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The Fairfield herald. (Winnsboro, S.C.) 1849-1876, November 22, 1871, Image 1

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Disportes& Williams, Proprietors.] A Family Paper, Devoted to Science Art, inquirv, Industry and Literature [Terms----$300 per Annum, In Advano
13 PU1niisi wE.Kl Yl y
DESP "ORITSICI & 11111.1A1M,
Terms.---Tnr. Uiw.Di timblib Weleks
in the Town or Winusborr, at C3.00 in
warr'i.nits advaynce.
MYi All tratsient alvert iements - to be
iill i dtvance.
Obitutary Notices and Tributcs $1.00 por
Speech oif Major T. W. Woulwardl bire
the Barnwell Agriculinrn 1 orirly.
Air. I'resident, Laies <wd Gen1ln'n
/* the Burnwell Ay ri'ult urlr an d ,
Alech an ica I&S c iell :
I am with you to-day by virtue of
an invitation from your Excut ive
Commtittev to address you. I con
csnted to accept the courtesy so com,
ilimentally extended only after so
rious coiflict,with my, ibetter judg
ment. lor if I do know anything, it
is myself, and I ant as well aware as
the gent'emon upon that Coimmittee,
that spchdi m:kitg is io fort. of mine'.
Still, I was born al reared 1uder
that Ill tt;11oul Of (,:Lolina which I
yet love anld honuor, that taught Im,
that the polito intvit:tiolt of gentle
men i'were not to be disregardled ; and
1 knew I hat if 1 failed to iteet your ex
PeeCtatit)ons, upon tde stoulders of ur
Co immittee wouil rest the resliolliii
lity, for having allowed courtesy to
ovorride jtdgmtteit, in the selectionl of
an orator. -It is iii this spit it, then,
that I have coillo (o you, witih io ef
fort at an elaborate Csy;: %, but witI a
few agriettureal ideas, suggtd il lby
things seen upon mfly -mn plalita.ion,
and in the neighborhood int which I
resido. Beintg throwi together rudely
and without reference to continutity
of thouight., I havo enititleI 'them,
Scattering Thoughts by . a Rtandom
Farmer, and have little doubt but
that before I am done, I shall have
thoroughly convinced you of the pc
culiar'appropriateneis of the appella
The most conspicuous objects upon
mny plantation and it my necigh
burhood are fields of parched corn and
wilted cotton, the result of the uiil)r.
cedented drought throughi hich %mv'
have just pa.sed.
The subject of drought very natur
ally suggests the consideration of
thre A things. Its catses, the guard
ing agailnst its eff'eCts, andl the inipr
tation of breadt uf'l necessary to
supply deficiency caused by it..
Various caues are amsigned for
those certainly more frequeitly oc
curring long dry spells that Consume
our crops. For it is a fact thatt ma*
terial changes have taken place in our
seasons since the war. You must have
notod an inclination uphn the part of
Fi'all to incroach upon Winter, indi
cated by the fine weather and the late
frosts that have been with us during
the cot-ton picking months for two
years past ; whilt Winter reluctantly
releases his icy hold upon Spring,
and Im 00ilSCn tteince the planting month
of March is usually colder than Feb
ruary, It was the custom of our
fathers to plart corn in February, and
there was ittle corn imported in those
I Iavo no doubt but that the dry
ness of our Summier is duo to that
wanton destrutction of forest., whtich
hase been tIhe accompanying evil ge
nius of the Southern p)lnter hcreto
fore, wvhose whole system of agricul
ture was embraced in thbe one idea,
wvear out nty fields and1( clear more
fresh lands. Who ever heard of- en
tire crops beinig consumed by drought
ill thte eatlier history of the agricul
Lure of thte South T befotre our beauti,
fuli wood.s had been felled to marke
way for that hard miaster, ''king cot
There is no fact bietter authlenticat
ed thanm the ono that in countries dles
titute of forests, there is little or no
rain, whilst in timbered sectiotns they
are of frequent occurrenlce. Antd if
it were necessary I could prove that
the fall of water is evein imn preportion
to the extent of wvoods and densaity of
foliage. I could go furthor and shtow
that rain has been suiperintouced by
the planting of a limited . number of
trees. Amidst the billy sections of
my own District thtere are seome mark
ed illustrations' of thto above.
