Newspaper Page Text
For the Yorkville Enquirer.
PUBLIC MEETING. A large concourse of the citizens of York District, having met in the Court House to pay their tribute of respect to the memory of the late Col. I. D. Witherspoon, on motion of Maj. A. A. McKenzif, John 8. Moore, Esq , was called to the Chair, andJNO. L. Miller, Esq., was requested to act as Secretary. The object of the meeting being stated, the venerable Joseph Adams submitted the following preamble and resolutions : Whereas, God in His Providence has removed from our midst by death, Col. Isaac Donnom Witherspoon, who, for more than thirty years, had been a prominent citizen of this District, aDd a leading member of the York Bar. and for twentv years a Represen w ' - / a tative of York District in the Legislature? serving four years iu the House and sixteen in the Senate. And whereas he fulfilled the duties and discharged the responsibilities of all these relations with marked ability and entire acceptance, it is eminently fitting that his fellow citizens and old constituents, should render a tribute to his memory expressive of their high appreciation of his exalted worth and distinguished usefulness; therefore Resolved, 1st. That whilst we would bow with submission to this dispensation of an Allwise, Holy, and Sovereign God, we mjret acknowledge, that we tuourn in the death of Mr. Witherspoon, the loss of a man of sterling integrity, an eminently useful citizen?whose heart stood wide open to the claims of the distressed, and whose band was ever as ready as it was able, to minister to the wants ot the poor?we mourn the loss of an honest, judicious, and able Lawyer?a most devoted and efficient Representative, who throughout his long career of public servioe, never neglected a duty, howovor Alight, and seldom failed to acconmlish by bis perseverance and ability, whatever was practicable for the interest of his District and State, and who never did anything to which bis constituents were disposed to take substantial exceptions. Resolved, 2d. That we tender to the family of the deceased, our heartfelt sympathy in their very sore bereavement, and pray that God would verify his gracious promise to them, and be the Husband of the widow and the Father of her Fatherless children. Resolved, 3d. That in further testimony of our profound regard for the deceased, we ( request his family to consent to the removal | of his remains from Virginia to some grave , yard in this District, and that a committee of five be appointed to accompany the same from their present to their final resting place. Resolved, 4th. That a copy of the proceedings of this meeting be published in the papers of Yorkville, and that the Secretary be directed to furnish a copy of the preamble and resolutions to the family of the de ceased. The Rev. J. Monroe Anderson, who for several years was associated with Mr. Witherspoon, first as a student of Law and afterwards as a copartner, seconded the res- ( olntions in a feeling and eloquent address, beautifully portraying the character, eminent J virtues, and distinguished public usefulness of the deceased. The following is the ad- , dress: Mr. Chairman and Fellow Citizens:? I would most heartily second the resolutions which have just been submitted, expressive as they are, at once of the high esteem in which the late Col. Isaac Donnom With erspoon was held by the people of York District, and also of their profound sympa- 1 thy with the family of the deceased in their ' irreparable loss. It is to my mind an exceedingly interesting fact, that one, who knew Mr. Withers^oon , thoroughly throughout the whole course of < his active life; wbo had been bound to him by the ties of the most intimate personal friendship, as well as those of political associy tions and church relations; a man venerable ' alike for his personal worth, his active use- ( fulness and his years?one of the oldest citi- 1 zen< of our District and the father of this 1 Town, should have been called to preside ' over this meeting. And I know none so ' eminently fitting to have offered these reso- ' lutions, as my venerable friend, the mover. 1 But I see also, many aged, substantial citi- ' zens around me, wbo have here met, almost ' spontaneously, to testify their appreciation of the exalted truth and eminent usefulness c of their long-tried and faithful friend, counsellor and representative, I. D. Wither spoon. This fact speaks volumes. It shows , that his popularity was not the result of sudden enthusiasm, and hence doubtful or ephemeral, but that it was founded in the ( knowledge and the experience of a long career of active service, which illustrated the virtue and the ability of the man, opening , up to view a sound and vigorous intellect, , and a heart overflowing with the kindest, ( noblest and most generous impulses. , It has often been asserted, and with the < onfKnrifw tnn nf ft nrnvArh. that. Ronnhlirs arA , m uvuvi *vjr wvw v? w v.v ungrateful. This may be true of thos^fit- < ful, wild and heathenish Democracies of- < ancient time, but I deny the justice of such an imputation against the American people. And I would challengo the proof. It is admitted, that for a season, and it may be for good reasons, the claims of eminent usefulness may be overlooked and even apparently ] forgotten ; but he who with devotion, unti- ] ring energy and success, serves his country, i will have so embedded his name in the hearts of bis countryman, that his memory will ev- j er be held in the most grateful esteem.? < The name of Witherspoon?a good name. < One identified with the civil and eeclesiasti- < cal history of this country, I am now persua- i ded, must long be as familiar as household < words in your homes, and but seldom men- < tioned without a tearful regret, that he, who did honor to his name, should have been 1 cut off so early. I know you will long speak j < of him with profound respect as the judicic us, safe, and conscientious Lawyer, who more 1 frequently counselled to keep out of law, |' than to get into it; as the earnest advocate j1 of the unfortunate, his first effort in this 1 Court House, it may be observed, was in defence of a fellow-man on trial for his life. And the last time his voice was heard within these walls, was in pleading for the life I J -L ? ? , , , A .L I 1 auu cuaracter 01 a trieua ana orocner at me Bar. Aad he will long be gratefully re i1 membered as the frieud and helper of the injured, "who often made the widow's heart fcj sing for joy." Aud also as the devoted Representative who conferred honor upou his constituency by the high position, which his ability and honorable bearing commanded in the Councils of the State. 