"~l m. oMsrs sons, PubiiA?r.. } % JfamilS Uftusjapr: cjfor <h< fromotion of tfc< political, ?oaiat. gjritiiHtiitat and (Bommtijttal Jnttr^ts of ih< htt--?Yak>:
ESTABLISHED 1855. : YORK VILLE, S. C., TUESDAY, APRIL 27, 1909. . NO. 34.
ILL* A?A *AK A?A *A? AKA *A?
3 By ETTA \
u? AKA UK MA KAK AKA KAK
The Author Speaks.
For a space neither spoke. The oars
broke the current softly. In the dark
spades of sky the shrunken moon
climbed higher, with a thin cloud
blown, like a veil, across her wan face.
Distant lights twinkled on the river
banks. There was no sign anywhere
of the strikers?no dlsturDing wiwm
in the universal peace and silence.
The events of the last hour might
have been a dream but for that scorched
and blackened place on Miss Pole's
She sat in the boat, with that injured
garment slipping back from her
shoulders, and showing her close corsage,
and the blood-red roses making
a dark stain thereon. The elbowsleeves
of fine lace fell away from her
full, white arms, and one uncoiled
tress of hair clung, like a golden serpent,
about her milky throat. In that
uncertain light she looked supernaturally
white and shining.
"" in the mill door
1UUI a^^vut uuw ?... ?_
was most opportune!" began Vivian.
"A fortunate thing, indeed, for Heron!"
"Do you think so?" she answered.
"I was Just wondering if the whole
affair did not strike you as rather bold
"Could I so misjudge you? It is
hard to say how the trouble would have
ended but for you and your maid."
She leaned a little toward him. The
perfume of the Jacqueminot roses Ailed
"I have noticed that men do not
generally approve the outre things in
women. The timid, conventional Ml*s
Prjscillas are those who win the admlmllnn
of VOtlT 8CX."
He rowed with steady, practiced
strikes. The pale light seemed to intensify
the flawless symmetry of his
face, the profound darkness of his eyes.
"What is your definition of outre
things? he answered. "Not prompt
action put forth for a kinsman in per.
II, I hope."
She laughed softly.
"It was Jael who urged me to seek
you at the mills. She knows all the
secrets of the Blackbirds; she also
possesses some mysterious influence
with them. Miss Carbury declares
that a wonderful change has come to
the girl since you began to preach at
He grew very grave.
"I have had positive proof of that
fact. I only hope that she may not be
made to suffer for a heroism that is
above praise. Has she relatives, I
wonder, who could give her protection
in case of need?"
She wondered at his warmth.
"I never heard Jael speak of relatives,"
she answered, with flagging
interest. "She is probably an orphan.
It is hard to fancy that handsome, fearless
giantess seeking protection of any
He made no reply. The moon rose
higher, and dropped a little road of
light upon the river; Into this the boat
swept, and glided through Its white
radiance, as on some enchanted track.
The excitement of the night before
still throbbed in Sergia's veins and
shone in her eyes. She felt a curious
exhilaration as she watched Vivian.
With that glamour of moonlight on his
Greek face, he was absurdly handsome.
He impelled the boat onward toward
the arch of the bridge, with long,
"Oh, don't row so fast!" she pleaded,
involuntarily; "that is, I mean"?
growing confused?"the river?the
moon?is so lovely tonignt, tnat one
would like to prolong such movements.
Will you remember this scene, Mr. Vivian,
when other moons shine on you,
in the country of the Hottentots?"
He relaxed his speed at her bidding,
and let the water slip like ropes of
pearl from his uplifted oars.
"I will remember it everywhere?so
long as I live," he answered.
"You have chosen a far field of labor."
A shadow fell on his face.
"Yes; I have never been able to face
certain circumstances in my life with
proper courage. I ask nothing better
than to go where my name is not, and
cannot be, known?where I may forget
who and what I am in my work.
All fields must be the same in the
sight of God. Africa or Black River?
Heron had more than once hinted at
the presence of a skeleton in his
friend's closet. Sergia seemed now to
hear the rattling of its bones.
"Will you ever return, Mr. Vivian, or
is your exile to be life-long?"
"Life long. The kindred who cared
for me in my childhood are now dead,
and with the exception of Heron, I
have no intimate friends. So you will
see that exile does not mean to me
all that it might to a more fortunate
It was very odd. but the composure
of his tone filled her with keen exasperation.
How could he talk of volI
untary, life-long exile without a shadow
of emotion? She leaned a little
nearer, lifting to his gaze her mocking,
dazzling face, with its arched black
brows and yellow love-locks.
"You have dedicated yourself to the
highest good," she said. "Now look at
me! I am of the world, and very
worldly! A moralist might draw some
painful contrasts betwixt the life you
have chosen and that which I hope to
enjoy. I mean to be a society belle. Mr.
Vivian?a queen in le beau monde, and
outshine all other girls, and drive
them wild?quite wild, if possible! ?
with envy. I mean to wring from life
every drop of honey that it holds, and
let duty, and ail those tiresome, tedious
^ things, severely alone. How shocked
you look!" with a little reckless, defiant
laugh; "how you must despise
[ A Hush swept up to his temples. He
' trkd to smile.
