^ ^ XSBUBP SEMI'WEEKL^^ "
l mTgrist's sons"PuWithen. } % Jamilg Jleicspaper: Jfor the promotion of the goliticat, Social. Agricultural and Commercial Interests of the people. J;i^h'vkiLAT?VAMK
ESTABLISHED 1855. YORK V IRLIII, S. C.^T U ESD AYr DECEMHER 8, 1 POM. ISTO. 97.
IIPIW IWIIWWUmUH WIHlHlltllfl
Copyrighted 1896, by Wm. h
By Permission of Lai
r wmi tn ail MIMI mnyiiiiymmw
We drove along in silence. After a
L long time he said: "Here's where she
^ crossed the road: and do you see that?"
^ he asked, pointing to the Milky Way.
"That was done by the waving of her
hand. I wish tc the Lord I knew just
how much she thinks of Dan Stuart."
"Ah, but that wouldn't relieve you," I
replied, "for I know how much Guinea
thinks of Chyd Lundsford and feel all
the worse for it. There are always
two hopes, walking with a doubt, one
> * on each side, but a certainty walks
"T reckon vou are right," he rejoined
with a sigh. "How many strange things
love will make a man say, things that
an unpolsoned man would never think
of. Poisoned is the word, Bill; and I'll
bet that if I'd bite a man It would kill
him in a minute."
"What sort of a fellow is young
Lundsford?" I asked, with my teeth set
and my feet braced against the dashboard.
I "Oh, he ain't a bad fellow; he ain't
f our sort exactly, but he's all right."
"Smart and full of poetry, isn't he?"
L "I never heard him say anything that
had poetry in it. Don't think he knows
half as much about books as you do.
Oh, about certain sorts of books he
does, books with skeletons in them, but
knowing all about skeletons don't make
a man interesting to a woman. I have
read enough to find that out. Why, I
have more than held my own with men
that are well up in special books?have
held my own with all except that fellow
Stuart. Now there's Etheredge,
that I told you about one day?kin to
f Dan Stuart. He's a doctor, and they
tell me that he is well educated, but I
never heard him say a thing worth remembering.
I reckon old Mrs. Nature
has a good deal to do with it after all."
* They were sitting up waiting for us
at home, although it was past the midnight
hour when we drove into the
yard. Old Lim snorted when he learned
that the Aimes boys were not to
k be hanged, but his wife, merciful creatA
ure, was saddened to think that even
H more mercy had not been shown them.
And then she anxiously inquired wheth&
er we had found ourselves short in the
^ matter of provisions. We told her that
I we had brought back nearly all the load |
I which her kindness had Imposed upon i
us, and then with disappointment she
said: "qoorineaff why didn't von
give It to those poor fellows to take
to the penitentiary with 'em, for I know
that there's nothin' there fitten to eat."
The old man stood looking at her,
with his coat off and with his shirtsleeves
rolled up. "Susan," said he,
"I don't want to git mad, I don't want
to go out yander, snatch them chickens
. out of the coop an' make 'em nod at
each other in the dark, but when you
talk that way you almost drive me?by
jings, you almost drive me out there
agin that tree, hard enough to butt
p the bark off. Do you reckon they are
takin' them fellers down there to feed
'em, to fatten 'em up and then turn
'em loose? Hah, is that your idee?
'Zounds, madam, they are lucky to get
there with their necks. And here you
are lamenun inai meres uuium ai
the penitentiary fitten to eat. Go on
to bed, Susan, for if you don't I'm
afeered that I'll have to say somethin'
- to hurt your feelln's, and then I'd worry
about it all night."
"Now Limuel, what is the use in
snortln' round that way? Can't a body
say a word?"
P "It do look like a body can," he tern
joined; "and I'm afeered that a body
will, and that's the reason I want you
to go to bed.'
Old Llm sat down and the subject
was dropped. I noticed his wife looking
anxiously at me, and Just as I was
about to leave the room she said: "Mr.
Hawes, you'll please pardon me for
mentionin' it, but there's a button off
your coat, and I'll be glad to sew it on
If you will be so kind as to leave it
^ down here."
"No, I will sew it on," Guinea spoke
jp. "Give me your coat, Mr. Hawes."
"I will not be the means of keeping
you up any longer," I replied, looking
into her eyes, and feeling the thrill of
their sweet poison: "I will do it myself."
"And rob me of a pleasure?" she asked.
"No. relieve you of a drudgery. Come
Two fools went to bed in the dark
and sighed themselves to sleep, and
two fools dreamed: I know that or.e
did?dreamed of eyes and smiles and
a laugh like a musical cluck.
? CHAPTER X.
More than a month passed and they
v were still working on the school house.
/\ The simple plan had been drawn with
V" but a few strokes of a pencil, the sills
W had been placed without delay, but
they had to plane the boards by hand
and that had taken time. Alf and I
had again sat at the old general's table,
had listened to his words so rounded
out with kindliness, and upon returning
to the porch had heard him storm
at sometning inai naa gone ?.uu??.
