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?- - ? : : lewis >1. gbist, i?roprietor."| |ut $wlf|)eml(nf <Jiunilg Htctcspiifr: J,or fhc fwttrtioiT of the" ?lli(aC]^^f(nnttwtijtlJntcrtBta of fltt J^oufh. " |TERMS?$2.00 A YEAR IN ADVANCE. ' TOL735^ YOEKYILLE, S. C., WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 1871889. ~ NO. 38. ^ | fftftfe JUliante. HON. BEN TERRELL'S TALK A REPRESENTATIVE GATHERING OJ YORK COUNTY FARMERS. The National Lecturer of the Farmers' A1 lianoe Unfolds the OInjects and Aims o the Order Before the People, and Give Both Merchant and Farmer Some Sal lent Points that May be Pondered ovei to Their Mutual Advantage. Hod. Ben Terrell, national lecturer o the Farmers' alliance, was in Yorkvilh last Wednesday. His coming had beet looked forward to with the keenest interest by the farmers of the county for severa weeks, and when the day arrived the intelligent and representative crowd thai was here to greet him, was one that an} speaker might esteem it as the highesi honor to have the privilege of addressing Every section of York was representee ? by some of the best and most substantia formers in the county, and more than one observant individual was heard to remark that a more intelligent or determined looking crowd has not been seen in Yorkville since the days of '76. They looked like they meant business, and hadn't com< for a frolic; and it any one has questioned the material of which the alliance is com posed, last Wednesday was sufficient t( set their doubts forever at rest The alliance men must have been ai least a thousand strong (there are fifleer hundred members In the county) but the} constituted scarcely more than half of th< intelligent throDT tnat congregaiea aroum the speaker's stand. There were quit< a number of ladies present, too, both fron the town and country, and the businesi men of Yorkville also turned out prett; generally to hear what the dlstinguishec speaker had to say. Music for the occasion was furnisher by the Gold Hill and Blairsville bras bands, which heading the procession u] town, arrived at the stand, near the gradec school, shortly before eleven o'clock. The speaker's stand was tastefully decor ated with corn, cotton, oats, peas, pinders okra, potatoes, forage plants and othe splendid specimens of York county's ag ricultural products on the stalk and vine Cotton bagging was substituted for th< usual decorative bunting, and suspende< on poles at conspicuous poi n ts were stream ere of jute draped in crape. This, of course was the work of the men. The handi work of the ladies was displayed in th< delicate finishing touches, consisting o beautiful vases of flowers and stems o pampas, which gave a pleasant and refresh ing oflfeet to the decorations so appropri ate to the occasion. The exercises were opened at elevei o'clock with prayer by Eev. L. A. John son, chaplain of the Langham alliance and W. Norman Elder, president of thi county alliance, introduced the speaker. Mr. Terrell spoke about an hour and three-quarters. He was listened to witl the closest attention, and made a profoum impression on all his hearers. He is i bright, fearless speaker, talks with ease am fluency, and does not seek to engender un reasonable class prejudices. His speech ii calculated to do much good and no harm for which reason we take pleasure in re 1?x? u ? A,I. pruuuuiug CUUUKII ui n iv give a ion iuci of the objects, hopes and desires of tha powerful and rapidly growing organize tion, the Farmers' Alliance: MR. TERRELL'S SPEECH. Ladies and Gentlemen and Fellow Citi zens: I deem that the most intelligent thinj that humanity can do, is to do what is bes for themselves. I claim that you are nol only authorized by holy writ to do so, bu that you are denounced for not doing it "He that will not provide for his owi household is worse than an infidel," sayi Paul, and I agree with him. Now I clain that the farmer has not oply the right anc privilege, but I bring it upon him as t duty, tnat he should do all in his power t( benefit himself morally, mentally, com mercially and financially. I believe thai it rests upon every man, and the man wh( will not make the most intelligent effor in bis power to accomplish that, isderelic in his duty. Now comes up the question, What is t< be done ? It is useless for me to occupj time in discussing before this intelligent audience, or attempting to prove that we as producers, are not making money; thai we are not educating our children; thai we are not enjoying the proceeds of oui labor. It is folly for me to prove thes< things. It is patent to everyone that the} are so. If you were to give the wages made by merchants and professional men taking them as a rule, and taking theii advancement, it would cost you fifty centf a pound to produce your cotton. A yoi were to get the cotton raised by skillec mechanics, it would cost twenty cents i pound, but you only get 8 cents a pounc for it. It is the great money crop of thi country, say what you will, and the greai mass of the people are engaged In its pro duction. South Carolina has 70 per cent of her population farmers, and 70 per cent of the people of South Carolina are secur ing a pittance of wages which does not per mit tfiem to have their families made com fortable, much less to have them refinec and educated, and fitted to take the posi tions they ought to occupy. Why is this 1 The reason is plain. We find right hen that the farmers have only received sever or eight dollars a month for their labor You, the white man, is worth no mon than the freedman when it comes todoin? your own labor. Then say it is worth seven or eight dollars a month. If yoi have your own horse, have your owi labor and make a good crop, and sell it ai a fair price, you can make some money or the farm; but as a general rule, where i man has to make it with his own hands whether on his own land or on another'i f>lace, there is no money to be made out o t; and when he sells his crop, it is at ar actual loss. Now, gentlemen, why d< you do that? Is it intelligent to wort hard all year; work your families hard put your girls in the field, and neglect theii education and everything else, and at thf end of the year sacrifice the product o their labor at less than it cost to product it ? If you, as intelligent gentlemen, ge up the alliance and come together anc reason about these things, you will no do it, because if you come to reflect, yoi will not stand it. You will devise somt better method by which you can sell you products at a profit and make money fo yourselves. Now I want to say that to remedy th< existing state of affairs requires an effort and a great effort by all the people. It re quires united, organized effort. I want t< say something right here?something of i digression from the subject perhaps?but 1 want you to look about you. I want yoi to look at the people who have succeeded and to call your attention to the fact tha organization has effected their success. ] want to say that there is not a merchani - ? ntnH/ltnn. Ann fkof ?a C* ofoQTY"? Ill J^uuu aiauuiug?uvt uuc iuav jo vodwiu od by his fellow merchants?that does noi belong to some mercantile organization There is not a lawyer but what he belong to his organization. Go to your doctors and you will find that they are organizedorganized wisely, for a purpose. You can' employ a lawyer who is a gentleman and belongs to his organization, if you hav< consulted another lawyer. He wouldn' take your case until you have gone to th< other lawyer and paid him. If you coulc do that, you could consult every lawyer it the town, and get advice from all withou paying them. So you see organization ii necessary for their protection. Nobody blames them. No intelligent man blamei another for making money if he can. Now, mark you, I don't blame the mer chant. I don't blame the jute bagging trust, just so long as you men permit it Just so long as you permit them to extor money, they will extort it from you, anc it is folly for us farmers to look for redres; except in ourselves. Now, gentlemen will you make the effort? Will you, to organize ? Will you, too, come out ar sit down in consultation in the sub-all ances, and discuss your interests, and thei after coming to wise conclusions, let ti L majority rule. And let every one of yc act as a unit. I want to ask you the que v tion In all seriousness, if any of you ha> joined the alliance with any other intei tion except to lay aside your personal d< - sires and go according to the will of th f majority? If you