1 Believe me, Fellow-Citizens, your regard for the deceased was fully reciprocated. I think, I may be allowed to say, 1 knew the aau; %ni that with truth, X caa say, ha loved his adopted District with a devotion, which has been rarel y if ever surpassed. Hi9 highest ambition seemed to be to serve you with acceptance, and his highest, most coveted reward, j/our favor. I know, it has been said, that he was too fond of popularity, and too jealous of it. I freely admit, he desired to be popular?but why? Was it for corrupt and sinister motives? That he might have it in his power to betray your highest and best interests ? Did he belong to that class, "who speak peace to their neighbors, whilst mischief is in their hearts?" No ! no ! He ? . t . only desired to be popular, that he migni oe able to serve you with more efficiency and success. He sought to please, but this was only, or chiefly, to make others happy. And if he erred in this regard, it is not to be attributed to rotten hypocritical pretensions, but was rather the result of an exuberance of kind feelings, appertaining to a warm, geuiul nature, whose outgoings, were if possible, even more marked, as many present can testify, after all bis political aspirations had been buried. And I take great pleasure, Fellow Citizens, in bearing testimony to the fact, that when he might have concluded you had forgotten him, be was in the habit of speaking of you in the kindest and most respectful terms, and of his most active opponents in the most forgiving manner. And 1 do know the fact, that he died at peace in heart, with all here, and I may he permitted to add, that he gave us iu his last days, grounds for the most comfortable assurance, that he died at peace with bis God. Such was the man whose death, we this day mourn, and of whose valued services in all the relations he sustained to the public, we would record our high appreciation. It is true, his body lies mouldering in the soil of another State, but by bis courtesy, bland, and dignified bearing, be has so fully daguerreotyped bis manly form upon our uiinds, that we cannot soon forget Col. Isaac T)n?NfiM Witherspoon. A. White, Esq., Hod. R. G. McCaw. and A. S. Wallace, Esq., followed in feeling addresses, bearing the uiost decided testimony to the eterling integrity of the deceased as a man; his honesty, courtesy and dignified bearing as a Lawyer; and his unflagging devotion to the best interests of the people of York District, whom he had so long represented. It was manifest from the deep feeliDg depicted on the countenances of the large assembly, that the language of the speakers was but the embodiment of the sentiments of the people towards the deceased. On motion of W. B. Metts, Esq., the preamble aud resolutions were unanimously adopted, and the following gentlemen were appointed a committee, under the 3d. resolution, to wit: Major R. A. Springs, Dr. Wm. R Lowry, Jno. L. Miller, Esq., Capt. J. W. Avery, and W. Adolphus Moore, Esq. On motion the meeting then adjourned. JOHN S MOORE, Chairman. Jno. L. Miller, Secretary. August 2, 1858. Cjn |orfebilk inquirer. EDITED BY SAM'Xj W. MBXiTOJXT. YORKVILLE, S. C. THURSDAY MORNING, AUGUST 6, 1868. s&- Our correspondents again occupy a large f portion of our paper. This pressue upon our coliimns is unavoidable; but we hope, after this isme, to be somewhat relieved, and permitted to jive more attention to the pertinent duties of the lournalist. Several articles have been crowded jut?our Publishers' "Trip to Williamston."? "Temperance, No. 5." the Markets, &c., &c. ^ SALES DAT. N A goodly number of our friends from the coun- ^ :ry were in town, on Monday. A more cheerful jompany seldom congregates. The Sheriff did but ittle damage?not enough, at least, to affect the renerous good humor which prevailed, and which undoubtedly bad its source in the generul good health which has blessed our District, and the glo rious promise we now have for an abundant harvest. Here and there, we heard a hesitating complaint? the desire for a little more rain; but hopes were lilth, nevertheless?and every one looking upon the orighc side of the picture. Let us make the re:ord with a devout thankfulness. In the forenoon, a public meeting was convened to pay a tribute of respect to the memory of our amented fellow-citizen, Col. I. D. Withebspoon. The proceedings will be found in another column. After this, a meeting of the citizens was called, ind largely attended, to give a bearing to the sevtl candidates for the Legislature. Dr. R. T. Allison, was called to the Chair. In response to j the interrogatories propounded in regard to the egislation, last wiuter, on the Bank question, Messrs. Moore, Wallace and Williams presentid their opinions in oppositions to the Act remitting the penalty against the Banks; and Mr. Smith, in support of the measure. The discussion vas made in proper spirit?an earnest, we trust, )f the tone which will mark the canvass through- / tut. For the Yorkville Enquirer. PUBLIC MEETING. Ebenezerville, July 29, 1858. At a meeting of the citizens of Ebenezerville, ttock-liill and victuity; ou motion 01 uapt. donn | Massey, E. Avery, sen., was called to the Chair, ind J. R. Shurley, appointed Secretary. The Chairman having briefly stated that the obect of the meetiug was to pay a tribute of respect :o our lute fellow citizen, Col. I. D. Wituebspoon ; )n motion of Rev. J. G. Richards, a committee >f five was appointed by the Chair to draft a preirable and resolution expressive of our respect for the character and memory of the deceased, and 3ur sorrow for his death. Rev J. G. Richards, Capt. Win. P. Thoraasson, Esq.. and Dr. E. T. Avery were appointed that committee. The Committee, after having retired a short time, returned, and presented the following; which, after some very eloquent and pertinent remarks, by Dr. Wra. Harper Tbomasson, followed by remarks of Arch'd. Whyte Esq., and Capt. Wm. P. Thomasson, were unanimously adopted. Whereas, the sad intelligence of the death of the Hon. Isaac Donnom Witherspoon, late a distinguished citizen of our District has just reached us ; and, Whereas we feel desirous of testifying in a public manner our respect for the character and memory of the deceaeed, we, a portion of the people of York D strict, have met to manifest our appreciation of his distinguished worth, and our unfeigned sorrow for his death. Coi. Witherspoon has for the last