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The Fairfield herald. (Winnsboro, S.C.) 1849-1876, May 10, 1871, Image 1

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Dbetortes & Williams, Propiietors.] A Family Paper, Devoted to Science, Art, I ulry, Industry and Literature. [Terms---$300 per Annum, In Advanc.
The Lost Arts. f
Before proceeding to speak of some
of the lost arts, it Is fair to make one 9
exception to the chaige of self-con- t
,ceit, which is this : There is one
large department of intellectual life C
in regard to which it does not fairly
lie-I mean all that we call the flue
arts, with a little broader neaning
even than cotjmion. Take poetry,
painting, sculpture, fiction, the drawn,
the novel -everything that relates to C
beauty, either in thought or in form I
-in reg.ard to that whole lepartment
of intellectual life, I think there is a t
'Perfect readiness to acknowledge that (
we are second-rate, that we arc only c
gleaners in a field where a heavy har
bat has been reaped. We sit down
contentedly at the feet of the earlier I
ages. You see the confession of this
inferiority in the very phrases we use.
For initance, the paiuter goes to Ita- t
iy. What for I To study the mas. f
ters ; but the masters have been in
thei: graves three hundred years.
Tol'i a 'poet, "My dear sir, that lite I
'bf yours retuinds me of Ilumer," atid f
he is crazy. I remember once stand. t
ing in frout of a bit of marble earved I
y Py*e'rsftr Vermnont tculptor, ;n T
I aid 'to an Italian, with mc, That I
strikes inm as p'or ect." "Perfect !" :
F6id he, with a contem.pi uou I
shrug, ''why, that reminds one
lof Puidias ;"I as if to remind yiu -
'f 0he old Greek were not a
an infilnitely gr'ent'e Ilo',plimkelu t 0h1n i
to be perfect ! Now, the very phrafe c
is an ucknowledgment. of iiferiority ; 1
and you see the saic t-icit admnismion r
in the niount we b6row. Shauklpearn 1
has left us somd16 thirty plays. I re- C
gard to more than t*'-thirds 6f them %
Bhakspeare does not stoo to invent the (
stories upon which th6y Ar6 funded. I
These stories oame reAdy-made to
his hand from the Italian tuovelista, t
who had borroted thith rrom the I
East. Cinderilla atnd her slipper is i
'dlder than all history ; ndbody knows
where that story began. Bulwer ha i
borrowed the finest inid6nti of hi. I
-*fltsticeisfuI nodl front tile Roimans I
a thousand years old; Inhdeed, Dun. (
lop, who hai written the history of
novels, ends his bdok with tiis state- I
ment: "In all the literatdrb 'r
Western Europe there are only thteo I
hund'red distingusi.bl6 stoiius, and I
of these three hundred nearly two I
hundred and fifty are older than i
Christianity, and way bb tfad t'
Indeed, ladies and gen'lemen, if
this were my saIject, (which is not), I
I could stop a bit and tell you that
even our newspaper jokeds tre euy oi
Log a very respectable old agc.
Take as common a book as Maria
Edgeworth's on Irish bulls, and the
laughable mistakes Itttlihuted to Irish
P-asanti. It is stated, a m an is wri-.
tii a letter in a publie house. Ie
ends it thus : "My dear friend, I
would write you mure cOnufdeltlip;
tut there is an imuptideut fellow look
ing over my shoulder and reading
very word I write." "You liei I
haven't read a word you have writ.
ten," was the comment of tb'd ifetooted
epy. This is puit down at ant rish
bull. It is only two hdddcied an'a fifty
years older than the New Tostiment.
T here is another, that Horace Wal
Sole considered better still, of the
rishman who said, "I dd ? vdr9
handsome baby, anid I should Siave
been a very handsome man, but they
dhanged me in then cradtA:" WVall,
that is borrowed fom- uixote, the
great Spanish novel of Cervantes;
who took it froma the Greek, who stoi'e
it from en Asiatio idrio' away back
of him. Why; all these Irish bullA
are Greek.- TPdke, the Irishman who
oarried around a brick; as N lipeelmen
of-the house lhe had to sell. Take
the Irishman who shu as his dyds be..
fore a glans, to see '6ow ho would
look when he wan dead ; or the Irish
man who bought a om'oW, bdcauseo ho
had heard that crows lived two' huin
dred years, and be meant to t'est it ;.
or the Irishmnan that net a friend,and
said, "Why, I hoard you'eie ded 1"
4-Well, [ suppose yosu see I pm trot,'
said the friend. "I dont a iid
said he, 'I would believe the rMan'whoI
told we quioker than I would you I
[Laiughter.) W~ell, all theie d71o
Greek, veyone of them tra'eealiWj
o Atheins. Trhere is one story, thidh
hGeorge W eemhingoum Is said one tm
have told, of a ,enau who went into aen
Inn and oioed for a glars or drink.