"You cannot expect me to believe
AHA HAH AHA HAH AHA HAH AHA I
V. PIERCE. 5
AHA HAH AHA HAH AHA HAH AHA
such calumny, Miss Pole?you are simply
"Not at all. The half has not been
told! In me you see the girl of the
nartnri with nil her follies. When I
think of you, Mr. Vivian, In the days
to come, I shall wonder If you have
not met some nice, gentle Prlscllla
among the colonists of those South
African towns, and found In her your
fate?no frivolous, worldly creature,
you know, but a sweet and saintly being,
worthy to share such a life as
you have marked out for yourself."
At her mockery Graham Vivian's
handsome face changed.
"I shall never marry," he answered,
in a cold, constrained voice.
"Oh, you have High Church tendencies?"
"Not at all. My future abounds in
hardship, Could I ask a woman to
share It? Heaven forbid!"
She had drawn off her gloves, and
?'? -loKwinff nno hnnri in the water
over the boat's side. The Jewels on the
white fingers sparkled softly in the
"All women are not selfish and shallow.
It is Just possible, is it not, that
some one^?some one?might be quite
willing to share your hardship? Such
things have occurred in the past, you
They had reached the arch of the
bridge, and were slipping under It.
All the purple silence of the night was
upon them?all the charm of wandering
winds and shining, unquiet waters.
The mysterious night-world of mingled
light and shadow seemed fashioned
for them alone.
"*x * ? * -J? "??' l?nAW nAthlnC
"It is pittlll lllttl JUU ivnun D
of my family history, Miss Pole," said
Vivian, in an agitated voice. "I dare
say, Heror could not bring himself to
speak of it openly while I remained his
guest. I will offer to no woman that
which is unfit for her acceptance?I
mean the name I bear! It is covered
with disgrace, and as yet I have done
nothing to wipe out Its stains. Years
ago, I vowed to expiate, so far as possible,
in my own person, the misdeeds
of one very near of kin?to give myself
to the highest and best Interests
of the world, as some slight atonement
for the evil which that other had
nimnirhf In hla Hav." Hi8 f&Cp looked
strangely boyish in its pallor and pain.
"I cannot speak plainer, Miss Pole?I
cannot shock?horrify you with the
For a moment or two the splash of
the oars was the only sound that broke
the stillness. Her eyes shone softly
upon him through the dusk.
"Pray do not say another word," she
murmured, remorsefully. "I did not
mean to lead you to speak of anything
She put out her hand. Satin-soft,
shining with jewels, it fell into his
own, like a lily a-gleam with dew.
As palm touched palm, she felt him
* * 1 4 ?Vifu mon
tremDie, suaaemy, viuictwy?.......
whom all women admired, and who
had never looked twice at any. For
the first time, Sergia Pole divined her
own power. Her heart gave a mad
leap. It was pleasant to discover that,
with all his solemn ambitions, his selfimmolation,
he was only a man!
"I did not mind the unpleasant
things," he said, "till I came to Heroncroft?till
I saw you. I must go away
as soon as possible?a month earlier,
at least, than I first Intended. God
knows." his voice sinking low, "it
would have been better for me if I had
never seen this place!"
"How flattering to the friends you
have made here!" answered Sergia,
with lively reproach. "Think of the
good you have accomplished at Black
River, Mr. Vivian. Not all the Blackbirds
are like Joe Bagley?many of
them are devotedly attached to you.
You ought"?with an arch smile?"you
really ought to regret that you must
leave Heroncroft at all!"
"And I do?I do!" he confessed, passionately;
"I dare not tell you how
much! It is the.hardest thing in life
for me to tear myself from this spot.
I A vpf
"And yet?" she echoed, softly, as he
"If I remain here longer, I am lost!"
She made a little movement which
shook the red roses suddenly from her
bodice to the bottom of the boat. He
picked them up.
"Let me keep these," he implored, in
a shaken voice.
She shrugged her shining shoulders.
"Poor faded things! Colonel Rivers
gave them to me at dinner. Yes, keep
them, if you like; they may serve to
remind you of this night and?me!"
"I need no reminders," he answered,
simply, "since it is impossible for me
to forget either. But I would like to
possess something that you have touched?that
you have worn!" and he slipped
the roses into his breast.
The boat drew near to the landingplace?grated
against the green river
bank. The moonlight tete-a-tete was
over. She had tried her wiles upon
him with good success, and now she
arose, tall, smiling, beautiful, and
"Good-night, little boat," she said,
sweetly; "good-night, beautiful river;
shall I ever see you again in so fair
Then she turned to climb the dewwet
bank. In the very act her foot
stumbled amid the green things trailing
there. She swayed, and as Vivian
stretched out an arm to support her,
her soft, supple body fell prone against
him?yea, upon his very heart?shining
dress and perfumed hair, and all
the warm white loveliness of throbbing
throat and arms half bared.
Against his breast she lay for one delirious
moment?a marvelous white
nestling creature, breathing out her
rapture in one long sigh. His arms upheld
her?the world seemed passing.
Then?who can fathom a girl's caprice?
?swift as thought, she gathered herself
up, and broke from him with a
grand forbidding air.
"I love you, Sergia!" burst from his
She grew frigid.
"You forget yourself strangely, Mr.
Vivian! In one breath you declare that you
can never marry?In the next you
dare talk to me of love!"
He hung his head. y
"God forgive me! It Is true that I
have no right to speak the words, but ^
I cannot recall them now?It Is too
late. I love you?I have loved you ever E
since you came to Wolfsden!"