thirty years, been one of the most prominent aud distinguished citizen of our District; and both in his political aud professional life, he has won the respect, confidence, and approbation of his constituents and clients. As a Lawyer he was faithful to those who committed their interests to his care, scorn- j ipfc deietxiag ita arm, aad trickery of tfw1 pettifogger, he manifested a liberality and fair- J ness, which won the admiration and respect of the J Bench and the Bar. The best evidence of the honesty and fidelity of j Col. Witherspoon's political career is to be found | in the fact that, for twenty Consecutive Years, be was a member of the State Legislature, cither as Representative or Senator, and throughout that period commanded the unbroken confidence of his | constituency. . In the year 184.1, the Legislature elected him Lieutenant Governor of the State, and his name has frequently been mentioned in connection with higher offices. As a politician he was tolerant of the opinions others and yet decided in the maintenance of his own conscientious convictions of right. Ho athvocated no measure which be did not believo would j redound to the interests of his constituents, ana to the honor of our beloved State. In private life he showed himself to bean honest man, and a kind, courteous, and high toner. Christian gentleman. The poor shared his bounty; and his sympathies were ever drawn out towards the unfortunate. But Col. I. D. Withebspoon is no more; his voice is hushed; his heart has ceased to beat; never again shall be move amongst us ; no more shall we as a people he guided by his counsels ? Being deeply sensible of his real worth, and of the loss which vrf as a District have sustained, therefore, be it Rtsolved, 1st. That we have heard, with unfeigned regret of the death of the Hon. Isaac Donnom Witiiebspoon, and in him mourn the loss of one of the most worthy and distinguished citizens of the District. 2nd. That we deeply sympathize with the afflicted family of our deceased friend in their sad bereavement. 3rd. That a copy of the proceedings of this meeting be forwarded to our District papers with ?:?i. unitsai tl.nt ttinv he rmhlished. and that "Mil IUC Itvjuwav % ??.? vmvV r the Secretary he directed to send a copy to the family of the deceased. On motion, the meeting then adjoined. 2. AVERY, Sen., Chairman. J. R. Shprley. Sccrttary. NEW YORK CORRESPONDENCE. New Yobk, July 28, 1858. The hot term of weather seems to be pretty well past. During the last two weeks the Fall months appeared to have sent us a fort night of their days, bringing winter clothing into temporary requisition and makipg the city more pleasant than the watering places, so far as temperature is concerned. But the bills of mortality alone recalled the fact that the summer heat was yet busy in its ravages, ' four hundred and sixty-two children under ten | years of age having died within one week's time, i The month of August is to come with its sweltering | heat loaded with death for those who arc notable 1 to bear up bravely and hopefully. From this time forward immense numbers of children fall victims ' to the diseases depending on, or produced by the high temperatures and unripe fruit. The Yellow-Fever is constantly arriving at quarantine from the Island of Cuba and the South American ports. But the vigilance of the health ' officers prevents the distribution of the the pestilence through the adjacent country. The distance of the quarantine grounds from the city removes, of course, all idea of danger here. The latest report of the Riviere-Blount scandal j has whittled down to a single point. The family had again become reconcpiled to each other and were on the point of returning to Mobile Ala., when the wife again kicked out of gears and balk ed, refusing to make the trip. She alleges in extennntion that a certain letter containg money was withheld from her, the proper owner of the same. She remains at Hoboken. Where is the 'Gallant Capting with spurs of gold on his heels ?" The Mormons, better known perhaps as Latter 1 Day Saints, held apow-wow, last Sunday at their 1 head quarters in this city. Congratulations at 1 the termination of the Utah war and glorification in general was the substance of their proceedings. 1 They praised the course pursued by Gov. Cuxmiko, 1 but the most striking features in their proceed- 1 ings was the unshnken faith reaffirmed in Bsoham, the Prophet, and the Elders. If these deluded people had as much devotion for truth as they ] have for imposture, whatglorious exemplars would 1 They be for the world to take pattern from! The Dutch are a joyous people. When the "rest 1 of mankind" are dying of enui, the disciples of 1 Xnger Bier laugh, drink beer and grow fat. Sometimestheirnmus-menthavemethod in them. Two- ' days this week, they held a grand (every thing 1 that has to do with the ubiquitous Lager is grand) \ muaical and military festival, the proceeds of which were to be devoted to the noble purpose of ] erecting a monument to the memory of the illustrious Babon Steuben of Revolutionary immor- [ tility. During the first week in August there is 1 to be a tremendous demonstrations consisting of 1 music, military, fire works, gymnastics, and every ^ thing else available for a Fair, such as never was seen at Donnybrook or in the Farderlaud. This rural festival will he tinctured with Lager-Bier, ' scented with Sauer Kraut, while the rosy cheeks of the Dutch Graces will taint and color the cn ' chanting scene. In such a place the visitor can C see spread before him a miniature of the Old World, its people with their habits and customs * and amusements and follies, its picturesque 1 scenery. There the student of Nature, can feast C bis thoughts until the mind grows satiated and J weary. The first of the five new sloop9 of War author- r ired by Congress in '57 was launched from We9tervelts' Ship-yard, East River, yesterday. The 8 vessel glided from the quay with the case and 7 grace of a belle, making a splendid launch. As C ?he touched the element which is to be her future 1 home, a young lady broke a bottle of wine over her bows. Christening her the "Brooklyn." The vessels is 217 feet in length, 43 feet beam and 16 c feet in draught; ehewill carry 16 guns of large S caliber. The model is 9aid to be beyond criticism. 