The lanedlord gusheed forward a' very
Amall wine..glass, ind ase he prooe'eded'
to rni it, resbarked : "That glada is'
forty years old." 'W ell," said the
discontented purchaser, as he glanced
at it, "it is the stuallest thing of it.
ago that I think I ever saw." That
story was told of a woman, In the
streets of 4thenu, three tndteda id
seventy years before Christ was born.
If It wtr'a at all worth- while, I think
Semield show 300 to 'night that Moth
or Gose's vretodies,, and Joe Miller's
jest book, instead of being three hitta
dred years old, as we generally asiserb,
- are, half-o eho, mnuoh nearer- three
thousand, and that you lanSb balf the
time at wit whleh' bals aerved its pur'.
pose at least once before, for genera.
wo thou.sand gir*'s.
But it Ii not ou repeated thoughi
ihat I was going to addroi you to.
igh t' b*4t Wh'Yrd th odth ,'on,eve ry.
lay arts that minister to what we caI
laily comfort., and upon our progress
Yhat we Yankoes especially pride our
elves. Well, every seholar knows
hat scattered up and down ancient
kistory are many curious statements
if marvellous things done by old
hemists and meoeanices. Two hun
red years ago, before sotenee got on
1o its feet, our predecessers, unable
ither to do these things or to explAin
,w they were done, bad a ready way
if getting out of the difflulty. They
out a note at the bottom of the page,
n which they said : "LHere the au
hor lies." It was a very cfnvenient
soape. It proeeded, ynu pereive,
n this idea: I know everything that
nybody ever knew, and whoever un
lertakes to know anything I don't
:now, lies. Well, that is hardli tom
non sense, certainly not criticison.
In what I am going to say to y ou
o night, borrowed, the whole of it,
r.m the best authorities, I shall not
Ilow that you have any right to
loubt In I, a AOly on the gCound that
ht istateitient strikes y.>u as wonder
uil ; for I waintaiu tho wlhc.i, in our
Id books, whose authors show good
enoe ui.d love of trm bt, and capacity
f iuvestig ation, you Bud ton storica,
ine of them credttibl and natural,
nd the tenth niavellous, you have
., gight to thniw that tenth story udt
f the w indo V instantly. Commonseunse
Ad philosophy tedl you that you
hould pause and see whether the
dvancmig scieceo of the ago n-iy not
uable you to explAui it, because it is
wul dei ful fact, noticeable, at 1 ay
rte, that, all the old writiags that
ve rejected ounteimiptuously two hun
red years ago, are taking their placs
bgtin as reliable. letodotuis, the
ild Greek who wrote history four
kundred years before Christ, earned
heu the name of the Father of His
ory.; he was christened over again
he Father of Lies, because the nar
ow science and superficial knowledge
>f the day found about every third
>age f th'e did Greek utterly unintel.
igib!d. But every invention we
lave made, niid overy gcographical
fiscovery we have aunde, confirms and
ixplains the old Greek, and to-day he
i nsgone up ,ngain.and resuined his
ild nadild. "Now, I countend that our
ianafatlhers had no right to fling
-erodotus under their heel, until
,hey hid absolutely demonttrated, not
flarely con1 eetetred wlit he stated
ras loo marvello'ls to be true. And
Is thele is a tery large amount Uf
itertulre up.on this sbihject, and one
night 160ture upon it a week instead
if an hdur, I shall confime what I
inve tW say td two of- three distinot
oilts id the drat elrde t to wiOh
shall kerer, shall b6
rhe material Aibich ri ad n'any forms
ninisters to daily comfort as in do.
nestio grensil and wf ddw glai.,, ind
ispedi y lb the unmroseopo or teles
iope enlarged th boiudsi of ecience
io much. Did the ancients know any.
hing about glass ? Well, this curious
nateroaIta orde of the' r'adieet flus
rations of ttiat self conotct tn
hnich I have tiefdrred. WVhenm you go
:o Naples thoy will show you a volume
ibout as large as a eio' diotion
try, written by a loarn ed Neapolitan,
the purpose of which is to show th'at
he ancents had tio glss and (hE
isorthy sddl profea Ifo his lUn satia
raction ; but the very spring that his
book was printed, the peasants wilDo
were digging in the noighboring EfyI
3f Pompeii (buried, you recolleot,
4eenteen hundred years ago uder
the ashes of Vessniina) ,b'oke into a
room full of glasses. P had ground
glass affd p)Min flassanil eut.t winded
an~d blown anai el66M giqs-eie'
variety. . It wadd a glass-ms or's ahop
and the lie iind the refutation e~ne
ato faiec. t wyas liko tir. Lard
ner's book whibh he Fiinted in lian
don lb 1836 aild deo'ac that
a steamiboat coul'd oy no' possibility
dross the Atlantic. They brought
it in the flrt steamer that camne
ovenr. (Langhter.) Instead, howevor
of not knowing anaything about glass,
this curious material is the Gibraltar
of the lo~t afts for it Isa utterly indis
put able, an ad limao% a'n' u:ii ititable
and almaost an, unadisputed fact, that
the chemistry of the ancients wrought
wl't'if @1i manterial as we hbge never
beerniable to do0 since. TIle flest two
staitenments t at I offer yod'are bor
rowed ointirerfy firm records; after
that I shall mainiy rely ott- works;
not records.