have, you have ce s tainly gone into the wrong box. If yc are not for benefitting the whole, you wi ' certainly bring discord, and without coi r cert of action, the attainment of our en( is an impossibility. But if you are wi . line to go and counsel with your brother 1 ana after reasoning with each other, fo 3 low the will of the majority?acting i l a unit?then I say to you that success t ready to perch upon our banners, and I defy the world and every power outsic to prevent the farmer from accomplishin . everything he wants?if you submit to th 1 one rule and are a unit. [Applause.] f I want to say that this is tnanly. It t intelligent, and it will make you the coi nnfirnrs. Do It. and safety is a cons< I quence. If you do this, we can control ti . price of our products and sell them upon 1 market that wants and is willing to pay 5 fair and correct price for them. [Applause ; -There is no other class of people that ha\ [ acted as foolishly as we farmers haw . Take the merchant, and if he has me I chandised at a loss, he quits. If the do tor Ib losing money by his profession 1 3 gives it up and goes at something else; an I if the lawyer finds that his pleading at tli - bar will not provide for his family, b > will not continue it. There is not a sbliti ry man in any other avocation of life wb . will go on without considering me prom 1 I will ask the attention of the farmei 1 here, especially members of the farmer r alliance, to a few remarks, and I think yc 3 will catch the expectations of the alliam I from them. You are required to selec with care, the best man from your sul alliance and Instruct him as to your viev 1 to the county alliance, and whatever ti 3 majority of those determine, binds evei j sub-alliance in the county ; and the me 1 who goes contrary is not keeping his ol ligation and should be expelled. That is a . liance, and that is a power that can contr 1 the greatest Influence on the face of tl 8 earth. You elect the very best man yc ;> have got in your county alliance, withoi jj using money, whisky or other means < electioneering. Let him be the choice the people, unbiased and free, standi! out boldly as the choice of the county?i ' the best man. you have got. He goes r your State alliance, and I say it is Intel] - gent that whatever those men?the be . you have got?sitting in council, say; q say that it is intelligent that every alliani , man throughout South Carolina ought 1 1 do it. If you mean business, we are saf Tf >ma<in 4a /Ia nrKof ?ati nrnfflBQ T qfl XI jrvu uicau iu uu jwu |/?vivw|A m> , daylight is breakng, freedom is here, at . those influences that have been so hurtf B to the farmers of this country, can be 8 , tered and changed at our will. [Applause I think that when you have selected tl r best men you have?when you are tho - oughly organized?you can tell throuf - your representatives to the national alliam when to sell your cotton and when to hoi , With all the information before thee this body can instruct the secretary of ea( sub-alliance when to sell, and by puttir * the right amount of cotton on the mark) a at the proper time, it will not be so difficu to say what you will take for it. But if y< [ sell on your own hook as we have alwa< been doing, the consequences will be tl : same old thing. If you rush cotton on tl 1 market without system and without coi i sideration, the price drops, and do* 1 you go, selling your cottoD at less than . cost to produce it. Your only hope is i 3 your organization, and every man must 1 true to it. You must not twist over whe ' you see the best chance to sell your ow * cotton to advantage and leave .your brotl * ers in the lurch. While you are askir t your brothers to be true and faithful to the . obligations, you must be careful to stac by your own. Don't ask them to stand t and hold down the balance while you stt in and get the chicken, by selling yot - own. Don't sell your cotton during tl j month of September?not a bale before tl t first of October, or until you receive ii t structions from your county secretary. E t will be informed on the 20th of Septen . ber what to do, and I tell you that if yc i await his instructions, I will be respone 3 ble to every man who is the loser by i i Some of you may be obliged to sell to ps 1 the merchant. The merchant must 1 paid; but get your sub-alliance to he! you hold your cotton?don't apply to ind viduals. Now, I say gentlemen, I don ask any man in the alliance to do what wrong. I don't ask any man to do an; , thing his conscience does not approve c Before I would do anything that my coi science does not approve of, I would qu the organization; but we must avoid 01 past errors if we would gain our desire end. Right now is the time to be firn There is a shortage in last year's crop an . the price is up. England is getting out < cotton and running her mills on half tim Does she do this because they have r orders for goods? No, she has orde ahead and she is anxious to till them, it because she can't get the cotton ? No, si can get that too, but she is not willing 1 pay the high price that the present shor age has made the remainder of last year crop worth. She is waiting for you farn ers to do foolishly as you have alwa; done, and she can reasonably expect yc to do so again. They are waiting for you i rush your cotton on the market so thi t they can buy it for less than it is worth less than it cost you to produce it. Now, I want to show you the power 1 . organization. When organized, your su! - alliances are only six miles square, an - you know every man in them. You agr< - to do just what the majority does. Yc 1 send a man to the county alliance, and becomes a unit, aud to the State alliance ? and it becomes a unit, and to the Nation: alliance, and the whole of the cotton Stab are a unit. Now, my friends, it takes a of us to do this duty. Every State rau be represented. I hear of some of tt county alliances talking of taking charg of the cotton crop and managing it. Yc can't do it. You must have your State e tablished in the trade exchange. Yc must know how much of the crop is to t held, and how long before you can act ii telligently. You must take all the info mation from the alliances in regard to ho much of the cotton crop is on the market how much is on your farms, and when fa tories want it, and thus be able to te when to sell it. When a little county tri< to manage such a question as this, it r minds me of the gentleman calf gettin on the railroad and trying to butt the loc< motive off the track. When the engir f hit him it knocked him about forty fee 3 There was a fellow standing by watchir t him, and when the calf got knocked ol 1 the fellow cried: "Well, my little pnan, t admire your courage, but dam your di 1 cretion." [Laughter.] 3 Now I admire the pluck of the man thi r tries to control the cotton crop of the Soul r with one county's product, but?"darn h discretion." [Laughter.] "Well," sa> 3 someone, "you can't get your price." Ye , yes you can, and it's just as easy as the A - kansaw girl knew her dad. A traveler i 3 Arkansaw rode up to a house one day an i found a half grown girl leaning up again [ the door post. "Who lives here?" aske i the traveler." "Dad." "But who is dad 1 , "Why, don't you know dad." "No. t "Why, law," she says, "I know dad d& [ as easy!" [Laughter.] And I want to sa t that we can accomplish th* measure "de - as e-a-s-y!" Not a bit of trouble in tl t world as soon as you understand that yo . must come up and obey the majorit; 3 That is unity, the greatest thing on tt , face of the earth. It is the great aesideri - turn. t I like unity anyhow! I always like 1 , see things united, and nature herself teacl 3 es that nothing is so abhorrent to her i t to see anything in her domain refuse I ? unite. Watch the streams. Where do< 1 the Mississippi come from? From tl i mountains, in little springs, glad to unii t with each other, glad at the prospect of 3 union, where they form ai other strean ; and another, and another, until you can 3 tell where they come from. Down the go to the sea, uniting at every opportunit; - until the great Mississippi flows unchecke j toward the ocean. Now it is a power th: . nothing can control. Now, suppose thei t springs had said: "I won't mix my wate 1 with yours. I will keep on ray own way 3 The selfish little old creek would hai , struck the sandy prairie somewhere ar o, got dried up before it got started. So it is id with the farmers who are not organized, fi- What power have you got? What can n, you do? Some who are smarter