Little ltiv'er, a streatim once navi
gable for cotton boats as far a1s Kin.
(laid's bridlge has bteen rende red iuse
less for purpoes of nav ip:tion solely
by tile cloat ing up of thIe wo ods utpont
the streatmlets that fed it. Whilst,
thoe tchools of shad, stod~ trout, red
horse and perch, of whtich tho oler
scttler.4 delight so -mutich to talk, htave
been ban iished from its waters hv the
clay al and m that have been swpt
fromt surronin ig hiills. Upon thie
An:v il ltock plaittat ion that, joints
ine, thI.rc is a marked illbist rationi of
tho agency'- of woods in re-establ ish -
ing the volumnsil of streams. Up
On thtis plaeo is a small ocreek upon
whlich I have fished and hunted for 20
years. I have co)nsegnontly had Ops
portunity for observing tho diminu.
tion of its waters as thle lands were
clearedl ouot its sources,. and have
witnicese the acoumunmlating v'olumte,
lnnd the clearing process of its wators,
sineo the lands hiavo been tued out
andl have grown in pinesu. Why not10
then make it a matter of lecialation
beforO our countiy is made a barren
waste 7 Require a farimer to plant
acornis, or pine mast, or better still,
the reed of tho China tree, so thrifty
and enriching upon lands that he
has turned out. This would at least
meet the wants of the next genera
tion for fire wood.
To devise means for guarding
trailist the effects, o" drought has
beci, perhalps, the subject of more
agricultural thought than has becen
cx l.nded llol itNy oth er topic of
plantation econotiy. And the com
bined wisdom of the country seems
to have resolved into the adoption of
the pIIacea, deep 'ploughiug. Well
now gentlemen at the riAk of being
regarded a f'gy; a ii-in of fossil
idess, who would go to market with a
pumpkin in one'end of his wallet and
:t rock in the other because it was
d/f's custom ; I mubt be allowed
;o say that I have this year seen
eupugh to convince me that it* is not
only not a panacea, but I do believe
that uider two contingencies it were
better to have had recouree to our
own miserable nystem of surface
The one is whore we have long wet
<pe!1., endit g with those tropical tor
rlnts that so often deluge our fields.
iweepinrig off the looe i. loughed soil
and leaving - those frightful gullies
that are only arrested by the hard, clay
below. Tho deeper you plough here,
the deeper the washes that aro left.
The other is where drought 'is .pro
traced beyond the usual duration of
such spells, as was this year. It is
claimed by advocates of deep plow
ing that the ralo are enabled to de.
seid into the earth ; that the roots
can lenetrate farther, tikat moisture
is biought up during dry seasons.
I grant these proporsitions, and
offer the fol'owing facts from observa
Lion of rains that fell during the two
years in which I was engaged in the
experimnent, in substantiation of its
merits. Which is this, that not more
thnn one rain in twenty was sufficient
.o saturate a soil that was deeply
ploughed and then have a surplus
for washing purposes, provided
they came at proper intervals;
for it is not argu.d that by this sys.
(cm you have advantages amounting
to ninieteen to one, for purposes of
vegetation over him of the shallow
plowing. Uut your advantagerand it
is an in18ense one, consists in the ab
sorption of all thuee rains that would
w-herwise saturate and wash your
fields where the plowing was shallow.
Unlces, however, these rains fell at.
proper 'ntervals and not periodically,
therchy interposing droughts of long
durati 'n, I see ino advantages from
deep 1 lowing to the crop proper.
For every one before ine knows that
if a ho!y of earth or anything else
containitig moisture be stirred or pul
verised, the moisture is of course the
more readily taken up by evaporation
and borno beyond the reach of roots.
In fact, there is no quicker nor no
more philosophical mode of drying a
piece of land whoso soil is tenacious
of surface water than by deep plowing,
involving as it does this identical idea
of bringing the entire soil and sub
soil in contact with the air. The idea
is then advanced thit if absorption is
promnote.d ovaporat ion is perfected,
and the advantage of bringing up
moisture from below, whilst it .would
sustain for a whiile the plant, must in
case of long drought the more
readily dry the earth.
I am at present cutting a ditch in a
b~ottom near may house, through which
there usually flows a small stream.-.