You-ktiow we got our firsb f4e'is'dt
Chinese liistory from the Jesurits.
'bey wrdeo the Eirst to break into
Ohina ahd lb lettere homne to the so
erlo 6f tie order transated within
inoty yo'ars lt1o French, we have the
first lupdSof .Chinese art. They
say i mat th'd& .dhin bse showed ?hl'm
tudabters of glan with tise durieus
quallty-'-empty, they resembled our
tumbleri dtly' ; All them up with a
li o~Idseemed to bep watef but
w~e'lo' ~~ tioe manuufaoturoa ba
the"O *Wi nd 4hed the vesel Was
full tid l4ed'thr'oughjit -appealed
td be full pt fihes. Turn but this ape
narertm~tnat~~m tha 6bae na gue;
replace it, and there they are. The
Ch'nese acknovladged they did not
-ae it. They brought it home from
some foreign conquest. A i d that it,
not singular in Chiaese history ; for
Lhe celebrated astronomical glasses of
he Chinese of which we us'd to e atd
. unidhool dati were not ma-ie by them
showing that'they stole them, and did
not make them.
The second story is Roman. It was
in the reign of Tiberias who waS
contemporary with St. Paul. A
nuished Roman claimed his pardon
because he brbught. tg .the Emperor
a g, eat curiosity. I't wo a glass eup
which he flung down on the pavement
and it was broken, but crushed by the
bloW. ie took it up, and with a
hammer restored it to shape. It was
malleable glass, trans.\-eA but
not brittle. ,. * A Ynaking this
state ent once in New Haven
MI the -presenceo of the elder
Profess:r Sillimian. He was kind
enough, after I had finbhed, t6 do:le
to th platform aid ilid he was famil.
iar with most of iny statements ; but
referiing to malleable glass. he 'e.
marked, "I cannot conceive the
amount of evidence that would lead
me t beh'dve iii. its possibility." I
could only remind him 111.t 1e got
chemistry from the Arabians. 'lhey
brougit it into Spain eight centuries
ag4, and in their books the Arabs
ilsimed that theV e'duld :Oak. nFillea
ble glas. At the present moment in
F.race there is a kind of glass three
bunired %ears old. You take a piece
Lf it and fasten the ends together, and
it will form into an arch like a bit of
lead. It is three hundrd years c'c
hiilliant and transparent, aud yet i
3un be bent like a metal. Either
uriginally it had this quality, or in
the lapse of years it has acquired it.
But these two are statements.
When you go to Rome they wjilik ie
you a bit ofglass like the bottcm il
this tumbler --solid glass. It is about
is large a crab apple. You may ring
it as you would any bit of iunflawed
glass. I It has no crack no joint, no flaw
in it ; but when yeu lok at it, in the
sentre is a drop of glass about as large
as marrow-fat pea, shaped like a ddck,
exquiaitely modeled, and the colors
of the plumage beautiruly renaerca.
A miniature pencil could not do it
better. One wing is slightly lifted.
When you put the whole imass under
a microscope, you perceive that the
feathered edge of this wing, and the
bill of the little creature, are not dull
like the edge of this tumbler. All
glaiss put through the annealing fur
nace is dull. This is not dull, it is
sharp-sharp as the edge. of a cameo.
Now, evidently, the little creature
must have been made and then this
liquid glass poured arouud it, a much
greater degree of heat than thatof an
afifiealing furnace, and yet he retains
h'ii sharp odge.
When I was at Naples, I saw
a glass entmoo about as large as my
hatd. The ground-work was purple;
the fi ures were white. It was a god
d'ed 9-tthodod o yhor nymphs._ The
oritline, nud gbylously the edges of the
h'air, were- all hharp, ud couild not
have been filed ; no appearance of a
file, but sharp ; and yet, the last pro.
6es nust lIave b ,en'aan ealing. They
mah'iaged to combine the beauties of
the gem' withi the beauties of glass,
-hich we canno do. Tlen, again, the
very imitation of gemi, their color
ef glss is beyond us ~'lhe Jews, in'
Pafiis will alwoit deceird th'd most
cunning deuler ila gemns ; and yet
their Imitations of gems are utterly
inferrer to th'ose that remain of the
Yo'k no the colo'red gi si(6
churches:~ We, hlve fine specinmens of
tt.lep' hero. In Europe. they haave
still mnofo splendid specimEens You
have reen windpws half as lar.:e as
the walf fied' 'Q regres m'ting the
#66 ,a n're ofh Apostles, ora
deries pf ilus'tratlons of stories from
the EJd Trfstjstmpat of . the liew..