than the ie alliance, put me in mind of the lellow on >u the jury who, when the judge was scolds ing about the delay in rendering a verdict, ;e excused himself with the explanation: a- "Your honor, I have been ready all the 3- time; but there are on the jury eleven of ie the most obstinate men I ever saw in all r- my life." [Laughter.] I call that man a iu dandy. Now if j'ou are organized, gentle11 men, I want to say that it means that if a- you do not obey the majority, it amounts Is to no organization at all. If you are or1 ganized you have the power to do all that s, you will. The single farmer is like the 1- gnat I read about once in JEsop's fables. *s He was sitting on an ox's horn and finally is growing remorseful at his imposition, said: I "Mr. Ox, if my weight is oppressing you Ie I will fly away." The ox replied : "Why, ig you little fool, I didn't know that you is were there." I want to say to you independent men, who think you can manage is things, Commerce don't know you are a- here. It never heard of you. [Laughter a- and applause.] But I want to say to you ie right here, gentlemen, by way of encoura agement, that if you had about two mlla lion gnats at that ox's eyes, ears, nose and .] mouth, that he would have been willing fe to have moved out. He would have e. known they were there, r- I want to say to all farmers, colored and c- white, that if they mean business and act ie upon a common basis, arranged by our d most intelligent men, you have the power le to say what your products are wortti; and 16 I want to say to you farmers that the fari mer lives in the kitchen and the man who 10 lives in the parlor can't get anything to s. eat unless you give it to him. [Loud aprs plause.] The farmer is acknowledged by s' others to be the foundation on which ?u they build. They call him the mud sill, :e and when that foundation turns over ev t, erything else has to flop over too. [Apb plause.] I don't want to talk about the rs rascalities of your merchants. I have le nothing to do with that. I am not here y to look after them or their interests. I in was not appointed by you, as your nationb al lecturer, to look after the merchants ,1- and the capitalists, but only after your tool terests?the interests of the farmer?and I le propose to do that to the best of my ability. >u Now the proposition, gentlemen, of the ut alliance comes: That each sub-alliance of should be made responsible for its memberof ship. You must see that no member of ig your alliance uses one yard of jute bagas ging if he can possibly get anything else, to Now, if a man is going to use jute, go to !i- see him and talk to him as a brother, st Show him the harm he is doing. Show I him that when we make great resolutions je about what we are going to do and don't to carry them out, the world laugh9at us and e. ought to laugh at us, because you can iy show no reason why you can't use cotton id bagging, except that you will lose a few ul cents on each bale of cotton. And if you tl- won't stand this sacrihce of a few cents a i.] bale for the sake of a righteous principle, le all I have to say is, may the good Lord have r? mercy ou the farmers. [Applause.] There jh is every reason why au intelligent man ce would use cotton bagging. Last year the d. bagging trust charged you 13,14 and 16 n, cents for their bagging. Now this year, :h forsooth, at Birmingham, they offered to ig sell it to us at 8} cents for two pound bagBt ging, and offered to pay two dollars more lit per ton for cotton seed, if we would use it. >u When we asked them, "What will you do ps next year?" they didn't have anything to le say about next year. We didn't bite. I le found out afterwards that the very men q- who were talking to your representatives, rn were making arrangements to sell out it lock, stock and barrel, and that they would in keep their obligations, of course?but the je other parties, the purchasers, would not; ;n and if you still use jute bagging, you rn ought to be skinned just that way forever, h.- I claim that it is good and proper, and we ig are manly and just in what we are doing. if Thfir#? ib nnfi thine in this warfare in iute id that surprises me. When we first started >y it?when the first Georgia alliance propos?p ed to substitute cotton bagging?I expectjr ed to see eveiy merchant in the country ie come out through their exchanges and ie say, make this cotton bagging for the n- farmers. They are our patrons, they are re friends?they clothe and feed us. I did n- expect that the intelligent merchants of >u this country would stand by us and crush ii- out of existence what they themselves t. called and infamous trust. They have not iy done it; but if they had, they would >e have killed out the feeling of animosity Ip that is growing up between country and i- town. We have in the country, people 't who feel that you merchants are here only is to get what you can out of them. Then I y- say you are making a fatal mistake, if. Kow I want to say something to you n- about the newspapers. They have a great it deal to say about the jute question, as well ir as others they don't know or care any>d thing about. [Laughter.] Frequently, . you read some man's views about certain id matters that he knows absolutely nothing of about, and you farmers must believe it e. because it comes through the newspapers. 10 The newspapers are not to blame. They rs don't know anything about it. They pubIs lish letters from this section and that secie tion, and they say cotton bagging won't to do. "It won't go through the compress." t- The News and Courier said that. Every 's issue had communications from this man i- and that man saying it wouldn't do. But ya when they got mighty little cotton they iu turned around and said they thought cotto ton bagging would do very well. "O, yes, at cotton bagging is all right," they said; ? "cotton bagging will do first rate!" [Laughter.] of Mr. Wagner's drummer said to the farb mere, "You are crazy. They are taking id off cotton bagging and putting on jute je bagging," and the News and Courier came >u out yesterday and said that it is not so. It it was but one bale, and that was packed in b, rags. It was not but one bale! No man al hollers before he is hurt, and no dog howls 08 before he is hit. [Laughter.] Let me tell .11 you farmers it costs something to re-cover st a bale of cotton. Jit costs something to put le it into press again, and you might have je known that it was another Charleston lie. >u Trying to get you to use jute, eh ? These s- newspapers are not all Bibles. [Laughter, >u and cries of we know that.] Yes, there >e are lots of people who are powerfully ina terested in giving us advice. They seem r- to be as much interested in our cotw ton crop as we are. Down at Chester, :; yesterday, when I was telling the farmers c- not to sell their cotton until October, there II was one man out in the edge of the crowd 08 who danced a regular hornpipe. He e- didn't want me to give them that kind ig oi auvice. r or me adorers sane, uon i o- tell them not to sell their cotton in Seple tember," he said. He didn't tell me, of t. course, but I afterward came to learn that ig this man has sold seven thousand bales ff, short for September! [Laughter.] If you I look for the reason for all this advice in s- the newspapers, you will see that they are not to blame. They print what this it man and that mun has to say about it. ;h They get the news indiscriminately, and is they will not be responsible for anyfs thing except their editorials. You must s, learn how to take them. What is an edir torial anyway ? It's nothing but the edin tor's opinion, and by G?, we have as d much right to our opinion as they have to st theirs. [Laughter and applause.] The id newspapers certainly have a right to their opinions, and thet-e newspapers, scattered " broad cast over the country, have a great sw deal to do with forming public opinion. iy They scared some of our alliance men ss nearly to death and had their knees knockle ing together because the Liverpool exiu change was against us. What on earth y. has the Liverpool exchange to do with xe it? Not a thing in the world. It makes a- no difference to it what we wrap our cotton in. Why, if you farmers stand togethto er and organize your exchange, your agent has arrangements to ship your cotton dias rect. White and colored will mortgage to their cotton to sub-alliances and not to es individuals. We will have the power to le hold the cotton aud say to the factor who te wants to buy it: uIIere it is. Here is a