The spring at tihe head of the hollow
has never failed to supply water for
my bathing htouse, and yct -within a
dlist anee of less than three hand red
yards De'low and in the bottom of the
ditch, three feet below the usual bed
of the branch, 1 found the clay
cracked by the drought, and only to
be removed by the pick. Think you
that deep plowing could in any way
have contributed to bring up mois
ture here ? Again, my surprise was
excited by seeing dust three foot be
low the sufaoo whilst digging for a
fox on a north hillwsido where the sun
had not shown for months. What man.
noe Qf .plow would you have brought
into requjaition sto~ have gotten up
mioisturo here ? I have even been un
able to get'np a supply of drinking
water from aL well that has heretofore
afforded an ample stufliciency for all
purpotes notwithstanding there is a
good pump11 in it.
D leep plowing has its advantages,
espeviatlly upon the stillf clay lands of
niortherni or wvesterni farmers. It is
overrated on tihe cotton lands of thle
south, and accompanied by a turning
over of tho surface, has under my own
oye rined somec of tile h)ost grey
cot ton lands in tihe state. Did any of
you ever see aL cotton tap root that
had failed to penetrate to its utmost
length even in the hardest clay sub
soil to be found under any of our
lanids? I never have. I have seen
positive advantages to tihe young plant
by havin g had unibroken ground im.
medtiately undler roots. Deep p low
ing is then Dot a cure all,
I helieve that a remdoy for drought
will oe lon g be found in the discov
ery of our ability to make it rain
whenever nteeded for purposes of
vegetation. The Pasha of Egypt
has prod ucid rains upon the
lower Nile by the planting of
trees, where it was almost unknown
biforo. And we all know that in
the army wo looked for rain after
I cavy fighting and if there was inucli
marching to 1)o done wore generally
not disappointed in our expectations.
L.-.rgo conflagrations are looked uon
as infallible causes of rain. I h'ave
never witnessed sech torrents of water
as deltuged the country immediately
after ti buriiing of Columbia by tie
'rchel Gencral Wade Ilhmipt on, a fact
that I was not awaro of till I reeestly
read Shernian and his campaigns."
These facts conbi~hed must prove
to an utinbiased mind that tI thing
after all is not so impossible. And
certainly no more important discovery
could enlist the patronage of the
general government or engage. the
energies of the soientifle citizen.
Any farmer who has studied the
weather during the past summer has
beeni impresbed with three unuUl gl4e.
nomona besides scareity of rain. First.
An unusually 'longo proportion of
cloudy wenther;-denso waterylooking
clouds obscui ing the sky for weeks
at a time, and yet not rain enough to
wet a handkerchief. Second, An al
most eitire absenco of lightining and
.thunder. 'I hird. The sarecity of
heavy dues. The absence of dews
attributable more to the inllnenco of
the eloudy night, than to a want of
moistures in the atmosphere.
Wo then have the absence of light
ning and thundkr -'..;. which to tic
count for tihe deficiency of rain.
\Vhich is to say that there was want
ing either that electrical condition of
the clouds required for the condonsa
tion of the vapor or the concussion
of the lightning necessary to shake
out the water. If it were the former,
electricity might hale beep'supplied
by wires from the earth, taken up
in balloons. If the latter, a barrel
of nitro glycerine or gunpowder car
ried up by tihe same means and explo
ded by fuses or otherwise at the mo
ment of entering the 'louds would, it
sens to nie have produced concussion
enough to have shaken out all the wa
ter in that neighborhood.
Whether I have accounted for the
cause of drought, or whether nit ro-gly
crine is to be preferred to deep plow.
ing as a remedy, you are at liberty to
judge for yourselves. One thing I am
sure of. Tho evil effects of it are upon
us in full force and must be met.
The past season . has added effect to
that connon phaee old saying that
we have heard from our boyhood,
that the earliest corn is always the
heaviest, and has convinced ime that
with proper diligence at planting t ine
and with a sied maturing earlier, we
can raise enough for all purposes even
with the usual drought. Had we
planted see-I that would have matur
ed three weeks earlier even this year,
there is no doubt but that the State
would have made 2,000,000 bushels
that must now be imported and paid
for from the proceeds of a scanty cot
ton c op.
