Newspaper Page Text
^?? * ^ ISSUED SEMI'WEEKL^ l. k. GEISTS SONS, Pabii.her.,} % c#atnitS U'wsgager: 4 or th< $romotion o|f th? political, ^oqtal, Agricultural and (Commercial Interests of th< ( ?GL*?ri. Vi ffL??.YAI"* I ESTABLISHED 18551 YOBKVILLE, 8. C., FRIDAY, OCTOBER 8, 1909. MO. 81. THE VICTC * Explanation of It f GREAT ADDRE President of Wofford Coll Therefrom th The leading address at the King's Mountain celebration yesterday was delivered by Dr. Henry Snyder, president ot Wofford college. It was an able effort, characterized by com- J plete knowledge of the subject dis^ cussed, and stirring eloquence that held the undivided attention of all tne thousands within range of the doctor's voice, and elicited round after round of applause. Following is the address ' in full: KING'S MOUNTAIN. I*. ..a M....... Patriotic women, worthy and gracious descendants of those who neiped to make this republic a reality, and the republic itself, grateful to the men who, in tnis spot one hundred and f. twenty-nine years ago, sealed with their blood their faith in free institutions?the Daughters of the American Revolution and the government of the United States?have today brought us ? together to dedicate this shaft of enfe during granite to the memory of those who fought here, to a faith in the * principles for which they fought, and to an abiding love for the country whose foundations they helped to lay. In this celebration we are expressing some among the noblest emotions 01 our human nature?a memory which will not let us forget, in the clamorous Interests of the present hour, a splendidly heroic past, a tribute of homage to those who gladly gave life itself in devotion to a large and noble cause, a generous gratitude for this rich heritage of free institutions, and a patriotism that dedicates ltseit atresn to the maintenance of these institutions, g and in the high and hoiy passion 01 this hour resolves to hand tneu. down, not only unimpaired, but enhanced to bless the alter generations. Memory for an heroic past, homage to those who served nobly in it, gratitude for blessings received from dead ^ hands, a new and stronger love for a " country and a cause besprinkled with blood of willing- human sacrifice? these are, 1 repeat, among the ttnest and best emotions of our humanity. The mood they bring to us makes this a sacred occasion and touches our thought with something of the high passion of religion. it transforms g tnis nill into a shrine of patriotism and consecrates us and all Americans ministrants at its altars. It Is in this spirit that I shall endeavor to tell anew the familiar story, interpret afresh the motives that beat at the heart of the men who here acted their p; parts so greatly, and bring home to ^ our thougnt, with what clearness and force I may, the profound significance of October 7, 1780, not only to this republic, but to the future of humanity itself. A battle as a battle. In which men shoot and cut and slay one another in herce, slaughterous lust for blood, Is an ill thing to consider. No flaunting of brlgut banners, no blare of silver trumpets, no rythmic tramp of marching feet, no glittering of the trappings of war, no dauntless daring, no lighthearted courage, no glad willingness to give up life and all that men hold dear?none of these things avail to redeem a battle of the hideous horror ^ of its sheer inhumanity and transform its gory held into a sacred spot, to which men and women of the aftertime journey as to a shrine. The battie and its held get their reueinpiu... from the truth, the principles, the ideals that animate the combatants. There is no virtue in mere fighting. T* K ntwfnc, lino 1 n hot fnr u'hlnh ^ Alio Vil VUV IIVO mwfc *v* fi M?V" light. But these men of King's Mountain were fighting for principles of home, of social, of religious, of political life, which lift their battlefield, this spot, ^ from the low level of a physical struggle, with all Its attendant horrors, into a high and holy place of sacrificial service. The principles that moved them and the Ideals that gleamed before them, constitute the very alpiiaoet of the primer of our social and politiw cal organization, nevertheless no com pany of Americans can have the face to gather together on an occasion like this without reminding themselves afresh of those fundamental principles which furnished the life-giving spirit to all their institutions. Moreover, it is the beauty and significance of these principles grasped in the thought, imbedded in the conscience, and aglow in the heart of the riflemen of King's Mountain that made the grim, relentless slaughter of that October day an inevitable and glorious necessity. It should be remembered, first, that they were not fighting for some new principle of government. They were probably simply conscious that they were fighting to hold what they had _ brought with them from the older ' lands over sea The civilization they had planted along the Atlantic shore line was new only in the conditions by which it was surrounded. The organized form of government by which this civilization was proieciea ana iurthered was no strange discovery flash9 ing suddenly upon the American colonists as they struggled to make the wilderness habitable. They were Englishmen in the main, with English conceptions of home, of