1 A strange occurrence happened, a few days | since, which brought to my mind tho story of tho 1 unfortunate Gonevra. A mother left some children at home while she went out on an errand.? c One of tbera gave another, a boy, a cent to go and 1 get a stick of candy. The boy took the money, ? and in n mischievous way ran off with it and hid ? himself in a chest in the upper story of the house. Hiscocipanion pursued in search of the truant, but t did not find him. The prolonged absence of the boy ( alarmed the mother. Search was made to no pur- t pose. After a few days, a strong 9mell attracted t attention to a chest, in which, on opening it, the t body of the missing boy was fonud far gone inde- t composition. It is supposed that he hid himself e there, closing the lid of the chest, which become i locked and thus smothered the poor little fellow. 1 SETH. 1 ? I For the Yorkville Enquirer. i LIBERTY AND SLAVERY. Mr. Editor:?A theological writer of distinction 1 has given the following ideas about liberty: which ' seem to accord with truth and reason. ' "Liberty is either physical, moral, civil or reli ' yious. Physical is the power of doing what we 1 please without any natural restraints. If our ac- 1 tions are not the free result of our choice, that is, if they are directed or impeded by an influence : contrary to our will, we are destitute of this liber- 1 ty. Moral liberty is the power of doing what is right, without beingimpeded by sinful dispositions i or passious. A libertine, (or druakard) with all bis boasted freedom, is here a perfect slave.? ; While they promise themselves liberty, they themselves are the servants of corruption; for of whom a man is overcome, of the same is he brought fri boadage." Civil liberty ie freedom from all fear of punishment contrary to law, and from subjection to any laws but those to which a man himself, by his representatives, gives consent. Religious liberty Is the power of forming our religious sentimeuts, aud conducting our religious worship agreeably to the dictates of our consciences, without being liable to civil penalties." From these definitions, it is plain that the man, who wishes liberty to drink liquor, is not contending lor physical, ci^il, or religious liberty. All of these kinds he has, and no one is disposed to impede their exercise. It necessarily resnlts, he means moral liberty ; which, by its terms, "is the power of doing right without being impeded by sinful dispositions or profession!)." If any man be really anxious for this kind of liberty, his complaint is to God. If IIf. grant the power?if He confer trfis liberty, Tain are the efforts of man to deprive a creature of it. But if the whiskey-drinker is seeking "power of doing wrong, without being impeded" by compunctious visitations, his quarrel is with both God and man, but of course chiefly with his God. He quarrels with God's moral government?with the laws of His Providence?with the holiness of His Being? and with the very constitution of man's nature.? He indeed quarrels with the fact, but doubtlessly without so designing, that there is a God.? The effects of bis wrong on society, on his family, on bis friends, and on himself are not to be disregarded. This extract and these remarks are given by way of continuation of the remark of your correspondent in your issue week before last, who you inform us, is a Minister of the Gospel, and who on this subject of liberty, very pointedly and consistently enquires : "Who nsks for liberty to steal or shed blood ?" The fact is, this talk of liberty to do wrong, is the offspring of ignorance and human depravity. FOLEMON. For the Yorkville Enquirer. FATAL ERRORS CORRECTED. by a presbyterian. Mr. Editor:?The propositions either fully or partially expressed by myself heretofore were to this purport:? First:?The difference between right and wrong i.8 eternal?from eternity past to eternity future. Wrong had its origin in the apostacy of Satan.? Right was, is, and will be eternally inherent in the Divine Mind. Secondly:? The moral law being a transcript or copy of the will of God, is right, not merely be * 1 --* ti !-- s_ :? ir cause it is commanded, oum isaiso rigni m uscu ?right in its essence, and consequently right before it was commanded. ThirdlyGod has given man laws in forms or modes other than written "in the Holy Bible?(not "other laic" nor "another law," as disingeniously imputed to mo by E. A. Crenshaw)* and these laws are written in the works of Creation and Providence. I maintain that man has a moral nature?"ha3 naturally," to use the language of Dr. Archibald Alexander, "a sense of moral obligation, a perception of the difference between right and wrong, &c. These are what have been called his religious feelings." Fourthly:? To maintain that duty should be restricted to "the precepts and examples of the Holy Bible"?or to assert that man's moral nature imposes no sense of moral obligation?or that "duty fmpliesa written rule to constitute it such," ?or that Providence, in his moral government of the world, is not momentarily proclaiming His Will and laws to his creatures, is, in each and every case, to contradict the Scriptures, and is nec essarily fatal to reiigious truth, and wrong in practice. To which propositions I now add: Fifthly .-?Every deliberate act of a reasonable creature done, "not for conscience sake, but for good policy," is sin : "for whatsoever is not of faith is sin." Willing myself to learn truth from any source, even from "Divines," yea, even from a Preacher ?f the Qospel, I take the liberty to submit to those cf a like inclination the following sentiments of Dr. Thornwell, taken from his "Ditcourses on Truth;" and most respectfully requests calm and mature consideration of them. They are greatly important, far beyond the mere view of a newspnper triumph. Men whose duty it is to watch over the interests of humanity, should seek to know human nature and the human mind. "So far as the simple knowledge of duty is concerned, we may err, on the one hand, by exaggerating the necessity of revelation, and on the other by exaggerating the sufficiency of reason.? I rbere can be no doubt that morality is a subject which falls within the province of natural light.? ro say that we are dependent on (he word and or icle of God, as Bacou seems to insinuate, not only n those points of faith which concern the great Hysterica KJl vuc 4/viyj V* *uv %# vmmvm, v. ...? - iemption, but likewise those which concern the aw moral truly interpreted to say that we can lave, from (he dictates of conscience, only negative :ouceptions of rectitude "sufficient to check the rice, bnt not to inform the duty" is to contradict dike the testimony of Scripture and the experience f mankind. "For, when the Gentiles, which lave not the law, do by nature the things containid in the law, these having not the law are a law into themselves." A being without the sense of ibligation, and a spontaneous recognition of the 'undamcntcil differences of right and wrong, could lot be responsible. He could not form the renotest notion of duty, and the language of auhority and law might as well be addressed to tocks and stones. The elemental principles of ight, therefore, which are involved in the very :ouception of a moral nature, must be conceded o man as man. They are the birthrights of his ising, and not the legacy of a subsequent revelation. 