"Is not your name unfit for any woman's
acceptance?" she said, with a n
fine mockery In her voice. "Are you
not pledged to higher things? I despise ^
ja divided allegiance?I despise the
person who attempts to compass It!" ^
He recoiled a step. She saw that
she had given him a mortal thrust. ^
"You can never say anything more
cruel than that. Miss Pole!" he an- ^
swered, hoarsely. y
She was desperately frightened, and ^
she hurried on from bad to worse.
"I have shown you plainly tonight, ^
ho v? T not." she said. In a softened
voice, "that we have nothing In common,
Mr. Vivian?nothing!?that there lr
Is no middle ground upon which we 01
can meet? Above all things, let us n'
not be ridiculous."
He answered not a word.
"I need not trouble you to go with
me farther"?very sweetly. "It will be
better for us both to part here. Wolfs- 81
den Is but a few rods distant, and Jael
will wait for me at the gate."
She moved slowly up the bank. He p
did not try to detain her. If she had
expected him to follow, with protest r
or abject supplication, she was dls- r
"Good-night, Mr. Vivian," she said, a<
with increasing asperity.
"Good-night, Miss Pole," he answered,
In a low voice.
Half-way up the slope she turned p
and looked back. Would he take his "
rebuff so quietly? Would he not pur- C(
sue?call after her? Surely he knew r
nothing of girls and their ways? Why j*
did he not hurry to her side, and plead
and entreat till his dolor was changed ai
to delight? But no! He turned si- 18
lently, stepped into his little boat, and e'
pushed off down the moonlit stream.
She watched him breathlessly. Why ?
should she care? What could a penniless
young preacher,' with no world- s<
ly prospects, be to her?a beauty, the 01
heiress of a great fortune? Before a
many months she would have tne f)
world at her feet.
She hastened across the high-road to
the gate of Wolfsden. There Jael fc<
stood waiting, like a dark statue of
patience. The keen eye of the handmaid
saw that something had gone
sadly awry with her mistress.
"Take me home, Jael," said Sergia
Pole; "I am very cold and tired?take
To be Continued. C(
DRY FARMING. ]?
Reduced to a Science and Accomplish- t)
ing Great Results. n
^All the science there is to arid farming
is so simple that one wonders how
'* romalned unknown SO H
11 UUUIU liu * V w
long, says Collier's. Dr. Wldtsoe call- c
ed It to my attention in the fact that p
alongside the road, where wagons C1
sometimes stirred the surface soil in
turning out to avoid mudholes in bad tl
weather, the desert weeds were green- c<
er than farther out where the ground tl
was never stirred. Among the grow- g<
ing wheat he pointed it out again by d;
showing a sample of ground that had fi
gone unprepared, taken eight inches l<j
below the surface. It was so dry and ol
dusty that it could be blown from the d<
hand with the breath. Ten feet away
another sample, taken within the zone rr
of tillage at the same depth, was so is
damp that it could De rouea iniu an u
adhesive putty ball. "All that we have aj
done," was Dr. Wldtsoe's explanation, la
"has been to open the land with our
plows in the fall to receive the i io!s- ni
ture and then to seal it over with our c<
harrows, so that the capillary ducts, f<
by which the water works its way to
the surface, have been broken and the
land covered by a separate stirred sur- is
face coating: that acts as would a a
blanket. Wherever there is over twelve* b
inches of rainfall a year it will pro- is
duce a crop if properly conserved. Al- ci
most all our desert has more than this e<
amount of rain." p
Dry farming crops now are many in tl
number and range from cereals, that a
are well established, to fruits, melons, e:
a ihn atnhlQ nf tf
com anu Jjuuuuca, mreio ? -the
crops may still be said to be ex- ci
In 1905 six state experiment farms
were established In Utah to demon- n
strate what crops can be grown with- si
out irrigation. They have already an- t<
nounced three different varieties of
wheat for seeding, one to be used for i
each successive year. a
White House Simplicity. ? Major
Charles Ltoeffler, the White House e
doorkeeper, who filled that office for a
forty years, and who has retired to
make room for Thomas E. Stone, who n
was chief usher at the White House
in the Roosevelt administration, is a "
reticent man, who has always taken his 81
position seriously, and has seldom t(
spoken of the incidents which came '?
under his observation. Writing to his M
-1 . Ul . ?i?u tho White V
paper auuui mo viau iu mc ?t???w
House In the first year of the McKlnley
administration, a German editor 11
said: "The contrast between the sur- v
roundings of the American president ^
and those of other rulers (?) impress- c
ed Itself on me in the anteroom. There "
were no uniforms. A soldierly looking e
old man stood guard at the entrance 11
to the president's chamber, but in such
an unostentatious manner that one
would have thought him to be waiting,
as we were, to be received. He called
nearly everybody by name, and his ^
strong German accent maue me feel ^
perfectly at home."
Taft and Optimism.?"Now that Mr. j,
Taft has joined the Optimistic Club, j,
bear operators on 'the prosperity mar- a
kef should either become bulls or else ^
find that hole in the doughnut for a
which they are always looking and curl
up there and die," said Albert Geoffrey
of St. Louis to a New York Telegram e
reporter. "President Taft has declar- tJ
ed that his shall be 'an optimistic ad- n
ministration for an optimistic country, ^
full of hope, cheerfulness and courage.'
Now, if any citizen can remain a pes- h
simist after that declaration he ought h
to hike for Africa and make a noise fl
like a lion when 'Teddy' comes along. ..