Millie showed her dimples and her
pretty teeth, smiling at Alf and at me,
\ too, but I saw no evidence that she
loved him. Indeed, she had been so
much petted that I thought she must
be a flirt, and yet she said nothing to
A give me that Impression. Guinea was
just the same, good-humored, rarely
serious. One Sunday I went to church
with her, walked, though the distance
was two miles; stood near the cave
wherein the British soldiers had hidden
themselves, and talked of everything
save love, I cannot say that I
had a sacred respect for her feelings;
I think that I should have liked to
torture her. but something closed my
f heart against an utterance of its heavy
One Faturdav afternoon I was told
that the school house would be ready
on the following Monday. I had been
/ out rnanv times to view the work, but
I decided to go again to see that everything
was complete. I expected that
u iw hwiwhi m m win m 111 if m i
C READ. I
Lee?All Rights Reserved,
rd & Lee, Publishers. !
Alf would go with me, for the corn
was laid by, but 1 could not find him.
His mother told me that he had put on
his feunday clothes and that she had
seen him going down the road. And
so 1 went alone. The house was done,
and what a change from the pile of Old
logs! The walls were painted white
and the blinds were green. The bushes
were cleared off, and the scorched
trees had been cut down, split up and
hauled away. I have never seen a
neater picture, and in it I saw not only
the progress of the people, but the
respect in which they held me.
I had come out of the woods on
my way home and was on a high
piece of grazing land not far from the
house when I saw a man ride up to
the yard fence, dismount, tie his horse
and go into the house. This within itself
was nothing, for I had seen many
of the neighbors come and go, but a
sudden chill seized upon me now, and
there I shook, though the heat of June
lay upon the land; and it was some
time before I could go forward, stumbling,
quaking, with my eyes fixed upon
the horse tied at the fence. In the
yard behind the house I came upon
Mrs. Jucklin, gathering up white garments
that had been spread to dry
upon the althea bushes. "Chyd Lundsford
has come," she said, and I replied:
"Yes, I know it."
I stepped upon the passage and passed
the sitting room door without looking
in; I sat down in a rocking chair
that had been placed near the stairway,
sat there and listened to a girl's
laugh and the low mumble of a man's
voice. "Let us go out where it's cooler,"
I heard Guinea say, and I got up
with my head in a whirl.
"Mr. Hawes, this is Mr. Lundsford."
"Glad to meet you, sir," I said, taking
hold of something?his hand, I suppose.
I was urged to sit down again;
Guinea said that she would bring two
more chairs, and when I had dropped
backed between the arms of the rocket
I looked at the man standing there,
and a sort of glad disappointment
cleared my vision and placed him before
me in a strong light. He was
short, almost fat, and in his thin, whitish
hair there was a hint at coming
baldness. The close attention that he
L ~ -1 -rvv??yvll/v.1 0?l t'A ?-?ofi00 1
IlilU UCCI1 tumpcitcu iu f^itc ^lavuvai
things, the sawing of bones, the tracing
of nerves, the undoing of man's
machinery, had given him the cynical
look of a hard materialist. But when
he stepped back to take the chair
which Guinea had brought I saw that
he moved easily, that he was cool and
knew well how to handle himself. And
this drove away the meager joy of
my glad disappointment.
"I hear you are going to take up
school Monday," he said. "Rather late
to begin school just now, I should
"Under ordinary circumstances it
would be regarded as late in the season,"
I answered, "but we have been so
Interrupted that we now decide to have
"I guess you are right. Had a pretty
close shave with those fellows,
didn't you? Ought to have killed them
r?i orV-> * Viova COPn SfOft ThnilCh
I I ?) I i I UJtl V. A ? C WWii ^vwkh. ? -o-he
was a pretty bright fellow, naturally;
rather witty. Would make a firstrate
subject on the slab."
"Because you thought him witty,
sir?" I asked.
"Of course not; but because he is a
good specimen?big fellow." He looked
at me and I thought that he was
measuring my chest. "Yes," he continued.
"ought to have killed them.
Man's got to take care of himself,
you know, and he can't make it his
business to show mercy. Most all the
virtues now are back-woods qualities."
' I don't believe that," Guinea spoke
up. "Every day we read of the generosity
of the world."
"Oh," he said, passing his short fingers
through his thin hair, "you read
about it, and people who want to shine
as generous creatures take particular
pains that you shall read about it.
You've a great deal to learn, my dear
"And perhaps there is a great deal
that she doesn't care to learn," I ventured
to suggest; and I quickly looked
at her to see whether I had made
another mistake. I had not, her quiet
smile told me. and I felt bold enough
to have thrown him over the fence.
"What we wish to knew and what
we ought to know are two different
matters," he said. "But I hold that we
ought to know the truth, no difference
what the truth may be. I want facts;
I don't want paint. I don't want to
believe that the gilt on the dome goes
all the way through."
"But." said I, "the gilt on the dome
doesn't prove that the dome is rotten;
it may be strong with seasoned wood
and ribs of iron."
"Yes," he drawled, "that's all very
good, very well put, but it means nothing.
By the way. before we get into
-? /H.-ouooiam lot mo int'Ho \'aii nt'^r tr?
a UI'UUOOIUII lt:i 111^ III * KV jvrv* v? VI w
our house tonight. Quite a number
of young people will drop in. Not exactly
the night, you know; but the old
idea that white people shouldn't go out
of a Saturday night, the night reserved
for negroes, is all nonsense. So, I
have asked them to come. Alf will
come. I suppose, and so will our little
spring branch nymph."
"I didn't suppose that you believed
in nymphs, now that you have gone
out and learned that everything is
false," Guinea spoke up.
