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Yorkville enquirer. [volume] (Yorkville, S.C.) 1855-2006, November 30, 1876, Image 1

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\ OP THE !
Early Settlement of South Carolina.
i ?_ -
Everything in this world is. attended with
uncertainty. When the British captured Savannah
and Charleston, and in a short time
' after literally demolished the army of General
Gates, at Camden, the people of Great Britain
were jubilant. Tbey thpught the blow
had been struck which would reduce the
American oolonies into subjection to the British
crown. The British officers .in South
Carolina thought they had nothing to do now
but, by easy marches, advance as far as Chesapeake.
This done, Georgia, South Carolina,
North Carolina and Virginia, would be reduced
to hopeless servitude to the majesty of
Great Britain. The plan adopted by the
British commander was to advance through
the country, establish garrisons at convenient
places, and thus keep in subjection the .territory
overrun. The military posts were desigbed
to be so many places of rendezvous
fonthe lories and loyalists. His Majesty's
trtAps were expected to live on plunder.
$his was not the dream of mere novices in
thq&rt of war. It was the device of officers
of-whom England is to-day justly proud.
AmLrican liberty is enhanced in value, when
ma rJflmif that -if nrna srnn Kv mw militia
ftho best schools of
: about Cornwallis,
fools and cowards,
e perverted by blind
in ever drew a sword
r organisation than
fountain. No man
make a victory cornout
general Cornton,
is the highest
ssed upon auy offipses
and disconcert
our fathers did, is
imes on the highest
Those who say that
lestitute of military
b soldiers they1 led
i never studied the
nary wayor haye
be enabled to exe>tness,
his plans-fef'
the Southern colo11
the American coli
sent, by General
with a corps of three
to the Chesapeake.
T. _1 I x xL. 1A.L
Jut iruiu xiuw iurt uuuut tuc ii/iu
and landed at Portsmouth, Va.,
liddle of the same month. The
rhicb General Leslie was sent to
'as to.destroy all the pablio proping
to the Americans and prevent
aabittgteft from sending^my forces
ance of the partisan leaders in the
tans of the British officers were
immediately after the fall of
and matured and attempted to be
ration on the defeat of Gates at
GornwalliVexpected to advance to
, where he would meet the brave
Patrick Ferguson, and having established
ana torunod L?narioue in a way similar to
Camden, ha would then advance on to Portsmouth.
. Villi!
the meantime, the Whigs of Georgia
and the two Carolinas were not idly pining
over past misfortunes. Their defeats had
only stimulated them to invincible energy.
On the seventh of October?a few days after
Cornwallis reached Charlotte?Patrick Ferguson
and his whole army were surrounded
on King's Mountain and literally annihilated.
A chasm was made in the plans of the
British chieftain which no strategy could
span. The advance in the direction of Virginia
was impossible, under the existing circumstances.
The region around Charlotte
swarmed with Scotch-Irish Whigs. To remain
in that locality was to jeopardize his
whole command. Following the dictates of
a wise policy, he retreated to Winnsboro and
ordered General Leslie to leave Portsmouth
and join him in South Carolina. This must
have been sad news to Leslie. He bad expected
to hear of Cornwallis far on his way
toward Virginia, when he landed at Portsmonth.
Heretofore, victory had crowned every
effort of the British, and nothing but apparent
defeat attended the undertaking of the
-The country was not, as we have already
seen, snbdued. Partisan leaders had sprung
up in all sections of the State. These were
followed by men who were ready to suffer and
die for their bleeding country. Marion and
bis men were lurking in the swamps of the
Santee and Black river, ready, whenever an
opportunity presented itself, to emerge from
their watery hiding places and pour destruction
and death into the ranks of the invading
foe,; Sumter, and his illustrious coadjutors
wer& in upper and western South Carolina,
breaking up military posts and slaughtering
theltroops of the active and valiant Tarleton.
Immediately before the battle of King's
Mountain, it seemed as if the sun of American
liberty had gone down to rise no more.
It Was only the darkness which precedes a
ruing bob. V
On the Sabbath morning after Patrick Fer.
guson slept his last sleep on the rocky summit
of King's Mountain, the sun rose as it had
never been seen to rise before by the Americana.
The tide of victory had turned. From
tJkiAtftitfiiward. it continued to flow in favor
til it terminated in the iraneral
O'Hara surrendering
Cornwall is to General, Lin
J : c
Leslie would arrive, Corn.
to remain at Wipnsboro.
aver, abandon bis original
plan to advance -northward through North
Carolina and Virginia. Soon after Leslie was
called South from Virginia, the traitor, Arnold,
was sent thither with a considerable
force. gg| kkLtbo country waste with fire
and swopd^; fought with the same mad
despers?di^V'-foi! the British, that be had
onoe fhaghf ajfrrifcat them. Rather, he now
fm^bt liberty as recklessly as he had
'a junction ofthe forces nnder Cdrnwallis
|^fc^Arnold would have ruined the cause of
HH^^werican liberty. With the forces at his
it was all that Cornwallis cotild do
^HKMH^^taown. Hevontemplated advancing
into North Carolina, bat not by the way of
Charlotte. It was his intention to pasn up
Broad river, and thus flank the Scotch Irish
of the "Hornets' Nest" region. This move he
designed making bo soon as he was joined by
General Leslie and his forces^__
On the thirteenth of DecflWw, General
Leslie landed at Charleston. Here he found
prdera directing him tajoin Cornwallis, with
all possible speed, with one thousand five hundred
and thirty men. Cornwallis needed the
whole of the forces under the command of
General Leslie; but in order to protect
Charleston, it was necessary to leave one-half
at that point This shows what a turn things
had taken'after the battle of King's Mountain.