3ut it is equally an error to maintain that, be:ause tbe Scriptures pro-suppose the moral contitution of man, they are of little or no imporance, considered as a rule of life. It is one thing a,t /- Inn* nriH another to sav that V snjf buaw ftuwii ?- V t is a perfect law." Such are the matured and published sentiments >f Dr. Thornwell. They establish either directy or "by good and necessary consequence" each md every one of my original propositions, as far is Dr. Thornwell may be regarded as authority. But what says the Apostle Paul, in addition to ,he Scripture quoted by Dr. Thornwell??"ChilIren, obey your parents in the Lord : for thin is ight." Scott, commenting on this passage, says : he obedience "it in iltelf right, equitable, and rcatonable." This portion of the decalogue beiog ;hus declared to be right in itself?right in its esience?eternally right?right before it was commanded, why should not every other portion of it 36 equally so? The good Jay, in his Morning Exercise for January 17, affirms that it is. Of the Moral law, he says: "This was of universal ind perpetual obligation: being founded not on my positive appointment or authority, but in the aature of man, and tho relations subsisting between him and God, and between him (man) and ais fellow-creatures. The substance of it is, to love God supremely, and our neighbor as ourselves. Is this unreasonable? Can Ood himself Jinncnsc with itt Can he require lessi-'' ?x _ Bishop Butler, in his Analogy, says :?"And it is a matter of l'act, independent on this or any other speculation, that he (GodJ governs the world by the method of rewards and punishments; and also that he hath given us a moral faculty, by which we distinguish between actions, and approve some as virtuous and of good desert, and disapprove others as vicious and of ill desert.? Now this moral discernment implies in the notion of it a rule of action, and a rule of a very peculiukifid; for it wrriw is it wtbority ao4 9 cigfet ; of direction: authority in such a sense, as that we cannot depart from it without being self-con! demned. And that the dictates of this moral facj ultyt which are by nature a rule to us, are morei over the lave of God, laws in a sense including sanctions, may be thus proved, &cM &c." I Rev. R. A. Thompson, of Lincolnshire, EngI land, says :?"It is in his moral nature, next toI revelation, that man has the strongest argument I against pantheism. The distinction between right j and wrong, between truth and falsehood, between moral good and evil, must be assumed as a fundamental and inevitable fact. It is implied in such words.as duty, and right, and ought, which are to be fniirnl in nil Innuunpes." He further SaVS! " ? ??o? "Now it must be allowed that a theory which accounts for nil the facts of human nature, is preferable to one which denies them. The pantheist looks on the distinction of right and wrong as one of mere appearance, deoending upon man's limited and partial views, and having no ulterior meaning." Again he says: "The atheist will often, he may think sincerely, acknowledge with the tbeist the distinction of right and wrong, and the obligation to do right. But he can give no account of the origin or we of this obligation. He may call it a fundamental fact; but he denies what is a part of the fundamental fact, that the mind instinctively refers the oblfgation.to a Lawgiver and Judge." lie concludes the chapter from which these extraots are taken with the following sentiments. "Theism alone takes account of all the facts of man's moral nature, nnd gives them an origin and a purpose. He is placed in life, as a state of trial, and possesses in the gift of life powers of responsible action. Ia the nature of these powers he may find indications of the Divine Character. Dut before he examines tbem minutely, he may see that the sense of duty in its most Abstract form? the absoluteness of the moral ought?is an evidence of a Being superior to himself, who is not only a Creator, but a Lawgiver; not only a Lawgiver, but a Judge. And he has motives higher than the stoic. On the question?Why a man should keep his word?he can see that the answer of the old philosopher is true as far as it goes.? "The philosopher," says Locke, "would hare an swercd because it is dishonest, below the dignity of man, and opposite to virtue, the highest perfection of hnman nature, to do otherwise." This reason, though imperfect, is better and nobler than the same illustrious writer puts into the mouth of the Christian: "Because God, who hat the power of eternal life and death, requires it of us"?a servile motive, which exposes Christianity to the criticisms of infidelity. The Christian's motives are not merely an obligation to Superior Power. They are to be sought in the Divine Character, and the relations of the creature to the Creator."?or in one word, Love. , On the principle last mooted in the extract last given, let ns hear Dr. TnoRKWEi.L: ?"To those, therefore, who would ask, why am I bound to speak the truth ? I would briefly answer, because it is the law of my nature; it is a fundamental datum of conscience; a command of Godimpressed upon the moral structure of the soul. It can be resolved into no higher principle?it is simple, elementary, ultimate." "This," says Rev. Dr. Tullocb, "may serve to explain the views of some of our highest thinkers as to the supposed conclusive force of the moral, in comparison with all other evidence for the being of a God. Kant, after submitting to a destructive criticism all the other modes of theistic evidence, as separately apprehended in his day, made the existence of God a postulate of our moral being ; nnd Sir W. Hamilton has expressly said that "the only valid arguments for the existence of a God, and for the immortality of the hnman soul, rest on the ground of man's moral nature." I add by way of application, "who is wise, and he shall understand these things ? prudent, and he shall