individual ana public rights, with English ideas of law and order and government. They knew they were but planting an old seed in a new soil, and they felt it their bounden duty to see to it that ^ it should be so cultivated and tended, as it grew, as not to lose any of its power of beneficent fruitage. The working principles of their organized and individual life were therefore very old and very precious. They were present, in rude beginnings, it is true, ? far back on the shores of the German ocean in oldest homes of the race, when grim Saxon warriors chose their own chief by free vote and signed their assent to any measure by clashing swords on shields; they were present when Saxon thanes gathered under the spreading branches of a great oak on the hillside, the first English narlia merit, and as free and equal men judged and decided what was best for all the people; they throbbed in the heart of those stern barons who wrung from a reluctant king, in the meadows of Runnymede, the Great Charter of * our liberties; their principles actuated the commercial and industrial classes of the late middle ages when they refused to be taxed without representation, and forced and brought tyrannical kings to their way of thinking; it was the might of these principles that won an open Bible in their own every day speech for the common people In the days of Henry VIII,, Elizabeth, and James II.; it was the fire ?r at aim :s Meaning and Ir Message. ;SS BY DR. HEN lege Rehearses the Story e Lessons That Should 1 the Present Generation. of these principles that fused English, Puritan and Scotch Covenanter together, and sent them victorious to Naseby and Marston Moor; it was violation and defiance of these principles that brought a king's head to the block after he had been tried and condemned by an elected parliament of the people. These principles of the right and the ability of the people to govern themselves, slowly won through the centuries, but once won never surrendered, the Cavaliers brought with them to Virginia, the Pilgrims to New England, the Dutch to New York, the Swede to New Jersey, the Quaker and the German to Pennsylvania, the Scotch-Irish to the new homes along the slopes of the Blue Ridge, and the Huguenot to the lowlands of South Carolina. Freedom, self-government, was born In the blood and bred In the bone of most of these men. But its power was strengthened by the stress and strain of their new surroundings. It was felt and realized by all, not only by the cultivated thinker of the older colonies but also by the lonely hunter by the salt licks of the Cumberland. When the storm of the Revolution broke, they knew, each and all, clearly what was at issue and thought it worth while to pay the price of life and goods for it. It was their rights GOVERNOR AN8EL. as Englishmen which were threatened ?rignis long innerited and dearbought. When they read the great declaration of July 4, 1776, it had power to move them, not because it told of new and unfamiliar political principles, but because it restated in stirring phrases the old and familiar. And these were too precious to give up. It is these principles, therefore, their supreme worth to them and to humanity and the radiant heroism that was spent to maintain them that in vt'sia tins opv/t mui iuq 511/1 j no w**>- , memorate today. It was a battle by heroic men for principles that make men heroic. And tne mere story of it is well worth the telling anew. What is the condition of the cause for which the colonists were hgnting immediately before the battle of King's Mountain, October 7, 1780? By the middle of May of this year Augusta, Savannah anu Charleston had fallen into the hands of the British. Following these victories they adopted the severest measures for completing the work of subjugation, particularly in South Carolina. Imprisonment, confiscation of property, banishment, ruthless execution under the superficial forms of military law, robbery, murder were the order of the day. Their most relentless leader, Tarleton scoured the middle and lower country, leaving devastation and ruin in his tracks. "No quarter!" was his motto even in open and honorable battle. It was only the activity of such leaders as Sumter, Marlon, Pickens and Bratton, striking suddenly and getting swiftly away to strike again, that seemed to keep burning the spark of liberty and save the stale from that complete subjugation at which the British aim. In the up country Colonel Ferguson, in many respects, the most skillful of Tj?: ? J ? U 1 A r.t.ji was via/nmiiclv llic ?