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"~l m. oMsrs sons, PubiiA?r.. } % JfamilS Uftusjapr: cjfor <h< fromotion of tfc< political, ?oaiat. gjritiiHtiitat and (Bommtijttal Jnttr^ts of ih< htt--?Yak>:
ESTABLISHED 1855. : YORK VILLE, S. C., TUESDAY, APRIL 27, 1909. . NO. 34. ILL* A?A *AK A?A *A? AKA *A? 1 Heron' 3 _ ar 3 By ETTA \ 3 u? AKA UK MA KAK AKA KAK CHAPT12R XVIII. The Author Speaks. For a space neither spoke. The oars broke the current softly. In the dark spades of sky the shrunken moon climbed higher, with a thin cloud blown, like a veil, across her wan face. Distant lights twinkled on the river banks. There was no sign anywhere of the strikers?no dlsturDing wiwm in the universal peace and silence. The events of the last hour might have been a dream but for that scorched and blackened place on Miss Pole's white cloak. She sat in the boat, with that injured garment slipping back from her shoulders, and showing her close corsage, and the blood-red roses making a dark stain thereon. The elbowsleeves of fine lace fell away from her full, white arms, and one uncoiled tress of hair clung, like a golden serpent, about her milky throat. In that uncertain light she looked supernaturally white and shining. "" in the mill door 1UUI a^^vut uuw ?... ?_ was most opportune!" began Vivian. "A fortunate thing, indeed, for Heron!" "Do you think so?" she answered. "I was Just wondering if the whole affair did not strike you as rather bold and "unmaidenly." "Could I so misjudge you? It is hard to say how the trouble would have ended but for you and your maid." She leaned a little toward him. The perfume of the Jacqueminot roses Ailed his nostrils. "I have noticed that men do not generally approve the outre things in women. The timid, conventional Ml*s Prjscillas are those who win the admlmllnn of VOtlT 8CX." He rowed with steady, practiced strikes. The pale light seemed to intensify the flawless symmetry of his face, the profound darkness of his eyes. "What is your definition of outre things? he answered. "Not prompt action put forth for a kinsman in per. II, I hope." She laughed softly. "It was Jael who urged me to seek you at the mills. She knows all the secrets of the Blackbirds; she also possesses some mysterious influence with them. Miss Carbury declares that a wonderful change has come to the girl since you began to preach at Black River." He grew very grave. "I have had positive proof of that fact. I only hope that she may not be made to suffer for a heroism that is above praise. Has she relatives, I wonder, who could give her protection in case of need?" She wondered at his warmth. "I never heard Jael speak of relatives," she answered, with flagging interest. "She is probably an orphan. It is hard to fancy that handsome, fearless giantess seeking protection of any one." He made no reply. The moon rose higher, and dropped a little road of light upon the river; Into this the boat swept, and glided through Its white radiance, as on some enchanted track. The excitement of the night before still throbbed in Sergia's veins and shone in her eyes. She felt a curious exhilaration as she watched Vivian. With that glamour of moonlight on his Greek face, he was absurdly handsome. He impelled the boat onward toward the arch of the bridge, with long, splendid strokes. "Oh, don't row so fast!" she pleaded, involuntarily; "that is, I mean"? growing confused?"the river?the moon?is so lovely tonignt, tnat one would like to prolong such movements. Will you remember this scene, Mr. Vivian, when other moons shine on you, in the country of the Hottentots?" He relaxed his speed at her bidding, and let the water slip like ropes of pearl from his uplifted oars. "I will remember it everywhere?so long as I live," he answered. "You have chosen a far field of labor." A shadow fell on his face. "Yes; I have never been able to face certain circumstances in my life with proper courage. I ask nothing better than to go where my name is not, and cannot be, known?where I may forget who and what I am in my work. All fields must be the same in the sight of God. Africa or Black River? what matter?" Heron had more than once hinted at the presence of a skeleton in his friend's closet. Sergia seemed now to hear the rattling of its bones. "Will you ever return, Mr. Vivian, or is your exile to be life-long?" "Life long. The kindred who cared for me in my childhood are now dead, and with the exception of Heron, I have no intimate friends. So you will see that exile does not mean to me all that it might to a more fortunate man." It was very odd. but the composure of his tone filled her with keen exasperation. How could he talk of volI untary, life-long exile without a shadow of emotion? She leaned a little nearer, lifting to his gaze her mocking, dazzling face, with its arched black brows and yellow love-locks. "You have dedicated yourself to the highest good," she said. "Now look at me! I am of the world, and very worldly! A moralist might draw some painful contrasts betwixt the life you have chosen and that which I hope to enjoy. I mean to be a society belle. Mr. Vivian?a queen in le beau monde, and outshine all other girls, and drive them wild?quite wild, if possible! ? with envy. I mean to wring from life every drop of honey that it holds, and let duty, and ail those tiresome, tedious ^ things, severely alone. How shocked you look!" with a little reckless, defiant laugh; "how you must despise me!" [ A Hush swept up to his temples. He ' trkd to smile. "You cannot expect me to believe AHA HAH AHA HAH AHA HAH AHA I SWlFE. E i V. PIERCE. 