I dare say fejw of you are aware of
the immense amoun ts of corn impor.
ted even of ordinary years. I had o
Casion to lhunt up the statistics of Ilmy
own District for the year ending 12th
July 1870 and was startled to find
that we failed to make our bread by
134,544 bushels of corn and by 16000
sacks flour. W hilst it required 1034
hhds. bacon to grease the throats of
our hungry negroes and 3931 bales,
of North Carolina broom straw to keep
alive the miserable skeletons improp
.orly classed as horses and mules. All
this after we had purchased $03,300
worth of commercial m'anures wit~h
which to enrich our lands. Fairtield
is considered one of the good farming
D)istriets of the State,. and I mighnt
argue that what is true of her is true
of the whole, with the exception of a
very few. But 1 will compute that
the 29 Districts only import half as
much. (T1here were 29 formerly,
I'm not posted in the nmodern geography
of the State). We will then have
the statement 29 Coun ties--County,
as applioablo to Dr.8Seotte domain.
Far as Districts, "poe .and plenty
cheered the laboring swain,tu enty ni
Counties then, importing 67272 bush
els of corn will give us 1,950,888,
bushels for the State. An amount,
that can easily be raised at 11kuledy
planting less cotton, whilst the in
crease of price consequent upon the
diminished area in cotton would of
itself pay even if it was not assigneud
to corn.
I will hero bring to your notice an
experiment with corn which I intend
to try next year, andl which haus al
ready servedl mne most advantageously.
Corn was selling at $2.00) and the no
groes had stolen the larger half of a
miserable little serop of (nubbins that
had made its way into the world
despite the impediments of bad sea
sons and worse cultivation and foresee
ing the contingency of having to buy
cern with little money to spare, I wrote
to a frienid in Baltimore (J. I. Mid
dleton, who by dhe by is a chip from
our own old Palmetto log) to send mc
the hest corn usually planted in Mary.
land. lie sent me a beautiful yellow
corn, the purest grain that I have ever
seen. This was planted at the usual
time and early in August furnished
me with bread for my people, and with
corn for my stock. You can get
a white seed that will do au well.
The stalks were small and the canr
were small, but the yield per acre wa
good, and I have never seen a oundet
or more compact ear than was raisod
thero was not a rotten grain to be seer
in a bushel, It is ily opinion that
with this weed imported yearly, for it
d.-genorates quickly in our elimato,
we may not on1ly umeet the deficiency
for the next year, but for the future
havo our crop so far matured, a- to be
out of reach of Julv and Aigust
droughts. If ygu arec unwilling to
risk your whole crop try a half or third
recollecting that with the same eed
they make from 25 to 75 buhels-it
mnubt be planted closer than' our own
seed. On good land 4x2, usually
5x3. You of courso understand the
advantages of wieat and .especially of
oats. Soon early in the Falliand upon
good lahd. I.
The dilapitdaded condition of
fences has conspiouously met my
obigptiou psd olaimed..no smal
portion of my deriosus agricultural
thoughts. To me, they are typical of
the t.)ttering con iion of -.ur eduntry,
and stand as mournfiul wittiesqes that
our labor is ruined and our energies
paralysed. Still the emergeney ii
us aInd must be mIet. Ilw it is
to be done, ii a ( uestion of A ital im
pnrtance to t-:. A recenit writer esti
mates that the fencing of the United
State:; has cost more than the building
of its citie., towns and private resi
dences, and yet we go on with no ef.
fort to curtail this enormons expcdi,
tures that could certainly be mn itiga
ted in a largo maisure, by an equita.