>illli3il icauci o, nao and effectively active. This man had courage, dash, resourcefulness, power of organization, tact and address in conciliating the disaffected and winning the hesitant over to the British side, and a large amount of that personal magnetism that enters into the make-up of the real leader. This picturesque and masterful man was doing in the up-country what Tarleton was doing in the low-country. His command consisted of provincial American troops from New York and New Jersey and Tories from North and South Carolina. The exceptional skill of their leader had trained and organized them Into a high state of efficiency. The whole country was now in a thorough state of demoralization, and to the ills of a foreign invasion were added the horrors of civil war. Families were divided into opposing camps of Whigs and Tories; father against son; brother against brother; neighbor against neighbor; the unhappy state of the country furnished the fruitful occasion for the expression of all the baser passions of our human nature. Open murder, secret assassination, theft, burnings, pillage were the familiar happenings of the day. No man's life or family, or home was safe from the attack of the midnight prowler. It was a time of gloom, and the patriot cause seemed all but lost. But faith and courage had not quite died out. There were a few who still kept the torch of liberty alight in hearts of gold and rought on againsi desperate odds. On the 18th day of August, they closed a series of sharp engagements with an attack on a detachment of Ferguson's troops at Musgrove's Mill on the Enoree river, and gained a signal victory. McCall, Williams, Hammond, Brandon, Steen, Charles McDowell and McJunkin were the leaders. Among them, however, was a new type of fighting man, now for the first time entering upon the stage of action. These were the riflemen from over the mountains?men from Georgia under Clarke, from the Nolachucky, the Watauga, and the Holston under Robertson, Sevier and Shelby, These distant frontiersmen, resting awhile from clearing new lands and fighting Indians beyond the Blue MOUNTAIN itepretation of Its RY N. SNYDER of the Battle, and Draws 5e Heeded by Ridge, had crossed the mountains at McDowell's call for help. Flushed with their victory, the patriot leaders were now ready to move on to strike the British post at NinetySix. But there came the terrible news of the complete defeat of Gates' Continental Army at Camden, so they, too, must retreat?the mountain men to their homes beyond the Blue Ridge, and the rest over the border Into North Carolina. These are now the dark days of the Revolution, darker than any time since the drear winter of Valley Forge. Marion was In hiding; Sumter had been surprised and beaten at Hanging Rock and his force had scattered; the shattered remnants of Gates' demoralized army had fled to Hillsboro, North Carolina; CornwalUs was at Charlotte, prepared to do in iNoitn Carolina wnat he had done in its sister state to the south, and then, moving into Virginia to strike Washington, and put down forever the cause of human liberty on these shores; Ferguson had swept up to the very foot of the mountains on the west, driving everything before him, awing the cowardly, winning over the weak and hesitating, and slaying where he could those stubborn patriots who yet held out and destroying their homes. Well could he and Cornwallis report that the rebellion was at an end in South Carolina. Dark and desperate seemed the cause of free men and free institutions. To hope for success now would seem but the futile dream of those who took no sane reckoning of conditions. Further resistance were a vain and useless waste of life and property. The sun of liberty had gone down in the stormy darkness of a starless and uncertain night. Early In September, Ferguson, before moving eastward from Gilbert Town, sent a message to the mountain chieftains on the Watauga, the Nolachucky, and the Holston, that If they did "not desist from their opposition to British arms, he would march his army over the mountains, hang their leaders, and lay waste their country with fire and sword." Wrongly he reckoned in the real effect of such a message. It came as a challenge to men little accustomed to let a challenge pass without taking it up. Besides, it held out a threat of invasion and the destruction of homes, but recently won from the wilderness and the savage. Humble log cabins though they were, resting under the shadow of great mountains, they were yet the homes of American free men, and with the blood in their veins and the race memories that cling about their traditions, their first duty was to keep these homes sacred within and safe from any attack without. Moreover, these men were not of the sort to wait for the foe to come to them. They were accustomed to seek their foes. On the 25th of September, at the call of their leaders, the mountain men met at Sycamore Shoals on the Watauga. It is a fateful and significant gathering. The destiny of the future republic is involved in it. Campbell is there with his four hundred Virginians; Shelby has brought two hundred and forty of his Hol3ton men to join them to an equal number from the banks of the Watauga under Sevier. Looking back upon them from this distance of time, one must say that that is a romantically picturesque company of men who gathered together on that bright September day, with the clearilowing Watauga at their feet and their great hills towering above them, glowing in the first gorgeous penciling i of autumn. As they move to and fro in groups discussing the supreme question of the hour or gather in mass to hear what their leaders have to say, they are well worth our considering, who and of what sort they are. Clad in the familiar fringed hunting shirt of the frontiersman,, their long hair flowing from beneath coonskin or minkskin caps, their feet shod in the moccasin of their Indian foes, in their belt the knife and tomahawk, and in their hands, ever ready, reaching from foot to cnin, tne long cieaoiy rone, in