urge sucht legisla
tion as will prottet uts ugainst forest tires
negligently start,d.
5. T1'h1 equnalizatlonl of taxe- dlumand(s
earnu st consi1, rationl at the 1ul,is of the
f,(gislatui re, and we 1Irg(" sucht ::-tion as
c:m b(e.t secuie it.
. Ie urge 5uC1 alterat ios ( fi the fee
bill 1s will gulard the estates of dead 11e'
sols agnilist lbluses and p'rovidle' protee
tion t'or' widows and orplnins.
itl. In order to secure it n1"ded re
forIts iI nl our coun1ty gover iuneits and to
redulce tile burden of taxaltionl, as well as8
to secuire such1 chanWges iln tile juldicil
systemi as may2 b)e neecded, we ''arne(sily
reuiest ouir iegislaktors to c2onsider tile
aldvisability of calling a1 conlstitti onal
coInIvei oll, lss'5, inI their jud(gmenit,
tile n1ecessar1.y changes maly be1 beutter (1b
Afte'r the4 readinlg of tile laltfr a011
mfot.ion Was miade to hike it upJ by see
tions. Th'i~s excitld some dlisculssionl,
anid a1 divisioni was dlemianded 1on1 the
quiest.ion, r'esultinlg yeas2. :39, 11an1 21.
TJ.he pllatfo.rml was thlen rearil by SeC
tions1, amd was1 aldoptedt. i)urlinlg the1
proIgreSS ofI tile read(ing thier'e were 4.ne4
orI two short dtiscuLsions.
The( pliatformi was5 then adop11 tell 2a8 a
wIlle.
.1 AI;1uI:Lrjuar, or,r.is;i.
thIe Andlersonl t-'armlers' (Cluk1 W&'.2re
ferred to tihl commIiitte'I:
I.egislatulre2Ii thestab ililnent (If anl agri -
cul1tural1i cIlle(ge sepalrate 1and1 distincet
fronm the South1 Car'olina2 C!oleleg.
.I(lele, Thalt we as8k for1 a1 reor'gani
zaito <>Il(f th1e dleparitmenlt oIf a1gricultu re
farmiers (If tile State.
Ti111 1'AI 1ou1 AxN 'rnsi 15:w11 1,n.
lowVing re4solhitionl, wichl was 1also re
ferred:
Whiereas thie usury law ihas hlad no
('lfeet iln chieapen ling mloney, btIl L 1
slmtf the faimiers out from obtaininig 1111
geous1 char11gs- oIf file (ottonl facetors1 andl
me(reblants, inuunI1lting 1t) fromI 31) to 1001
perI (enIt.:
And, wherea1u:s, these1 laws4 for1ce thll far
merls to e'xchanIge' co(ttonh fIlr goodils, (ena2
b)1 ig the4 meI.rlumIlt to) fix thle price of th e
farlmers' produce and t11 o e4 fxact tile pr'ice
(If iis goods12, thus1 dolinIg aIway with the1
c2irclat.ion1I 1of(mon ' amlIong tile farmers,
to file detranen(1 t of thle whole( coIlnItr'':
TheIreftor we r clon11end( thl e relel
(If the1 ulsIry 11aw.
I'' titlowing was 1nl4i ''11121'l |'y
sIlit.
Ia .plaper, sIlb441ittedl by Dr I). 111e11nb1rt
ithf the14 rlcommenda1l(I4tion! that it be( pub11
I1 ylNo I2xPP.Ns.
A fltr 1(14me4 deba lte, an1(15 assessment 1
111lnhdllar was laid upon01 ealch delegruIe.
to p)ay the exipense( of tile CIIvenion12.' I
wiich tile t reasu r1(e m--.c(24 .,(' II -n.....
aince that were printed in Gothic letters,
iniformly at first, but, after a while, the
aarty fell to printing the main part of it
n lower case (illustrated on the board),
ind by-and-by the writer came, uncon
ciously, to make the i and t exactly as
n script-and finally a word appeared
n scriptr-genemlly persons in printing
ho lower case will make i's, e's a d t's,
mnconsciously, as they would write tm,
tfter going over pages of the writing
ho identity of the writer was fully dis
overed.
"Probably the most difficult class of
ases arises where a writer copies or
eakes use of another handwriting to
lisguise his own. Now if I should at
empt to simply disguise my own hand
oithout any copy or ideal before mc, I
hould endeavor to use forms outside of
ay own hand, foreign to myself, and
hus avoid identity ; but where a take
nother hmndwriting and, by imitating
hat, supply llyself with now material,
ay disguise would be all the more difi
iit to lenetrate and explain. I now
taye a case in hand where this has, as I
llege, been done. On the one hand it s
s alleged that a certain party has written
dackmailing letters in a disguised hand;
in the other hand, the accused claims
ome one 1has simulatotd his hand. Ex
orts have been called in to show that it
s his handwriting disguised, and others
o show that it is not but rather a manu
ttctured imitation of his writing.