Tpes~te are til'iJnid'oh of' wh'i the
Salians dag, "Man never tado them ;
lid let theut down from heaven foi
the d$1light . of f'iA Suinis." These
are the wi'ndowl df ttlitch' SMilton
' I loe bh'ehl'.6rnmowed roof.
With antic pillars mnsiy proof.
And storied windoiws, richly dight
Ciasting a dimreligious light."
N~ow, where an accident or storm hits
broken a pine or two, and the modern
artist has replaced them, the ng a gidA,'
German or French, i utterly insipid
in the neighmborhood of the old, and
that ha.< bue the storms~ of three
hutidretd years. And that is nothing
t'o the Eg~y ptian' You'may take a'bit
of Egy ptian glassi as large as my hand,
with a pieture on It; you may saw it
I'nto layers as you divide a book into
ldav~es, and every layer will have a
pefrfect picture ; showing that they
otonly struek theI,elor' into the
bd fthe gles, traieb we do not,
but thiey struek It regalarly throngh.
Weh,~ then take the Imitation- of
gekia.' 1' ihndon tliey will show
yota thf Barbdlbl ,aie, about four
oeen lnohes high; .It was dug p in
the gkounds or aW( Ttalian faqmI1in
it~ipaad ed'ge or the Duk of
P'orladfoft hidt thotisand.lla.
ts hak Ibeet knoM;a&little dver T't~
huuidred yearspf~-or nidre then dli~tl
century handled, examined, admir ed
bohanh, sold. travallinu all abont, ir
the hands of o nmoisseurs amatourb of
ind dealers. Nobody eve suspected th
it was not a natural At)no, ardonyx. P
Itwiis either Winkelmasn - Wedg- th
wood, I forget which, wlik frst an. as
nounced to astonished Eree, within te
ninety years, that the Birl rini vase a
was a bit of glass of humat mandfa't. w(
ture ;'and Vedgwood, the reat an- 0p
thority and physician, aftei spending hn
twelve thousand dollara in he effort co
to make a copy, e'nds liia. 'Ay upon th
the suijeot, by the assertio "hero is gr
not obhenistry enough in al E'Iroy, th
either to eiplahd how the A bei'r I i
vaso was made, or to make nything Pl
like it." in
So, when you go to Gei 'a,. they
will show you there the Sacr a dish. th
It, is about fourteen inches w e. It is wo
green, and the Roman Cat -lie le- a
god is, that it is a solid eterald ; w4
that the Queen 6f lbeba gavi it to R,
Soldmop, add thalt the was on the ov
able it the time the Savior ate the so
Last Supper. It has boen, Io inde- w
finite number of beuturlbs, I Genoa', 'bj,
and it used to be death foi an)body tr.
but a Catholic priest to tou l it. In b
that disatr'dus siege of 1aoa by th
Bonaparte, where 80,000 peisons were th
starved to death, ([ mean tha grea.t RIh
Napoleon, not the present little one), P1
te Jews of the bity,. pffred three a
millhons of dollarg for . ir iingle us
article; but Bonaparte took i to Pria 'ti
and gave it to the S3ienatiflo Bhool- th
the Insti ute ; and, after thretdweek's de
examination, that same establishment n4
of' Frenchman canae p the eenelusion gl
that jt .gns ot a iatur'al stone. that it
#4 r human product of soine sort or in
other, whether Egyptian or not, they - H
would iot dotermine ; but beyond all I01
exp1lanati.'n ha'w it was iAde: , %hen an
Napoleon fou", it wen4 over the Alps, fri
and is still ei.hilltod. f
There are a gr.-at many toh
questions of the. same kind. I saw, 6,
rently; a lIhii.ifpl of glass beads from i en
the neghborhood o[ (arthawa in Af- on
rica. The color o- two. or threo of y
them fully eqnalled, if it did not ;t
transcend, the brilliancy of the emer- .at
ald ihat, would be worth five bundred ."
dollare in the shops. One of our misi- y
ionar ,ies , IN!r. -D.ay , Prought - 4uis E
from the ruine of I Lhv , Ynar '
ago, a small bit of glasa., perhaps as t
large as the bottom of thistumbler, of a
the most incomparable emerald color ; 0
but when you held it between to
you and the sun, it seemed to We' gild' w
ed The minutezit examination does hi
not detect any gold. Chief Justice 1
Chase was allowed to break off the Of
edge, in order, by inspecting tli frag. .