ble set of fence lawo. The phan of
requiring part ies to inciose their stock
has met with approbation in many
parts of the country. This idea of
iiielrsing stock ii.volves imay other
considerations besides that of Laving
fencing. Require a farmer to prevent
his stock from depredating upon the
public and he at once reduces the
number, and looks about him for the
beat breeds, knowing that one good
cow, well attended to, is worth a half
dozen tcalawags. I mesv' the literal
scalawag (for I wouldn't gve one good
cow for all the figurative scoundrels in
the State). The English dairymen
consideis himself compensated een"Ia
for the btabbling of cattle by the in
creased amount and superior quality
of the manure accumulated. A plan
worthy ofconsideration in these days
of high priced phosphates, and one
that involves the idea of being paid for
wintering cattle and having the milk
and butter thrown in. It seems to
ie that considcrations of this kind
coupled with the fact that to keep up
our fences wo must persevere in the
destraction of our forests should make
us seriously look about us for a,reme
Another matter of serious import
to the agricultural future of our
State is the fact that a conisilerable
portion of the lands have passed uI,
der the supervision of the negroc by
means of that grand stealing machine
the Land Commission ; but mainly
through the yielding of the farmers
themselves to the exactions of labor
conventions and to the iandatee of
Union Longues.- Many ills have
come upon us that we were unable to
avert. In other instances we have not
guarded our interests as jealously as
we should. .People who contribuite to
their own degredat ion, ineed expect. no
amelioration of their conditiou. Wec
should rememliber that agriculture is
a science ; in fact the sciene of
sciences. For it is developed am idst
the intricate analyses of thu chemis>
and based upon01 the immutable laws ol
the physiologist ; whilst entomology,
botany, mechanics, and somic of the
greateat truths of political econonmy
combine to make it worthy of the
years of toil and1( of the volumes o1
brains expended in bringing it to its
present imperfect state, What then is
to be the fate of this noble occupation,
employing seven-eights of the labor of
the world, and furnishing bread for
the bodies of hungry humianity every
where if it is to be consigned to these
savage bands. Look at the destrue
tion.of your noble old inatitution3 01
learning, at theoabrogaition of many
of .your most important . laws, at
the ruslevnd prjpitivp 1qo4 us~ed, and
our roads, and answer for yourselves.
Without, any objection to the negrc
owning hand, provided lie caime by it
honeatly, andi as white men comes b
theirs, and not th~ough the inachi
inationsi of the hog rogues who sit ii
our Stateo llouse and1 t ax me to pay
for it, I yet. icgard it as the highest
duty of the agiculturist to koep coui
trol of his lands, ignoring coparit
nerships, contracts and rental syston:
that curse us. They must result it
loss in miost inIstanmce' and( in the ut
ter ruination of your hands. BRaide
it is impossible to attain a systemat
ie arnd a paying plan of agriculturt
until labor liko other conniioditios
has settled itself withjn proper howt d
that must be known' to enable us
make delinuito calenlations. 'Ther<
is another reason foir retaining contro
of our lands., Tfhe.popsessors .of.th<
soills~ve invariably ruled the corn
men wealth eventually, despite thb
impediments of adverse logislatio1
and the combinationi of capitalistt
And so it will be hecre, 'f we ea
manage to pay taxes yet a little lon;
In this connection I would like tc
digress so far As to say that my pe.)
ple, the moet law abiding in the State
are loady to say that lnt 0 more taxe:
are to b0 wilng from then by vile
rulers who ujuander their substance
for purpoSex of personal nggran
dizement. Looking to remedies from
an agricultural stand point, I advo.
Cato a more divoi-itied sYtoit of
planting and a more general inclina
tion for expeimnilt.. A pooplo are
always 1rero prosperous who inost
diveraify their pursuits.
Plant largely of grain (rops and
xperlimuent, thoroughly with the roots
and grasseq. Recolleet. that nu aere.in
sweet potatoes i4 ealpabille of making
more t han three times as inuch food
for man and beast than can be bought
with the proceeds (if your moist luxq
iiant acro of cotton. Curtail your
ootton area for many reasons. Cot.
ton lands are more liable to wash
than any other boop.6o" it requires
cleaner etitivition-aid tho'ro- is le-ss
of weeds and grass to hold the soil
and impodo tie floods. Tho cotton
plaiter is more at the mercy of our
deiioralizvd laborer, because of tho
intricate and long continumed culture
necossary for developing the plit.
W lilst lie id albsolut-oly bchol'ling to
himi for the picking ont of tle crop.