The British felt that they were not safe
behind their own fortifications. 6everal days
werespent in procuring transportation wagons
and horses.
On the nineteenth-of December, General
Leslie set out to join Oornwallis by way of
Camden. As early as the first of November,
Cornwallis had begun to make preparation for
his advance into North Carolina. Emissaries
had been sent into various portions of the
ooontry to stir up the loyalists and ascertain
the feeling of the inhabitants. The British
were not easy. They could not feel that they
-were altogether safe. 'The emissaries could
learn nothing of any importance favorable
to the British, and, besides, the country
abounded with floating rumors of the hostile
movements of the Americans. A report was
brought to Cornwallis that the "mountain
men" were collecting, with the intention of
making an attack upon Ninety-Six. The
horrors of King's Mountain presented themselves
to Earl Cornwallis, and to prevent
NinSty'Six from experiencing a similar fate
with Ferguson and his men, Tarleton was sent
out to look after these "mountain men."
The rumor had no foundation but in the fears
of those who first reported it and tdose woo
afterwards circulated it. ?
Finding that the report of the advance of
the "mountain men" had no foundation in
fact, Tarleton,a short time after the battle of
Blackstocks, moved down and camped on the
east side of Broad river, at what was then
Brierly's ferry. At Winnsboro, Cornwallis i
was making all preparations for the contemplated
move into North Carolina. The country
was scoured in search of horses to mount
hia soldiers and draw his baggage wagons.
The^sick, wfiorha^Nheen q u_axtfiredJo_private
families in the neighborhood, were brought
into camp, and the arms and ammunition
got in readiness for a campaign.
Whilst the British Geueral was thus actively
engaged in preparing for the reduction
of the country, the American officers were
not idle. General Gates had collected the
fragments of his army at Hillsborough, North
Carolina. Here the troops had been reorganized.
The Maryland and Delaware lines
were consolidated and put under the command
of Otho Holland Williams. The remains
of'those regiments, formerly command'
ed by Baylor; Bland aod Moylan, together
with some recruits, were embodied into one
regiment, and put uuder the command of
Lieutenaut-Colonel William Washington.
About the same time, Daniel Morgan was
made a Brigadier-General and assigned to the
Southern army. Recruits from Virginia
joined Gates about the same time. A division
of North Carolina militia under Sumner
and Davidson, as well as a volunteer corps
under Davie, had taken the field.
After the unfortunate battle of Camden,
Congress, either having lost confidence in
Genera) Gates or having grown wise enough
to correct a former error, determined to supply
his place with a more efficient man. The
honor of making the selection was awarded
to the commander-in-chief. General Washington
selected for this important field, Nathaniel
Greene, at that time quartermastergeneral.
General Greene was aasigued to the
command of the Southern army on the thir-*
A.i.l 1I7SA IT^ J
uem oi vjcioutjr, nou. ue wiguou uifice
of quartermaster-general and set out at
once for the South. General Gates had moved
bis headquarters from Hillsborough to Charlotte.
General Greene arrived at Charlotte
on tfe&^ecoud of December, and on the next
day-formally took command of the Southern
forces. It was only the frame-work of an
army, consisting, as it did, of only four thousand
five hundred troops, a large number of
which were undisciplined militia. After having
made the necessary arrangements for supplies,
General Greene divided his army into
two detachments. One was to take post on
the right of Cornwallis, and the other on the
left?the detachment on the right to be commanded
by Greene himself, and to be stationed
in Chesterfield county, on Hicks'
creek. This post was about seventy miles
from Winnsboro, the headquarters of Cornwallis.
The detachment on the left, to be
commanded by General Morgan, was to be
stationed in Spartanburg county, between the
Pacolet and Broad rivers.
It would seem that neither the Americans
nor the British had any correct idea of each
others' intentions. Gen. Greene probably did
not know that Leslie bad left Portsmouth;
nor did Cornwallis know that Greene had
been assigned to the command of the Southern
army. It would only be conjecture to
say why Gen. Greene divided his army into
two detachments. One week after Gen. Leslie
landed at Charleston, Greene set out for
Cheraw, and Morgan for the region between
the Pacolet and Broad rivers.
Gen. Morgan and Colonel Washington
having but recently returned from a tour in
the region around Camden, in which they
captured a British post at Rugely's mill, ma
king the commander, Uoionei ttugeiy, ana
one hundred men prisoners, set out for the
region beyond Broad river. On the evening
of the twentieth and morning of the twentyfirst
of December, Morgan and Washington
crossed Catawba river at Wright's ferry, and
joined Lacy at bis camp on Turkey creek in
York county. Lacy and his men broke up
camp and accompanied Gen. Morgan. The
American force now under the command of
Morgan, consisted of four hundred Continental'
infantry and about one hundred cavalry,
together with, about five hundred militia.