know them ? for the ways of the Lord are right, aed the just shall walk in them : but the transgressors shall fall therein." Hosea 14: 9. [to br continued.] * This may seem personal and disrespectful, but the gentleman has given me no other name by which I might speak of him. He implies that I am "crazy" for having alluded to and spoken of his having been a Minister of the Gospel. He was only a Preacher of the Gospel. I stand corrected; and confess the difference constitutes some sort of a reason for, and explains in some degree his er rors. I alluded to the circumstance on the principle of the doctrine: "For unto whomsoever much is given, of him shall be much required ; and to whom men have committed much, of him' they will ask the more." My expectations are now lowered. t / [advertisement.] BANKS. Mr. Editor:?In response to & call, made in the last issue of the Enqciker, for my opinions on the Bank question, and in obedience to the requests of many friends, I have to ask for n brief space in your columns in order that I may explain my vote to the people who have honored me with their confidence, and assign my reasons for it. This done I leave it to tbem to decide whether my vote was judicious or not. I will not burden the columns of your journal, with a discussion of the causes which led to the recent crisis in our financial affairs, by which our prosperity, enjoyed continuously for many years, was suddenly checked and paralyzed. It will be sufficient to refer to the cause contributing directly to this result: to wit, the large increase and expansion of Banking capital for a series of years, beyond the point of redemption in gold and silver, not only in South Carolina, but throughout the U. States; and then, a too sadden contraction of issues. I concede that the Banking capital of a single State, by an andue expansion, may do mnch mischief; and I will admit that the Banking capital of this State, has been too far expanded; and when expansions are too great, money becomes too plenty, and to seek investment brings about a rise in the price of property beyond its intrinsic value. But I do not believe, as I have seen it asserted, that Bank issues control the price of produce. This is governed by the law of supply and demand; but sudden contractions may affect the price by not affording the means of bringing produce into market, and the sale of it after it gets into market. Neither do I believe that the combined Banking capital of South Carolina could have produced a panic, that has visited?like the recent one?every part of the civilized world. The Legislature of 8onth Carolina has no power or authority to regulate the Banking systems of other States. These had done the greater part of the misobief; for it is known that the crisis commenced in New York, and like a great wave, extended in every direction from that commercial * * * ? . U J A. 1 - _t_ centre. All the Legislature couia ao was to iuus at the injury done, and prevent its extension so far as the Banks of this State had any agency in the matter. The question was not one involving sympathy with the Banks; but was concerned with a remedy for the injury they had contributed to bring upon the country, and the proper relief to be extended to the people. This was a grave question, and one in which every man felt a deep in terest, especially those charged with legislation upon the subject. It was a position full of responsibility ; for a misstep taken, would have prostrated the agricultural interest of the State; and years of labor and toil could not have restored it to wonted vigor. Early in the session, the discussion resulted in two parties?both actuated by pure motives, but with opposite and conflicting views as to the effect of the remedies proposed. The party led by the Chairman of the Committee of Ways and Nws, Mr. MsxxukW irfw le w powerful debaters of tbls or any other State, advocated a Bill similar in detail to a Bank act which has been in operation in England for the last fourteen years, and known as a measure of | Mr. Pefl, England's Pi-iipe Minister. This Bill is full of detail, and is too lengthy for | a full insertion here; but in substance it is as fol- i lows: "That within a certain period every Bank in the State shall call in, redeem, and cancel all the notes issued under their existing charter; that a Superintendent of Issues shall he appointed, and that all new issues shall be from a new plate, countersigned by the said Superintendent of Issues, and before issues were made, each Bank would be required to deposit with the Superintendent so much stock of this State, or the United States, and of the cities of Charleston nnd Columbia, as shall, at its market value, be equal to the amount of notes countersigned. When any Bank shall so have called in, cancelled and redeemed, so many of its notes issued in circulation, as shall leave unredeemed and uncancelled an amount less than one fourth of its capital stock paid in, the Superintendent shall, from time to time, countersign and deliver to each Bank, notes as aforesaid, until the total amount delivered to each shall, with its other notes outstanding, amount to a sum equal to one fourth of the capital stock of such Bank. And after the said one-fourth shall have been countersigned and delivered, the said Superintendent shall require from every Bank applying for a further issue, the deposite in his hands of an equal amount of coin, or of bullion at the same value of coin; and the said stocks, coin or bullion, shall be deposited in the name of the said Superintendent, in the Bank of the State, subject to his | special order, iu trust for the redemption of notes j and tor do otber purpose. "Each Bank shall continue as heretofore, to redeem in coin all its notes, and in case of the refusal of an; Bank so to redeem, it shall be the duty of the Superintendent to apply in the first place the coin and bullion deposited by such Bank, and afterwards the Stocks in his possession, by a salo of the same; and if at any time tho redemption by such Snperintendent of such notos shall reduce the stocks in his bands to the credit of any Bank below the amount of issues issued by the said Bank, he shall notify the Bonk thereof, and if the said Bank shall fail to replace the deficiency, the Bank is to be reported to the Attorney General or proper Solicitor, who shall forthwith proceed to hare the charter vacated, and the Bank pat iD a state of liquidation." By the condition of tho Bill, it will be seen that the issues of no Bank in the State could have