Tlio graiui producer has ii:s gang
Iows, his Istumip rillels, hi grain
drills and guano d istributors, Ii i.
reapers mid portable threshing mua
chines. Tle grass grower has his
mower, his horsoerake and tedder with
which ono man is an agricultural
hoA within himself. But 110 ru,h
advantages appertain to cotton plamit
Ing. With all the boasted improve
mnits in agriouitural machinery, and
amidst, innumerablo patents issued
monthly, there are really but one or
two cotton machines of aliy merit that
I know of, and these aro of a kind
less necessary than any others that
are needed. I aludo to seed sowers
and guaio distributors. This work
can be done by hands necessary for
the after culture of tile crop and who
at this season wmuld searcely e-rrn
their bread at anything else. Be.
bides what would it amount to if we
had machinery that enabled us to
cultivato an milimited amount of
area ? [low would we gather it I
You all know that thrco .bales per
hand is now good picking for your law
making laborer. And here is a sari.
ous impedimnent in the way of large
crops ; and unless we can have what
has so far baffled the imeclaniial in
genuity of the world-a cotton picker,
muust so lo.ng as the present regimo
remains, prevent us from making
largo crops only as has been done, at
tl.u expense of corn, u heat, oatS, and
bacon. Nor am I one of tho'e who
think large crops are best for us.
Ixperictioe has already demomtrated
that we clear most money on short
ones. It istnot our business to clothe
the world, but to do as the world
does, look to our precuniary advan
tage. Wily necd we care whether
they havo cotton shirts around those
cold beaits thit made thoni stand by
carefully counting dollars and ceits,
while the South, the custodian of tho
gentilities of the world, was bein'r
stabbed at by the Coinmmunists of the
North. Well gentlemen, I have seen
enough to convince mie and I think I
have related enough to sati.fy you,
that we are not in a prosperous conidi
tion. Why is it that we are not buoy
ant and happy as in the days of old 1
An agricultural people abould be,
anti usually are, the most periim-mently
prosperous and thio most joyously
happy of the nations of the earth.
Is it because of the wanning fertili-y
of your soi! 1 Your newly disooredl
phosphate beds and imiprovedl plans
for making arnd mitilIising t he compost
heaps, should have met this. Is it
because of your changing seasons ?
In all parts of the world are to be
-1 seen happy agriculturists, whoswe
seasoils are inore unpropitious amnd
whose soil responids less pr~om1ptly to
the coax ings of tihe laborer. Is it be..
cause the eflicieney of your laborer
hs beetn destroyed by the proclama
tion of A brahami Lincoln ? who, laok
inig the patriotism that should have
made him decline an oflico to which
he was celled by a minority, and true
Sto the usaotlatingiTttinets drtho-bei
ty that eleted him i, consideredi
more profitable to pocket the presi.
dential salary, though it might cost
.thle .-oo-tch t housands of mnillions ii
money anid the whole country its 1ib
erties. I see no reason why thh
I hIouldl elog us at this late day. Tlh
world from timo immemorial has sub.
stedi by free labor ; why cannot w(
of the Saouth do the same. This lat.
ter, whilst it mnu.-t of necessity lhavV
c'ontribuited largely to our temnporary
dIis.-onfmiie, shioulId long ago havt
beci comipenesited for by theonergy and
a daptabjibty thiat have so prcomniinent
ly chiaracteris'd our people since the
Ftor uipen all hands are to be seem
mna borni with silver spoons in thei:
I months, and reared in tho lap o
>luxury who have gone to work witl
a vim oftly to be equalled by th<
a common da yl aborer, whilst all fano,
a ideas of labor not being hionorabl
.have vanished with the necessity fo
n taking hold (if tho plow.
-Why is it then, that succo~s ha
not crowned thlese well direntend ca
forts? Why is it that we are still
poor and despondent and that your
agricnlturo languishes I
It is beeauso we aro tyranized over
by strangers and aliens, who not only
do not sympathize with the agrielitu
r'st, but whose every effort has been
diieted to the impeding of hiis pro
gress and the secininr building up of
the negro that they imight. the more
easily addle his wooly head and theim.
solves pocket the plunder. It is because
they have soiled the robes of your
oflices and perverted the forms (if
your laws, until honest men can take
no interest in them, for they were on
acted solely for the purpose of plunder
iig. It is becauso the brains of your
uountry have been legislated into the
back ground that they might trample
upon the honorable usages and oblit.
erate the genteel sentiments of a
people, to whose high standard they
found it impossible to elevate their
o*n miserable inorconary.nature,. It
is beon'ie'your laborer has been edu
cated to look upon you with suspicion,
that they might monopolise his votes
and sorviovs. It is because he has been
taught to regard service under the
hviiito ngriculturalist a.; a new form
Of slavery ; that all your efforts to
save him from that destruction that
awaits his race under the tutelage of
the carpet bagger were efforts to re
mard hint to his forner condition.