5 i AHA HAH AHA HAH AHA HAH AHA such calumny, Miss Pole?you are simply Jesting." "Not at all. The half has not been told! In me you see the girl of the nartnri with nil her follies. When I think of you, Mr. Vivian, In the days to come, I shall wonder If you have not met some nice, gentle Prlscllla among the colonists of those South African towns, and found In her your fate?no frivolous, worldly creature, you know, but a sweet and saintly being, worthy to share such a life as you have marked out for yourself." At her mockery Graham Vivian's handsome face changed. "I shall never marry," he answered, in a cold, constrained voice. "Oh, you have High Church tendencies?" "Not at all. My future abounds in hardship, Could I ask a woman to share It? Heaven forbid!" She had drawn off her gloves, and ?'? -loKwinff nno hnnri in the water over the boat's side. The Jewels on the white fingers sparkled softly in the moonlight. "All women are not selfish and shallow. It is Just possible, is it not, that some one^?some one?might be quite willing to share your hardship? Such things have occurred in the past, you kno\v!" They had reached the arch of the bridge, and were slipping under It. All the purple silence of the night was upon them?all the charm of wandering winds and shining, unquiet waters. The mysterious night-world of mingled light and shadow seemed fashioned for them alone. "*x * ? * -J? "??' l?nAW nAthlnC "It is pittlll lllttl JUU ivnun D of my family history, Miss Pole," said Vivian, in an agitated voice. "I dare say, Heror could not bring himself to speak of it openly while I remained his guest. I will offer to no woman that which is unfit for her acceptance?I mean the name I bear! It is covered with disgrace, and as yet I have done nothing to wipe out Its stains. Years ago, I vowed to expiate, so far as possible, in my own person, the misdeeds of one very near of kin?to give myself to the highest and best Interests of the world, as some slight atonement for the evil which that other had nimnirhf In hla Hav." Hi8 f&Cp looked strangely boyish in its pallor and pain. "I cannot speak plainer, Miss Pole?I cannot shock?horrify you with the story." For a moment or two the splash of the oars was the only sound that broke the stillness. Her eyes shone softly upon him through the dusk. "Pray do not say another word," she murmured, remorsefully. "I did not mean to lead you to speak of anything unpleasant." She put out her hand. Satin-soft, shining with jewels, it fell into his own, like a lily a-gleam with dew. As palm touched palm, she felt him * * 1 4 ?Vifu mon tremDie, suaaemy, viuictwy?....... whom all women admired, and who had never looked twice at any. For the first time, Sergia Pole divined her own power. Her heart gave a mad leap. It was pleasant to discover that, with all his solemn ambitions, his selfimmolation, he was only a man! "I did not mind the unpleasant things," he said, "till I came to Heroncroft?till I saw you. I must go away as soon as possible?a month earlier, at least, than I first Intended. God knows." his voice sinking low, "it would have been better for me if I had never seen this place!" "How flattering to the friends you have made here!" answered Sergia, with lively reproach. "Think of the good you have accomplished at Black River, Mr. Vivian. Not all the Blackbirds are like Joe Bagley?many of them are devotedly attached to you. You ought"?with an arch smile?"you really ought to regret that you must leave Heroncroft at all!" "And I do?I do!" he confessed, passionately; "I dare not tell you how much! It is the.hardest thing in life for me to tear myself from this spot. I A vpf "And yet?" she echoed, softly, as he paused. "If I remain here longer, I am lost!" She made a little movement which shook the red roses suddenly from her bodice to the bottom of the boat. He picked them up. "Let me keep these," he implored, in a shaken voice. She shrugged her shining shoulders. "Poor faded things! Colonel Rivers gave them to me at dinner. Yes, keep them, if you like; they may serve to remind you of this night and?me!" "I need no reminders," he answered, simply, "since it is impossible for me to forget either. But I would like to possess something that you have touched?that you have worn!" and he slipped the roses into his breast. The boat drew near to the landingplace?grated against the green river bank. The moonlight tete-a-tete was over. She had tried her wiles upon him with good success, and now she arose, tall, smiling, beautiful, and stepped ashore. "Good-night, little boat," she said, sweetly; "good-night, beautiful river; shall I ever see you again in so fair a guise?" Then she turned to climb the dewwet bank. In the very act her foot stumbled amid the green things trailing there. She swayed, and as Vivian stretched out an arm to support her, her soft, supple body fell prone against him?yea, upon his very heart?shining dress and perfumed hair, and all the warm white loveliness of throbbing throat and arms half bared. Against his breast she lay for one delirious moment?a marvelous white nestling creature, breathing out her rapture in one long sigh. His arms upheld her?the world seemed passing. Then?who can fathom a girl's caprice? ?swift as thought, she gathered herself up, and broke from him with a grand forbidding air. "I love you, Sergia!" burst from his unwilling lips. She grew frigid. "You forget yourself strangely, Mr. Vivian! In one breath you declare that you can never marry?In the next you dare talk to me of love!" He hung his head. y "God forgive me! It Is true that I have no right to speak the words, but ^ I cannot recall them now?It Is too late. I love you?I have loved you ever E since you came to Wolfsden!" "Is not your name unfit for any woman's acceptance?" she said, with a n fine mockery In her voice. "Are you not pledged to higher things? I despise ^ ja divided allegiance?I despise the person who attempts to compass It!" ^ He recoiled a step. She saw that she had given him a mortal thrust. ^ "You can never say anything more cruel than that. Miss Pole!" he an- ^ swered, hoarsely. y She was desperately frightened, and ^ she hurried on from bad to worse. "I have shown you plainly tonight, ^ ho v? T not." she