so much cotton, and it is worth so much, a, and the bagging and ties are worth so 't much. We are willing to lose so much iy on them. Now, if you don't want it, you y, don't have to take it." You farmers don't id sell your cotton. You take it to town and at take what they give you for it. You 3e haven't sold a bale of cotton in twenty rs years. It is your fault?not theirs; and ." you must not hlame them for it. If I ;e could have bought yourcotton at my price, id I would have done it. Now, I want to say a few words to you about the way you sell cotton at the present time. J want to disgust you with it, and if I don't disgust you before I get through, I think you must have a mighty strong appetite. You fanners come in with your cotton on yourwagons. You bring it to town because you have no other place to sell. If you were to ship it to another place, it would be the same thing. What does the cotton buyer do? He takes his knife and goes around to the wagon and jumps on to fl bale and whacks it right across?not down, so it can be patched up again?but righl across. He then jerks out just as much as he pleases. He says it's mighty good cotton, but it might not be so good on the other side, and he cuts it there aDd you stand by like the fat fellow that the call ran over, with rot a darned word to say] You have had a drizzling rain on your cotton, and he says there is ten pounds ol water in the bale. "Not that much, mister! Just look at my shirt. It's not wet at all," you say, and you try to beg and plead and explain. Why are you not in a position to tell him that it is your cotton, and if he don't want it he don't have to take it? But you know, and he knows you have to sell it. "Well, sir," the cotton man says, "we have to make this allowance, or we will lose." You never know, and cannot know what he makes allowance for water in your eotton, or how much he puts upon it unless you learn it from the Almighty on the day of judgment. [Laughter.] Now, if you understand this proposition you will see at once how foolish you are for selling your cotton as you are selling it. You see At- - I 1 Al ?!???!?? lilt; uuyer uus uie privilege ui emssiug the cotton, deducting the water and pricing it too. Suppose it held out?every pound of it. Every pound you said was there was found to be there. Suppose it didn't lose over a pound or two pounds, even. SupEose he actually got middling fair for it. >o you reckon you will ever know it? As I said, the Lord may tell you on the day of judgment, but it is the only way. He puts the money in his pocket, and that's the end of it. Ain't you farmers ashamed to occupy such a position as that? You have mortgaged yourselves, and sell it because the mortgage is pressing you. You can't help it. You have to buy your goods from the merchant. You walk in there and the clerk throws down some goods and telle you his price. You say, "Its mighty high. I can buy it for less at Mr. Jones's." He says, "If you don't want it, don't take it," and you can't say anything, but just stand there and take it. Why don't you farmers stand together and take your cotton to the county agent, and if the speculator wants it let him come for it. I wan't to say that right in my county we sell our cotton that way. We have the smartest business man in the county for a business ageut, and he is the best business agent in the county. We never stop in the street with our cotton. It is hauled to him. The buyer goes to Mr. Leggett (the agent) and says: "I want IOC bales of cotton. What will you take for it?" Whoever heard of that question being asked before? [Applause.] "Cotton is worth ten cents on a basis of middling," Mr. T.orrorott enva onH thpn flip two ficrPfi on *JVbbx",v """ ? -n- - - -? the classification and then they weigh the cotton. The agent is right there to see it correctly weighed, and the gentleman makes no deduction for anything. ''Well,'1 some man says, "I can'tafford to do that." Who can't ? There is not a cotton man who does not tell you that he takes ofl thirty pounds for tare?twenty pounds for the bagging, and there are ten pounds left, What for? "Well," they say, "when you put this cotton on the platform, the cows eat some of it." [Laughter.] You have all seen cows eating cotton, I have no doubt. And when you go down to New Orleans, or some other big city, the wharl rats?these little fellows you see around the wharves?get a whack at it and steal some. A man will see him jerk a handful of it out and may holler at him, but that's about all. The policemen don't care anything about cotton. When you want to put cotton in the ship, some of the ends of the bales are larger than the others, so the stevedore grabs out some and throws it away. They hold all of it and pack it, "' Am*v? T IfM/vtit /\f nlr A/1 1 Q Ul uuuioCi uuc in in x niiuw wi |iav/ix^v4 ?v bales the lastyear I was in Texas, and sold it for their own cotton. Now you understand where that eight or ten pounds ol cotton goes to when they ship it, and if it still has any of the ten pounds left when it reaches Liverpool, they put it in their pockets. Now is it not more intelligent for you farmers to get together as a unit, put every bale in the State alliance, and let your county agent sample it, and let your State agent say what it is worth? The county agent can sell it as well as the State agent. He classes it, and he and the buyer agree as to what is a fair classification. Suppose there was a dispute. The county agent sayB, "Well sir, you needn't take that cotton. You don't have to, and we don't have to sell it." [Applause.] "Well," the fellow says, "you are making a heavy war on the cotton buyers." But no, sir, fellow farmers, I am making war on you. I don't blame the cotton buyer. The farmers of the country are to blame?making mere machines of themT 1 i:i.^ U? k.. Beiyes. oust iiftcu utiuy uiuu&nruu mule, you are going ahead and making whatever you can without knowing the first thing of the cost of production. Unless you unite and organize and plan together you can quit it. Now you know what to do to succeed. Will you do it? I put the question plainly before you. I know what you have to accomplish, and you all know. If you come up and do your duty, you will accomplish it. There is nothing to keep us from it except a want of organization. Now we have the farmers' friends all over the country. That is, those who call themselves friends of the alliance. I want to tell you that the greatest enemy you have is the man who professes to be your friend and discourages you at every opportunity. The man who comes up and says : UI am with you, I would like to see the alliance succeed ; but you will never get these farmers to stay together in the world." Now, if he really wanted you to succeed, he would never say any such thing as that. But he don't want you to succeed, and the hypocrite professes pleasure at your efforts while all the time trying to discourage you and destroy confidence. And,farmers, whenever you lose faith and hope, right then you quit work. You would never raise another crop of corn if somebody would convince you that you couldn't or wouldn't raise anything on your land that year. There is not a farmer in this county who would plant anything, and is it necessary for me to tell you that your confidence in yourselves is a necessity for your success. Now the man who breaks that confidence in any way must be regarded as an enemy, I don't care who he is; I don't care if he is the governor of your State. I don't know anybody in this county, and I don't want to know them when I am maaing a speecn. i\o intelligent umn who is in sympathy with the movement would do a thing of that kind to weaken youc confidence, by eternally dinning in your ears his fears of your success. Now before I close I want to say a few words about this grinding credit system. This burden of debt is making us cowards. You go to a merchant who probably holds a mortgage on your crop and tell him you want a little bacon, and he tells you that you are eating too much down at your house and he don't know whether he can let you have it or not. You belong to him and you have to bear it without a word. You even crouch your head and say with a smile that you are living on as little as you can. It's a shameful condition. Of course you ought to pay every debt you contract, but you have no business to contract debts you cannot pay. It is better to go in patches, and if you can't find enough patches of one color, put in other colors until you are clad in garments like Joseph's