the use of which they had become inarvelously expert, they step before our modern eyes as singularly romantic and picturesque figures. They are our Knight-errants of the wilderness? "the advance guard of western civilization and the rear guard of the Revolution;" tall, grim, gaunt, keen-eyed, toil-hardened men, with nerves of steel and muscles of iron, rude of speech, rough of manner, and stern of deed, their struggle to subdue the wilderness and their contests with the Indians had made them resourceful, self-reliant, independent, brave. They were essentially a product of their surroundings and of their manner of life. They were not builders of towns; they were, however, home builders in the wilderness, and therefore woodmen, hunters, Indian fighters. But they were far more than this. Before the middle of the eighteenth century Scotch-Irish settlers had come "> ?? Al/I n ntiohin uvtri ii win uic v^iu uuiiu, uwu |/uow...0 beyond the seacoast, beyond even the Piedmont hills, had crossed the Blue Ridge and claimed for their own the fertile valleys between the two Appalachian ranges. They were a strong, virile, vigorous folk, and having the blood of the Covenanters in their veins, they were committed unalterably by instinct, tradition, and practice to civil and religious liberty. They and their descendants became the most American of Americans. By and liy the thin line of settlements which they first established was strengthened by the enterprising men of other faiths and blood who also loved liberty? Swedes, Germans, English and even a sprinkling of Huguenots. But in the course of time all became subdued to the prevailing stern Scotch-Irish Presbyterian type, a type, if not always ixf nfhor rtoovilp'u Hchts. Jit least ever tenacious of their own. In their rude cabins In the shadowy gloom of the unbroken forest, fighting Indians, clearing a bit of land for next year's crop, enduring all manner of hardships, today a son or father or brother slain by a treacherous foe, tomorrow wife or daughter or sister carried off to captivity worse than death, they were trained in an iron school of experience, and It made Iron men of a stock already possessed of not a few of the iron virtues. And in this school they lost none of their love of liberty, nor abated one jot of their stubbornness in holding it, or their quick willingness to fight for it. As early as 1772 they had set up on the banks of the Watauga the first organized form of government ever set up by American born men on this continent. And their articles of government show two things?first, that they knew what freedom was, and secondly, that they knew how to organize It practically into institutions. They naturally, from the beginning, ardently espoused the cause of the Colonists. But up to this time their chief business had been to keep the Indians in check, who were continually wrought upon by British agents to Join them In the conflict. Roosevelt has aptly described these Americans of the Alleghany valleys, "as a shield of sin? ewy men thrust in between the people of the seaboard and the red warriors of the wilderness," and well had they performed this duty. But now another duty called. They would not wait for the foe to seek them in their homes. They would seek him. So on the morning of the 26th they are ready to march. In answer to a prayer and an address by one of their preachers they shout in chorus: "The sword of the Lord and of our Gideons," and mounted on tough, wiry steeds they turned their faces eastward over the mountains, through rugged defiles, over narrow trails, under frowning precipices, this little army of democratic American citizens who would be free, threaded their cautious way. Six days later, on the 30th of the month, they are over the mountains at Quaker Meadows. Here they are joined by three hundred and fifty North Carolinians under Cleveland and Winpton and McDowell, leaders true and tried, and men seasoned by repeated conflicts with their Tory enemies. Finally, in the afternoon of the sixth of October, they reached Cowpens. There they are joined by the forces of Lacy, Hill, Williams and Hambrlght, South and North Carolinians who knew not how to yield. They are now within striking distance of the foe they are seeking. He Is only a little way ahead, having taken a position on a hill near King's Mountain, from which he said God Almighty Himself nor all the Rebels out of hell could drive him. But there Is hardly time even for rest. The time to strike their blow Is at hand. At 9 o'clock they set out. The stars are obscured by heavy olniiSo onH a SHmlln? rain hparlns to faJL In black darkness they press on till the The history of this mounment as scriptions thereon, will be found in the grey, dripping dawn finds them at the Cherokee Ford on Broad river. They naa marcnea eifnieen miies uuung me night, and their enemy was yet fifteen miles away. But wearied as they were, they press on without food or rest, and at 3 o'clock in the afternoon they are at the foot of the hill ready for the attack. "To catch and destroy Ferguson," had been the cry of the mountaineers. Now they were ready to make it good. The hated foe was within their grasp. Leaving their horses, afoot they hasten into action, with forces so divided as completely to surround the enemy. With his usual