Near the last of December, Morgan encamp^T
in the neighborhood of Pacolet Springs, in
Spartanburg couoty. From this point, Washington,
with bis cavalry, was frequently sent
out to scatter small parties of toriesand destroy
the military depots Qf the British. These excursions
of Washington alarmed Earl Corn'
wallia. The country was fulLof tories and
British soldiers, who prowled through the
country under the commapd of Bill Cunningham,
or his subalrterns. These parties kept
the Whig settlers in continual terror. To i
break up these gangs of high-way robbers and i
bloody scouts, was a part of Col. Washington's \
duty. In some of his expeditions, daring feats t
of individual courage were exhibited. One t
will suffice as a specimen of the whole. i
On one occasion, a son of "Green Erin" by a
the name of Sam Clowney, came in contact t
with eight British -soldiers, all lusty fellows, 1
armed to the teeth. These Sam managed, by
adroitness, to capture and march, for eight a
miles, into Morgan's camp. On presenting t
the results ofhis day's work, Gen. Morgan r
asked, with no little surp Ae, "How on earth, 1
Sam, did you manage to capture eight men ?" \
With that promptness for which the natives p
of the Emeral Isle. are noted, be replied, ii
"Faith, may it please your honor, I surround- 1
ed them." c
^ ? . . ir ?_
.Uetermuiea to put a stop to morgan b ope- v
rations, Corn wall is sent out Tarleton with his 7
famous legion. At this point commenced a j]
movement thrillingly interesting from the be- r
ginning and triumphant in its end?the suo 7
render of Conrnwallis at Torktown, on the 0
nineteenth of October, 1781. ]{
The plan of the campaign which was de- 7
vised by Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton and sub- f(
mitted to Cornwallis, and by him approved, g
was for Tarleton to push Morgan beyond the tl
Yadkin, and thus leave the country open for 7
an entrance into North Carolina. So soon as o
Tarleton would move toward Morgan, the h
main army was to move from Winnsboro up c
the ridge which divides the waters of Cataw- a
ba from those of Broad river. General Les- e
lie. in order to deceive General Greene, was u
to move along the eastern aide of Catawba, "I
keeping opposite Cornwallis. The point at d
which the three forces were to unite, was b
King's Mountain. ?
On Sabbath, the sixth of January, 1781, u
Lord Cornwallis, with the main army, set out d
from Winnsboro for King's Mountain. Little 1
did he and his troops think of what sad mis* ?
fortunes awaited them. That he might coop- lj
erate with Tarleton in driving away Morgan, g
he commenced his march before that officer d
crossed Broad river. The understanding be- h
tween Tarleton and Cornwallis was, that the d
latter, withihe main army, would be at Bui- a
lock's Creek Church, in York county, on Sat- a
urday night after he left Winnsboro. For g
some reason, Cornwallis failed to meet his en- ?
gagement, and, strange to say, gave Tarleton 1
no intimation of bis delay on the way. ?
Cornwallis stopped at 'Bull Run, in Chester *
county, to wait for Leslie. ~ ft
Cornwallis approved of the plan in all its ti
details as suggested by Tarleton, but strange
as it may appear, neglected to carry it out. r<
On the eleventh of January, Tarleton com- b
raenced his march up Broad river, and al- tl
though the roads were very bad, pressed for- d
ward and crossed the river near the mouth of g
Turkey creek, on the fourteenth. The orders g
which he had received from Cornwallis were u
l^AMran tt A V? /% lltmAof " TllflOO AC. XI
tu puoil 1UV1 gou VVT Dlio UbUIUOVt AUWQV w? j_
ders he determined to carry out to the letter, ii
' On the next day, be gained certain intelligence
of the position of Morgan. On hearing ti
of Tarleton's approach and his superior force, tl
Morgan at first retreated. This was what vi
Tarleton expected. His plan now was either g
to destroy Morgan, or to drive him across A
Broad river into the bands of Cornwallis, k
who, he thought, was at Bullock's Creek ]<
Church. The plan was good, but failed in its k
execution. On the evening of the sixteenth, ti
Tarleton reached Morgan's camp, but found tl
no one there. Morgan had left it only a few n
hours before Tarleton arrived. Leaving his e
baggage at this point, Tarleton pushed for- o
ward with all possible speed, taking a circui- 1
tous route as if intending to flank Morgan, u
He marched all night. About midnight, a ru- fl
mor of the advance of some "mountain men" u
disturbed Tarletou's thoughts, and be conclu- ft
ded that it was safest to push directly after
Morgan and bring on an action before the
junction with Morgan of the "mountain men" I
of whom he bad heard, and whom he dreaded. "
On he pushed, as if his very existence depend- ^
ed upon engaging Mergan at once. He scarcely
expected that Morgao would dare to en- 0
counter him alone, hence he thought that all tl
he had to do in order to capture Morgan *
and all his force, was to get up with them. "d
At eight o'clock, on the morning of the 0
seventeenth, Tarleton and his forces came in ^
sight of the American camp. Tarleton was
disappointed. Instead of finding Morgan re- fi
treating in disorder, his men were drawn up a
in battle array. Morgan was one of those c
men who always retreat reluctantly. On the 81
evening before, he had determined in his %
mind to retreat no further. The place where
Morgan was encamped was called the "Cow- b
pens." A ridge crossed the road at right an- tl
gles. In the rear of this ridge is another sim- o
ilar ridge, about four hundred yards distant. P
The location was by no means favorable for n
such a force as that commanded by Morgan. t(
It was more favorable for Tarleton than for ^
Mn n Tarlatan hnf] a At.rnncr oawalpv
6~... _ O J
force, whilst Morgan had only eighty. There ii
was nothing for Morgau's flanks to rest upon, tl
Everything was favorable for Tarleton. All 0
his troops were tried soldiers, whilst the ma- 8
jority of Morgan's were militia. Military j,
men, perhaps, would have advised Morgan 0
not to risk a battle. One of the characteris- o
tics of Morgan was that he always depended fa
upon his own judgment. Tarleton concluded a
that the only reason that Morgan had determined
to risk a battle, was the fact that he
was so closely pursued that he could not do ; j
otherwise than fight. Such, however, was
not the case. Morgan had contemplated fighting
at the Pacolet, on the 15th, but retreated *
that he micbt eain some advantage. .