coat. I tell you it is more honorable to dress in rags and be independent thau to be some rich man's peon. Come up and say from this time on, me and my family are going to do our duty. We are going to pay cash, and we are going to succeed. We had a young man in our neighborhood?a mere boy?supporting his mother and two sisters. He had not a thing in the worid. Well, he rented a place and managed to procure some corn bread and sorghum to go on, and also raised some chickens. After working hard and getting his crop well started, he went to a merchant to get some supplies. But the merchantwould not trust him. So he went ; back home and continued to live on his corn bread and sorghum and water. When : we found out his circumstances, he had his crop well nigh raised ; but we went tc him and said that the way he had been i treated was a shame, and told him thai i we would stand for him. He said that h was much obliged, but he was all through now, and didn't need it. That was ten years ago. That boy is now tbe most y prosperous farmer in his county. He haf i never bought a thing on credit, has money in the bank, and has one of the most refined and intelligent families I ever saw. Now suppose you do have to live on bread and water and sorghum for a yeai or so, if you can be an independent man, ij Come out with that determination to youi p sub-alliance, where it will be brothei r helping brother. - Take an obligation that 'i you will not go in debt; make your word ^ your bond and become honorable men I Your prosperity will be short lived if yoi i neglect building upon a good foundation Talk it to your children and let them un derstand that tbe man who does his duty and not the man of wealth is the man I God forbid that we should worship wealth f- - It is the most contemptible thing on th< face of the earth ! It erives no reflnemenl j nor no beauty of character. The man whr , tyranizes over the poor because he has goi inches, is the most contemptible creature on "theface of the globe. I don't say thai ; wealth is not a good thing to have. If ? man is a gentleman he is as good with it a; without; but it's the gentleman?not the i wealth. Don't have your wives and daughters trying to live up inastyleanci i go in finery because somebody else is able : to do it. Tell them that piety and beauty of character are more in the eyes of a trut man than all the finery that they could i put on. > Women are the best things on earth They make us live better lives, by theii very presence, and if it were not for then: i how quick would goour religion and ever} good influence concerned with them. II i is not the dress that attracts us, but the i woman. Any good man loves a womar because she is a woman, and not becaust of what she has on. You farmers ought to understand that ic paying the merchant you are helping the alliance in the best possible way. If a i merchant has trusted you, don't make wai ) on him. If you become dissatisfied be i cause be don't want to sell you reasonably you should go and buy somewhere else i Butdon't bind yourself up to a merchant and cry about it when he skins you. Support your families. Get out of debt, and never get in that position again. If 1 could get every farmer who hears me speak , to organize, there would be no cause foi complaint in a very short time. I don'l i wish to say that the merchants don't extorl from you. I know they do ; but my friendt i you would do the same. It is human nai ture, and if you could get a dollar a pound for your cotton you would take it. Tht : way for you to do is to bring about suck , conditions as that you will have a say so as l well as the merchant. At present they price your crop and they price your supplies, and it does not take a very smart mar i to make money under such conditions as . that. The alliance will bring you outo: > this position if you stand by it. i I will say another thing to you. There ; is some feeling against the lawyers. Men that is wrong; but if a lawyer has beer 1 caught in a questionable act, if ho hat 1 done wrong, or has helped to pass laws i that are detrimental to you and you know F it, you should remember him. Lawsuits ' can't hurt you. They are like whisky, It can't hurt you so long as you let it staj i in the bottle. [Laughter.] Settle youi i little differences at home. Can't you, as i intelligent men, sit down and decide youi i little difficulties? If you can't, you can'l expect the lawyers to do it for nothing. An artist was courting a farmer's daugh! ter once and the old man objected to hu I suit. Finally he consented, if the artisl would paint a lawsuit between farmers, ; and the artist got up his picture. It rep> resented a squabble between two farmers . over a cow. One had her by the horns and i the other by the tail, and a lawyer or > either side was milking her. Ontheothei i Siae 01 mo canvas was nuuiner piciuic, In this the animal had kicked one farmei l down and butted the other over the fence, and the two lawyers, who had already gotten all the milk, were running away ' with the cow. Lawyers are very uecessa; ry to settle titles to real estate and all that sort of thing, but keep them out of youi ' personal quarrels and settle them yourselves. You farmers must let other peoi pie's business alone. You have plenty ol your own to attend to. I have not discussed the alliance in poli; tics, but I want to say that you must nomi; nate no one who is against the farmer, and i who opposes laws for his benefit. But i choose the very best men you have, whethi er they be farmers or not. We have jusl as good men in every other avocation ol life, and they have just as much right in . the politics of the country as we have. But select men above reproach ; inen that you can trust and honor. You want the best man for the place without regard to what his avocation may be. Letyour representatives in the legislature know youi > views, and see that they meet your demands. We believe in equal rights to all and special privileges to none. At the close of Mr. Terrell's address he was presented a beautiful bouquet of flowers from the teachers of the York ville graded school, and acknowledged the gift in a magnificent eulogy on the ladies in general. He told the men that they must endeavor to get the ladies interested in the alliance; that they must be taken in as members, and if they could be induced in no other way, that they should be fooled in. They must be told about the greasy pole and riding the goat, etc. lie argued that the presence and interest of the ladies would have a most wholesome influence on the organization ; make the men better; make thern stand by their obligations, and take a greater interest in the work. REMINISCENCES OF WESTERN YORK. For the Ynrkvllle Enquirer. If Uncle Joe Howell wus more remarkable for one thing than another, it was his expertness in relating stories that were remarkable for their unreasonableness. But never did I hear or know of him telling anything that produced harm or ill-feeling between his neighbors. He followed farming the last days of his life, and as long as he was able to work. He was the brother of Mr. Williamson Howell, the founder of Howell's ferry. In telling how rich the lands on Broad river U9ed to be, he said that at one time he concluded to plant a cucumber patch on the bank of the river. He prepared his land thoroughly and when the proper time came he deposited the seeds in the ground. Soon the ground began to work and he mounted his horse to ride away. He looked back and saw the vines emerge from the ground and take after him, when he urged his horse on with all possible speed; but the cucumber vines overtook him and entangled him and his horse so that he could go no further. He then put his hand into his pocket for his knife to cut the vines off, when he found a ripe cucumi her in his pocket. Another of his stories was that at one time he drove a team for the iron works company at Cherokee ford. Upon a bet his team pulled ten thousand and ninety one pounds from the works to the top of some neighboring hill. When he would stop to give his team a chance to rest, his lead mule would turn out to the side of the road and seize a bush with her teeth in order to keep the wagon from running back. He was also fond of telling that at one time he used raw hide traces on his mules instead of chains. One day he was caught in a drenching rain, and with his wagon heavily loaded. He came to a steep hill "nil 117ifH mufh whnnniner and hallooine'. his team reached the top of the hill, when he looked