ment, to see whether that w9uld give in
an explanaution ; but how the, effect i1
is produced is still unintelligible. . 1
But a more interesting inquiry is of
whether the ancients had the micro- el
scope, or the teleseojc. The modern bi
histories tell you that ,.the,.telescope I
is three hunidred. years .pid,;.tha4 E
Galileo, of Florence, was tha frst one I
to use it. A nd sometime when you '11
open Edward Everett,'s oration 10
at, Albany, you will find on .thitr
beautiful page where he paints, as he E
only could paint in words, - what he H.
calls the sublime momeot.when Gall,
leo, pointed the newly-discovered tnbo 6f
at the heavens, and for iho first time, W
says Everett, the noons of Jupiter
were seen by a human eye;, Well, I
think I shall convince you that the at
moons of Jupiter were seen by thous. W
agda~of .eyes,. previously.. S ir, ,ighi t
11 ersehel says thit the point of timo ,i
whera the moons of Jubiter were first 'di
observed is the point of tame when o
ancient astrongmny ends, apd godprn al
astronomy -begins. Sir .Wilbiam ! a
Drummond in his history of as ronomny ' t
the world was round.' l'e..t~hii, ,he.. Si
proves that from the Old Teetamrent,;' .
bt if you will grant hinm .thet, ,oneo se
thing is certaiq-th'o &slat'is a haun.E
dred years bpfore we supposed them d
to have had a teleoo, menoasuzrg t
timo whoa''waol.ud .caicufated P
tliy pa'rallax of tha fixed stars (a veryI
d'Elicate problem) more accuratelyI
than Europe did a hundred years
arterg sad b'ed the teloesfolfo. Now .the o
q'oestion is' how it wvas done . and,g~ [email protected] '
a; g'ton . tha't: las if~ilf s puzzled i
dst,oing.ners.' 8toddard, of Conneo. Is
'uthe nisinayo thlemorefoan 4
Soard, in Pesia W Itinag home'twen
ty years ago to London, stays, I think a
[ can solve th is problem, for I hi lve p
aeon the maons of Jpitsr pnyself :o
from the .m tiios of Per~sa in a s
l'diff .61pht wi h the naked eye ; iad Ia
he goe on to claim thatie.gu-teyioti;. I
ty in the dryness andodlearnaess ol' the pi
atmiosphere enabled Asia to outdo us .e
ina astronomay. And undoubtedly i
there is a large measure of truth in'his y
eptioulat ions; but there are somae facts e
ii the olassies whioch go to show that 'l
Sir Williama Drummpond was.prohbby. a
right when hre clai.ds thnit tbe anoients
had th~p telescope. Callier ates, of L
Greece, who traveled in Aola, saw I
golden g nafs so beprly the size .ef,the.~ i
natural inseote that-you could not see 1
*ithiln thorp the artist bad pus r. *
'ohinryi5 enough to mank'e tbensi rpo~ (
alog a little table. If soy man' did a
that be must haive had pegtaoles. I
or as .4 ok~s hat, , e
dndet thie tingA oa a oerae fly.'u
I bave seon a oharioit and four'beraes
tat aanld ha hidcleb under the wing
a house fly. It was in Geneva, bu
ay were made with spectacle.
i qy sayb. tst h' s'w t~e poem o
D Iliad, written by Homer, a bool
large as the New Testament, writ
a on a skin that could be hidden it
iuthell. 'The other day ther
mnt into Paris in a balloon a piece o
per five inAhes squ-tre, on whiel
d been photographed the wholt
ntents of a London newspaper, anl
a artist sayt that he could p buto
aph in t'io same space the wih ole o
o Old TOstamnent ; but of course h<
l it with. the microscopo. So nus
iny's have be d~ie With magnify
; glasses.
Then l.t me pying to your mind,
B 116monn ltheatres. You know thel
ire generally shaped like this hall
paralellogram. The most perfec
i have remaining, i.s the Coliseum a
2nie, k *.1,, I I1 entre of tho
al is vacant ground, to admit waitei
motimes, and even ships, to have a
imio sea-fight. There was room foi
;ht.y thoiusand persons. The thea
i covred fivo, aoi's % of course, ii
d no roofs. Now, in thes6 theatre.
a Emperor's box was about wher<
is desk is, relatively, in what wt
oUld call the foci of the oval.