These are a few of the lead ing dif
ficulties encountered by Soithern og
riculturalists, and whether thy si
vor, polities or not, are rths ud d
truths and must not he overlookel inl
our efforts for tle bettering of lie
resources of our conitry.
That the perfection of the a rts and
sciences of people is dependent upon
the good or evil influences of their
rulers, is as t.'-uo as the favi. that the
Romans attained a high degre' of per
footion under the patroniziiig Augu.
tus only to see their glories depart.
under Tiberius his successor. 4m
speaking of whose reign TI tler as
though he had special refereice to
these days of ours, says :"-lo became
negligent of the cares of Government.
That confusion prevailed in every
department of State. That the mag
istracies were unsupplied, "and that
the Roman name became contempti.
Futile then are your efforts at
deep plowing ind manuring. Worth.
lers your theories about rotations of
crops. A nd rid1iculous agriciutunral
.eirmons for the reformation of your
laborer, whilst these fa' I misguided
men lord it over tui.
Let them go henee, aid allow thei
intellect, the experience and syipa
thy of the S-theuirn agriciiIuuaIito
again direct the labor and fashi e; tho
morals of the docile neg ro. Allow
him to realiz.e what. lie is lo-ginning to
do though slowly, that the former
slave owners of the South are the
only frinids of his ra te. .teestablish
the coifideiico bie once had in you and
bring about that reciproeity of
good feeling that eists in all parts of
the world between the humane nater
and his hirelings. And by a whole
cone set of laws restrain his dispesi
tion to kill stock anld depredate upon
lie crops in hi neighborbhol-tnehi
ing him as well as m.any of your own
color, that it is .more honorable to
w alk between thle plow hiandlIes than
to aspire to olies they are incapa
le of tilling.
I). this, and you will make him even
as a freed man whiat lie was oncec, a
useful member of societ~y andl t he finest
CO1 ton labiorer in the world.
It is then necessary that you dis
charge the grooims miaipu~tlat ing at
the Augcean stables ina Columibia II is
tory affords numerous exanmpjles where
men who hatve been guiIt y of fewer
villianies and who have perpietra\ted
lesser ouitrages upon eivil izat ion hiav e
met justice upon the gibbet at the hianid
ofan outragedl people. Jnhor for thik,
as dilligently as you are striving to
c on vioe the Northern people of false
ty of eharges against your loyalty, by
contemptible represen tatives at NaV nl
ington and by lieing papers at home
and yotu will accomplish it. Then
will the inoubus that hangs heavily
about the neOks of your men of enter
p~rs be0 removed, andi~ the shackles be
a riekon from the hands of your ogri
btilturalists. Thou will our fichh~ whi
ten with cotton, our grun'aries be filled
with corn and oats, our smoke house's
d rip with greasy bacon of our~ own ralis,
ing. Our negroes theta-el vos more hap.
py amid prosperous, rejoice in the accu
mulating subst ance of their pat rona
Then an/ omi/y tin will our men,
conscious that truth and honor again
prevail-put thieir- shoulders vigo'
rously to the wheecls of the car al
Goveient and l ift it from ?1he mi re
in which it has ,cttled. Theni and
only then will eur women, the
purest, the noblest, thio-pretticat speci
mons of God's hanidiwork-.-haipp)
that thieves and harlots can rno loingei
elaim Aeoial recognitIon at yomur E.c
eitivo Mansion, put off their veils 0o
humiliation and withl smnilon, greet re
'turning peace.
As a remedy for ouir $lnancial
troubles, the (Charleston Courier ad
vises repudiation of all the bonds frau
r dulenotly issued,
Thle Now. adlvisou thme wtiedin
s of the taxes t.y the peo-plo iti ii
- proper exlmhii of our financedra~tide
Th Patn III tihe African Church at
Those who desired the prayors of
t0e church were invited to come for
ward. Just then a sound as of a
body falling to the floor was heard,
followed by a crashing, oraokling
8 17nd, and a man who sat near the
pulpit jumped from his seat, and uaid
the floor was sjihing, and rushed for
the door. The cry was taken up by
others and changed to.