When the British force came in sight, Mor- ^
gan's men had breakfasted and were ready t
for the conflict. On the evening before, Mor- c
gan had ordered each rifleman to get twenty- i
four rounds of powder and ball prepared be- *
fore he retired to rest. The order in which '
the troops should be arranged for battle, was |
also written out and read to tbe officers on the t
evening before. The troops were marshalled g
in accordance with the following order: The (
Georgia and Cjarolina militia, in front These f
were commanded by McDowell, Cunningham, '
Hammond and Donnelly. Immediately in 1
Tthe rear of the militia, was Colonel Howard's {
command, which consisted of the Continental j
infantry and two companies of Virginia mili- j
tia. These last were commanded by Taite 1
and Triplett On the left of Howard, was 1
Pickens' command; on the right, Triplett and J
Beaty. Colonel Washington, with tbe cavalry,
was stationed in the rear. Tbe horses be- (
longing to the infantry were tied at a con- ,
venient distance in the rear of the tohole. <
Tarleton's vanguard advanced and deployed i
icrosa the road, with a ravine between them <3
md the American front line. The artillery <
ras placed on the road, a short distance in he
rear of the advance guard. The cavalry
vas divided and stationed in the rear to the
ight and left of theroad. In the rear and in
k line parallel with the eavalry, was placed c
he seventy-first Regiment, under Major Mo- jj
Arthur, as a reserve. ^
Before the battle commenced, Morgan spent Q
i few moments in exhorting his men to do
heir duty and the victory was sure. About I
'! >? T#?lfltnn. who wu in the front ej
ine of the British, gave the order to advance.
Vith a shout, the column rushed forward, ex- ^
tecting the American militia to break and flee
a confusion. In tbjs they were disappointed. a
'he militia stood firm, and when the British w
ame within range, ' discharged a well aimed u
olley which thinned the ranks of the enemy, i*
?he British pressed forward, shouting and fir- h
ag incessantly. Thcrmilitia fell back to the
anks of the line commanded1 by Pickens. ^
.'he British now rushed forward with bayo- g,
ets. The militia now fe1! back, to the seoond th
ine, and those under McCall fled to the horses,
'his, however, produced no disturbance, b'
jr Morgan thinking that the militia would _
ive wav. had declared it as a part of his plan
bat tbe militia were to fire and fall back. a(
'arletoo seeing the militia giving way, order- 0f
d a general charge. The Americans met tb
im with a firmness which would have dooe
redit to any troops. The contest was fearful
nd the result doubtful. Soon the line of the ^
emy began to bend. Mc Arthur now brought V|
Djygjgggrves. This animated the yielding bi
British and the contest.was renewed. Nover
id men fight harder. Every thing was done tb
y both parties that could be done, and tbe J{
" * ? ^?1_._ ?*_ * _xi -i ac
ontest was in iearrai aouow. inu/xnuur ?i- ^
smpted to gain Howard's flank.. Howard or- ^
ered bis first company to charge the British. ^
'he company mistaking the command to
barge for imx order to fall back, the whole in
ne now began to retreat in disorder. Mor- se
an, with the greatest presence of mind or- 10
ered it to fall back behind the cavalry and
alt This checkedthe retreat Tarleton or- ^
ered another charge. When the British had m
pproached within a short distance of How- sb
rd's men, they were ordered to face about
d fire. This they did, and literally cover- H
d the ground with wounded and dead British.
'be living were brought to a halt Howard
wing this, ordered his men to charge them
ith the bayonet This decided the day in 0,
a- mL
ivor ol tneramerKjaaa. ane onuau. iuibu- ni
ry were in the utmost confusion. * ht
Some of Tarleton's cavalry had gained the ca
2ar, and were slaughtering McCall's militia
y the wholesale. Colonel Washington saw
tie condition in which things were, and Wl
ashed in upon the cavalry of the enemy 0i
nd put them to flight. The British infantfy w
nd cavalry were now so mixed up that it was cc
npossible to rally them. The few of the sc
Iritish who were not wounded or killed, fled
1 every direction, each man for himself.
The history of the Revolutionary war con- n(
line no more wonderful battle than that of fa
tie Cowpena. The advantages at the outset
'ere all on the side of the British, yet the n<
aius in the end were all on the side of the 1(:
Lmericans. The American loss was twelve v.'
illed and fifty-eight wounded. The British w
Kw ihoir nwn ftpnniint. was one hundred
JOO| vuvai w"- ~ 11/
illed and five hundred and twenty-three la
iken prisoners. The spoils which fell into w
be hands of the Americans were all the ene- h<
iy's baggage, thirty-five baggage wagons,
ight hundred horses, two standards, two pieces
f artillery, and eight hundred muskets. M
'he victory was just as complete as any vie- a,
)ry could be. Tarleton, filled with sorrow, th
ed from the battle field and never stopped di
ntil he crossed Broad river at Hamilton's
3 Uf
_ <k
Benefit of Being Knocked About.?
t is a good thing for a young man to be
knock about in the world," although his softearted
parents may not think so. All youths, ^
r if not all, certainly nineteen-twentieths a<
f the sum total, enter life with a surplusage
f self-conceit. The sooner they are relieved ?|
be better. If, in measuring themselves with te
iser and older men than themselves, they jt
iscover that it is unwarranted, and get rid f0
nnnafnllv ftp t.hair nwn accord. well and :/
1 ?? JJ
ood; if oot, it is desirable, for their own sake,
bat it should be knocked out of them. m
A boy who is sent to a large school soon ^
nds his level. His will may have been parmount
at home; but schoolboys are demoratic
in their ideas, and if arrogant, he is
lire to be thrashed into a recognition of the
olden rule. The world is a great public v'
shool, and it soon teaches a new pupil bis ?
roper place. If he has the attributes that '
elong to a leader, he will be installed into ,
be position of a leader; if not, whatever his '
wn opinion of his abilities, be will be comelled
to fall back into the rank and file. If ,
ot destined to greatness, the next best thing .