dash and courage the British leader answers; charge with charge. But he meets a new kind of fighting men, and they give him what they call "Indian play," that is, charging from the protection of one tree to that of another, they fire upon the British with their usual deadly accuracy. Ferguson repeatedly gives them the bayonet, a mode of war-fare with trhlnh t hotr tnn nrp unfamiliar At each charge they flee quickly down the hillside till out of reach of the enemy and then turn to charge and flre again with terrible execution. For an hour the slaughter goes on, the American forces gradually closing in. Early in the action the gallant Ferguson is slain, pierced with seven wounds. Nothing can save his band now. Flags of truce are shown by the British at various points in the conflict. But the mountaineers, at least many of them, did not even know what a flag of truce meant, and kept on firing. Finally, the firing ceased, and that October sun went down on the last of Ferguson and him men?all slain or captured. The men of the hills and the mountains had done what they came to do?capture and destroy Ferguson. So burying their dead, caring for the wounded, and taking their prisoners, they turn their faces once more toward their valley homes beyond the dim blue line of the distant mountains. But Shelby. Sevier, Campbell. Cleveland, McDowell, Winston. Hambright, Lacy, Hill and Williams, with the men under them had done far more than destroy Ferguson. Their victory sent Cornwallis from Charlotte back to Winnsboro all but panic-stricken, freed the up-country of the horror and oppression of Tory rule, brought a new hope and courage and faith to the patriotic cause every where, and became the turning: point of the Revo' Ion, making Torktown's glad day a near possibility. There may have been other battles In which more men were engaged; but none counted for more In Its deep and far-reaching influence than that one which was here fought one hundred and twenty-nine years ago. It gave us the Imperial republic of this proud hour. r~iz i JOSEPH M. BROWN, Governor of Georgia, who should have been at King's Mountain yesterday and wasn't. ' i mm ;;:j| THE NATIONAL MONUMENT. well as a complete description of It. ti article by Hon. D. E. Flnley elsewhere Men of the up-country of the two Carolinas and of Georgia of that olden day! You had the reward of all your sufferings and hardships on this slope Ion that day of battle. Today we turn back to you in gratitude for the priceless legacy you left us, your descendants; men of the distant mountains of Virginia, of Tennessee, of Kentucky! [You left this field to take up anew [the tasks you but temporarily laid aside, tasks mighty In their influence upon the country you here helped to vp?fierhtiner Indians, carving new commonwealths from the wilderness, and holding from Frenchman and Spaniard the west and southwest, the fairest portion of our National domain. Fitting it is therefore, that we, your heirs, should dedicate to your memory this lofty shaft. Its base rests upon the hill consecrated by your valor and your devotion to the cause which now blesses us, and you were men of the hills; it Is made of enduring granite * m lt-- ? -4 U TifV?l/?V? dug irom me very etti m uyci muvn you marched and suffered, and you were unyielding granite In the stubborn virtues of your manhood; It points away to the blue of the overarching sky from Its deep base In the broad bosom of the earth, and out of your heroic virtues, born of the soil that you won, there soared high over all the aspiring Ideal of home, of brotherhood, of the same rights for all and special privileges to none, of religious and political liberty, in a republic of free and equal men. It was for these ideals that you fought and were willing to die. That granite fibre of your manhood, that grim, stern battle lust, those muscles of iron and nerves of steel?all were but the servants of your ideals. These chiefly constitute your glory. You did your whole duty In striving to make them real in your own way and by your own ? ? ~n* hnnnr vmi nictiiia, ciuu ?c ui iuuuj ^ most when we turn from this scene and these exercises and this shaft dedicated to your memory, possessed with the thought that It shall be our duty, to meet the new tasks, social, Indus trial, and political, that have come to us, in the spirit of the ideals which, through your deeds here performed, make this spot a shrine of patriotic worship for all Americans. t-T Don't make a specialty of white lies; it doesn't take them long to show dirt. "THE UNITI Splendid Achievements Twenty-Ni MARVELOUS GROV Hon. E. Y. Webb of North Ca Was at the Time of Mountain and M Hon. E. Y. Webb, congressman from the Eighth North Carolina district, was on the programme to respond to the toast "United States," but was unable to be present on account of the critical illness of one of his children, and his address was read by Congressman R. N. Page, of the Seventh North Carolina district as follows: The United States of America. Mr. Chairman and Fellow Citizens: In attempting to discuss so big a subject as the "United States of America," In the short time necessarily allotted to me, I am reminded of the braggart who boasted that he could whip any man In Richmond. No one taking the gage of battle, he declared that he could whip