back, but could not see the wagon. He dismounted and tied the harness to some trees on the road side and went home, taking his team. The next day the sun came out and it and the wind dried and contracted the raw hide traces so that they drew the wagon up to the top of the hill. I do not repeat these stories now with the view to elevate the morals of the present generation, but to show the wonderful facilities our predecessors had for raising falsehoods. The amount of harm occasioned by Uncle Joe Howell in this respect was always confined to himself, as he never told a story that any sensible person would believe. Aside from these frailties he was upright and honest, and never did he do a dishonorable act that I ever heard of. He died several years ago, and his dust rests in the Smith grave yard, on the bank of Broad river, a half or three quarters of a mile below Howell's ferry, on the York side. While speaking of Cherokee ford iron works, I will relate an incident which, perhaps some of my older readers will remember, that took place there maby years ago. At the time of which I speak, a colony of Swedes were operating the iron mills as well as the mining presses. The foret man's name was Hammawsko. He had I with him a friend of his own nationality, . by the name of "Billy." i "Billy" was an awkward hand with a . bateau, but would venture out into the - river when it was ud. On one occasion. , when the river was very high, "Billy'' . undertook to cross in a bateau. When he . struck the main current the vessel was 3 capsized and "Billy" thrown into the surgt ing waters. He, however, managed to get > hold of the vessel and held on for dear life, t Some one standing on the bank saw his i dilemma and told the old man Hammawst koof it, when i.e ran to the bank of the i river, and, with his arms girating frantici ally, shouted at the top of his voice: "Coot ) pye, Billy; coot pye. You ish gone to hell I dis time, sure enough." But "Billy" I lodged on a rock below and was rescued, ! after a new bateau was made and brought r to his assistance. j. l. s. 3 I Pension Commissioner Tanner.?The Washington Star says there is a very gen" "I MAtn Ponainn PommifloiAnoT , Uiai UC11C1 UU *T Ifliav A VllUIVtl \yv*i*U4iuaavuv4 r Tanner will have to retire from the peni sion office. His most unpardonable sin, it r is said, is talkativeness, and for this, it is t believed, he will have to go. The presi> dent's sympathy with the soldiers inclines i him to approve liberality toward them, ; and it is believed that even if a point were strained in that direction, he would be i slow to condemn. It is not thought that j any charge of dishonesty or perversity l could hold for a moment against the comr missioner, and there is no idea that he . will be removed under any such implica, tion. Nor is it at all likely that a charge . of too great liberality on the part of Mr. , Tanner would influence the president . against him, unless it should be something I really gross. A member of congress, speak; ing with a Star reporter, said they did not : think they could afford to remove Tanner r before the election. The idea is, however, b that the removal, if made, would he for t reasons that would not offend the Grand i Army. But notwithstanding these considersI tinna thp stntpinpnf pnmps from Washing ion that the enormous outlays of the pension office, for which Commissioner Tanner is directly responsible, have spread consternation among the members of the administration, and if persisted in will wreck the Republican party, if it does not bankrupt the treasury. The increase ol ' the public debt during August being over $0,000,000, and since the beginning of the present fiscal year, July 1, over $7,000,000, is conceded to be a very unfavorable beginning for the first fiscal year of the new administration. This unfavorable showing is largely attributed to the unwarranted reratings and wholesale-allowance of pensions, and allowance of arrearages by dating reratings back over a long series of years, as in the case of Senator Manderson, aggregating alone over $4,000. The action of the president will be governed by the recommendations o! the secretary of interior. It will be made plain that this action is not taken in a spirit inimical to the soldiers of the late war getting all they deserve, but to put the pension bureau under more sagacious management. Facts About Pensions.?At the last session of the legislature $50,000 was appropriated for the payment of pensions tc Confederate soldiers or sailors of the late war, or to the widows of such soldiers oi sailors. It was provided that such pensions should be $3 a month. Under the provisions of the act pension, erson the roll have been paid $3 a month for the months of February. March. April, ; May, June and July, and they will be paid ! for the months of August and Septembei . the last of the present month. There will . not be sufficient remaining from the approC priation to pay the full $3 for the month ol September, and no more will be paid out . until another appropriation is made hy the . legislature. I A matter not generally known perhaps, . is that the pensions paid by the State are ' only paid for the fiscal year which expires ; October 31, leaving only ten months for r pensions to be paid. | For the information of any one interested it may be stated that the total number of pensioners on the roll is 1,934, to which [ will be paid by the close of this month , something less than the sum of $46,416. . By the act, the members of the county . boards of examiners were to be paid $3 a . day for their services for not more than eight days in one year. For the thirty-five counties this would entail an expenditure of $2,520, if all the boards were in session the full eight days, but many of them were not. Some $2,000 was required for this . purpose, isesiues mis, mere is :ju,:iuu 101 clerk hire, and all the items mentioned will he found to use up the entire appro priation of $f)0,000.?[Columbia Register. A Proposed New Bankrupt Law.? The second National Bankruptcy convention, consisting of representatives of commercial bodies of the United States, to formulate a national bankrupt law, assembled in Minneapolis, Minn., last week. The committee presented a bankrupt j bill drawn up by President Terry, which will be presented at the next Congress. Jurisdiction in bankruptcy proceedings is conferred upon the district courts. The 1 appointment of a referee is provided for i at a fixed salary of $3,000. The trustee is to be nominated by the creditors. The United States district attorney must examine every bankrupt at the first meeting of creditors, and also at the last meeting before the creditors are discharged. It is that official's duty to lay the matter before the grand jury in the case of fraud. Persons guilty of commercial dishonor and who have been defaulted on commercial paper or open accounts for sixty days may be forced into bankruptcy. Fraudulent preferences are forbidden, and valid liens created in good faith are protected. The bankrupt is allowed exemptions ac cording to the State in which he lives. Jf he can show a faultless record and clenn hands, he will be undoubtedly discharged, no matter how small the dividends may pay. A GALLANT SAILOR. Vice Admiral Jaureguibcrry, who died recently, was reoutcd to be the most courteous naval ofticer in European waters. While in command of the Mediterranean squadron he became famous for his courtly treatment of women. Whenever his flagship, the Richelieu, came to anchor off a large town on the southern French or east Italian coast, half the titled women in the neighborhood usually went on board to let the vice admiral say nice things to them, and show them what a flagship was like. Some time ago, while the Richelieu was at anchor near Nice, the vice admiral's popularity among Italian women reached its climax. Almost daily two or three parties of social belles visited the flagship. From :i o'clock until 0 every pleasant afternoon the vice admiral was busy serving coffee, kissing bands, and showing off his ship to the 400 of Nice. After this sort of thing had been in progress several weeks the minister of the navy turned up in Nice for his summer vacation. He disapproved of the vice admiral's almost exclusive devotion to the pretty women of the city. lie told the vice admiral so several times in diplomatic language, but the vice admiral was too polite to pass along to his fair admirers the minister's hints that they were playing ducks and drakes with