3 which be can aspire is respectability; but ?
o man can be truly great or truly respectale
who is vain, pompous, and overbearing. L
By the time the eovice has found his legit- u<
mate social position, be the same high or low,
he probability is the same disagreeable traits *
f character will be softened down and worn
way. Most likely the process of abrasion
nil be rough, perhaps very rough, but when .
t is all over, and he begins to see himself as 1D
there see him, and not as reflected in the mirr
of self-conceit, he will be thankful that he
las run the gauntlet, and arrived through by
, rough road of knowledge.
Upon the whole, whatever loving mothers
nay think to the contrary, it is a good thing
or youths to be knocked about in the world. w
t makes men of them.
+ m ?
Watered Lard and How to Detect
T.?There is considerable complaint in some
juartere about adulterated lard being crowded f(
ipon consumers, and circulars have been is- e'
ued recently by Chicago houses, charging
his fraud upon Eastern refiners. There are s<
loubtless some of the small refiners engaged ei
n the production of adulterated lard, but the
nost of this sort of wash that is put upon the o:
narket, comes from the Southwestern refiners,
.'n order that dealers may know how to test
his spurious article, we subjoin directions for
saking a simple test for water. Take a clear n
glass bottle, fill it with the lard to be tested, m
leaving out the cork,) place this bottle about tl
lix inches from the stove or fire, and let the
ard slowly melt, being very careful not to
get it up to the boiling point, as the water
would then evaporate; most of the water will tl
tlowly fall to the bottom of the bottle, and the ti
ard now melted will rise to the top. By I
glancing at the amount of water now deposited
at the bottom of the bottle, as compared si
with the amount of oil (or lard) above it, you o
;an easily tell how much water there is in the fa
Fraudulent article. Should the lard not settle
dear, nor precipitate much water, it is an evlence
that it is also adulterated with an alkali, $
which serves to combine a part of the water flj
with the lard, making a soap of it, which does o
not precipitate readily with the water. p
psfcliancuus fading.
It was an nnpopnlar case to defend. The
barge against my client was one of shockig
atrocity, the ninrder of his own child,
'he popular verdict had already condemned
im, and there was but little doubt but thai
f the jury would go the same way.
Arthur Berkley, the prisoner, had married
Idith Granger, a wealthy heiress, whose fath
I../1 taaninn ka* kia ajkrtla fnrtlina tci
I UOU U1?U| iM?f lug UVt UIO nuviv ?v*nmwwj w-w
ie exclusion of a profligate son whom he had
isinherited and driven from his home. .
Mrs. Berkley died within a year after the
larriage, leaving an infant a few weeks old,
feeble little creatare, requiring constant and
siduous care. Indeed, Dr. Baldwin almost
>ok op hia quarters in the house, often passig
the night there, that he might be at
and in case of need.
One of these nights, the doctor, as he afterards
stated in his evidence, aiter retiring
bed, feeling solicitous about his charge,
>t up and stole softly to the nursery to see
lat everything was right.
He found the door ajar and a dim light
jrning within.
As he advanced, he distinctly saw Arthur
erkly standing bv the table, holding to the
lild's mouth the bottle from which it was
scustoraed to receive its food. At the sound
' the doctor's footsteps, he quickly put down
ie bottle, and stealthily left the apartment
j a side entrance.
Not a little surprised at these movements,
ie doctor approached and laid his hand on
ia nViiM'a fan* whioH hit found in violent con
ilsions, which were followed in a few seconds
Ir the stillnes of death.
A post mortem examination, and analysis of
le contents of the stomach, placed it be)od
a doubt that prussic acid had been
iministered. And an examination of the
>ttle that Berkley had left by it proved that
ie milk in it contained a large quantity of
te same deadly poison.
On this evidence Berkley was arrested and
dieted for murder; and there was not a dienting
voice as to his guilt An. incentive
the crime was found in the fact that as
sir to his child, he would inherit the fortune
hich bad descended to the latter through the
)ath of its mother. No wonder a deed so
onstroos, actuated by motives so mercenary,
tould excite the deepest indignation.
Berkley's previous character had been good,
e bad always appeared gentle and kind;
id been a devoted husband; and) during
e brief period of its life, bad shown the ten:rest
attachment to his child.
In my conference with him, he seemed
rerwhelmed with grief, but strenuously deed
all imputations of guilt, asserting that he
id not gone to the nursery that night until
died by the alarm of the child's death.
Of course, bis statement, in the face of the
*oofs. so damaging, weighed but little. I
id no confidence in them myself. Still, it
unprofessional duty to see that a man
i trial for bis life, who had entrusted me
ith his caus^md every right the law acirded
him. performed, my conieuce
would be^H^M^??tfrThe^esult.