"I don't believe in painted ones," he
replied, "but you are not painted."
"I shall be pleased to come," I remarked.
and then I asked him how
long he expected to remain at home.
"Oh. about a nvnth, I should think.
I am gradually getting along and I
don't want to go to school all my life.
I want to begin practice next year."
"In this neighborhood?" I asked, and
be gave me a contemptuous look.
'Well. n>'t if I have nnv sense left."
he answered. "I might ride around
here a thousand years and not win
anything of a name. Look at Dr.
Etheredge. fine physician, but whatj
has he done? No, I'm going to a city,
north, I think."
He stayed to supper and this angered
me, for I had set my heart on walking
to the general's house with Guinea.
Aif had not returned and we wondered
whither he could have gone. And when
the time came to go, that impudent
sprig of a doctor asked me if I would
ride his horse around by the road, said
that he wanted to walk across the
meadow with Guinea. How I should
have enjoyed knocking him on the
head, but I thought that Guinea supplemented
his request with a look, and
There were many horses tied at the
general's fence, and there was laughter
within, when I rode up, and I was reminded
of the night when I had stood
with my hot hand melting the frost on
the fence. But I thought of what the
men had said on the railway platform,
c f the woman whom I had seen on the
train, and boldly I walked in. The
general met me with a warm grasp,
and was asking me if I had seen his
son, when in walked the young fellow
himself, with Guinea beside him. The
parlor and the library, opening one into
the other, were well filled with goodhumored
young folk, nnd among them
were old people, none the less goodhumored.
I was surprised to find myself
so much in demand, for every one
asked for an introduction, but with bitterness
I knew that It was because 1
had come near being burned up In an
old house. They played games, but
if this they soon tired; they sang and
>ne of the ladles plucked a sparkling
fandango, and then Chydister Lundsford
was called upon for a speech.
He was not at all embarrassed and he
talked fairly well; and when he was
done, they call upon me. I got up
with one hand resting on the piano,
ind stood there, nervous at first, but
strangely steady later on. I told them
that I could not make a speech, but
that with their permission I would tell
them a story, one of my own. They
-ried out that they would rather have
t story than a speech, and I gave them
a half humorous, half pathetic sketch,
something that had long been running
in my head and which I Intended to
write. What a strong confidence came
upon me as I noted the effect of my
words! I was drawing a picture and
they were eager to see it; I was play"ng
on a strange, rude Instrument, and
how they bent to catch every vibration,
t was astonished at myself, thrilled
with myself. And when the climax
came, chairs were tipped over as if
in a scramble, and a wild applause
broke out. Every hand was stretched
out toward me, every eye was bright
with a tear. The old general grabbed
me and. throwing back his great head,
almost bellowed a compliment; and
through it all I saw Guinea sweetly
smiling. They urged me to give them
another story, were almost frantic In
their entreaty; they had heard the
heart-beat of their own life and they
must hear It again. I told another
story, one over which I had fondly
nused. and again the hands came
out toward me, and again the general
bellowed a compliment. I can scarcely
recall anything else that passed that
evening. Yes, I remember that as I
was taking my leave, to walk across
the meadows with Guinea and Chyd,
Millie stood in front of me. Once or
twice I thought that she had something
that she would tell me. for her
lips moved, but she said nothing except
to bid me good-night.
And where was Alf all this time?
Xo one had spoken his name; Millie
had not asked me about him. I walked
briskly in advance, half happy, but
of course, with my mind on Guinea,
whose low voice reached my ears
through the quiet that lay on the
"Why don't you wait for us?" she
cried. I turned about and waited, and
as she came up, holding Chyd's arm,
she said; ' I hope your success tonight
nasn t turned your head."
"And I hope that I don't deserve such
a suspicion," I answered, not with bitterness,
but with joy to think that she
had felt my apparent indifference.
"Oh, I don't see anything to cause
a spat," said Chyd, straining himself
to take long steps. ' Good stuff, of
course, but nothing to turn a man's
head?a mere bit of fancy paint. But
you ought to write it. Good many
people like nonsense. I mean something
light, you know. Two-thirds of
the human family make it their business
to dodge the truth. But it is a
good thing for a school teacher to
make himself felt in that way."
"Perhaps Mr. Hawes doesn't intend
to be a teacher all his life," Guinea replied,
speaking in kindliness, but with
no interest, as to whether or not I was
to remain a pedagogue.
"God forbid," I replied. And the
young doctor gave me a sarcastic
cough. "Man ought to do what he's
best fitted for," said he. "Trouble is
that a man generally thinks that he's
fitted for something that he isn't?
hates the thing that he can do best."
"Your knowledge of the practical fortifies
you against any advance that I
might make," I replied. "I don't pretend
to be practical."
"Hum, I should think not," he rejoined.
"Good deal of a dreamer, I
take it. And you are in the right place.
Everything dreams here, the farmers
and even the cattle. Going to pull
down the fence, eh? Guinea'll be over
by the time you get it down. What did
I tell you? Regular fawn, eh?'
We had passed out of the meadow.
They waited in the road until I replaced
the rails which 1 had let down. The
road ran along the ravine and home
was In sight. I looked across toward
the smooth eld rock and saw a dark
object upon it. We went down into
the ravine and as we were coming out.
a voice cried: "Is that you. Bill?"