iny says that Nero, the tyrant, hu,
ring with a gem in it, by which h<
e4 to look at it very near-to seru
iizo the gladiatoi's who fought foi
Dir lives ; and Pina)y says he coul
it more nocurately than with th<
ked eye. Then Noro had atn opera
ometim', w.benin Now 'grg, g<
'o Dr. Bates' gyptian \i uscun
3 will show you the gold ring o1
ieops, who built the Great Pyramid
d who is supposed to have livec
>m two to three thousand years be,
go,iCiiH'H, Tle tablet on whicl
is signet is engraved is - about,.ai
rge as a quarter of a dollar. Tht
graving is so exqui.ite that fully
c-third of it is invisible withou
't ust a aiorjqoje. .I the br te
at have ,sti wpaut ered Pids al av
ything to remain there, id if 'ot
all ever go to Paris, they will shot
u a ri4g that belonged to Miehao
ugp1 the groat sculptor, three hun
ed venr. o: . It was en raved be
-e .the Christian era. The geml i
tout as large as a quarterof a dollar
3 it are nine figures of wvomien, an<
ar of them are utterly invisibli
thout glass. I have a friend whi
s an anitique gem carved before thi
iristian era, of about the sam si',n
which is a somall figure of the go<
erculos, perhaps two-thirds of ni
cl long. Look at it-it is simtply i
Ale nude figure., Take your micro
ope, you. cap trace the interlacinj
the muscles, and distinguinI
'ery separate hair in the eye
ows. Layard says, "I never rot
e inscriptions .it Nineveh withou
eotaclec, [hnyj arp b9. :piqu~t."
awlinson brought, from llinevoh El
scription on a stone, eight inohe
ng and ten inches wide. It is
eatise. on mathematics, f9ur thour
nd yers old, and one-third of th
mee aro ,iglsible without glas.s.
Well,,pot tihe queqtiqu pf pours
snbn up. f. t. cmannd see ,t bae.in
(thout, .a glas,' how did thme ma
ake them without one ? Who o
.u who has been in Italy and wa
own a onbinect.of puntiq'pte gumas tha
up nog furnishe~d with a naioroiscope
4tyou appreciate the delicacy c
e workanshalip? iHow was.
>ne ? Pliiny say thg they . use
heave and oeonteg lenses ; ad the
mip, jatok drgo.ai: object by puttin
globe of glass on it,; fild with wa
r. That is a microsco',e. Lay ar
ought from Ninmeveh a piece e
asas lpgge ps ,py bang, wiohl P
r*telt ptpptupsed .&,l nm ofia teht
ope. So thte telescope, Mr. Edwar
verett, instead of' keing three hut
~ed years old, has no brothers by
ej~vodoM f 14qsi'and they a:
ooably younger brothers.
Well, leaving glass, ist ' pass I
>lor. Perha a yjouwoul dnot appri
~(to the i't1 le of eel or is suoh a
vestigation unless your studies ha
in in that direction ; for y~ou kno,
flor *Jth tye is,simnply ortisu&mntis
~e paint a portrait ; we ornawer
roomf but Egypt used color~to peo
Fwriting history. She carved It o
one, ad she painted It on stucel
na her stutcco is a lest art. Buryi
i.,4 earth isloave it in $he atmo
here-r-i .n.evYqFcraoked, never stali
d, never pealed. It is as imnaorti
a the stone beneath it. Ilaving pra
ared thbe surface, Egypt paiutj
that alhe wantedl her ohildren tyg
'here Is a ship.yard--ships,,bui In
peors ,b11dlt. There Is a king gom
a walk,' 'l'hre Is a boy playim
ookey-for this game can be tract
>ack three thousand years. Thei
s a.nirria#,There is an Interi
vord-a chort of justree-evnni
rqegree,.t. y spfed permapent, o~
ra g,0tberwJ. a sgriy worna ntie
seo teo ; y.' ma, a
tm.e49,'k~ " ' otd ogs qlog
(tqweevo yppce of tbp
mo6r.t tat I everO ed, is ge
Lad that the hardest, color for us
nzalie whit., I the dost is inof f
with them. You know the great of
rott of Iainters is to discover a mixt
ure that won't fade. Page, of Now
York, our great port rait painter spent
twelve years in V enice to find out how
Titian mixed his paints. lie thinks
he bpsdi seovered it. .
Sir Joshiua Reynolds, of London,
in George the third's time, was ever
lastingly engaged in the same experi
ment ; and if you see in England to.
. ay a hindred portraits by Sir Joshua,
r at least two thirds of them will have
faded out, their lips sharp, one chook
left ; it was a bad mixture. Now, go
look to Iaphael. Ile has been in his
grave two hundred years. The first
thougeht. You Ie , in looking at op0e of
his canva-ses i , it can't have beenI
painted five ye.arz , that is fresh, that
is modern. nIItI he is only, a boy,
though lie has been dead three centu
ries ; for you may go down il.tto that
subterranean palace which Nero built
'noathi Rome to shelter him from its
-.e10t. Th banquett ilg hall is two
thirds as long.Ai this, and about as
high, and its fluted coiing is covered
all over with fanciful designs in pur
plo and crimson. It has been Iled
up with earth for hundreds of years
iud cleared out within this century,
but as the guide holds up the torehes
the colors of the rainbow actually
Ilamo down ; and yet St. Paul may
have looked up at that same roof. Or
you may go into the musenii, and
they will show you ft plee of stucco
twice as large as that clock desk. It
is the face of Cleopatra with whom
Julius Cpo3ar.fcll iin love ; and her
lips are as red as when ho laid the
world at her foot. There is tlo face
of an Egyptian princess with whom
Solomon might have talked.