It would be teaioun<wiwell on the steps
eceding the trial. I interposed no obstaes
in its coming on speedily. My aim was
)t to thwart the ends of justice, but to see it
iriy meted out.
Dr. Baldwin was the first and chief witIBs.
He told his story clearly and methodally
; and it was easy to see it carried conction
to the jury. My rigid cross-examinaon/
only served to bring out tie evidence
ith more distinctness of detail. I elicited
le fact, for instance, that the child's nurse
j in the same room; that she was asleep
hen the doctor entered, and that it was to
;r he first announced the child's death. I
so examined fully as to the prisoner's acts at
ie time the alarm was given, endeavoring to
tow that he came from the direction of his
vn chamber, appearing to have been just
oused from sleep. But I made nothing of
lis, the witness stating that his agitation had
stracted his attention from these points.
The doctor had only recently settled among
i, but his conduct bad been so exemplary
lat he had made many friends. He Dad esKsially
won the confidence of the prisoner,
interrogated him as to his past career, but
ought out nothing to his discredit,
Tbe evidence of the chemist who made
ie analysis was next put in, and the State's
itorney "rested."
"I have brought the nurse here," he said;
jut as she was asleep when the prisoner enred,
her evidence is unimportant. I thought
my duty to have her here, however, to afrd
the other side an opportunity to call her
they desire."
Nothing could render the prisoner's case
ore hopeless than it was already, while
mething might come out to bis advantage.
"I will call the witness," I said.
She was a middle-aged woman, of not uorepossessing
appearance. Her agitation was
sible; and I noticed that, in taking tbe
ith, she laid her hand beside the book and
it upon it.
"I ask that the witness be sworn with her
ind on the book," I said, calling attention
i the omission.
The judge so ordered; and the witness'
ind snook violently as she relunctantly
leyed the direction, and the oath was re-adlinistered.
After a few preliminary questions as to the
Dur of her retiring, her falling asleep, Ac.,
"What is the next thing you remember?"
The witness hesitated.
"Answer the question," said his Honor.
"I?I heard a noise as of some one coming
ito the room," she faltered.
"Did you see any one enter ?"
Another pause.
I repeated the inquiry.
"I did," was the answer.
"Whatdid the person do?"
The woman's face grew paler, and it wa3
ith difficulty she found utterance.
"He came to the side of the cradle," she said,
with the bottle of milk in his hand, and put
to the baby's mouth."
The judge and State's attorney both bent
>rward in eager attention. The fatter, it was
pident, had not expected1 this testimony.
I felt that my questions, thus far, only
irved to draw the baiter closer about my cliat'#
neck. But I had gone too far to retreat.
My voice trembled almost as much as that
f the witness as I proceeded.
"Did yon recognize that person ?"
"I did." was the answer, scarcely audible.
My client's life hung on the answer to the
ext question 1 The silence of the court-room
ras death like. The sound of my voice starled
me when I spoke.
"Who was it V I asked.
Her lips moved, but no sound came.
"By the solemn oath you have taken on
hat sacred book, and by your hopes of salvaion
hereafter, I adjure you to tell the truth J"
said, earnestly.
Her agitation was fearful to witness. She
book from head to foot. A deadly palloi
verspread her face. Slowly raising her trem
ling hand, and pointing at Dr. Baldwin?
"That is the man I" she .almost shrieked.
Then, in quick, wild aocents she went on tc
ell that on finding himself discovered by rea
on Qf ber waking, the culprit, who was n<
ther than George Granger, Mrs. Berkley'
^ofligate brother, had disclosed to her tfyti
I ' *. . v'v
I . :
his purpose was to regain his lost inheritance
by putting oat of the way those who stood be:
tween him and it, promising the witness to
provide for her handsomely, if she kept his
secret; bat, when pat to the test, she had
found herself unable to violate the solemn
> oath.
George Granger, alicu Dr. Baldwin, woald
have left the courtroom, bat an officer was
ordered to detain him; and when his disgaise
was removed, though he had been absent
many years, there were many present who
I could testify to his identity.
My client has acquitted on the spot;, and
' his cell in the prison was that night occupied
bv his false accuser.?New York Ledger.
| Buffalo Hunting.?St Paul is becoming
the western emporium of buffalo hides?a
principal source of supply being Fort Benton.
' From this point the robes are shipped by boat
to Bismarck and thence to St Paul, and from
St Paul to Chicago and New York. The
buffalo ranges are annually becoming circumscribed,
and their ultimate exhaustion is merely
a question of time. Formerly the bison
roamed all over the North American conti
nent; while now, according to Major Eastman,
this animal can only be found in tluee
localities. Oue herd ranges along ; the head
waters of the Arkansas and Platte fivers; a
smaller one browses among the Big Horn
mountains and the valleys and plains in that
region, while the great taass make their home
north of the Missouri, and spread themselves
to the Saskatchewan and westward to the
Bocky Mountains. There seems.to be no difficulty
in securing forage in the north during
the winter, for buffalo killed in January are
as fat as at any other time, while the meat is
- i?i*? ? _:_i .1 ?Tk.
raucn oetwr m wiuier iunu suuiiusii xu?
buffalo, with their feet and horns, scrape the
snow from the prairies and eat the dry grass
with a relish. Major Eastman says that do*
mestic cattle in Minnesota also run wild and
live through the winter unprotected and uncared
for, and in the spring are found in comparatively
good condition. The theory of
those most familiar with the subject is that the
buffalo and the Indian will perish together.