And instantly Guinea answered for me.
"Yes. Alf. And here's Chyd."
"How are you. Chyd?" he shouted,
and then lie added: "Bill. I want te
see you a minute. Stay where you are
and I'll come down."
I halted to wait for him. He stopped
a moment to shake hands with
Chyd, and then he hastened to me.
"Old man, I've got something to tell
you." he said. "Lot's walk down this
way?no. not over in the road, but up
the hollow." He gripped my arm tlghtIv.
walked fast, then slowly and then
stopped. "Let's sit down here, Bill."
We seated ourselves on a rock. "You
have been over to the general's. alone:
with Chyd and Guinea, haven't you?
Of course, you have--v\ hat's the use of
asking that? Do you know what I did
today? Not long after dinner I went J
over there determined to find out how
I stood. I was brave until I got nearly
to the house and then my courage failed.
1 stood by the fence in the b?a;kuerry
br.ars and gazed at the house.
After a while I saw her come out and
start down the Ebenezer road. And
then 1 whipped round and met her.
And as I stood beside the road, waiting
for her to come up I noticed for the
i.rst time that the sun was nearly
down. For hours I had been standing
in the briars. I pretended not to see
ner; let on like I was hunting for a
squirrel up in a tree, until she came
up. Tnen I spoke to her and she started
as if she was scared. She said that
she was going over to Lum Smith's to
tell the young people to come over at
n.ght, and 1 asked her if I might walk
aiong with her. She said with a laugh
that I might go part of the way, and
then I knew that she was ashamed for
any one to see her with me. This cut
me to the red, but I walked along with
her. 1 felt that I had nothing to say
that would interest her, but I kept on
talking, and once in a while she would
look up at me and laugh. At last, and
it was just as we came within sight of
Smith's place, I asked her what she
really thought of Dan Stuart. 1 knew
ihat this was a fool's break, and If it
hadn't been I don't suppose I would
have made It. She looked up at me,
but she dldn t laugh this time. I begged
her pardon for my rudeness, and
she reminded me that I was only to
come a part of the way with her. I
then told her that I would wait for
her to come back. She said that she
might not come back that way. I replied
that no matter which way she
came back I would see her. She went
on, laughing now, and I waited, but I
didn't have to wait long before I saw
her coming. As she came up I asked
her if she was ready to grant my pardon
and she wanted to know what
about. We walked along together and
she began to tell me about her brother,
how smart he was and all that, and I
said that I didn't think that he was as
smart as you, Bill; I wanted to take
credit for a friendship I had formed,
you see? But a moment later I was
sorry, for I was afraid that she night
say something against you, but. she
didn't. She said that you were a smart
man?a distinguished looking man, and
that she liked you ever so much. At
first I was pleased, but a second afterward
I was Jealous of you, Bill. Did
you ever see as blamed a fool as I am?
But I don't hate you, Bill. No, my
heart was warm toward you even while
she was praising you?even while I
was jealous. I again asked her what
she thought of Dan Stuart, and she
looked up at me and wanted to know
if I knew what he thought of h?r. I
told her that everybody loved her, and
that I didn't suppose he was mean
enough not to love her. She tald that
she knew people who didn't love her,
and I told her that if she would show
'hem fr> mo I wnnld hutt their heads
together for being such Idiots. We
were now almost within sight of the
general's home and I was not getting
along very fast. I was determined to
make a break. We were on a hill,
where the trees were .tall, almost overlapping
the road. To the right ran a
path through the briars, a nearer way
home. I asked her to wait and she
stopped. The sun was down and it
was now almost dark. And it was then
that I told her that I loved her. I
don't know how I acted or what I said,
but I know that I was down in the
dust at her feet. She stood there, pale
and trembling looking around as if
she would call for help. I asked her
to marry me. and she laughed, Bill?
laughed at me and darted down the
path. Then I went into the woods and
roamed about I don't know where;
and that is the reason I wasn't at the
gathering tonight. I'm bruised and
crippled, Bill?my heart is sore, but I
want to tell you that when she's stand
ingr on the floor with that fellow Stuart,
with the preacher in front of her,
I'll be there, putting In my plea. I
won't give up as long as there Is a
fghting chance left. Don't say a word
about it. Forgive me for dragging you
"?fT down here. Clod knows you've got
a deep trouble of your own. And I
wish my word could settle It?T'd speak
:t. though It might hurt my chances at
fhe general's. Well, let's go to the
To ho Continued.
NO FEUDS IN NAVY.
Seamen's Quarrels Are Settled at Once
With Boxing Gloves.
There are no more bitter, longstanding
feuds in the navy today as
in the time of John Paul Jones or
Decatur, says the Kansas City Star.
The popularity of boxing aboard the
battleships is the secret of the change.
Nowadays when a seaman thinks he
has been slighted or misused by a
friend he waits until the hour for
supper, and then gives the man who
Insulted him a pair of boxing gloves.
A ring is quickly formed and the misunderstanding
is speedily settled. No
matter who wins, hoth respect each
"A queer bout happened on the
New Jersey on the trip around South
America," said a gunner's mate at the
navy recruiting station recently. "Two
young seamen were scrapping with
bare lists on the deck. Suddenly the
bugle sounded 'colors.' Instantly
both of them stood at attention and
saluted the flag. Put the minute the
ceremony was over, away they went
pummeling each other again for dear
"In addition to these trials by battle,
two or three bouts are arranged
every night aboard ship. Once or
twice a month a battle royal or cup
fight is pulled off.