That buried city of which I spoke
is a stucco city. All the walls are
covered with stucco. There is what
the Niblo calls Tyrian .purple. The
Tyrian purple of the old Testament
is what we call scarlet. You know
none, of. our words represont the .samo
color; thAt they.used th'm ltor. I.
deed, yotu may tot .be aware that the
present French theory ie that six hun
dred years ago, the Puropean eye
. could .not distinguish blue. It, ij
. still .ineertain whether a Roman
could distinguished Ilue, as we oill
It to-day. At any rate the ancient'
I walle of Pompeii have been covered
up sixteen hundred years, and a great
forest grew above the buried city
yet shovel away the ashes, and color
flashes out as fresh as the last silk
ftoi liyous. Sir Ilumtlrey DaV y
took some of it home to England,. and
spent three weeks trying to .analyze
- the color, and gave it up. I really
'think those old savages actually knew.
how to. mix painta Ia most as well as
- we do ! Indeed, Ruskin, the great
I authority on this topic, lecturing to
t an audiance of painter.i, twenty years
- 1g 1, pointing to a catholio mosaic paint
1 lig, on. mIirble, said : "\e. cannot
a make scarlet like that. and if wo could
. it would not last twonty years, and
- that is five hundred years old." But.
D more remarkable than that, color
which Nvas taken fron In Egyptian
tomb, where it had been buriod more
R tgytn 2000 years, was ground and
mixed in their Areseneo, and when
f spread upon the canvas exhibited all
s its original brilliancy. The 1rench- I
t itian says-I am the best dyer in theoI
, wold, .but take.him to the vale of1
f Casf'more where the girls make shawls
t, worth lfty. thpusand dollhars ech,
], and the threada are so fine and dlelieate.
a ly clored that the worthy soul not only
g cannot make them, but cannot distin:
-giih them. In lfre it issaid that
I a Jew wil.1 strango colors more liar
f moniously tlian theo best Italian. The
.st~ory is told of a picco of laoe that~
rprea4 upon the grass cannot beo soon
di if dew bas depobited after it was
e Take metals. 1'Te very first pages
tin Genesis reeall the triumph of nyan
or the tyae .M4etallurgy Ia the
.i fhpt soience nained in bi.atory.
oLtm me pause one moinent, ladies and~
.gentilemen, to make one remark.,You
n may think as I pass on ,thiat I am
1 claiming.a greetr deail. I want to
r makse,90sogeneral etatoment-and s~ny,
I. Isehollar, whose attoutin has bu00:1
tdircicped to )'t will ondorso it--on
lat~jiiag2.. Every mi jno~ws that to
a invent language is a greater intelleo,.
ai tuad effort than to invent a steamn-en.
>gine. The race~th~at invented Greek,
e themnost pert'ect of all languages, was
.m.ore than able to invent atearipboa,ts.
- Now, 8anorit, the,. language of a race
ii . that died out so long ago, that we ab.
..bolutely know nothing about the~m, is
dnext dloor in perfee.tness .to Greek,
. and it would be idle to supposethat
,a race that created Sancrit could not
g have invented a steamboat. They
g may not have invented it, but,
d but must have been capable of invent
e ileg at, because the intellect that
r gave the nice lines .of distkimip~$lng
a,' thought sin the langurage, qaust b1tje
.l, been fully equal to th' YankIee race
ii. of to-day.
ir But I *ag rpgaking of mdtals,
is When yoigo to40:# you will see
s, 'jq frbut /f eso') of theo 4a~thedrals a:{
av% t t's one stone
,o A e I-was qure
te three honiaan years ago. 'lhe atrne
; is so hkrd that the edges are still
to sharp. The inside of theo pgmIdo
e) are of the sameo, and the toemples at
it Paestum, a day's ride south of.JNa
pies, which were antiquities before
the Saviour was born. When lie was
born mankind had forgotten who
built them. They are built without
Iny oemn t. 'Th9 stones are lid one
ujPon another liko eabin't furniture
nicely fitted. Time has knocked on
1hose edges three thouu 'nd years, but
the btoe's are so hard, that ;t ipge
enough to say you couldn't get a pen,"
knife between thom-you could not
4et a ahent.of ppor botwop qtliese.