Though the Indian is in constant pursuit of
this noble game, the buffalo never avoids his
savage persecutor. On the contrary, the Indian
will establish his camping ground, and
then actually drive the buffalo to within a
short distance of his wigwam before he kills
him, thus avoiding any extended transportation
of the raw hides to the place where they
are dressed by the squaws. Now on the other
hand, the buffalo, like the Indian, seems to
have an instinctive aversion to the white man,
and when the emigrant wagon and the railroad
car shall people the west and northwest,
the buffalo will seek new and more inaccessible
fields; and, finally, when he it surrounded
on all sides, he will lie down and die, and we
shall have no more buffalo robes. Men now
living will remember when the Paeific slope
was one vast buffalo range, while today there
isscftrely a buffalo to be 'seen west of the
Rocky Mountains. But it is admitted thht it
t ?* M L.i* At. i a. i o.r.
may De a long wnue oeiore ine mat uuuuu
shall pass in his checks, for a vast range of
country spreads out between the Missouri river
and the Saskatchewan; which is a natural
feeding ground for the buffalo, and there is no
perceptible dimunition of the prodigious herd
that roamFS^fa'r this-spaca^. There are collected
annually at Fort Benton aloneTabbut 120,r.,
000 robes, nearly all of which are taken from ;
the great northern lierd, and yet the Indians
find no greater difficulty in getting them from
their orginal owners than they did years
Our Great Exhibition and its Predecessors.?The
great exhibition just closed
at Philadelphia, in the good character, the
good behavior and the well-to do appearanoe
of its visitors, has given flattering testimony
to the traits of the American nature. But
there is still another aspect in which its material
success may be interpreted as the evidence
of a very positive ana creditable Amercan
quality. Up to the last evening the total
number of visitors to our exhibition number'
ed 8,004,214 for one hundred and forty-six
exhibitiomdaya. At the Vienna exhibition,
although there were one hundred and eightyoiV
Avhihition davfl. including Sundays?the
* ? j ?j y o v
days when the attendance reached its highest
figures?there was a total attendance of only
3,492,622 paying visitors. At the Paris exhibition
in 1857 the paying attendance?including
Sundays?was 8,805,969 in two hundred
and seventeen days. The paying attendance
at the London exhibition of 1851^ which
was kept open for one hundred and foriy-one
days, was 6,039,195; and at the London exhibition
of 1872 there were 6,211,103 visitors
in one hundred and seventy-one days. It will
thus be seen tbat in respect to the numerical
attendance the daily average of our exhibition
has largely exceeded that of its predecessors.
This result will appear much more striking
when we remember that the foreign exhibitions
with which we make comparison, not
only were held in cities much larger than
Philadelphia, bnt had, within a seven days
journey of those cities, a total population, of
200,000,000, while the population with the
' same radius of Philadelphia is leas than 45,000,000.
Furthermore, it should be considered
tbat the admission fees at the foreign exhibitions,
though differing widely on different
days, on the whole averaged very much less
than the fifty cents admission fee at Philadel
This last feature will be brought oat more
distinctly by a glance at the pecuniary results.
At Philadelphia the receipts from admission
fees up to the last night were approximately
$3,816,000; at the London exhibition in
1851 only $2,121,610; at Paris in 1867, only
$2,103,677; and at Vienna in 1878, only $1,032,388.25.
In view of all these figures, it
will not be strange if the ordinary American
concludes that he is a more zealous supporter
of home institutions, a better traveler, and has
more money to spend than the ordinary citizen
of what be calls "the effete nationalities of
the old world."
S&? A dog with an ear for music is owned
by a man in Troy, in New York. The man's
daughter is taking lessons on the piano, and
, devotes several hours a day to practice. One
day the dog was in the room and showed
great interest in the piano. He jumped upon
i the table and looked at it, ran under and
around it, leaping upon it and peered into it,
asif trying to find out where the sounds came
from. Soon after, when the young lady was
playing, the dog tried to imitate the notes.
; Afterward, while she was practicing, the dog
almost daily would try to sing. He did not
bark or howl, as dogs will often do, at the
sound of the bells. Although he could pot
, pronounce fa, sol, la, si, do, dec., he succeeded
in a good imitation of the sounds, and could
. cause his voice to rise and fall with the notes.
All this was at first only in the presence -of
the young lady. When she told her mother
and invited her to be present, the dog would
i not sing. By and by, however* his fondness
. for music overcame his baahfulness, and he
1 would sing in the presence of the two ladies.
Afterwards other members of the family were
, called in, and now the dog, having couqoered
. his modesty and gained confidence in his own
. power, will exhibit his musical talents in the
presence of any company. ^ :
i Eating and DYSPEP8iA.?It is an old
German adage?-"More people dig their own
> graves with their teeth than win spades,"
9 mad verily it would aeein so, if we^look 1st j
ic and goaty individuals, creeping tnrougn
life in pain and wretchedness. Yet it is
next to impossible to indnce even thinking
people to control their appetites and to
eat such things and at each times as nature
shows them is necessary and right. Dr. Hall
declares unhesitatingly that ft is wrong to eat
without an appetite, for it shows there is no
gastric juice in the stomach, and that nature
does not need food, and not needing it, there
being no fluid to act upon it, it remains there
only to putrify, the very thought of which
should be sufficient to deter any man from
eating without an appetite the remainder of
his lift; If a tonic is taken to whet the appetite,
it is a mistaken course, for its only result
is to cause one to eat more, when already
an amonnt has been eaten beyond what the
gastric jnioe is able to prepare. The object
to be obtained is a large supply of gastric
ini?w>. wWfAVAr fnilfl tn Mfiomnliih that esseu
tial object fails to have any efficacy toward
the core of dyspeptic diseases. Toe formation
of gastrio juice is directly proportioned
to the wear and tear of the system, which is
to be the means of supplying,and this wear and
tear can only take place as the result of [exercise.