"Know what a cup fight Is? It's
the most interesting of the nautical
pugilistic sports. The two contestants
are blindfolded and required to get
on their knees. Both must then rap
once on the floor with their left hand
and the scrap Is on. Each fighter, of
"ourse, aims his right hooks and Jabs
In the direction of the rap. The science
of the fight is in rapping so deceptively
on the floor that your opponent
doesn't know where you are.
bounds like great sport, doesn't it?
Try it some time with your little
brother in the attic."
M The average life of a ship is about
t?' A two-mile railroad bridge has
been recently completed across the Columbia
river in the state of Washington.
BY E. M. W
;For a number of years after I began
to farm, I followed the old-time
method of putting the fertilizer all
under the corn, planting on a level or
higher, six by three feet, pushing the
plan from the start and making a
big stalk, but the ears were few, and
irequentiy small. I planted much
corn In the spring and bought much
more corn the next spring, until finally
I was driven to the conclusion that
corn could not be made on uplands
in this section, certainly not by the
old method, except at a loss.
I did not give up, however, for I
knew that the farmer who did not
make his own corn never had succeeded,
and never would, so I began
to experiment. First I planted lower,
and the yield was better, but the
stalk was still too large; so I discontinued
altogether the application of
fertilizer before planting, and, know
ing that all crops should be fertilized
as a side application, and applied the
more soluble nitrate of soda later, being
guided in this by the excellent results
obtained from its use as a top
dressing for oats. Still, the yield,
though regular, was not large, and
the smallness of the stalk itself now
suggested that they should be planted
thicker in the drill. This was done
the next year, with results so satisfactory
that I continued from year to
year to increase the number of stalks
and the fertilizer with which to sustain
them; also to apply nitrate of
soda at last plowing, and to lay by
early, sowing peas broadcast. Thi3
method steadily increased the yield,
until year before last (1904), with
corn eleven inches apart in six-foot
rows, and $11 worth of fertilizer to
the acre, I made eighty-four bushels
average to the acre, several of my
best acres making as much as 125
Last year (1905) I followed the
same method, planting the first week
in Api.'l, seventy acres which had
produced the year before 1,000 pounds
seed cot a per acre. This land is
sardy upland, somewhat rolling.
Set sons were very unfavorable, owing
to the tremendous rains in May
an< the dry and extremely hot weather
later. From June 12th to July
12ti, the time when it most needed
mo sture, there was only five-eights-!
of in inch of rainfall here; yet with
$7. 1, cost of fertilizer, my yield
waa fifty-two bushels per acre. Rows
we/e six feet and corn sixteen inches
With this method, on land that will
ordinarily produce 1,000 pounds of
seed cotton with 800 pounds of fertilizer,
fifty bushels of corn per acre
should be made by using 200 pounds
of cotton seed meal, 200 pounds of
aetv phosphate, and 400 pounds of
kainit mixed, or their equivalent In
other fertilizer, and 125 pounds of
nltrato nf unHQ nil tn hp iiqaH on QWIP
application as directed below.
On land that will make a bale and
one-half of cotton per acre when
well fertilized, a hundred bushels of
corn should be produced by doubling
the amount of fertilizer above, except
that 300 pounds of nitrate of soda
should be used.
In each case there should be left
on the land in corn stalks, peas, vines
and roots, from $12 to $16 worth of
fertilizing material per acre, beside
the great benefit to the land from so
large an amount of vegetable matter.
The place of this in the permanent
improvement of land can never be
taken by commercial fertilizer, for it
Is absolutely impossible to make lands
rich as long as they are lacking in
Land should be thoroughly and
deeply broken for corn, and this is
the time in a system of rotation to
deepen the soil. Cotton requires a
more compact soil than corn, and
while a deep soil is essential to its best
development, it will not produce as
well on loose, open land, where corn
does best on land thoroughly broken.
A deep soil will not only produce more
heavily than a shallow soil with good
seasons, but It will stand more wet
as well as more dry weather.
In preparing for the corn crop, land
should be broken broadcast during
the winter one-fourth deeper than it
has been plowed before, or if much
vegetable matter is being turned under,
It may be broken one-third deeper.
This is as much deepening as
land will usually stand in one year
and produce well, though it may be
continued each year, so long as much
dead vegetable matter Is being turned
under. It may, however, be sybsolled
to any depth by following in bottom
of turn plow furrow, provided no more
of the subsoil than has been directed
is turned up. Break with two heavy
plows, if possible, or better, with disc
plow. With the latter, cotton stalks
or corn stalks as large as we ever (
make can be turned under without
having been chopped, and In pea vines
It will not choke or drag. (
Never plow land when it Is wet, If
you expect ever to have any use for
it again. ,
Bed with turn plow in six-foot ,
rows, leaving five-Inch balk. When
ready to plant, break this out with
scooter, following in bottom of this ,
furrow deep with Dixie plow, wing
taken off. Ridge then on this fur- ;
row w.th same plow, still going deep.
Run corn planter on this ridge, dropping
one grain every five or six inches.