There is certainly no room for him in
this country." c
/hat a Northern Man la Doing at
Aiken to Help the People.
fews and Courier.
Columbia, April 19.?"The Policy of
Inllghtened Selfishness" is what Mr.
homas Hitchcock, Jr., has largely In
lew In his demonstration farm work
ear Aiken. Mr. Hitchcock believes
lat the way to elevate man Is to
low him how to make money, and he
ill do the balance himself in nine out
C ten cases.
I recently had the pleasure of spendig
the day with Mr. Hitchcock on his
emonstration farm, which is about
ght or ten miles outside of Aiken. In
lis brief article It will be unnecessary
> laud Mr. Hitchcock for the great
nd ever increasing work that he is
olng for the development of the city
t Aiken, and to Indicate his present
iterest In that development. The point
f this story is the great work he is
bw undertaking in showing the posbilitiea?if
there are any?In what is
nown as the "sand ridge" of this
There are tens upon tens of thouinds
of acres of land extending from
andbar Ferry across the state in a
ne touching Columbia, to the North
aroll'na line, where Chesterfield Joins
. This sand ridge of this state has
i an agricultural way been the laugh
ig stock of the agriculturists.
Mr. Hitchcock acquired Ave thousand
cres of land about eight miles from
lken, and up to within a month ago
jvas spasmodically and unsatisfac>rlly
cultivated. It was a typical
iece of sand land. Mr. Hitchcock
as attracted by the newspaper acjunts
to the government undertaking
i demonstration work through the inuence
of Commissioner Watson, and
e soon got in touch with Mr. Watson,
nd the result is that the government
i giving its active co-operation to this
Mr. Watson realized as soon as the
fTer was made him that it was the
Iggest thing that had yet been profited
to his department in the way
i aemonsimiioxi wwm, anu nciC ncu>
typical tract of sand land with a man
t means and enthusiasm to back up
le proposition to see If anything bustess-llke
could really be accompllshi.
Mr. Watson saw that the best taint
got in touch with the situation,
ecause he realized that this was the
rst large undertaking in the consldrable
sand belt of this entire region
> show what were the possibilities of
lis particular strata.
Mr. Hitchcock Paying the Bills.
Now, the situation is this. Mr Hltch>ck
agreed to turn over his bank acaunt
to the extent of whatever was
igitimately necessary to pay for the|
ibor and expenses in connection with
le experiment of showing whether or
ot a typical sand belt farm can be
On the other hand the United States
overnment, through the influence of
ommissioner Watson, has delegated
rof. Ira W. Williams, state agent in
large of United States farm demon:ratlon,
to take immediate charge of
lis experiment. Mr. Williams, of
>urse, will have the co-operation of
le various experts connected with the
overnment work all the way from the
airy experts to the plant breeders,
om the bureau of plant industry, the
lea being to get the very highest type
f talent to suggest what should be
one and how it should be done.
Mr. Hitchcock Is to let the' governlent
experts do the directing, and It
i upon them that the responsibility or
illure of the enterprise must rest,
side, of course, from the money that
In the matter of labor there Is to be
0 unusual experimentation, and local
oflored labor is to be used as hereto>re.
The Main Idea.
The idea of the demonstration work
1 to take this tract of five thousand
cres of land, that has not heretofore
een able to make taxes, and see if It
i possible, by a system of rotation of
rops, varied lines of planting and
conomles, to make this an absolutely
nnflt pnrnlne- fnrm and If HO to let
le owners of the tens of thousands of
cres of sand lands of this state know
icactly how It is done, and If they wish
> follow the lines of tested work they
in do so without going through the
If course, it Is a most unusual and
lost gratifying thing to find a man of
iich abundant means as Mr. Hitchcock
> "back up" such a proposition, and
Ir. Hitchcock impressed me as being
man of ideas, and one who is really
nxlous to do some good in this life
Mr. Ira W. Williams, who is the
overnment representative in immedlte
charge of the work, has had ten
lousand dollars of Mr. Hitchcock's
loney placed at his disposal, and if it
i necessary more will be at his comland.
Mr. Williams's idea is not to
?e how much money he can spend, but
> spend his money so that every dolir
will count, and that every dollar
ill be an actual profit-making Inestment.
He takes the position that
: would be easy enough to build up
lis land by high fertilization and lnest,
say, Slf>0 an acre on the land, but
Is Idea is to continue this land as
heap land by not investing money In
but to see what can be done by propr
and judicious fertilization, and parIcularly
by crop rotation.
Although Mr. Williams has had
harge of the farm for only a few
eeks, he now has a very considerable
ortion of it In rye, and it Is his purose
to turn this rye under and give
tie land Its first experience in what is
nown as humus growth. Prof. Wilams's
idea is to get this land in a
horoughly humus condition by sowig
rye and turning in crops that will
old the moisture, and this will probbly
be followed by a crop of peas, and
hat probably with what is known as
"winter cover crop."
The Hitchcock farm has been surveyd
and platted, so that the experimenal
work can be prosecuted in a bus'.ess-like
way, and the purpose is to
evote about two hundred acres to
rain, two hundred acres to corn, one
undred acres to cotton, two or three
undred acres to pasture and twentyve
acres to vegetables and truck
inds. These apportionments will inrease
from time to time as the land
[is gotten into shape. It is the purpose f
of Mr. Hitchcock, always bearing in
mind the profit-earning feature, to
have a lot of hogB, cattle for market,
sheep, goats and poultry on the farm.