any man In Virginia; still no one accepting the challenge, he loudly announced that he could whip any man in the United States, whereupon some one struck him 4^ j)fc c >gether with a transcript of the Inln this Issue. full In the face and laid him low. When he recovered consciousness, and after rubbing his face a moment, he candidly said, "Boys, I took in too much territory the last time." However, the subject has been assigned me by the programme committee, and I will do the best I can with it, at the same time craving your sympathy and attention. For a few minutes let us consider the condition of our country at the time the battle of King's Mountain was fought and then trace the growth and progress of the republic to the present time. Mr. Chairman, on this spot of earth where we now stand, there occurred just 129 years ago a momentous struggle in which was bound up the destiny of a country that has since become richer than Ophir of Babylon, mightier than Rome, vaster than the British empire, and more cultured than Greece. Had the patriots lost this all-important battle, our country would have retained the British yoke and remained an English province. On this hill-top on that eventful day quivered the destiny of this republic in fate's tremend ous balances, wnen tfte guns ceasea firing, and the smoke of that hour's terrible contest had cleared away, the patriots' triumph was complete, and the way grew clear, the path bright, to the successful termination of the Revolutionary war, with our independence forever established, and under the guidance of and smiles of providence, that young nation has become the mightiest government that ever existed on the shore of time. Let us notice the conditions under which the young republic started her career alone among the other nations of earth. Her people did not exceed three millions, scattered over an area of 240,000 square miles. Today her population has grown to ninety millions of people inhabiting three millions, six hundred thousand square miles of territory. In 1780 Virginia had the largest population of any of the states; Pennsylvania was next, and North Carolina third. The country was then bounded on the west by the Mississippi river, on the south by the Spanish colony of Florida, on the east by the Atlantic ocean, and on the north by the Dominion of Canada. At that time the northern boundary was In dispute, and but six of the thirteen states had definite boundaries. The ID STATES" i of One Hundred and ine Years. FTH OF AMERICA. rolina, Tells What the Country the Victory at King's fhat It Is Now. boundaries of North Carolina and (south Carolina were not known or settled. The populated portions of the country were along the Atlantic seaboard. in those days there were but three banks in existence; the Bank of North America, in .Philadelphia, the Bank of i\ew York, and the Bank of Massachusetts In Boston. It is Interesting to observe that we now have more than seventeen thousand banking Institutions. About the only modes of travel and transportation In those days were by boat and horseback. In the south there were no wagon roads and but few in New England. All highways were but bridle paths or blazed trails running through an unknown wilderness. Practically the only road In the south ran from Alexandria, Virginia, via Jamestown on to Hertford, New bern and Wilmington, North Carolina, ana on 10 cnarieoion ana (savannah. In those primitive days there were but seventy-five postofflces throughout tne land, the receipts of which were 138,000, and expenditures on account of rtiu /lann. tmonf u/orn Willie I last year the government spent on this department alone about 1200,000,000. The mail was carried then by stage and horseback. Since then there have been established 75,000 postofflces, and the mail is now transported by air tubes and express trains. The prices of postage then depended on the distance a letter was carried, the postage usually being paid by the person receiving the letter or at the place of delivery. It cost six cents 10 carry a letter thirty miles, twelve and a half cents to carry it a hundred miles, and twenty-live cents to carry It 450 miles. Now a man in Maine may send his letter to ?an rrancisco or to the Philippines for two cents, or to the farthest part of earth for five cents. In 1780 North Carolina had but four postofflees, Edenton, Washington, Newoern and Wilmington. South Carolina nad but two, Georgetown and Charleston. There was then but one cotton mill in existence; and now we have about 2,000, furnishing cotton goods to the farthest markets of earth. The oldtime spinning wheel was found in every home, and it is now only a relic preserved from the long ago. Such a machine could spin five skeins of No. 32 yarns in thlrty-slx hours; while the modern mule spinning machine, opera a ted by one person, can produce fifty five thousand skeins of similar thread in the same time. With the old time loom one person could weave fortytwo yards of cotton cloth in a week; while now a single person with modern machinery can produce three thousand yards in the same length of time. The value of all manufactures then aggregated twenty million dollars, wnlle now they are valued at about thirteen billions of dollars annually. The entire imports and exports In 1780, amounted to forty