Plant early, as soon as frost danger
Is past, say first seasonable spell after
March 15th, in this section. Es- ,
pecially is early planting necessary on
very rich lands where stalks cannot ,
otherwise be prevented from growing
too large. Give first working with
harrow or any plow that will not ,
cover the plant. For second working:,
use ten or twelve-Inch sweep on
both sides of corn, which should now
be about eight inches high. Thin af- .
ter this working. It is not necessary
that the plants should be left all the
same distance apart if the right number
remain to each yard of row.
Corn should not be worked again
until the growth has been so retarded,
and the stalk so hardened that it ,
will never grow too large. This is the
most difficult point in the whole pro- ,
cess. Experience and judgment are
required to know just how much the
stalk should be stunted, and plenty of
nerve is required to hold back your
corn when your neighbors, who ter-1
tilized at planting time and cultivated
rapidly, have corn twice the size
of yours. (They are having their fun
now. Yours will come at harvest
time.) The richer the land the more
necessary it Is that the stunting process
should be thoroughly done.
When you are convinced that your
oorn has been sufficiently humiliated,
you may begin to make the ear. It
should now be from twelve to eighteen
inches high, and look worse than
you have ever had any corn to look
Put half of your mixed fertilizer
(this being the first used at all) in
che old sweep furrow on both sides of
every other middle, and cover by
breaking out this middle with turn
plow. About one week later treat
the other middle the same way. Within
a few days side corn in first middle
wun sixieen-incn sweep, jtui uu yuui
nitrate of soda in this furrow, if less
than 150 pounds. If more, use onehalf
of it now. Cover with one furrow
of turn plow, then sow peas in
the middle broadcast at the rate of at
ieast one bushel to the acre, and finish
In a few days side corn in other
middle with same sweep, put balance
of nitrate of soda in this furrow if it
has been divided, cover with turn
plow, sow peas, and break out. This
lays by your crop with a good bed and
plenty of dirt around your stalk.
This should be from June 10th to 20th,
unless season is very late, and corn
should be hardly bunching for tassel.
Lay by early. More corn is ruined
by late plowing than by lack of plowing.
This is when the ear is hurt.
Two good rains after laying by should
make you a good crop of corn, and
it will certainly make with much less
rain than was required in the old
The stalks thus raised are very
small and do not require anything
like the moisture even in proportion
to size, that is necessary for large
sappy stalks. They may, therefore,
be left much thicker in the row. This
is no new process. It has long been
a custom to cut back vines and trees
in order to increase the yield and
quality of fruit; and so long as you
do not hold back your corn, it will
go, like mine so long went, nil to
Do not be discouraged by the looks
of ybur corn duj4}i|?: the process of
cultivation. It out of all
proportion to ffarfappearance. Large
stalks cannot make large yields, except
with extremely favorable seasons,
for they cannot stand a lack of moisture.
Early applications of manure
go to make large stalks, which you do
not want, and the plant food Is all
thus used up before the eaj^ which
you do want, is made. Tall stalks not
only will not produce well themselves,
but will not allow you to make the
pea vine, so necessary to the Improvement
of land. Corn raised by
this method should never grow over
seven and one-half feet high, and the
ear should be near to the ground.
I consider the final application of
nitrate of soda an essential point In
this ear-making process. It should
always be applied at last plowing and
unmixed with other fertilizers.
I am satisfied with one ear to the
stalk unless a prolific variety is planted,
and leave a hundred stalks for
every bushel that I expect to make.
I find the six foot row easiest to cultivate
without injuring the corn. For
fifty bushels to the acre, I leave It
sixteen inches apart; for seventy-five
bushels to the acre, twelve Inches
apart, and for one hundred bushels,
eight inches apart. Corn should be
planted from four to six Inches below
the level, and hid ty from four to six
inches above. No hoeing should be
nePMsarv. and middles mav be keDt
clean until time to break out, by using
harrow or by running one shovel
furrow in centre of middle and bedding
on that with one or more rounds
of turn plow.
I would advise only a few acres
tried by this method the first year, or
until you are familiar with its application.
Especially is it hard, at first,
to fully carry out the stunting process,
where a whole crop is Involved, and
this is the absolutely essential part of
This method I have applied, or seen
applied, successfully to all kinds of
land in this section, except wet lands
and moist bottoms, and I am confident
it can be made of great benefit
throughout the entire south.
In the middle west, where corn Is
so prolific and profitable, and where,
unfortunately for us, so much of ours
has been produced, the stalk does not
naturally grow large. As we come
south its size increases, at the expense
of the ear, until in Cuba and Mexico
it is nearly all stalk (witness Mexican
The purpose of this method is to
eliminate this tendency of corn to
overgrowth at the expense of yield in
this southern climate.
By this method I have made my
corn crop more profitable than my
cotton crop, and my neighbors and
friends who have adopted it have,
without exception, derived great benefit
Plant your own seed. I would not
advise a change of seed and method
the same year, as you will not then
know from which you have derived
the benefit. I have used three varieties,
and all have done well. I have
never used *his method for late planting.
In fact, I do not advise the late
planting of corn, unless it be necessary
for cold lowlands.
The increased cost of labor and the
high price of all material and land
are rapidly making farming upproflt
able, except to those who are getting
from one acre what they formerly
got from two. We must make our
lands richer by plowing deep, planting
peas and other legumes, manuring
them with acid phosphate and potash,
which are relatively cheap, and returning
to the soil the resultant vegetable
matter rich In humus and expensive
nitrogen. The needs of our
soil are such that the south can never
reap the full measure of prosperity
that should be hers until this is done.