The Dairy Feature.
A feature in the experimental wort
will be the dairy. The government
has already had its experts on the
ground, and they have planned a considerable
dairy building and farm. This
winter Mr. Williams expects to have
least fifty Jerseys and Jersey grades
En the dairy farm. There are now a ^
umber of steers on the place that are i
elng fattened for market, and it is t
Mr. Hitchcock's idea that a great (
hmount of this work can be done on i
this as well as other similarly located t
farms. Mr. Hitchcock, who is a great (
admirer and lover of horses and fine t
Cattle, does not believe In anything that f
!s not first class, and his orders are
o get nothing but the very best cattle j
or the dairy. It Is also Mr. Hitch- t
jock's idea to conduct experiments and c
Carry on work in connection with stock, t
There are now about seventeen or \
twenty muies on the place. Mr. Hitch- r
f - - book
has had a great deal of expert- 8
ence in the raising: of race horses, and t
he is convinced that the south needs c
horses for farm work rather than t
mules, and the chief reason for this e
position is that the mule does not re- e
produce Itself. This idea, he says, was j
Impressed upon hipt by watching farm r
operations in Europe. He thinks that c
the southern farm ought to be able to c
*et a substantial horse for farming r
purposes and he expects to devote some ^
fctudy to this feature of his expert- <]
mental work. *
Cannery to be Established. f
' Prof. Williams has already dlstrlbut
ed in the neighborhood and on the j
farm a number of vegetable seed, and c
it is his purpose to establish a cannery c
Inanrc a morUst for the VefiTe- I
tables that might be grown. The Idea
Is to devote considerable attention to
poultry, and with this In view Mr.
Hitchcock has distributed a number of
Incubators to the tenants on his place,
and provided them with eggs. There
Is a great deal of interest already in
this phase of the work, and Mr. Hitchcock,
as well as the government experts,
will see to It that whatever vegetables,
chickens or eggs that come from
the plantation are properly marketed,
and by getting quantities and marketing
them with discretion those who
raise them will get the maximum
Commissioner Watson now has interested
the Federal government in an
experimental station in Aiken county,
another in Columbia, on the Oonzales
farm, and the third in Chesterfield
Experiments Throughout 8tate.
This is only what is being done in
the sand ridge. There are many other
such experiments throughout the
state that are being fostered through
Mr. Watson's department, and it may
be said that this work has Ingratiated
the department of agriculture very
thoroughly with the farming classes,
and it is a great pity that more of this
work is not done directly by Clemson
college. If Clemson college undertook
this work of its own accord, in the various
counties, even upon a small scale,
it would do very much to make Itself
absolutely solid with the farmers.
Mr. Hitchcock, as well as his good <
wife, who was Miss Eustis, are both ^
very much Interested in the experi- ?
ment that is going: on and are intent
upon doing everything they possibly
can to insure its success.
It is Intended next fall to establish
a model school on the farm, and the
purpose of this model school will be
to impress upon those who attend it,
first how to cook, and then how to
farm and make money.
It should be borne in mind that the
Hitchcock experiment is not intended
to carry out any fad or to be simply a
show place. If the experiment fails
from a money making standpoint the
government authorities will say so, and
if it makes money, in any of Its departments
or all, the government officials
will also say so. An absolutely
accurate account is being kept of every
element that enters into the cost of
production and of the returns.
mp w b. Williams, who Is a prac
tlcal Georgia farmer, Is In personal
charge of the farm, and Is the Immediate
representative of Mr. Hitchcock
In the enterprise.
This experiment means a great deal
to the state of South Carolina, and
will be watched with the greatest possible
GATHERING SEA FOWLS' EGGS.
Perilous Work of Cliff Climbers on
With the advent of spring the Yorkshire
cliff climbers are making preparations
for gathering the eggs of the
myriads of sea fowl that build their
nests in the dizzy precipices of the
At Bempton, a few miles from Brld11
/o?np|fo rpsnrt of these
UUglUIl, llic iurv/i?v?
egg hunters, the chalk cliffs tower 400 t
feet above the sea. They are the home >
of thousands of gulls, cormorants, kit- c
tiwakes and other sea birds that have
just begun to build their rough nests
In the chalky crevices. William Wil- s
klnson, who has pursued this perilous <
calling for many years, is known local- j
ly as "the king of the egg hunters." f
He Is a bluff, weather scarred man of i
the sea, with as much nerve and agll- e
ity as Is possessed by the most daring s
Wllkerson wears an old helmet to t
protect his head from the pieces of c
rock dislodged by the rope by which s
he is suspended in midair. Around his r
body he buckles a kind of leather ham- i
mock, in which he is able to sit. on t
his arms he wears leather protectors, t
"Lower away, boys," he cries as he (
swings himself over the brink in an >
almost horizontal position and presses ?
each foot firmly against the chalk sur- ?
face. Three of the men seize the rope, c
and foot by foot the intrepid climber i
Is lowered till his cheery voice is lost ?
amid the fluttering sounds of the dls- ?
turbed birds. He swings from nest to t
nest, putting each egg carefully in a i
bag slung over his shoulder. As soon t
as his bag is full he gives the "hoist 1
up" signal on the guide rope and the 1
men haul him up. ?