millions of dollars, while now they average more than two billions of dollars. Education then was but poorly encouraged, there being but twenty colleges about like our ordinary high schools; while today there are about 500 with an enrollment of two hundred thousand students. There were but two medical schools in the early days of the republic and not a single school of law. Only 103 newspapers furnished the news to the people; while last year there were more than twenty thousand of these publications. North Carolina had but one newspaper, the Fayetteville Observer, and South Carolina had but two, the State Gazette, and the City Gazette or Dally Advertiser. In those days the printing of 250 small papers In an hour was fine work, while now we have printing presses that can print, cut and fold 96,000 eight-page papers per hour, or 1,600 every minute. The Daner in this modern mechanical wonder passes through the cylinders at the rate of 30 miles an hour. In 1780 New York was the largest city with 32,000 Inhabitants, Philadelphia next with 28,000, Boston next with 18,000, and Charleston fourth with 16,000. The increase in poulatlon In the United States from 1780 to the present is 2,000 per cent Belgium in the same time increased her population 204 per cent England 155 per cent, Germany 143 per cent, and France but 42 per cent. The total number of -members of the lower house of congress was 66, each based on 33,000 population. We now have 392 members, each based on 190,000 population. Had the basis of this Pflnrooontotlnn romnlnp-l linrhn niTPfl VUV.IVUVIV.1 ? .uaMiiuua - ? since 1780, there would now be 2,259 members In the lower branch of congress; and, had the basis of 1900 been used In 1780, congress would have had but 18 members in It In those days the entire wealth of the country did not exceed one billion dollars, while now it exceeds 113 billions. Since this battle was fought the Federal Union of thirteen states has grown M. R. PATTERSON, Governor of Tennessee, who should have been at King's Mountain yesterday and wasn't. to embrace forty-six states, besides numerous territories and insular possessions, until today one is startled at the thought that our country's flag al ? <?AA AAA nrtiin ro m ilou C\t tho uifs uver o,oju,uuv 041101c ?>iiv? .? earth's surface. On the 30th day of April, 1803, under the masterly guidance of Thomas Jefferson, that vast stretch of territory beyond the Mississippi became part of the United States. Out of this immense territory have been carved the states of Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oregon, Washington, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Idaho, Wyoming, and parts of Nevada and Colorado, totaling 1,172,000 square miles, and at the same time giving possession of both sides of the Mississippi river, the longest river in the world. This great river drains a terrl tory larger than the combined area* of England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Prance, Spain, Portugal, Germany, Austria, Italy and Turkey, and "discharges three times as much water as the St Lawrence, twenty-five times as much as the Rhine, and 338 times ' as much as the Thames." Forty years after the Louisiana purchase, the great empire of Texas took her place among the sovereign states of the union. What a country this one state Is! She Is vaster in ..ita than England, France and Wales, all combined; larger than Switzerland, Holland, Denmark, Belgium and Germany all put together. Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, PennsylI van la. Delaware. Maryland. Vinarlnla and West Virginia could all be laid on a map of Texas, and still a surface as large as that of South Carolina would be left uncovered! Then what must we think of the size of the entire United States? Our country has grown in area from a few hundred thousand square miles she possessed when the battle of King's Mountain was fought, until she Is today larger than Prance, Germany, England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Italy, Spain, Turkey, Austria, Hungary, Russia, Greece, Japan and Belgium all combined. Ail of these great nations could be laid on a map of the United States, and Texas would remain uncovered. And, "Whereon the face of the globe, in all things past, or In the present, are such allurements of wealtn and happiness to be found as In the mighty region" of the United States? "Where else has nature beckoned with such bountiful hands or smiled so sweet and hospitable a welcome?" Our country Is easily capable of sustaining a thousand million souls, and then the population would not be as dense as It Is in Massachusetts today. Were the United States as thickly populated as Belgium there would be within our mighty borders a population equal to that of the entire world. Creasy, the author of "Fifteen Decisive Battles," says, "the ancient Romans boasted, with reason, of the growth of Rome from humble beginnings to the greatest magnitude which the world had ever witnessed. But the citizen of the United States is still more entitled to this praise. In two centuries and a half the country has acquired ampler dominions than Rome gained In ten." "The Increase of its strength Is unparalleled In rapidity or extent" When the constitution was framed steam was unknown, and as late as 1814 the