said. In a softened voice, "that we have nothing In common, Mr. Vivian?nothing!?that there lr Is no middle ground upon which we 01 can meet? Above all things, let us n' not be ridiculous." He answered not a word. si "I need not trouble you to go with me farther"?very sweetly. "It will be better for us both to part here. Wolfs- 81 8 den Is but a few rods distant, and Jael will wait for me at the gate." She moved slowly up the bank. He p did not try to detain her. If she had expected him to follow, with protest r or abject supplication, she was dls- r appointed. "Good-night, Mr. Vivian," she said, a< with increasing asperity. "Good-night, Miss Pole," he answered, In a low voice. Half-way up the slope she turned p Ui and looked back. Would he take his " rebuff so quietly? Would he not pur- C( sue?call after her? Surely he knew r nothing of girls and their ways? Why j* did he not hurry to her side, and plead and entreat till his dolor was changed ai to delight? But no! He turned si- 18 lently, stepped into his little boat, and e' pushed off down the moonlit stream. She watched him breathlessly. Why ? should she care? What could a penniless young preacher,' with no world- s< ly prospects, be to her?a beauty, the 01 heiress of a great fortune? Before a o] many months she would have tne f) world at her feet. She hastened across the high-road to the gate of Wolfsden. There Jael fc< 61 stood waiting, like a dark statue of patience. The keen eye of the handmaid saw that something had gone sadly awry with her mistress. "Take me home, Jael," said Sergia Pole; "I am very cold and tired?take me home." To be Continued. C( DRY FARMING. ]? la Reduced to a Science and Accomplish- t) ing Great Results. n ^All the science there is to arid farming is so simple that one wonders how '* romalned unknown SO H 11 UUUIU liu * V w long, says Collier's. Dr. Wldtsoe call- c ed It to my attention in the fact that p alongside the road, where wagons C1 sometimes stirred the surface soil in turning out to avoid mudholes in bad tl weather, the desert weeds were green- c< er than farther out where the ground tl was never stirred. Among the grow- g< ing wheat he pointed it out again by d; showing a sample of ground that had fi gone unprepared, taken eight inches l<j below the surface. It was so dry and ol dusty that it could be blown from the d< hand with the breath. Ten feet away another sample, taken within the zone rr of tillage at the same depth, was so is damp that it could De rouea iniu an u adhesive putty ball. "All that we have aj done," was Dr. Wldtsoe's explanation, la "has been to open the land with our plows in the fall to receive the i io!s- ni ture and then to seal it over with our c< harrows, so that the capillary ducts, f< by which the water works its way to the surface, have been broken and the land covered by a separate stirred sur- is face coating: that acts as would a a blanket. Wherever there is over twelve* b inches of rainfall a year it will pro- is duce a crop if properly conserved. Al- ci most all our desert has more than this e< amount of rain." p Dry farming crops now are many in tl number and range from cereals, that a are well established, to fruits, melons, e: a ihn atnhlQ nf tf com anu Jjuuuuca, mreio ? -the crops may still be said to be ex- ci perlmental. e: In 1905 six state experiment farms were established In Utah to demon- n strate what crops can be grown with- si out irrigation. They have already an- t< nounced three different varieties of wheat for seeding, one to be used for i each successive year. a f< White House Simplicity. ? Major Charles Ltoeffler, the White House e doorkeeper, who filled that office for a forty years, and who has retired to make room for Thomas E. Stone, who n was chief usher at the White House in the Roosevelt administration, is a " reticent man, who has always taken his 81 position seriously, and has seldom t( spoken of the incidents which came '? under his observation. Writing to his M -1 . Ul . ?i?u tho White V paper auuui mo viau iu mc ?t???w House In the first year of the McKlnley administration, a German editor 11 said: "The contrast between the sur- v roundings of the American president ^ and those of other rulers (?) impress- c ed Itself on me in the anteroom. There " were no uniforms. A soldierly looking e old man stood guard at the entrance 11 to the president's chamber, but in such an unostentatious manner that one would have thought him to be waiting, p as we were, to be received. He called nearly everybody by name, and his ^ strong German accent maue me feel ^ perfectly at home." tl Taft and Optimism.?"Now that Mr. j, Taft has joined the Optimistic Club, j, bear operators on 'the prosperity mar- a kef should either become bulls or else ^ find that hole in the doughnut for a which they are always looking and curl up there and die," said Albert Geoffrey of St. Louis to a New York Telegram e reporter. "President Taft has declar- tJ ed that his shall be 'an optimistic ad- n ministration for an optimistic country, ^ full of hope, cheerfulness and courage.' Now, if any citizen can remain a pes- h simist after that declaration he ought h to hike for Africa and make a noise fl like a lion when 'Teddy' comes along. .. There is certainly no room for him in this country." c pisccttaneous grading. "ENLiGHTENED SELFISHNESS." /hat a Northern Man la Doing at Aiken to Help the People. fews and Courier. Columbia, April 19.?"The Policy of Inllghtened Selfishness" is what Mr. homas Hitchcock, Jr., has largely In lew In his demonstration farm work ear Aiken. Mr. Hitchcock believes lat the way to elevate man Is to low him how to make money, and he ill do the balance himself in nine out C ten cases. I recently had the pleasure of spendig the day with Mr. Hitchcock on his emonstration farm, which is about ght or ten miles outside of Aiken. In lis brief article It will be unnecessary > laud Mr. Hitchcock