Wilkerson makes several descents, ?
and at the end of the day shares the
spoil with his assistants, who sell them *
for eating purposes to the Inhabitants r
of the neighboring villages.?London 1
Dally News. t
THE WASTE F1
BY W. \
(Forester of the North Carolina
A yearly loss of many million dollars
rhich need never take place;' a loss,
tot of one year, like that occasioned
>y a great lire, but one which has ocsurred
year after year without lnteruptlon
for decades; which in its aggregate,
since the civil war, nearly
tquals the national debt?this la the
oil yearly exacted by erosion from the
'arm noils of the upland south.
Tha nrnflta nt fhe farmer noiselessly
low from his sloping fields In muddy
itreams. -In spite of the large amount
>f the loss the tiller almost Ignores it;
le Is, In fact, frequently Ignorant of
t. Tet this Immense loss to the farner
represents only a portion of the
LCtual damage; other industries suffer
llrectly and Indirectly from the same
tause. On account of it there are in
he dissected upland regions of the
louth more than 5,000,000 acres of land
it one time cultivated and now idle,
dany reasons have been assigned; the
?duced fertility of the soils; the lure
>f the newer, more level, and more
saslly tilled lands of the west; ecotomic
changes which followed the civil
var; lack of labor and home markets,
rhese have been secondary factors.
Soil exhaustion and erosion are the
undamental causes. The exhaustion
'old fields," eroded, gullied, raw with
leep wounds, and red as though stainid
with carnage, need only the touch
>f knowledge to become revivified,
low 8outhern Uplands Havs Suffered.
The causes which produced the old
leida sun operate to me rum ui. wwu
if the farming land. The decrease
n the productivity of the farms of the
astern United States has been general.
Nowhere has it been so evident as in
he upland region of the south, where
he loss is certainly not less than 30
>er cent of the yield when the lands
vere fresh and new. Erosion is the
lasal problem which underlies soil exlaustion
in this region, and so prevaent
and so disastrous is it that it has
>ecome not only a serious local agrri:ultural
problem, but an Important nalonal
problem as well, seriously af'ecting
the value of many investments
vhlch have been made in the region,
ts enormous extent has not been due
entirely to poor cultural methods. The
leavy rainfall, the physical character sties
of the region, the broken topog aphy
and the close-textured soils,
ind In some measure also the ecolomlc
conditions have contributed to
ncrease It Where methods of cultlvaion
suited to the local conditions have
i^Bn used, not only has erosion deceased,
but the yields have responded
In a wonderful manner, indicating
?"ll? ora r?r?f nnlv nnt Interior
;o those of other sections, but that, on
iccount of the ample rainfall and the
ong growing season, thejr have many
llstlnct advantages over those of oth>r
humid parts of the country.
Effect of Heavy Rainfall.
Erosion Is merely the washing away
>f the soil In muddy streams of ralnvater.
If the rainfall Is largely ablorbed,
as takes place In a very sandy
>r porous soil or on a level country,
lttle water remains on the surface to
*un off, and consequently there is but
illght erosion. The precipitation of the
louth amounts to from forty-five to
leventy Inches a year, compared with
!rom thirty to forty-five inches In the
lortheastern states, and falls in con
ieniraiea miuwci a, csiaiviiui; ...b
he three summer months, when onehlrd
of the total rainfall usually takes
>lace. Fifteen Inches has been recordid
as falling: In three days. The first
leavy dash of rain compacts the sur'ace
of the soli, while the balance of
iie rainfall largely flows off. Uncullvated
fields have been examined 1mnedlately
after a summer shower In
vhich more than an Inch of rain fell,
ind the soil was found to have become
vet by the rain less than two inches
jeneath the surface. In few places
vas It wet to a depth of four inches.
Less than one-fourth of the water
vhich fell had been absorbed. Had it
ill been uniformly absorbed the earth
vould have been dampened to a depth
)f more than six Inches. This lllusrates
the compacting: power pf the
leavy rains and the lmpervlousness of
:he heavy clays when devoid of humus
? Wnro_ I
inu tnorougniy sun-narucucu.
)ver, the methods of farming which
lave been followed?that Is, the coninuous
production of corn, cotton and
:obacco?all of these crops of clean
:ulture?with a minimum of small
fraln and the grasses, have added, by
he depletion of the humus of the soils,
0 the natural tendency to erode. Since
he eroding power of water increases
ilxty-four times by doubling Its veoclty,
it is easy to understand how
1 small stream, gathering volume and
velocity as It flows down the slope, aclomplishes
such enormous destruction.
Destruction of Farms.
In the old fields as they are being
ilowly colonized by trees, there Is no
(ultlvatlon to cover the gullies as they
ire formed. They are deepened by
sach rain; each storm adds another.
The heavy clays are eventually seam!d
Into deep parallel channels, which
ipread out In the hollows with great
'an-shaped ribs. This type characerlzes
the clay soils of Virginia, mldlle
Carolina and Georgia. The slit
toils, less tenacious and crumbling
nore easily than the clays, are readily
indermlned by running water, and
>rode to form huge vertically walled
>luffs. In portions of western North
Carolina, in middle Mississippi, ana in
vestern Tennessee, soils of this charicter
are most common, and their eroilon
when once well begun can be
shecked with difficulty. With every
lood the cllfT recedes, tons of earth are
idded to the burden of the nearest
itream, and the total destruction of
he soil proceeds. In Mississippi alone
here are thousands of acres eroded ino
cliff and canyon which have been
jermanently destroyed for farming.