the discipline of the Mediterranean squadron. The afternoon receptions on the Richelieu continued with unabated popularity. The minister of the navy became very impatient.. Eventually he determined to cure the women of their fondness for visiting the vice admiral, as he could not cure him of his fondness for receiving them. One afternoon while an Italian countess and her two friends were drinking coffee orrtlie Richelieu, the vice ad<niral was unexpectedly ordered by marine signals, made from the shore at tMfrminister's instance, to weigh anchor at once and without any previous communication with the city to proceed to Marseilles. The countess and her friends were in despair. They l)egged to be sent ashore. With all his gallantry, however, the admiral was a thorough sailor. He did not dare disobey his explicit orders. The Richelieu sailed almost inStaediately for Marseilles with the coffee party intact. Two days later the three Italian womerf^lat^rned to Nice by rail from the French seaport. Every one was gossiping about their temporary elope-* raent with the vice admiral. The notoriei ty of their adventure accomplished the minister's purpose. Although the vice admiral remained the most courteous and courtly of naval officers up to the day of his death, comparatively few women who . had heard of tne predicament of the couni tess and her two friends, dared to visit his , flagship to learn how nice he was.?[New 1 York Sun. t THE IJMVERSAITLAW OF WORK. God put Adam in the garden of Edetf ; "to dress and keep it." Herein he recognized, even in the earthly paradise, the i universal law of work?employment for the hand and brain. Doubtless this law > will prevail even in the celestial paradise, says the Youth's Companion. Without ; employment eternal life would be eternal I weariness. 1 The late fearful disaster in the Cone, maugh Valley left the survivors bereft of t homes, families, friends, property and hope. When outside helpers organized the stricken multitude and set them at work, reporters for the press were struck with the immediate change for the better in look and tone and bearing. In any great calamity, whether impend1 ing or already come, nothing is so helpful 1 as engrossing employment. Men working at the pumps to save, if possible, the sink1 ing ship, do not suffer a tenth part as much i as those who stand gazing in the face of ( death. No bloody encounter on the battleI fiplrl in hnrrihle evnerienee the no sition of the line which must simply hold its ground without returning the fire of the ' enemy. Next to the abject poor we may pity the ' inheritors of vast wealth, who are too often 1 without stimulus to exertion, and indeed are often excluded from it by foolish social ; notions. Amusements form a sorry substitute for actual employment, for they soon ; lose their power to please. The great mid; die class enjoy the blessed reaction of regular, adequate work, and their children are ; to be pitied if their lathers' industry dooips tnem to a life of idleness. Many persons whose minds, for want of wholesome activity, have fallen into an unhealthy state, have been saved from insanity or suicide through the calling out of [ sympathies in behalf of others. Such work is the more healthful in that it brings into play the best of one's nature, the part most 1 nappy in its reflex influence. Not a few successful men retire from bus\ iness at a comparatively early age to enjoy, ; as they term it, a period of rest. Such | men generally make a sad mistake. Their 1 enjoymeut is not half what it was before, | and they are fortunate if the tendency of ! brain to shrivel with years be not sadly 1 hastened by the cessation of its life long ac! tivitv. John Oninov Adams keDt at his Dost in congress to the last, not because of political ambition nor on account of pecuniary 1 need, but because lie wished by working to | retain as long as possible his power to l work. Mr. Gladstone retains his extraordinary working power by using brain and | arm. ! No more cruel law, no law more opposed ' the end of prison discipline, was ever ! enacted in America than tne one which de' prived convicts of opportunites for labor. 1 Death itself would be preferable to the insanity, vice, disease and general deteriorai. tion of the whole man, physically mental' ly and morally, which are the natural re, suits of such a deprivation. ! A STORY OF PRESIDENT JACKSON. Never was any man more enterprising and self-reliant than Andrew Jackson. An . acecdote, telling about his parting from his i mother, illustrates this, as exhibited very , early in his life, while as a boy in North I Carolina, he was getting ready to go over into Tennessee, to give his youthful ambij tion a chance. "I had," he said, "contemplated this step f for months, and had made arrangements ; for my trip, and at length had obtained my ( mother's consent to it. All my worldly goods were a few dollars in my purse, and some clothes in my saddle-bags, and a pretj ty good horse, saddle and bridle. The i country to which I was going was compar atively a wilderness, and the trip a long one, beset by many difficulties, especial. ly dangerous because of the Indians. I felt, and so did my mother, that we were parting forever. I knew she would not rei call her promise to let me go, though; there was too much spunk in her for that, - and this caused me to linger a day or two. , "But the time came for the dreadful i parting. My mother was a little dumpy, I red-headed Irish woman. 'Well, mother, . T nm rp?dv to leave, and I must sav fare , well.' She took my hand, and pressing it, . said : 'Farewell!' and her emotion chokea i her. "Kissing at meetings and partings in that day was not as common as now. I . turned from her, and walked rapidly to my horse. As I was mounting she came out of the cabin, wiping her eyes with her apron, and stood at the getting over place in the fence. 'Andy,'she said, (she always called me Andy) 'you are going to a new country i and among rough people, and you will have to depend 011 yourself and cut your way through the world. I have nothing to give you but a mother's advice. Never tell a lie, nor take what is not your own, nor sue anybody for slander or assault and 1 battery. Always settle the case yourself!' I promised, and I've always kept my promise. J rode off some two hundred yards, to a turn in the path, and looked back?she was still standing at the fence, wiping her eyes. 1 never saw her after that." WHAT BECOMES OF OLD SHOES. "Old do" and "old shoe" merchants never pass an ash can without inspecting for old shoes. If any is found it soon finds II I'irttC ill IIIC CUj/UViv/uo v??* *vv* for the purpose. Eacli day's labor is taken to the home of the "old shoe man" where it is sorted over. Shoes that are not past a few days of usefulness go under the resuscitating care of an Italian cobbler. lie gives the old shoe a new lease of life by endowing it with a new sole and other repairs. Those go to some second-hand shoe store, of which there are a goodly number in this city. The shoes that are past repair are taken to the old junk dealers, who in turn ship them to the shoddy factories. There they are pulled to pieces in order to remove the steel shank piece, if there be any, and then ground to a fine dust. This leather dust is then mixed with about forty per 1 ?1- '-I- 1 ? |% AHA/1 ceni. or ruuoer, which hu? uwn ^hhicicii the same way. The mixture of rubber and leather dust is spread in sheets about two feet square, and subjected to a pressure of from 0,000 to 10,(mm) pounds per square foot. The substance is then colored, and sold at prices some fifty per cent, below that of leather. This ma 11 ufactured leather is used by the manufacturers of cheap shoes, mostly for inner soles. As it is wholly wanting in fibre, it is manifestly a very jioor substitute. Shoes with these shoddy inner soles are to be found in large quantities strung 011 poles and bearing the legend: "All leather, $1." The industry of making shoddy shoes has greatly improved. At first straw board was used'for inner-sole counters, and sometimes for out soles by pasting over with a thin veneer of sole leather. Next leather scraps and old shoes were ground up and mixed with straw paper. This gave a little better substance. Now shoddy shoes contain leather dust and rubber.?