fastest steam vessel traveled only six miles an hour, while today there axe in the United States enough steam engines to generate seventeen billions horse-power, and ocean liners cross the Atlantic in four and a half days. In the beginning of the last century there was not a foot of railroad track within our broad domain; while today there are more than 200,000 miles of track, or one-half the entire world's trackage and enough to girdle the earth more than eight times. The framers of the constitution knew nothing of electricity; but now it rings bells, heats dwellings, raises elevators, propels street cars, drives railroad trains, runs cotton mills and printing presses, lights our homes, irons our clothes, and whirls us along splendid , Macadam roads in comfortable automobiles. During all ages and in all climes under the sun, men have longed to fly, and an American cltlsen now navigates the air like a bird in his wonderful flying machine. During the last century the farmer, too, has made wonderful progress. Since the invention of the cotton gin our cotton crop has grown from a few bags in 1800 to 12,000,000 bales in 1908. One hundred years ago the wooden plow was the only implement for hrmikinr un the soil: lust such a plow as was used by the Bible prophets; while today the farmer may proudly ride his plow, while the share sinks deep into the productive soli, and his grain is gathered, bound, threshed and measured by wonderful machinery. In the beginning of the last century, "in the heat of midsummer, without protection from the broiling sun, the working men of the world, sickle in hand, gathered the harvest while women crept after them, and kneeling, bound the sheaves." In those days books were so scarce and dear that Illiteracy stalked in every home; while in this enlightened time the poorest may afford a good library and send his little ones to school at least four months in every year. The farmer nowadays rides in buggies and vehicles that only royalty could afford a hundred years ago. My friends, we should feel a thrill of patriotic pride as we see our country in the beginning of the 20th century marching at the front of the world's procession in wealth, agriculture, mining, fisheries, forestry, transportation, education and discoveries. All these accomplishments have taken place In the space of one short century. We can Indeed exclaim with Tennyson: "We are living, we are dwelling In a grand and awful time; As age on age is telling, To be living is sublime." By means of the telegraph and telephone one may sit at his breakfast table and read of the happenings of yesterday In the remotest parts of earth. The whole world Is bound together by 320 cables, which make all nations neighbors. By means of the phonograph one may sit at ease in his home and listen to the voice of a dead friend or hear Madam Melba sing in her grandest operatic style. By means of the wireless telegraph the voyager on the sea no longer fears the terrors of the deep, for help can be called over the winds and waves and arrive in time to rescue. One hundred years ago the doctor and the surgeon were almost unknown; while at the present science has advanced so rapidly and wonderfully that parts of the human anatomy may be replaced with animal substitutes, the human system lighted and inspected by electricity and the X-ray, and even death itself baffled and often robbed of its victim. All this wonderful progress, this marvelous growth, these phenomenal inventions and discoveries, have taken place in our glorious republic, whose foundation was laid in the storm and stress of a battle, the anniversary of which this concourse of people are here to commemorate today. This, thererore, is noiy grouna, ana on approaching it one should feel Instinctively that he should remove his hat and unlatch his shoes; for here took place the decisive battle which sealed the destiny of unborn millions. God bless and keep the spirits of the stainless heroes who here fought and yielded their noble lives in such a country's cause! Brave, simple men! Pure in motive, patriotic in action, gullant in battle and glorious in death! This magnificent shaft but feebly ex presses our aamirauun ui uieir ueumless deeds; (or, could the loving and patriotic hearts before me today erect a monument In keeping with their sentiments, it would rise to the stature of pure gold and pierce the clouds beyond the flight of bird or eagle. But yonder lofty, lonely mountain peak will stand forever as a twin sentinel of this splendid government tribute In granite, to point the spot where American liberty first received Its full inspiration and drew its first full breath of life. Let us emulate the lives of these noble men who fought and died and are buried here, by placing our country's cause above every cause save that of God and home. Let us reconsecrate our lives to this beautiful republic and determine to make the land they won for us a garden of peace, of happiness, and religious liberty. Burled In rude holes, called graves, the noble dead lie all about us. "Oao* r?n nmhu ImpH onH QflIntpri Hparl Dear as the life you gave! No impious footsteps here shall tread The herbage of your grave. Nor shall your glor> be forgot While fame her record keeps. And honor points the hallowed spot Where valor proudly sleeps."