'" At this point Mr. Ames called upon
ne of the members to write his auto
;raph upon the blackboard, and called
pon a skilled writer to imitate it as
early as possible, which being done,
Ir. Ames instituted a sharp analysis of
he origual signature, indicating its
ersonaltics and pointing out wherein
1e copyist had failed to reproduce
es0 personalities, but had unwittingly
icorporatet, tlirdiigi for" of habit,
bose of his own hand. Th exrcts --
'as listened to with marked attention
ad apparent interest."
\UtIIlT G:L,t1 litCl. EID.
Nutern .nnuti en r+aid to lie tcttauning to Fanh
lonH of the I.fNI Ccutury.
'11he reimrkable discovery has recent
b)cl b tee ade that ' white hands are
lining into fashion again," says London
ueen. It would seem that hands have
ec growing less white than they used
> be, and have suftred from too great
ttachment in ladies to lawn tennis and
oating and otiher masculine accomplish
0nts. Chapped and red hands arc
ever pretty, and these, of course, inva
ably follow on outdoor exercises. The
vil is, happily, not beyond remedy, and
olfset,this purpose "the daughters of
ihion," as many of then will learn
itlh surprise, now have dishes of hot
aater shaped like a hlower leaf on their
ilet, tables, i t which they steep
heir hands for a while before going to
>ed, then anoint them with vaseline and
mit on gloves lined with a preparation of
old cream1. These gloves should be of
vash l'ather at d several sizes too large
or the hand.
Before the paragraph has gone its tardy
oundtt ili print these night gloves will
urely be made an instance of the amauz
ng luxury of our degenerate days, and
oit, we may be sure, a very doleful
toral. In the absence of any general
iowledge on this point, the ladies of
ishion will 1e looked utponi as having
riginattd a 1erni ious practice, which,
)gethter with the toilet iasks of which
e recently heard so mutch and saw so
t.tle, might inheate a lamentable degree
f ovei relineientt, such as we should
rtminly be reminded has invariably
receded the decay of empires.
The 011 receipt for perfuming gloves
ins :Take ainiber grease a dram, civet
te like qpuntit,y, orange flower butter a
Ilarter of11 an1ounc, and1( with these wvel
ixed and1( ordered daub them over gent
with line cotton wool, and so press
e per(fum1le mIto thenm. Other devices
r mind(lg thiemi "'richly redolent"
)unt genlerally to the use of oil or fate
bJenig the best avalilablIe and most
rgely (1mploy)3ed means.11 to secure a
iod and h lstig p)erfumne. As for suich
oves beinlg conlsideredl excellent for
ght u180 we have thle lines ill Swift's
>01m on '"Thle Lady's D)ressing Rloom,"
lore nighlt gloves made41 of TIripsey's
aI)lucth'd by Tripsey when she died.
Whler'e a lady's nuid is reassuring her
istressL in a11)0011 of 1 790, as8 to her ownl
periority over aL rival, the maid says:
know tile 1111. she lab1ors to disguise,
1110w wheell 11 all hr boasted graces
1(os0elharmso wichei gained tihe creature
such1 renlownl,
:'e culled4 from every (huarter of the
town ;
ac buys her beau.ities at a pirice inunlense,
er brea1th from~ Wa1rrenl and1 11cr teethi
from S3pence;
ich nlight her face is wraIppedl in greasy
1(d (Chinese gloves 011101d her armis and
hands ;
81uch a1 malIdeup thing canl rival thee,
at park canals strive with the foaming
sea :
It Oxford baceks with Pegasus compareo
Id b)road St. Gliles' vie with P'ortnm i
square.
Th?iere would be0 som11 .sspiciy -ol
.emical treaitmient about such e;loves.
thlough a 1 rench philosopheri 801mo
no ago asserted that glover> , -o alU
tisans, were the most mild and14 amiable,
ving to the soothling influence of loath
upon01 temlperamnent, tis dliscovery had
>t been made41 whlen Chlinese gloves
ire mi vogue, and more direct agencies
utimg upon tho 0outer man1 or womiani
rer atll that wvere souIght aift<r. "'Mced
ated " gloves are 1usert by .L:. Johnison'a
>rn1 beauty inl the .120tn 1AImbler, the
>etor probably not knowi.g much of
>ilet miysteries. This 3" ung lady is
~presented as8 alwa'tys mxost .airefulily tenl
:1d 11nd put under1 rigid e >smletic disci
lineO at night, neve'r permlfttId to slceep
111tillorougl,y ano1intel with "'bOau.
>werL waiter and14 May dowI,"' her hair
rfumned and1( GIled, and1( the softness of
r1 hands(1 secured1I) 1110medicated gloves.
\t .Jpecial dispatch fromI S:11 Anitonio,
w~lett (1rinier and111. his paty 'were aIttaicked -
i kIlled, says that Glriner was killed by
r piolice (oltivers n h0 were hlired to com11
the leed V hv two br1othIers named10 Ar
flu h A 1222igu s pro)fe5ed friendship
Griner4, but, turn red on the0 Aml4eians
bi I reacherous1 venIgeanc as soon'01 as h
* ege1m tIle ar1tn1k.

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