'"or 200 miles xo xne soum uuu suum>ast
of Memphis this destruction Is
It is the difficulty of measuring In
iny one field the extent of the actual
nonentary loss that accounts for this
vaste being so largely disregarded:
he impossibility of being able to de
IN THE SOUTH.
Geological and Economic Survey.)
clare that a loss of so many dollars
in the yield of a crop Is to be attributed
to It The enormous aggregate
Is Indicated only by the silt and the
plant food annually borne from the
hillside farm by the rivers of the south- i
ftAjit Everv stream that flows through
the fertile hill country of the south
bears Its rich burden of plant food, a
golden argosy, on its way to the sea. I
The greater portion of the mineral <
constituent is clay and silt particles
which are most easily attacked by the
roots of the plants for their food; but
much, and the most important part, i
is the organic matter, the humus or
manural portion of the soil, which, on
account of its lightness, is so easily
washed away from the slope. From
one-sixth to one-fourth of the material
which produces the turbidity of the
rivers is humus, and it comes almost
entirely from the farming soils. It
is the lightest portion of the soil, and
the portion which is most easily transported
by the slowest moving water
when the heavier sut ana sana is ?en
behind. It is absolutely necessary for
the growth of crops, and It must be
replaced by the addition of manure in
some form to the soils. Ten million
dollars a year will not replace It In
the hillside soils whence it came and
where it is so badly needed.
The Rich Burden of the River*.
The Roanoke yearly bears from the
productive limestones of the valley of
Virginia and the red foothills of its
mountains more than 4,000,000 tons of
soil. It discolors the waters of the
sound into which it empties to a distance
of forty miles beyond its mouth.
The burden of the Alabama river exceeds
3,000,000 tons. The Tennessee
river swells the already naturally high
turbidity of the Mississippi by the an
1 JI 11 AAA Ann tnna thft
I IIUCU UIDCUCU5C VI XJ>fVW|VVV kVUW|
scouring of the fertile farms of Alabama,
Tennessee and Kentucky. The
Savannah, the Yadkin, the Santee, the
Cnattahoochee contribute as much;
while it is estimated by the army engineers
in charge of the river improvement
work on the James that this river
brings down, during a' flood with
a crest of ten feet, more than 200,000
cubic yards of earth every twenty-four
hours, and it has been known to color
the' waters of the Atlantic ocean far
beyond the capes.
An enormous total of not less than
50,000,000 tons of the most fertile soil
of the farms of the upland south is the
unwelcome gift of the hills to the rivers
The Savannah and many of the oth
? *? - ? ?fA
gr nVBTB Ul LUC IVUUI 1 t?a w
nave been clear, except during flood*,
until the latter part of the eighteenth
century, and there are many traditions
current In northern Georgia that
the Chattahooche, now one of the muddiest
of southern rivers, was at one
time usually pellucid and sparkling.
Some erosion has always taken place.
The deep gorges which ramify through
the soft rocks of the Piedmont were
carved by erosion, but it was a slow
process. The fertile soil which was
borne in small amounts from the forested
slopes was then deposited over
the broad alluvials, constantly enriching
them and gradually building them
up. Now, however, few of even the
smaller streams become clear except
for short periods of low water.
' With the excessive erosion which has
followed the ruinous tillage and subsequent
abandonment of the hillside
farms, the enormous volume of earth
which the flood-maddened waters carry
away Is no longer deposited for the
enrichment of the valleys. A part of
It fills up reservoirs and ponds or settles
as shifting silt bars in the channels
of navigable rivers and In harbors,
while the coarser material is deposited
In great beds over the once fertile alluvial
bottoms; and from the ruin of
the hillside follows the loss of the valleys.
The cultivation of thousands of acres
of such land has been abandoned along
the rivers of the Piedmont, notably
along the Wateree, the Broad, the
Yadkin, the Catawba, and the Saluda
rivers. The telegraphic dispatches of
nearly every flood contain some item
| chronicling the burying of the valley
farms beneath sand-beds.
Floods on the Increase.
' There is no doubt also that the height
| of the river floods which have been so
destructive to property In the south
during the past ten years has been
materially Increased through the failure
of the sunbaked surface of the
waste land to absorb Its due proportion
of the rainfall. Higher floods than formerly
are now produced by the same (
amount of rainfall, Indicating the
greater rapidity of the run-off and the (
lessened absorption. The flood losses
of the south for the past ten years aggregate
more than >25,000,000, and
with the multiplication of factories and
towns along the rivers, this lost must
continue unless the soils perform their
proper function. The recent losses at i
Augusta, Ga., Fayettevllle, N. C., Cheraw,
S. C? and elsewhere are only Indications
of what may be expected
more frequently If the large areas of i
the unabsorptlve, close-textured clays
continued to shed so large a portion of i
their rainfall Into the rivers, without :
absorbing what they could If In forest i
or under a rational system of cultiva- i
tion. Simultaneously with the Increase
in the floods there Is a corresponding <
decrease in the low-water flow, serl- i
ously Interfering with navigation and j
th? value of water powers.
Industries dependent upon water i
power are being disastrously affected
in other ways as well. The engi- i
neer of one of the largest hydro-elec- i
trie companies operating in the Carolina*
publicly stated that within four
years the storage capacity of reser- i
volrs under his care had deceased 5
per cent by filling In with earth
eroded from the upper portion of the j
watershed. It is impossible for the
power companies to check or lessen it,
and there is no way to remove the deposit
when once It has accumulated. 1
The trouble lies far above the dams,
and the owners must witness the slow
annihilation of the storage of their res- <
ervolrs. It would undoubtedly be wise <
policy, however, for them, where they
own land surrounding their reservoirs,
to protect it themselves from erosion.