for the great nd ever increasing work that he is olng for the development of the city t Aiken, and to Indicate his present iterest In that development. The point f this story is the great work he is bw undertaking in showing the posbilitiea?if there are any?In what is nown as the "sand ridge" of this Ate. There are tens upon tens of thouinds of acres of land extending from andbar Ferry across the state in a ne touching Columbia, to the North aroll'na line, where Chesterfield Joins . This sand ridge of this state has i an agricultural way been the laugh ig stock of the agriculturists. Mr. Hitchcock acquired Ave thousand cres of land about eight miles from lken, and up to within a month ago jvas spasmodically and unsatisfac>rlly cultivated. It was a typical iece of sand land. Mr. Hitchcock as attracted by the newspaper acjunts to the government undertaking i demonstration work through the inuence of Commissioner Watson, and e soon got in touch with Mr. Watson, nd the result is that the government i giving its active co-operation to this cperlment Mr. Watson realized as soon as the fTer was made him that it was the Iggest thing that had yet been profited to his department in the way i aemonsimiioxi wwm, anu nciC ncu> typical tract of sand land with a man t means and enthusiasm to back up le proposition to see If anything bustess-llke could really be accompllshi. Mr. Watson saw that the best taint got in touch with the situation, ecause he realized that this was the rst large undertaking in the consldrable sand belt of this entire region > show what were the possibilities of lis particular strata. Mr. Hitchcock Paying the Bills. Now, the situation is this. Mr Hltch>ck agreed to turn over his bank acaunt to the extent of whatever was igitimately necessary to pay for the| ibor and expenses in connection with le experiment of showing whether or ot a typical sand belt farm can be tade profitable. On the other hand the United States overnment, through the influence of ommissioner Watson, has delegated rof. Ira W. Williams, state agent in large of United States farm demon:ratlon, to take immediate charge of lis experiment. Mr. Williams, of >urse, will have the co-operation of le various experts connected with the overnment work all the way from the airy experts to the plant breeders, om the bureau of plant industry, the lea being to get the very highest type f talent to suggest what should be one and how it should be done. Mr. Hitchcock Is to let the' governlent experts do the directing, and It i upon them that the responsibility or illure of the enterprise must rest, side, of course, from the money that i invested. In the matter of labor there Is to be 0 unusual experimentation, and local oflored labor is to be used as hereto>re. The Main Idea. The idea of the demonstration work 1 to take this tract of five thousand cres of land, that has not heretofore een able to make taxes, and see if It i possible, by a system of rotation of rops, varied lines of planting and conomles, to make this an absolutely nnflt pnrnlne- fnrm and If HO to let le owners of the tens of thousands of cres of sand lands of this state know icactly how It is done, and If they wish > follow the lines of tested work they in do so without going through the xperimental work. If course, it Is a most unusual and lost gratifying thing to find a man of iich abundant means as Mr. Hitchcock > "back up" such a proposition, and Ir. Hitchcock impressed me as being man of ideas, and one who is really nxlous to do some good in this life >r others. Mr. Ira W. Williams, who is the overnment representative in immedlte charge of the work, has had ten lousand dollars of Mr. Hitchcock's loney placed at his disposal, and if it i necessary more will be at his comland. Mr. Williams's idea is not to ?e how much money he can spend, but > spend his money so that every dolir will count, and that every dollar ill be an actual profit-making Inestment. He takes the position that : would be easy enough to build up lis land by high fertilization and lnest, say, Slf>0 an acre on the land, but Is Idea is to continue this land as heap land by not investing money In but to see what can be done by propr and judicious fertilization, and parIcularly by crop rotation. Although Mr. Williams has had harge of the farm for only a few eeks, he now has a very considerable ortion of it In rye, and it Is his purose to turn this rye under and give tie land Its first experience in what is nown as humus growth. Prof. Wilams's idea is to get this land in a horoughly humus condition by sowig rye and turning in crops that will old the moisture, and this will probbly be followed by a crop of peas, and hat probably with what is known as "winter cover crop." Farm Platted. The Hitchcock farm has been surveyd and platted, so that the experimenal work can be prosecuted in a bus'.ess-like way, and the purpose is to evote about two hundred acres to rain, two hundred acres to corn, one undred acres to cotton, two or three undred acres to pasture and twentyve acres to vegetables and truck inds. These apportionments will inrease from time to time as the land [is gotten into shape. It is the purpose f of Mr. Hitchcock, always bearing in mind the profit-earning feature, to have a lot of hogB, cattle for market, sheep, goats and poultry on the farm. The Dairy Feature. A feature in the experimental wort will be the dairy. The government has already had its experts on the ground, and they have planned a considerable dairy building and farm. This winter Mr. Williams expects to have least fifty Jerseys and Jersey grades En the dairy farm. There are now a ^ umber of steers on the place that are i elng fattened for market, and it is t Mr. Hitchcock's idea that a great ( hmount of this work can be done on i this as well as other similarly located t farms. Mr. Hitchcock, who is a great ( admirer and lover of horses and fine t