The efficient remedy for dyspeptics ps
work?out door work?beneficial and successful,
in direct proportion as it is agreeable,
interesting and profitable.,
Anecdote of Rufus Choatr?On a
very hot day, Mr. Ghoate was arguing a case
at a law term of the supreme court before
the fall bench. He evidently had the wrong
side. Besides other cases against him, a deoision
of the supreme court of Pennsylvania
had been cited, which was exactly iov point
and conelnsive against bis positions. .He
was apparently in the full, tide of successful
argument, and was approaching its eod, when
the chief justice said: "What do you say to
the Pennsylvania case, Mr. Choate?" "Your
honors, I have not forgotten that case. By
no means, I am coming to it directly, By
turning to it yea will notioetthat decision was
given in the month of July, in the height of
the hot season, in the extremely hot town of
Harrisburgh, in the interior of the State, far
away from the ocean breeze which here, at
this moment is beginning to fan the heated
L e \Xf? ?1| tk., TTnmM
sometimes nods; and I submit to your honors
whether it is not indisputable that the
judges of the supreme court of Pennsylvania?
convened in the very heated interior of the
State, in the extremely hot month of July,probably
one of the hottest days of tfcrt
month, and in the afternoon, as the report
fortunately happens to inform, us?were, at
the time, of pronouncing this abnormal decision
on which my brother so much relies,
either most of them profoundly asleep, or all
anodding, nid, nid, nodding, and so not responsible
."or the strange doctrines laid down."
There was great merriment among the judges,
and it was increased by the profound gravity
of Choate. The chief justice (Shaw) shook
bis sides till it was thought he would roll off
his chair.
Home jjmt a Hukdbed Yiaes Ago.-t
One hundred years ago not ,-a pound of coal
or a cubic foot of illuminating gas had been
burned in the country. No iron , stoves were
used and no. Contrivances for economizing
heat were employed until Djr. Franklin inveHta^htbeiron
framed fi^e-place which still
bears'his name. All the Im.
ing in town and country weredone by the aid
of fire kindled on the brick hearth OT in the
brick oven. . Pine knots or tallow candles furnished
the light for the long winter nights,
and sanded floors supplied the place of rugs
and carpets. The water used for household
purposes was drawn from deep wells by the
creaking "sweep." No form of pump was
used in this country, so far as we can learn,
until after the commencement of the present
century, there were no friction matches m
those early days, by the aid of' which a fire
could be easily kindled, and if the fire "webt
out" upon the hearth over night, and the tinder
was damp so t^at'the spark would not
catch, the alternative remained of wading
through the snow a mile or so, to borrow a
brand of a neighbor. Only one room in any
house was warm unless some of the family was
ill; iu all the rest the temperature was at aero
during many nights of the winter. The men and #
women of a hanlred yean ago undressed and
went to their beds in a temperature colder
than that of our modern barnaand woodsheds
and they never complained.
'' ' ":'t t "j '* " ' ' ' ' '
Sweeping.?Few persons sweep well. Some
take long strokes with a broom, creating wind,
and sending dqsfc into the air. When they .
are through sweeping they have taken very
little dust from the room; and the dust settles
again on the floor and furniture. It takes
time to swee$ properly; the strokes should be
firm and short, creating very little wind.'
Th*= open winter will cause a great deal of
sweeping; and many will be obliged to take up
their sitting-room carpets before spring.
Whenever snow can be procured, ana the
rooms are so cold that it will not melt, cover
? ?-.1- ."1 e _V .'ta
ine carpei i;dickij wiw it. ouuu ?- oiuuuu
with a broom, and when it is swept off the
snow will be black, and the carpet will look
as clean as if freshly shaken. Any one who
has used snow on their carpets once, will be
embracing every opportunity to have a snow
sweep, it it excellent for sweeping bedrooms?no
dust in the air to settle. It can be
used on the best of carpets without detriment,
Srovided the rooms are so cold that the snow
oes not melt? QUarver.
pr-r . '_* : "
Home Conversation.?Children hunger
perpetually for new ideas. They will learn
with pleasure from the lips of parents what
they deem it drudgery to study in books;
ana even if they have the misfortune to be
deprived of many educational advantages,
the? will grow np .intelligent if they enjoy in
childhood the privilege of listening dailyto
the conversation of intelligent people. We
sometimes see parents who are the life of every
company which they enter, dull silent,
and uninteresting to their children. If they
have not mental activity and mental stoies
sufficiently for both, let them first use what
thev have for their own household. A silent
house is a dull place for young people, a place
from which they will escape if they can.
How much useful information, on the other
hand, is often given in pleasant family conversation,
and what unoonscioos but excellent
mental training in lively, social argument
Cultivate to the utmost all the graces of home
Waste ho Time.?After allowing yourself
proper rest,, don't live a single hour m your
life, without doing exactly what is to be done
in that homr and going straight through with
it from beginning to end. Work, play, study,
rest, whatever it is ?take h<fld at once and
finish it up squarely and clearly ; then to the
next thing, without letting any moments-drop
out between. It- is wonderful to see how
mat' hours these prompt people contrive to
make of a day; it is as if they picked up the
mcmente'Hiat so many&oslcife And if fever

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