I give this method as a farmer to
the farmers of the south, trusting
that thereby they may be benefitted as
I have been.
E. Mclver Williamson.
IN IMPROVED FARMING.
Great Progress Is Being Made In This
Columbia, Dec. 4.?The report of the
farmers' co-operative demonstration
work in South Carolina for the last
year, compiled up to November 1, is
an interesting review of the efforts
along the lines of education for scientific
agriculture, in which South Carolina
is taking the leading part. This
work, unuer the supervision of Dr.
Knapp, is in charge of Prof. Ira W.
Uiniams in this state. Prof. Williams
IP a native of Georgia and was formerly
associated witn aiiss Berry in her
celebrated work for tne white boys of
the mountain district. He is a progressive,
earnest and extremely practical
The report follows:
united States Department of Agriculture,
Bureau of Piant industry?Report
of the Farmers' Co-operative
Demonstration Work in the State of
South Carolina, Nov. 1, 1908:
"The demonstration work in South
Carolina was begun in November, 190?,
and we now attach a map showing the
approximate location of the demonstration
farms which have been established
and visited regularly in the past
"During the season fifteen men were
employed as district and local agents.
"Two district agents and one local
agent, J. P. Campoeil, J. M. Jenkins
and W. R. Elliott, worked the entire
year and traveled extensively, going
into ail parts of the state. Five local
agents worked seven months of the
year, giving their entire time and
wonting thoroughly their respective
counties. These were; J. B. Tinsley,
J. W. Rothrock, L. C. Chappell, H. H.
Abrams and T. J. Cunningham.
"At a meeting held in Columbia, S.
C\, October 26 and 27, all the agents
gave a report of the' demonstration
work in their respective counties.
The number of demonstration farms
conducted this year ranged from 40
to 100 for each agent, with quite a
varied number of co-operators, the
total being about 600 demonstration
farms and about 500 co-operating
"In the meeting each agent made a
report of the farms he conducted. Almost
without exception better stands of
corn and cotton were secured on the
demonstration farms for the simple
reason that a better preparation of the
seed bed and better seed were obtained.
This altogether with Intensive cultivation,
caused the demonstration
farms to better withstand the summer
drought and gave from 10 per cent to
100 per cent larger yields than the
farms where ordinary methods have
"One agent reported 4t bushels of
corn per acre on the, demonstration
farm, while the average on the rest of
the held was 14 bushels per acre. Another
fltTent reported I.ITOfl pounds of
seed cotton per acre on the demonstration
farm, while on same land with the
same amount of fertilizer, the farmer
made only 800 pounds under his own
methods. Another agent reported the
smallest yield of corn among his demonstrations
to be 23 bushels, while the
ordinary methods produced not over 18
bushels in any Instance. Fifty to one
hundred bushels of corn was not uncommon
among the demonstrators, and
the average yield of cotton was from
one to two bales per acre.
"Aside from the regular work on the
demonstration farms, more than 100
schools of instruction were held over
the state this year, In which the agents
gathered together the farmers of the
counties and talked to them on the
preparation of the soil, the uses of
good seed, and Intensive cultivation.
They have also been called upon to
speak at different public meetings, the
Farmers' institutes, and various associations.
"It is safe to say that the local
agents have this fall succeeded in getting
ten farmers to select seed for next
spring's planting, make a fall preparation
of the soil and a winter cover crop
where only one farmer was accustomed
to this before. Some agents report
that fifty times as many farmers have
adopted this method.
"Statistics gathered from the commissioner
of agriculture, merchants and
a number from each county show that
only about two-thirds of the hay, grain
and pork consumed in each county is
raised by the farmers themselves. Our
agents have taken advantage of the
situation, and are constantly urging the
farmers to grow more home supplies.
"We have been rewarded already,
and it is surprising to note the number
of farmers who are now, for the
first time, growing other crops than
corn and cotton. Mr. Elliott of Fairfield
county, estimates that at least
me hundred of his men have this year
seeded vetch and crimson clover for
the first time. Equally as good reoorts
are coming In from other sections
of the state.
' The hearty co-operation of the state
department of agriculture has been
largely responsible for the success of
the demonstration work in this state.
Mr. Watson has not only helped to
make the work a success, but has advertise..
it in such a way as to create
a demand for the work, which, together
with his own personal effort, has
bi'ought about an increase in the appropriation
since its Introduction one
year ago, from $8,000 to $13,000. It is
very impoi'tant that this co-operation
be continued for the future success
and continuation of the work in the
state. Its continuance and if possible
some direct contribution by the state,
would go a long way towards doubling
the national aid at no far distant date.
"We have had also the hearty cooperation
of the agricultural schools
and experiment stations, Dusiness men
and Farmers' Union, and have helped
In establishing quite a number of farmers'
"At a recent meeting of the agents
in Columbia. S. C., the following men
were present and gave us much encouragement:
Congressman A. F. Lever,
State Agricultural Commissioner
E. J. Watson, President of the Farmers'
Union B. Harris, Frank Parrott, editor
of the Farmers' Union Sun, Ben F.
Taylor, president of the Columbia
Chamber of Commerce, and F. H. Weston,
chairman of the committee on
agriculture of the South Carolina senate.