In this particular, however, they are
usually as careless as other landowners.
Some of the worst-gullied lands
in the Carolines are owned by power
and mill companies, and every pound
of soil washed from their bare slopes
goes directly Into the reservoirs, affecting
the storage value.
The finest particles of silt and clay
pass beyond the lowest dams and settle
in the slower moving portions of
the rivers near the coast and in the
harbors. The greater portion of the
millions appropriated by the Federal
government for the improvement, or
rather the temporary opening, of the
lower reaches of southern rivers, is ex
pended tor areagmg; ana uit> ubwb*
sary expenditures to keep the channels
clean of the rapidly forming and shifting
silt and sand bars will in the future
Increase in direct proportion to
the Increased silt burden of these
streams. In the event of the canalisation
of any of them, thp sand deposits
would continue a menace to channel
depth, since the slowly moving canal
water affords ideal conditions for settling.
Terracing to Cheek Erosion.
A very large portion of this loss and
damage is avoidable. How thoroughly
erosion can be checked and with what
benefits to farming, as well as, of
course, corresponding benefits to other
industries which suffer, Is shown by
the results secured by deep plowing
and level terracing in portions of the
south. On one farm In South Carolina,
with a very steep slope, a dozen terranpi
Hm nn the hill above the Cbn
garee river to a total height of more
than sixty feet. The terraces are so
well leveled that there is no run-oft
of surface water; the entire rainfall Is absorbed.
Deep plowing Is used as an
adjunct, and plenty of humus Is maintained
to keep the surface soil loose,
porous, and mellow, thus lessening the
tendency of the heavy rains to compact
the surface, and assuring the surface
water good drainage through to the
subsoil. On this farm the sorghum
was eight feet high, while the cotton
stood to the shoulder, indicating a
double yield above that of the adjacent
unterraced slopes where erosion ^^7
yet had unrestricted action. A >. Jg
Such level terraces are developed by
constructing embankments, such as are
now extensively used on hillside ditches
in the south, except that they are located
on a level, and by the use In tillage
of hillside and reversible disk
plows which always turn the furrow
down the slope. This hastens the leveling
process. But erosion, the very SS:V';j
agency they are being constructed to
prevent, plays its important part, and
the rapidity- with which the terraces
develop and leveling proceeds, indicates
how rapidly erosion was taking
Terracing undoubtedly has its drawbacks
In restricting cultivation, but
there Is with Its use an enormous In- % ^
crease in the yield of the crops and a
decrease in the cost of maintaining
fertility. It Is far superior in every
way to the much-used hillside iitch
which barely checks erosion stridently
to make cultivation possible.
Such level terracing, brealdng the
field Into steps, need be used >nly on
the steeper slopes. On more gentle
slopes other methods can be employed
which permit unrestricted cultivation.
Either broad dykes, eighteen to twenty
feet wide, located on a level, or narrower
dykes on a slight Incline, but
following the contours of the slopes,
and two to four feet vertically apart,
can be employed. The surface of
these dykes Is cultivated like the rest
of the field, and while they do not entirely
prevent erosion, they considerably
reduce it But above all, deeper
plowing is necessary and more humus
in the soil, made from manure or by
plowing under green crop*, to give
mellowness and porousness; the general
use of cover crops on land during
the winter; and more small grain and
the grasses. All hillside land In corn,
cotton, tobacco, or other clean tilled
crop should be laid by with a cover
crop of some kind. ,
The Problem of the "Old Fields."
This Is for the lands which are now
in cultivation; and where these methods
have been used not only has erosion
been largely reduced, but land
values have rapidly risen. The Idle
and waste lands, the "old fields," represent
a more serious problem. It will
require the addition of a million workers
to the population of the south to
place these lands again in cultivation,
more than that number if intensive
cultivation is practiced. At the same
time the movement of population in
the south is still toward the towns, as
it snouia d? 10 ??wuuau auu
necessary home markets for farm
products, and it will be many years
before their profitable cultivation will
be possible. The soils at bottom are
good and strong, and some day the
greater portion will undoubtedly be
needed for the use of the south's increasing
population. This land can in
the meanwhile be made productive
with but little labor by planting trees,
assuring at once its reclamation by
checking erosion and some returns
from the Investment by the profitable
use of the land. Some areas are so
steep and rough that they should be
permanently maintained in forest.
Encouragement of Tree Planting.
There is already a strong feeling in
some of these states that vigorous
measures must be taken to reduce erosion,
and that When profitable and permanent
cultivation is not possible without
its being excessive, the land to
assure its permanent earning value
must be regarded as forest land. This
feeling will undoubtedly crystallise in
a decisive policy with definite plans
of action. Advisable lines of action
by the states for the encouragement
of planting by owners might be the
furnishing of seedlings of trees at the
cost of growing them, and furnishing
advice on the ground as to the best
methods to be adopted and kinds of
trees to plant, and assistance in pro
tectlng plantations from Are.
There Is no doubt that It would be
possible to reduce the present erosion
from farm lands one-half with an enormous
saving to the nation. Each of
the southern states has Its own peculiar
problems of this kind which must
be solved at home by the brains and
energy of the commonwealth Itself;
the preservation of the soils; the use
of Idle lands; the protection of the
earning value of its waterways.
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