Cattle, does not believe In anything that f !s not first class, and his orders are o get nothing but the very best cattle j or the dairy. It Is also Mr. Hitch- t jock's idea to conduct experiments and c Carry on work in connection with stock, t There are now about seventeen or \ twenty muies on the place. Mr. Hitch- r f - - book has had a great deal of expert- 8 ence in the raising: of race horses, and t he is convinced that the south needs c horses for farm work rather than t mules, and the chief reason for this e position is that the mule does not re- e produce Itself. This idea, he says, was j Impressed upon hipt by watching farm r operations in Europe. He thinks that c the southern farm ought to be able to c *et a substantial horse for farming r purposes and he expects to devote some ^ fctudy to this feature of his expert- <] mental work. * Cannery to be Established. f ' Prof. Williams has already dlstrlbut ed in the neighborhood and on the j farm a number of vegetable seed, and c it is his purpose to establish a cannery c Inanrc a morUst for the VefiTe- I tables that might be grown. The Idea Is to devote considerable attention to poultry, and with this In view Mr. Hitchcock has distributed a number of Incubators to the tenants on his place, and provided them with eggs. There Is a great deal of interest already in this phase of the work, and Mr. Hitchcock, as well as the government experts, will see to It that whatever vegetables, chickens or eggs that come from the plantation are properly marketed, and by getting quantities and marketing them with discretion those who raise them will get the maximum nrlftsg Commissioner Watson now has interested the Federal government in an experimental station in Aiken county, another in Columbia, on the Oonzales farm, and the third in Chesterfield county. Experiments Throughout 8tate. This is only what is being done in the sand ridge. There are many other such experiments throughout the state that are being fostered through Mr. Watson's department, and it may be said that this work has Ingratiated the department of agriculture very thoroughly with the farming classes, and it is a great pity that more of this work is not done directly by Clemson college. If Clemson college undertook this work of its own accord, in the various counties, even upon a small scale, it would do very much to make Itself absolutely solid with the farmers. Mr. Hitchcock, as well as his good < wife, who was Miss Eustis, are both ^ very much Interested in the experi- ? ment that is going: on and are intent upon doing everything they possibly can to insure its success. It is Intended next fall to establish a model school on the farm, and the purpose of this model school will be to impress upon those who attend it, first how to cook, and then how to farm and make money. It should be borne in mind that the Hitchcock experiment is not intended to carry out any fad or to be simply a show place. If the experiment fails from a money making standpoint the government authorities will say so, and if it makes money, in any of Its departments or all, the government officials will also say so. An absolutely accurate account is being kept of every element that enters into the cost of production and of the returns. mp w b. Williams, who Is a prac tlcal Georgia farmer, Is In personal charge of the farm, and Is the Immediate representative of Mr. Hitchcock In the enterprise. This experiment means a great deal to the state of South Carolina, and will be watched with the greatest possible Interest. GATHERING SEA FOWLS' EGGS. Perilous Work of Cliff Climbers on English Coast. With the advent of spring the Yorkshire cliff climbers are making preparations for gathering the eggs of the myriads of sea fowl that build their nests in the dizzy precipices of the northeastern coast. At Bempton, a few miles from Brld11 /o?np|fo rpsnrt of these UUglUIl, llic iurv/i?v? egg hunters, the chalk cliffs tower 400 t feet above the sea. They are the home > of thousands of gulls, cormorants, kit- c tiwakes and other sea birds that have just begun to build their rough nests In the chalky crevices. William Wil- s klnson, who has pursued this perilous < calling for many years, is known local- j ly as "the king of the egg hunters." f He Is a bluff, weather scarred man of i the sea, with as much nerve and agll- e ity as Is possessed by the most daring s steeplejack. 1 Wllkerson wears an old helmet to t protect his head from the pieces of c rock dislodged by the rope by which s he is suspended in midair. Around his r body he buckles a kind of leather ham- i mock, in which he is able to sit. on t his arms he wears leather protectors, t "Lower away, boys," he cries as he ( swings himself over the brink in an > almost horizontal position and presses ? each foot firmly against the chalk sur- ? face. Three of the men seize the rope, c and foot by foot the intrepid climber i Is lowered till his cheery voice is lost ? amid the fluttering sounds of the dls- ? turbed birds. He swings from nest to t nest, putting each egg carefully in a i bag slung over his shoulder. As soon t as his bag is full he gives the "hoist 1 up" signal on the guide rope and the 1 men haul him up. ? Wilkerson makes several descents, ? and at the end of the day shares the spoil with his assistants, who sell them * for eating purposes to the Inhabitants r of the neighboring villages.?London 1 Dally News. t THE WASTE F1 EROSION ] BY W. \ (Forester of the North Carolina A yearly loss of many million dollars rhich need never take place;' a loss, tot of one year, like that occasioned >y a great lire, but one which has ocsurred year after year without lnteruptlon for decades; which in its aggregate, since the civil war, nearly tquals the national debt?this la the oil yearly exacted by erosion from the 'arm noils of the upland south. Tha nrnflta nt fhe farmer noiselessly low from his sloping