In an intant the entire congrega.
tion was panic stricken, and then a
torrible and deadly rush was made
for the door. The stairways wore
S01 blocked, and the narrow, fatal
doorway was filled by the frenzied
and struggling crowd. Men, eager to
escapo from they knew not what, be
gan to jostle and pull at each other,
and soie, in their eagerness to escapo
becamo angry at what to them boomed
th snail-like efforts of the fleeing ones,
ndi a fight sprung up just in the door
and this for an instant checked the
crowd and proved the death-knolli of
eleven persons, and the wounding of
Noventy-five or one hundred others.
The gorge caused by the light at door.
way renidred the crowd behind more
frantic, anu'ithese stumbled and jump
ed over the partitions at the heads of
those below, and the wcuker were
beneath the heels and bodies of the
stronger. WoInenjand children, and
oven strong men, shouted and scream
ed in agony, and a scene of terror and
confusion and death, utterly inde.
scribable, ensued.
The pastor tried in vain to quell
the panie, and lined out the hymn
1nd began singing, and was joined by
some who remained close to the pul
pit, atnd seeing no apparent change,
and failing to understand the cause
of the fright, had remained in their
plaesi. But the elffrts of the pastor
were of no avail. No human efforts
could stay the frightened crowd.
The stairway a were soon a strug .
gling mass of human buings. Tho
benches were broken to fragments,
aIld tihe strong doors and woodem
partitions at the bottom wore broken
as though they had been glass.
Finding the stairways b!ocked, tho
crowd rushed to the windows and
broke the glass with their naked
hinds and tore out the s'nshes. On
the Voith side of the Church the la
horatory of Dr. J. P. Irnum ad
joins the windows, which are about
fifteen or twenty feet from the ground
and fully one hundred persons saved
themselves by jumping upon the roof.
Many jumped the entire distanco to
the ground, but, strange to say, none
of them were seriously injured.
)r. 1Barnum and his clerk, Mr.
Thoinas aFountain, rushed into tho
yard, and found
Ti)oonWAY 'i'M.ED Ul- win llUDLi,
eight or ten deep, and a mass of
crushed and struggling humain beings
lying in front of the door. Policemen
Mmlow and Martin wern n mr by and
soon cate to tho spot. and all on.
deavored to separnto the crowd, but
without effect. A messenger wa dis-,
patch to the engine-house for assist
anec, but the meossage was misunder.
stood, and anr alarm of tire was turned
in, and soon the engines cnme rushning
t~o tihe scene, followed by the eager
crowdl which usually attend fires. Of
ooursc this but added to the gencral
con fusion, and a scene of terrible ex
eit emnent en1.,ued.
Tlhne hook and laddler company, how
ever, soonl threw their ladders up to
the front window.s, and the frantic
pecople were passed down the ladders.
Tlhc pile of disabled bodies was ro
mloved from in front of the the door
Immd thle deaid and dyinug wore (disen
tamngledi from the fatal vestibule.
Thirea or tour dead and wounded
were found outside the dooer. They
hamd esceaped from the building only
jto he trampled anid smothered to death
outside. TJhose who had oscaped un
hurt were frienzied in their efforts to
return. Th'lis one wished to reseoo
a chjIbl. another a wife, another a
husband and another a sister or broth
or. The onger, curious crowd also
pre-sed andi crowded andl squeesed
around the doorway', anud It required
all the e1dertrof the pol~leo, and' a few
hum Ane, self-possessned gentlemen to
keep themi off.
Finally tihe mass was disentangled,
and it was found that
outright, three badly wounded, and
seventy-five or one hundredI ulightly
injured. ..
We have hieard of strange reasons
fo.r suicideC, buit that assigned by a
younig mian who destroed~ himsielf the
other (lay at iCarlisle hasm perhaps
hardly been Qmurpalsed for eccentriel
ty. Tlhnis rash person dlrowned him,
self, and, prior to takiog the talin
piluoge, he panid a messenger to take
alotter forn him to the nearest pvlice of.
f iie,10 Win resolve dthat the wer14
shouild know the reouson for hibset,
antd duly set it forth in ihn letter,
This was to thne effect thgat MJr, Dar
-Winl havinig rorvo4 men to be deioend
od from mronkeyu, tme Wrier did nov
destire to live lny jnger.
TIha .icgo aufferer" ~A bo

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