"Congressman Lever distributed to
the demonstrators several bushels of
vetch for a winter cover crop this fall,
and the commissioner of agriculture,
Mr. Watson, presented us with quite
a good lot of Improved cotton seeds for
planting purposes last spring. The ed.tor
of the Farmers' Union Sun, furnished
an office for the demonstration
agent at Columbia, S. C. President B.
Harris, of the Farmers' Union, has
offered his services any time we have
need of them.
"Perhaps the most beneficial meeting
during the entire year was that held
at Sumterr S. C., on May 8. There
were present about five hundred business
men and five hundred farmers.
Secretary Wilson, Dr. Galloway, Chairman
Scott and Mr. Lever, of the agricultural
committee of congress, were
the speakers of the day. The demonstration
agents were considerably bentited
at this meeting and have been
very enthusiastic in the work ever
"This meeting also did more to advertise
the demonstration work in the
state than perhaps anything else we
have done, and we are constantly re
celvlng requests from farmers in every
section of the state to extend the work
Into their locality.
"The requests were so great, In fact,
that Dr. Knapp had to secure a second
donation of funds for the extension of
the work In 1908.
' "The general educational board made
an appropriation of 810,000 for the
work in 1908, but so many calls have
come for Its extension that an additional
83,000 was appropriated at a recent
meeting. With this amount the
following counties will be worked and
agents are now being appointed:
"State agent, Ira W. Wlliams, Rl:h.and
county and others.
Local agents: W. R. Elliott, Fairfield
county: L. C. Campbell, Richland county;
W. C. Hane, Calhoun county; J. A.
Summers, Orangeburg and Aiken
counties; E. N. Chisolm, South Orangeburg
county; G. A. Derrick, West Lexington
county; Thos. W. Lang, Kerohaw
county; L. L. Baker, Lee county;
L. S. Watson, Sumter county; Frank
McCluny, Cherokee county; L. S. Jeffords,
Darlington county; C. A. McFadden,
"District agent, J. M. Jenkins, Spartanburg
Local agents: J. B. Tlnsley, Union
county; J. W. Rothrock, Anderson
county; T. J. Cunningham, Chester
county; S. M. Duncan, Newberry county;
J. F. Sloan, Laurens county; J. D.
Sullivan. Laurens county; E. E. Ware,
"All agents are appointed collaborators
by this bureau at a salary of one
dollar per annum and are paid by the
general education board."
TIE TREES GROWING.
Pennsylvania Railroad Has a Great
Plantation to Supply Needs.
The unromantic section of timber
that lies Imbedded between the rails
until rooted up and burned, too old
for service, has asstltned "a vasF
portance In the estimation of practical
railroad men, says the Morrisville
correspondent of the New York Herald,
for the forests from which come
the trees that are cut Into ties are
becoming exhausted and the prices of
this material are being advanced to
such an extent that some radical
steps have become absolutely necessary.
The Pennsylvania railroad Is the
pioneer In the departure that It Is
tnougnt win solve the problem. A
large piece of farm land belonging to
the company here has been set apart
for forest reservation and here, under
the direction of the forestry department
of the railroad, millions of seedling
plants are being nursed into a
sufficiently robust life to allow for
their removal to other lands belonging
to the company, whefe they can
be permitted to take their chance of
growing to maturity.
The trees selected for this plantation
are those which have proved the
most desirable for railroad ties. There
are acres of oak seedlings, chestnuts,
catalpa plants, black locust, Scotch
pine, Austrian pine, Douglas flr and
other trees that are of the right material
for cutting up Into railroad ties.
Beside these trees there are a vast
number of seedlings that have never
been tried for the purpose to which it
is Intended to put these trees when
they reach maturity, but which might
prove even superior for that purpose
to the trees that have always been
selected. These seedlings are being
prntt-n fnr thp nnrnnqp of nrnvlfi 1 n C
the railroad with a variety of trees,
so that experiments can be made In
the future to determine which particular
tree Is actually the best for furnishing
the all-important rail on the
It will be forty years or more before
the trees that are now in a seedling
state will have attained a growth
sufficient to Justify the forestry department
in cutting them down for
railroad ties. The plan is to nurse the
seedlings along at the forestry reservation
until they are sufficiently big
to permit transplantation. They will
then be taken up and replanted in
some of the many vacant lands owned
by the railroad.
The seedlings will be planted six
feet apart and will then have to take
their chance of surviving. The fostering
care of the forester cannot follow
them further. As they will be
planted on ground belonging to the
railroad, on which no one will have
the right to trespass, it is probable
that must of the trees will reach maturity
and will eventually fulfill their
destiny, becoming railroad ties.
The railroad companies possess
Immense stretches of territory along
the line of the permanent ways,
ground that has been acquired perforce
because a right of way could
not be obtained without buying extra
land, and farm land and other real
estate that has been purchased be
cause It was seen the company would
some day need It for one of the variety
of uses to which a railroad can put
vacant spaces along Its lines.
The reservation here was one of
those vacant stretches, and when the
forestry department took It In hand
It required the services of a small
army of Italians to redeem the land
from a state of wildernesslike confusion.
Now everything on the plantation
Is in scientific order and the fine
hand of the skilled forester is evident
in every line of seedling roww.
W The Mexican government is arranging
to spend $26,000,000 to encourage
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