fields In muddy itreams. -In spite of the large amount >f the loss the tiller almost Ignores it; le Is, In fact, frequently Ignorant of t. Tet this Immense loss to the farner represents only a portion of the LCtual damage; other industries suffer llrectly and Indirectly from the same tause. On account of it there are in he dissected upland regions of the louth more than 5,000,000 acres of land it one time cultivated and now idle, dany reasons have been assigned; the ?duced fertility of the soils; the lure >f the newer, more level, and more saslly tilled lands of the west; ecotomic changes which followed the civil var; lack of labor and home markets, rhese have been secondary factors. Soil exhaustion and erosion are the undamental causes. The exhaustion 'old fields," eroded, gullied, raw with leep wounds, and red as though stainid with carnage, need only the touch >f knowledge to become revivified, low 8outhern Uplands Havs Suffered. The causes which produced the old leida sun operate to me rum ui. wwu if the farming land. The decrease n the productivity of the farms of the astern United States has been general. Nowhere has it been so evident as in he upland region of the south, where he loss is certainly not less than 30 >er cent of the yield when the lands vere fresh and new. Erosion is the lasal problem which underlies soil exlaustion in this region, and so prevaent and so disastrous is it that it has >ecome not only a serious local agrri:ultural problem, but an Important nalonal problem as well, seriously af'ecting the value of many investments vhlch have been made in the region, ts enormous extent has not been due entirely to poor cultural methods. The leavy rainfall, the physical character sties of the region, the broken topog aphy and the close-textured soils, ind In some measure also the ecolomlc conditions have contributed to ncrease It Where methods of cultlvaion suited to the local conditions have i^Bn used, not only has erosion deceased, but the yields have responded In a wonderful manner, indicating ?"ll? ora r?r?f nnlv nnt Interior ;o those of other sections, but that, on iccount of the ample rainfall and the ong growing season, thejr have many llstlnct advantages over those of oth>r humid parts of the country. Effect of Heavy Rainfall. Erosion Is merely the washing away >f the soil In muddy streams of ralnvater. If the rainfall Is largely ablorbed, as takes place In a very sandy >r porous soil or on a level country, lttle water remains on the surface to *un off, and consequently there is but illght erosion. The precipitation of the louth amounts to from forty-five to leventy Inches a year, compared with !rom thirty to forty-five inches In the lortheastern states, and falls in con ieniraiea miuwci a, csiaiviiui; ...b he three summer months, when onehlrd of the total rainfall usually takes >lace. Fifteen Inches has been recordid as falling: In three days. The first leavy dash of rain compacts the sur'ace of the soli, while the balance of iie rainfall largely flows off. Uncullvated fields have been examined 1mnedlately after a summer shower In vhich more than an Inch of rain fell, ind the soil was found to have become vet by the rain less than two inches jeneath the surface. In few places vas It wet to a depth of four inches. Less than one-fourth of the water vhich fell had been absorbed. Had it ill been uniformly absorbed the earth vould have been dampened to a depth )f more than six Inches. This lllusrates the compacting: power pf the leavy rains and the lmpervlousness of :he heavy clays when devoid of humus ? Wnro_ I inu tnorougniy sun-narucucu. )ver, the methods of farming which lave been followed?that Is, the coninuous production of corn, cotton and :obacco?all of these crops of clean :ulture?with a minimum of small fraln and the grasses, have added, by he depletion of the humus of the soils, 0 the natural tendency to erode. Since he eroding power of water increases ilxty-four times by doubling Its veoclty, it is easy to understand how 1 small stream, gathering volume and velocity as It flows down the slope, aclomplishes such enormous destruction. Destruction of Farms. In the old fields as they are being ilowly colonized by trees, there Is no (ultlvatlon to cover the gullies as they ire formed. They are deepened by sach rain; each storm adds another. The heavy clays are eventually seam!d Into deep parallel channels, which ipread out In the hollows with great 'an-shaped ribs. This type characerlzes the clay soils of Virginia, mldlle Carolina and Georgia. The slit toils, less tenacious and crumbling nore easily than the clays, are readily indermlned by running water, and >rode to form huge vertically walled >luffs. In portions of western North Carolina, in middle Mississippi, ana in vestern Tennessee, soils of this charicter are most common, and their eroilon when once well begun can be shecked with difficulty. With every lood the cllfT recedes, tons of earth are idded to the burden of the nearest itream, and the total destruction of he soil proceeds. In Mississippi alone here are thousands of acres eroded ino cliff and canyon which have been jermanently destroyed for farming. '"or 200 miles xo xne soum uuu suum>ast of Memphis this destruction Is ippalllng. It is the difficulty of measuring In iny one field the extent of the actual nonentary loss that accounts for this vaste being so largely disregarded: he impossibility of being able to de ElOM SOIL IN THE SOUTH. V. ASHE. Geological and Economic Survey.) clare that a loss of so many dollars in the yield of a crop Is to be attributed to It The enormous aggregate Is Indicated only by the silt and the plant food annually borne from the hillside farm by the rivers of the south- i ftAjit Everv stream that flows through the fertile hill country of the south bears Its rich burden of plant food, a golden argosy, on its way to the sea. I The greater portion of