[New York Sun. Paying for Her "Whinger.?"You've heard about all sorts of unique ways of keeping score 011 drinks for which barkeepers are hung up," said a friend, "and I reckon you've heard all the stories that are afloat, but I think an old woman who lives up our way and does my folk's washing has invented something that's new. She is now an old lady?used to be a slave?and is as ignorant as an unshueked ear of corn. Can't read figures or anything. A short time ago she bought a new wring-, er on the installment plan, and inasmuch as she is very suspicious of everybody, and Ls inclined to think everybody is trying to rob her, it puzzled her a great deal to devise some way of keeping count of the money paid at different times on her purchases. But she struck it. I was over to her house the other morning to see her about some extra work my wife wanted done, and noticed on the window-sill several lead pencil circles of different sizes, but each drawn very carefully, as though around some circular substance. I asked 'auntig!. about it, and she^olAme of the wringer, and that that was the way she knew how much she had paid. The small rings were the size of a quarter, and meant so many quarters had been paid, and the large ones meant half-dollars and dollars. Snejust counted up the rings when she wanted to know how she stood, and could tell as though the money were before her. And yet they say figures are a necessity."?Chicago Mail. ENGLISH TRAMPS. The finest thoughts of many great thinkers are undoubtedly more or less the direct result of their communion with the outdoor world, its strengthening winds and healing sunshine. Certain men of incalculable influence over ideas and morals have been constant lovers of country walks, and it would be difficult to overestimate the effect of such solitary rambles on their habits of thought. Tf la nalnnlafarl that. Wnwlswnrth. in his many years of sauntering, must have traveled a distance of one hundred and eighty thousand miles. What sights he saw during such prolonged and delightful wanderings, only those who have the poet's mind and eye can even guess. Charles Dickens was a confirmed tramp, and no doubt acquired his experience of "life on the road" from actual acquaintance with all sorts of vagabonds ana odd characters, such as frequent town and country lanes and highways. One of the most remarkable of unprofessional walkers was Professor Wilson, the "Christopher North" of literature. His fine physique and great endurance prompted him to the performance of wonderful . feats, which seemed to him entirely a matter of course. He once walked forty miles in eight hours, and at another time walked from Liverpool to E^Jleray in twenty-four hours, a distance of eighty miles. It is good to think of the long, unwearied strides with which he swung along, his Mood bounding with healthy pulses, and sending invigorating waves to the active brain. Henry Fawcett, Also, was a tireless walker, and one who, when deprived of sight, aid not for a moment think of relinSuishing this among many forms of exerse. His was a familiar figure on the roads about Cambridge, and there was no exaggeration in saying that few men blessed with all his senses could enjoy nature more thoroughly than he. Southey, worn and preyed upon by mental application and the practical anxieties of every day-life, found his greatest relief in tramping about the country, listening for what nature had to tell him, and learning contentment from her stability. John Stuart Mill delighted in pedestrian tours, and Charles Lamb, thougn he loved town better than country, was one who believed in sweeping cobwebs from the brain by brisk and continuous walking. All these men walked not merely for . profit, but for pleasure; and the profitableness of the exercise was the greater because of their pleasure in it. Their example may be commended to all. It is safe tc say that whoever once forms the habit of regular tramping will never forego it except under some necessity. A Unique Proposal.?There is in Washington, says the Capital, a young typewriter whose good looks and charming manners justify the sentiments which her employer feels towards her. He is in the habit of dictating his correspondence, while her expert lingers transfix the words as he utters tnem. The other morning he concluded to end the uncertainty wnich had come into existence by asking her to marry him. She was engaged on some copying when he approached her and poured out his sentiments, notwithstanding the warmth of his pleaciings she kept right ahead with the clickety, click, click of the instrument. In fact, she paia so little attention to him that ne became discouraged and left the room, intending to speak to . her when her mind was free from ner duties. He went to his lunch, and on his return sat down to sign a lot of letters that lay on his desk. There was a large pile, and he went through it mechanically, until he struck a sheet near the bottom. Jumping to his feet, he simply exclaimed, "Well, I'll be blowed!" The cold, glaring '.Jil? ? u r v: ,1 . typewritten letter ueiure uuu icau. Miss SusieMaybe you'll think I'm an old jackass, but I ain't. I mean business. I know I don't happen to be very pretty, but I'd be good to a family. I was thinking that maybe you'd learn to like me if you'd go to church with me?and give the minister a few minutes' employment. . And this ain't to save any salary either. It's because I want you for your Say. you ain't listening, are you? Well, I'll come in later when you ain't so busy. Conserve Your Strength.?Some of our young people have read till they are crazed, of learned blacksmiths who at the forge conquered thirty languages, and of shoemakers who. pounding sole-leather, got to be philosophers, and milliners who, while their customers were at the glass trying on their spring hats, wrote a volume of first rate poems. The fact is, no blacksmith ought to lie troubled with more than five languages ; and instead of shoemakers becoming philosophers, we would like to turn our surplus of philosophers into shoemakers; and the supply of poetry is so much greater than the demand that we . !L. ?in* u 4... WISH me iiuiuiierc tvuuiu sum iu wtu business. Extraordinary examples of work and endurance may do as much harm as good. Because Napoleon slept only three hours a night, hundreds of students have tried the experiment, but instead of Austerlitz and Jena, there come of it only a sick headache and a botch of recitation. We are told how many books a man can read in the five spare minutes before breakfast and the ten minutes at noon; but I wish some one could tell us how much rest a man can get in fifteen minutes after dinner or how much health in an hour's horseback ride, or how much fun in a Saturday afternoon of cricket. He who has such an idea of the value of time that he takes none of it for rest, wastes all his time.?[Exchange. Indian Remedies.?A large and particularly ignorant class of quacks advertise themselves as "Indian" doctors, and claim to have learned secrets of the healing art from the aboriginal inhabitants of this country, and to be able to effect cures by means of remedies obtained from roots and herbs "where all others fail." Without enlarging upon the falsity of the idea that vegetable remedies are always harmlesss, Popular Science News says that the Indians nave no particular medical skill, but. like other savage tribes, depend Srincipally upon incantations and magic to rive off disease. The Indian medicinemen do not employ medicine, as we understand it, at all, but trust for their reputation to their power to work upon the superstitious fears of their ignorant followers. T??. A 1- 2 . . AU/V Tn/Ha ill iiiia irspat me liiuucni inuiaii uwwi about on a par with his savage colleague. The subject of the Indian Pharmacopoeia has l>een investigated by several competent persons and they have found that the remedies used by them are of the simplest kinds, and that none of them are particularly novel to those already in use by the white man. 1ST "Heart failure" is the latest term of this sort employed to indicate the cause of death, and is a most unfortunate one. It really has no meaning at all, for the failure of the heart to do its work always occurs at the end of life. It may be said that death is always caused by the failure of either the heart or the lungs to perform their duties, and that the various forms, accidents or disease are only indirect causes, inducing such failure. Heart failure is not a disease, but the result of disease, and there is nothing new about it whatever. When apElied to organic or functional disease of tne eart it may have some significance, but such a general term had best be used only in a very general sense.