bo-.is Philippe proved the hardness
)f this stone when he came to the
hroio in 1831. He sent to Egypt
nd put one of these obelisks up on thq
1pot where Mario Antoinette was be
icaded. 1le ordered mechanies to make
.wo holes for holding tbe inaoription
.o be put upon it, statirt %% 1 y it was
here. We are told it jol six weeks,
in51 spoilt ton -etsi of chisels ; so hard
8 the stone. ow, these old oes j4
Rome seventy feet high are carved
he whole four sides up to the apex
vith hieroglyphics an inch deep. yod
,ould hide your fingers in the channets
Df the letters' and the letters are
.lose as the print on a Bible t41
iage, Champollion says they werq
ot made with stool ; they were
nado before steel was invented
-with btronzo. They could make
bronzo harder than we ,9an make
iteel. Indeed, they ooul'd mal0e
>ronze, what we can never make it
- elastic. Drop a bit of brone-it
aroaks. They made, their swor4
landes of brousq.; tlley vnedjt, i.
knife blades of bronze. JudoO i e
0holo treatment of metals in Asia
oads like a fairy tale. "Carleton,"
tho is.geing to stand ierend delivoe
ho nextleoture in this course, told
no that when he first went to Asia, he
'ound that his watch stopped in a
,oek. Opening it the steel works
gerQ all rustod,. 'he eptol of England
rould not bear the Asiatic climate,
'he London Medical and Surgical
Journal says to the surgeons for the
trmy in India, "Don't take your lan
3ets to Qaloutta until they are_ gild
3d." Now, yeu Bp .resa novels re
member 6115 Qld. Daipaspus,.blades of
thq gr sadera that fig ure ie all o
mnn and poetry-tpyineur rested.
We should have 60-oj4 4t?.ot, if they
did. Ty esp p p.erfeqt Zprysta,
o cop bandthern, you know, from
filt to poiut,without breaking.. They
had one at the Londop exhi.itioni in,
1850. You could put it into,.a acab
bard shapod like a cork-sorew and,
take it out again without breaking..
3ome men compared it to Win. H.
oeward. (Laughter.) This remark&.
blo .steel is slill the wonder of Europe.
Metallurgy is thp crowning glory of
Chemistry, and Europe claims to be
the great mtallist qf the world. The
soience of. Chemistryde,ip liranee and,
in Enjlgnd.. ,Bpt wvhgp, a London.
clropoweter-inaker itante the besb
oteel for his watch, he don't send,
down to Sheffield wbore.they know all
the science, btt he sen4s to the Pn
jab where they know only the arts..
Inside Christendom is all the Chomis
try ; outside chqmistry is 011 the steel.,
''he rAt potable. improvement in" thae
manufacture of steel in England, in
I p8, was qjade ..by.a. negro; and
when lie died, the secret died- with
him. The negroos Ip Central Africa.
showed the first Einglish travellers
there razors better than they carried.
tho, irrepresible negro I 8cience,
with all its laboring, failed to.
equal them in this art. The,. Englisli,
colonel in the I~ije ncarry his,
steel. .foa Englaridt He knew a.
lie can got a. bettor sabre bladq
made for liit by a pommon smith in
India than lhe can import from Eng
'he 1id 4 nl novo~lge. YIhvb , made
very much of tpsip perfeotion in the
manufacture of s,el. Byron Is full.
of it. Southey rpoujs $0 56..h, Even,
Moore dwells upon ;i4 Scott has it in
pqgnm ~pncnovel; Take Boott's Cru-'
saiders; Top ad the end of..the .pog 1l
89ott p~rings Richard the.3AgnHleat .
ad and Salad in, the Soldamar face to.
face, in a tent toggher. They talk,
about art. Blk WYaler'adesign is to,
picture the eagtern ad western :#Ivil-,
gatiorp, as developed. .Toward the end.
of.t the ,e.onvporaation,.. Saladin says
"Show mue the strength of1.wlioh yot
tell." Richard draws hissaible and
divides an Iron bar, an inch thick, at,
a blow. 8aladin looks at it and says,,
"I cannot de that ;". but tajting an,
eider-down pillow, from she. fioor, eo.
lighb f..hat it would not keep in shape,
ho draws his blade across it, eind it.
falls in two pieces. The English say;
---"this is black art ; this is usagie,
this Is the devil ; nobody e an
out where there is . no -resis'.
tanco." Saladin .undetatanigg tihe
doubt tegk#1 6, cshiers rC,.s
throdind14 fato th9.gir, draws his.
blade agross It, and opits I6 in pieqes.,
It was designed by 8o0tt to. lllutrawe
.tho Orentlsh . def,., but w.,
r'avo niot ton s4oj Vow tonake. :Ima
India, one will t e afh'andfi3 t.($ .
and thirpw Ibintyohe airs miad with I
steol eggo 69646 as It Sote.
Pe littlebqys were burled pdqr
oa ped tibe. others 4t deaC er
taken out.

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