the mineral < constituent is clay and silt particles which are most easily attacked by the roots of the plants for their food; but much, and the most important part, i is the organic matter, the humus or manural portion of the soil, which, on account of its lightness, is so easily washed away from the slope. From one-sixth to one-fourth of the material which produces the turbidity of the rivers is humus, and it comes almost entirely from the farming soils. It is the lightest portion of the soil, and the portion which is most easily transported by the slowest moving water when the heavier sut ana sana is ?en behind. It is absolutely necessary for the growth of crops, and It must be replaced by the addition of manure in some form to the soils. Ten million dollars a year will not replace It In the hillside soils whence it came and where it is so badly needed. The Rich Burden of the River*. The Roanoke yearly bears from the productive limestones of the valley of Virginia and the red foothills of its mountains more than 4,000,000 tons of soil. It discolors the waters of the sound into which it empties to a distance of forty miles beyond its mouth. The burden of the Alabama river exceeds 3,000,000 tons. The Tennessee river swells the already naturally high turbidity of the Mississippi by the an 1 JI 11 AAA Ann tnna thft I IIUCU UIDCUCU5C VI XJ>fVW|VVV kVUW| scouring of the fertile farms of Alabama, Tennessee and Kentucky. The Savannah, the Yadkin, the Santee, the Cnattahoochee contribute as much; while it is estimated by the army engineers in charge of the river improvement work on the James that this river brings down, during a' flood with a crest of ten feet, more than 200,000 cubic yards of earth every twenty-four hours, and it has been known to color the' waters of the Atlantic ocean far beyond the capes. An enormous total of not less than 50,000,000 tons of the most fertile soil of the farms of the upland south is the unwelcome gift of the hills to the rivers each year. The Savannah and many of the oth ? *? - ? ?fA gr nVBTB Ul LUC IVUUI 1 t?a w nave been clear, except during flood*, until the latter part of the eighteenth century, and there are many traditions current In northern Georgia that the Chattahooche, now one of the muddiest of southern rivers, was at one time usually pellucid and sparkling. Some erosion has always taken place. The deep gorges which ramify through the soft rocks of the Piedmont were carved by erosion, but it was a slow process. The fertile soil which was borne in small amounts from the forested slopes was then deposited over the broad alluvials, constantly enriching them and gradually building them up. Now, however, few of even the smaller streams become clear except for short periods of low water. ' With the excessive erosion which has followed the ruinous tillage and subsequent abandonment of the hillside farms, the enormous volume of earth which the flood-maddened waters carry away Is no longer deposited for the enrichment of the valleys. A part of It fills up reservoirs and ponds or settles as shifting silt bars in the channels of navigable rivers and In harbors, while the coarser material is deposited In great beds over the once fertile alluvial bottoms; and from the ruin of the hillside follows the loss of the valleys. The cultivation of thousands of acres of such land has been abandoned along the rivers of the Piedmont, notably along the Wateree, the Broad, the Yadkin, the Catawba, and the Saluda rivers. The telegraphic dispatches of nearly every flood contain some item | chronicling the burying of the valley farms beneath sand-beds. Floods on the Increase. ' There is no doubt also that the height | of the river floods which have been so destructive to property In the south during the past ten years has been materially Increased through the failure of the sunbaked surface of the waste land to absorb Its due proportion of the rainfall. Higher floods than formerly are now produced by the same ( amount of rainfall, Indicating the greater rapidity of the run-off and the ( lessened absorption. The flood losses of the south for the past ten years aggregate more than >25,000,000, and with the multiplication of factories and towns along the rivers, this lost must continue unless the soils perform their proper function. The recent losses at i Augusta, Ga., Fayettevllle, N. C., Cheraw, S. C? and elsewhere are only Indications of what may be expected more frequently If the large areas of i the unabsorptlve, close-textured clays continued to shed so large a portion of i their rainfall Into the rivers, without : absorbing what they could If In forest i or under a rational system of cultiva- i tion. Simultaneously with the Increase in the floods there Is a corresponding < decrease in the low-water flow, serl- i ously Interfering with navigation and j th? value of water powers. Industries dependent upon water i power are being disastrously affected in other ways as well. The engi- i neer of one of the largest hydro-elec- i trie companies operating in the Carolina* publicly stated that within four years the storage capacity of reser- i volrs under his care had deceased 5 per cent by filling In with earth eroded from the upper portion of the j watershed. It is impossible for the power companies to check or lessen it, and there is no way to remove the deposit when once It has accumulated. 