exceeded its capital stock, and that there would have been a strong specie basis a desirable consideration, I admit, in any Bank; but .it docs not place the Bank beyond the dangers of suspension, for that portion of issues based upon stocks, could not have been redeemed in gold and silver upon demand; and stocks, Federal and State, arc liable to fluctuations?sometimes high and at others depressed. This was seen last winter, when our State Stocks depreciated from ten to twenty per cent., opening a field of speculation to those who were fortunate enough to have monev in nossession. I believe that I have stated in substance, bat not in detail, the points in Mr. Memmingkb's Bill, and hope that I have done so fairly, as I would not intentionally misrepresent. Whilst I conceive it to be a complicated and rigid measure in all its features, I will not say that it would not be well adapted to a uniform Banking system throughout the United States. But it should be put in operation when there is no panic pervading the land, and when the country is comparatively free from the pressure of debt. Last winter I deemed it dangerous as a measure of relief, to have put it in force either then or within two years. It would, in my judgment, have have increased the effects of the panic, without, in the first place, removing the extraordinary contraction of issues which was one of the causes; and to have met the requirements of the Bill, either then or within two years, contractions would have continued to too great an extent. The twenty millions due the Banks would hare been collected, and with a short crop, and the absence of a circulating medium to bring the crop into market; (which was as necessary as a wagon to haul it from the gin-house to the depot, or a railroad from the depot to the point of destination) none other than the most disastrous consequences would have ensued?not the least of which would have been that those in debt would have seen their property sacrificed at ruinous prices. I looked upon the measure as equivalent to forfeiting the charters of the several Banks; a measure that was considered fatal in the panic of 1839, and was the penalty for suspension up to that period. In that day the Legislature thought this penalty, if enforced, would work incalculable mischief, and substituted the Aot of 1840, which imposed a penalty of five per cent, on the bills in circulation during the term of suspension. To my mind another argument against the bill of the Chairman of the Committee of Ways and Means, was, that after an experiment of fourteen years in England, the Banks did not escape the panic. It is true, that the Bank of England did not snspend; bat there is no proof that the peculiar discipline or management of the Bank, prevented a suspension ; it may have shielded itself, like some of the specie paying Banks of the State, by early contraction. It is shown from the Bank statement in the Comptroller General's Report, that the eight specie-paying Banks kept their line of domestic exchange higher than their circulation, and that their circulation was less than many of the suspended Banks; and consequently did not afford as much accommodation to the people. The remedy for which I voted, and which in my judgment has afforded relief to the country, was the suspension of the Act of 1840. I know that the idea has been instilled into the minds of the people, that a remission of the penalty upon the Banks, was a letting down of the dignity of the Legislature, and that the people of the State have been deprived of a gum that would have greatly reduced their taxes?an argument that always has weight r and when true should have its proper influence, but I hope to be able to show that such would not have been the result, if the act of 1840 had not been suspended. I confess that I have not much respect for that kind of Legislative dignity which, for the punctilious observance of an act, will in effect daring the reign of a panic and commercial derangement require the property of those in debt to be at the bidding of a pressing creditor, and consequently subject to the Sheriff's hammer at prices below its value. And it will not do to argue that money - ? _ _ J _ has not been more plenty and cotton advanced in price since tho passage of the Aot in December last. Up to that time the contractions were going oo, and for the want of money to bring the prodace into market, and afterwards to bay it, prices were depressed; and the Banks, until relieved, could not discount either on cotton drafts or on notes with personal security. The specie-paying Banks could not discount; for the Comptroller says that they were in danger of suspension from their deposites alone, without an increase of circulation, and those that had suspended could not have continued to discount and pay a tax of 6 per cent, for the privilege, when they only received 6 per cent for the use of their money. It is true that the bills of the suspended Banks were at a depreciation of from 1 to 2 per cent. ; but for the payment of debts they answered the farmers just as well as the virgin gold. The merchant who wanted exchange would loose the amount of the depreciation; for it was better tp lew the ejehwge Um tv ffgtt iJpwtfiwiJpWe and thousand* of dollars by the sacrifice of the proporty of his debtors. It is shown in the printed speech of Mr. Memmisokr, and I take it for granted that he had fully investigated the subject, that the amount in circulation in February, 1857, by all the Banks of this State, was twelve millions, four hundred and forty thousand dollars.? In Oatober last, about the time of the suspension, it was reduced to six millions six hundred and fourteen thousand two hundred and seventy nine dollars. We will suppose this sum to hive been the minimum point of contraotion, (not a fair in fercnce, for the contractions were going on.) But assuming that amount as the stand-still point, and the amount upon which the 5 per cent, could have been collected, they would have paid into the Treasury, provided that amount remained in circulation one year, the sum of three hundred and thirty thousand seven hundred and thirteen dollars and ninety-five cents. Let us suppose that the contraction affected the price of cotton two cents per pound, which I think is less than the average increase since December, or since the restrictions upon the Banks were removed ; and suppose we estimate last year's crop at half the average yield?that is to say one hundred and fifty thousand bags, weighing fonr hundred pounds (our average crops according to the census is three hundred thousand bags.) Taking ten cents per pound as the average prioe of cotton since December, and the result is, that at a reduction of two cents per pound, for the want of money to effect sales, the loss sustained by the fanning interest would have amounted to eight dollars per bag; and upon the entire crop, twelve hundred thousand dollars. If eight dollars be the loss on each bag of cotton, and two bags be the average to the hand in Totk, it would hare amounted to a tax upon agricultural labor equal to twenty per cent., which would have paid the tax upon twenty negroes and a large quantity of land besides. If the data upon which I have based my calculation be correct, and I believe that they are, it is plain that it would hare been unsound policy not to have removed the penalty npoa the Banks; for the pressure upon the Banks by exacting the penalty would hate increased the burden three-fold upon by the people, without promising any relief; and the relief was the end kept in view by the Legislature. I heard the idea advanced in the Legislature that gold would be sent to purchase cotton; bnt the question is, where would it hare to come from? Not from England or France, for they had use for all their specie. The panic was there too, with all its vigor, and specie was just as much needed in those countries as a basis of redemption of issues as with us. The Bank of England could not have furnished any portion of it without producing greater contractions. According to the conditions of her oharter, if she took specie out of her vaults, she was bound to retire from circulation an equal amount of bills. Of course this would have increased the contractions and the panic. But this is a far-fetched idea, and not sustained by any argument of political economy. A distinguished writer upon the subject has'said that a nation which determines to export goods and receive returns of specie, determines to have no foreign trade at all; for the nation with which the trade is to be carried on, can only give In exchange what it has to give. England has not the gold to buy our cotton ; bnt admitting that she has and had shipped gold for its purchase, we would have re-shipped the same gold to have purchased onr imports. This wonld have left as where we started. England bays oar cotton with the products of her manufactories. We sell her the products of onr soil we do not need, and take in exchange those imports we need. Thus is commerce produced, without which, each nation would inevitably decline in prosperity. In conclusion, Mr. Editor, I have presented for the consideration of your readers the remedies of relief before the Legislature. My object was to discuss those prominent measures, without endorsing the present Banking system of South Carolina ; for I conceive that not to have been the question before the Legislature. I hope that I have presented the measures fairly and impartially; as I have no particular kind feeling for the Banks, and certainly never received any personal favor from them. I have stated my objections to Mr. Mimminoik's Bill. I have set forth my reasons for voting for the suspension of the Act of 1840: 1st. To prevent farther contraction, by which the crop wonld be delayed in going to market for the want of a medium of transfer, which wonld have severely affected the price of cotton. 2d. Because, although the collection of the 5 per eent. may M have enlarged the public treasury directly, indi reotly it would have inflicted a severe blow upon the agricultural interest of the conntry. I have also attempted to demonstrate that yonr cotton wonld not have been purchased with gold, and that tVia ViUla nf tho (mam>ruipri Rants an.qvpred the same purpose as gold for the payment of debts. I hare farther attempted to show, if the Aot of 1840 had not been suspended, there would hare been greater contraction by the Banks, and as a consequence, that those in debt would have seen their property sold at a ruinous sacrifice; that those out of debt and with money, would bare bought their neighbor's property for a song; and that the wealth of the State would haYe been con* centrated into the hands of the few?a spectacle too sad to oontemplate. I will add, that by reference to the Report of the Comptroller General, published a few weeks since in the Exquibzr, you will find the following from that officer of finances. Speaking of the Bank of the State, he says: "This Bank, and its Branches at Columbia and CamdeD, are the only Banking Institutions in the State that hare extended any reasonable aid to the farmer and planter, or that has shielded the property of that largest and most valuable class of citizens from the greedy spirit of gain so rife amongst the other Banks. At the olose of the fiscal year it will be seen that this Bank and its Branches had expanded themselves to the utmost limits of prudence by accomodation loans in the shape of "Notes Discounted on personal security," "Bonds," Money invested in "State 8tocks," by advances for the State, Ac., Ac. The loans discounted on personal security alone, the balk of which is in the hands of planters, factors and merchants, amounts to $8,086,884 64, being nearly one-third of the whole sam thus invested by the whole of twenty Banks in the State." From which it will be seen that a continuation of the collection of 5 per cent would have inflicted a severe blow upon the people's Bank, and the only Bank, in the opinion of the Comptroller, that had extended aid to the farmer and planter; consequently, to have taxed its three millions of discounts, would have been robbing Peter to pay Paul; for any burden put upon the Bank, is an indireet tax npon the people, and it mnst be borne in mind that the Bank of the State was among the first to respond to the demand of the Comptroller for a violation of the Act of 1840. It also mnst be remembered that the Banks were not relieved nntil the Act in December was passed. Up to that time, the penalty was exacted; and the snm that could have beep collected gppn thp circulation of the other suspended Banks would hape hep? |?r significant, compared with the financial distress that greater contractions would have brought upon the country. With these impressions npon my mind, I felt it my duty to vote for a suspension of the Act of 1840. R. G. McCAW. - ~ ;>*? Whwi or Forccn*.?We see by our exchanges that a gentleman in Philadelphia has secured the Capital prize of 65,000 in Samuel8wan & Co's lotWry, draw# at Auguita, Georgia, on Saturday