1 The trouble lies far above the dams, and the owners must witness the slow annihilation of the storage of their res- < ervolrs. It would undoubtedly be wise < policy, however, for them, where they own land surrounding their reservoirs, to protect it themselves from erosion. In this particular, however, they are usually as careless as other landowners. Some of the worst-gullied lands in the Carolines are owned by power and mill companies, and every pound of soil washed from their bare slopes goes directly Into the reservoirs, affecting the storage value. The finest particles of silt and clay pass beyond the lowest dams and settle in the slower moving portions of the rivers near the coast and in the harbors. The greater portion of the millions appropriated by the Federal government for the improvement, or rather the temporary opening, of the lower reaches of southern rivers, is ex pended tor areagmg; ana uit> ubwb* sary expenditures to keep the channels clean of the rapidly forming and shifting silt and sand bars will in the future Increase in direct proportion to the Increased silt burden of these streams. In the event of the canalisation of any of them, thp sand deposits would continue a menace to channel depth, since the slowly moving canal water affords ideal conditions for settling. | Terracing to Cheek Erosion. A very large portion of this loss and damage is avoidable. How thoroughly erosion can be checked and with what benefits to farming, as well as, of course, corresponding benefits to other industries which suffer, Is shown by the results secured by deep plowing and level terracing in portions of the south. On one farm In South Carolina, with a very steep slope, a dozen terranpi Hm nn the hill above the Cbn garee river to a total height of more than sixty feet. The terraces are so well leveled that there is no run-oft of surface water; the entire rainfall Is absorbed. Deep plowing Is used as an adjunct, and plenty of humus Is maintained to keep the surface soil loose, porous, and mellow, thus lessening the tendency of the heavy rains to compact the surface, and assuring the surface water good drainage through to the subsoil. On this farm the sorghum was eight feet high, while the cotton stood to the shoulder, indicating a double yield above that of the adjacent unterraced slopes where erosion ^^7 yet had unrestricted action. A >. Jg Such level terraces are developed by constructing embankments, such as are now extensively used on hillside ditches in the south, except that they are located on a level, and by the use In tillage of hillside and reversible disk plows which always turn the furrow down the slope. This hastens the leveling process. But erosion, the very SS:V';j agency they are being constructed to prevent, plays its important part, and the rapidity- with which the terraces develop and leveling proceeds, indicates how rapidly erosion was taking place. Terracing undoubtedly has its drawbacks In restricting cultivation, but there Is with Its use an enormous In- % ^ crease in the yield of the crops and a decrease in the cost of maintaining fertility. It Is far superior in every way to the much-used hillside iitch which barely checks erosion stridently to make cultivation possible. Such level terracing, brealdng the field Into steps, need be used >nly on the steeper slopes. On more gentle slopes other methods can be employed which permit unrestricted cultivation. Either broad dykes, eighteen to twenty feet wide, located on a level, or narrower dykes on a slight Incline, but following the contours of the slopes, and two to four feet vertically apart, can be employed. The surface of these dykes Is cultivated like the rest of the field, and while they do not entirely prevent erosion, they considerably reduce it But above all, deeper plowing is necessary and more humus in the soil, made from manure or by plowing under green crop*, to give mellowness and porousness; the general use of cover crops on land during the winter; and more small grain and the grasses. All hillside land In corn, cotton, tobacco, or other clean tilled crop should be laid by with a cover crop of some kind. , The Problem of the "Old Fields." This Is for the lands which are now in cultivation; and where these methods have been used not only has erosion been largely reduced, but land values have rapidly risen. The Idle and waste lands, the "old fields," represent a more serious problem. It will require the addition of a million workers to the population of the south to place these lands again in cultivation, more than that number if intensive cultivation is practiced. At the same time the movement of population in the south is still toward the towns, as it snouia d? 10 ??wuuau auu necessary home markets for farm products, and it will be many years before their profitable cultivation will be possible. The soils at bottom are good and strong, and some day the greater portion will undoubtedly be needed for the use of the south's increasing population. This land can in the meanwhile be made productive with but little labor by planting trees, assuring at once its reclamation by checking erosion and some returns from the Investment by the profitable use of the land. Some areas are so steep and rough that they should be permanently maintained in forest. Encouragement of Tree Planting. There is already a strong feeling in some of these states that vigorous measures must be taken to reduce erosion, and that When profitable and permanent cultivation is not possible without its being excessive, the land to assure its permanent earning value must be regarded as forest land. This feeling will undoubtedly crystallise in a decisive policy with definite plans of action. Advisable lines of action by the states for the encouragement of planting by owners might be the furnishing of seedlings of trees at the cost of growing them, and furnishing advice on the ground as to the best methods to be adopted and kinds of trees to plant, and assistance in pro tectlng plantations from Are. There Is no doubt that It would be possible to reduce the present erosion from farm lands one-half with an enormous saving to the nation. Each of the southern states has Its own peculiar problems of this kind which must be solved at home by the brains and energy of the commonwealth Itself; the preservation of the soils; the use of Idle lands; the protection of the earning value of its waterways.