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i. m. grist s sons, Pubii.hek.} a j; amity fleicspaper,: J'or the promotion of the political, .Social, Agricultural and (fontmcrcial Interests of the people. | """tNo^ltv.'rivE'cEt0"""' ESTABLISHED 1855. YOHKyiLLE, S. C. FRIDAY. OC'I'OHKIi -28. 1910. ISTO. 86. [-4 T ! ?><< f[T? i S % i LOM f ^ **+ *ss+i ***a *->+A ?*+A * > w One autumn day a great piece ol good luck befell Jimmy Riall, who was errand boy to a small shopkeeper ir the country town of Loughkillen. He learned that he had been awarded a ten-pound prize at the international examinations, at which he had com* peted a few months before. This came quite unexpectedly to him, because he had persuaded himself that he "was after making a woeful botch of the whole affair:" and at his home on the edge of the big bog away beyond * Drumquilty, the result seemed ever more surprising, inasmuch as Jimmy's cousin and fellow candidate. Jack Lowlor, who had been confident of having "done real grand." now proved to have not even secured a pass-certificate. The news reached Jimmy one wildly wet morning, and all that day he splashed to and fro among wind-ruffled puddles in the gray-gloomed thoroughfares of Loughkillen, with brilliant visions dazzling his inward eye. On the next Saturday, however, the whole countryside basked serenely in clear September sunshine, as he startA ed by rail for Drumquilty, treating himself to the trip on the strength of his success. By this time he actually possessed his prize. Partly in onepound notes and partly in silver, it swelled a leather pouch, the bulk and weight of which he found delightfully perceptible in a safe pocket. Never had he had a more agreeable traveling companion. Not that his re* joicing was selfish. In fact, a forecast of the various good turns that he would be able to do "themselves at home" had a very large share in kindling his glow of gladness. Yet undoubtedly the brightest flame into which soared up was the sense that he could now carry out a cherished plan of his own. This project was nothing less than the taking of a quarter's lessons in typewriting and shorthand, thereby to qualify himself for a situation promised him at the new year, could he acquire those accomplishments. It is a * 11 J IliVlOt reany spienaiu ciernsui?ii?? seemed to him unlimited prospects of rising in the world. About two pounds would provide for the evening classes, and he resolved to retain that much of his prize, at any rate, for this end, hardening his heart and stiffening his backbone with the knowledge that in ^ such a post he would be a helper more efficient than he could ever become In his present hopeless drudgery. "But sure if them crathurs look the len'th of a standin' lep before them, 'tis the most they'll do. They haven't f as much wit among them as 'ud keep a frog hoppin' straight," he reflected with tolerant candor. His meditations engrossed him along * all the dozen miles of his railway Journey. It was a new line, which for the present stopped at Drumquilty, close by the wide bog, where the passenger seems to alight in a pathless region. But Jimmy at once struck into that almost imperceptible crease across the brownish land which he knew would bring him soonest ta the cluster of gleaming white cabins, still hidden by a fold of higher ground. Just before they would begin to beckon, he saw advancing toward him his father's sister, Margaret Ashe. Her blue-green plaid shawl and crimson skirt, her black-browed gray eyes, and hands busily twinkling the needles in dangling heather-colored sock were a pleasant sight to him, since his aunt and he were lifelong good friends. V He called the meeting a piece of luck, an opinion which he soon had to recant in silence. For at the very beginning of the interview she requested him to oblige her with the loan of a couple of pounds. This greatly surprised and disconcerted Jimmy. Hitherto Mrs. Ashe had always been a person of such proudly ^ independent habits that he had never "V tllollgnt OI incmuiliK mi amoiih mi numerous probable claimants of a share in his riches: he had indeed counted on her support in resisting the immoderate or irrational demands ^ which might probably be made upon him. And here she was asking of him, without explanation or apology, a considerable part of his capital. That must betoken some pressing trouble of hers, an inference which admitted anxiety from an unwonted quarter. ^ Of course he promptly assured her that she should have the sum and welcome. and handed over to her the two notes, not without some pridt* and pleasure in rendering the service, albeit with no expectation of ever seeing A his money again. She had spoken, it is true, of a loan, but he quite understood that repayment might be looked for at "one of those odd-come-shortlies." a date vaguer than sine die. He had intended to seek her advice, made valuable by her intimate acquaintance ?-ith thfir fnmilv affairs. In view of this transaction, however, it appeared indelicate to talk of financial matters so he proceeded homeward with his spirits slightly dashed. Nevertheless, he thoroughly enjoyed rejoining in such happy circumstances ^ his own many-headed domestic circle enlarged hy their Lawlor kinsfolk from next door. His Aunt Margaret had vanished and his cousin Jack was out 011 the hog with the terriers, not being magnanimous enough to face, dimmed with failure, a comrade in the splendors o( triumph. Hut Jack's mother was alertly on the scene, and did not scruA pie to comment freely on the ridiculous result of the examination. Her belief, substantially, was that "them examiners just joggled up the numbers in a bag. and drew them out anyhow." That "one person might as ^ aisv get a prize as another, fool or no." and that "Jimmy might very well halve with poor Jack, who'd be ready to do the same by him. if he'd got any fairit.v." From these propositions Jimmy's ?*? T-K-H *v4 BY | JANE < BARLOW ^ " * A **+ **+A ***A **+A *.*+A ?>] r mother strongly dissented, and she i warningly shook her head at him i across the room, till her cap was dis> lodged and hung down her back by the l strings. I There were, however, many other claims which he neither could nor ! would evade as he did this one. The ! settlement of a long-standing account i at the store made a large hole in his ; resources. Moreover, it was impossi> ble to forego the gratifications of afI fording his sisters some finery and the i children a sugary treat, i So among them all, his pouch was alarmingly depleted ere the end of his afternoon at home. When the escorti ing detachment of his brethren had quitted him, to buy sugar-sticks, he sat down on a boulder and took stock of his finances. He found that he now owned exactly two pounds and ten shillings, a reassuring result, for although larger funds would have been very handy, two pounds would suffice for his grand scheme, and the ten shillings would give "granny" her choice of a fine present. He was going a long step round to call on granny, his father's father's widow. Old Mr3. Riall, while "not any great age at all," had been "terrible stiffened up in her joints with the rheumatics," which crippled her so seriously that she had resigned the keeping of her little stone box of a farmhouse to her eldest son and his wife, shrinking herself into a quiet fireside corner, and a position of no importance. Nevertheless. Jimmy set much store by her, and was looking forward to his visit all the more because he knew that she had not yet heard of his success, so that he would himself bring the good tidings. She would be "real set up," he thought, as he tramped over wide bog-land, rehearsing the interview, to his own disappointment. For Mrs. Joe Riall, whom he met at the door, reported unfavorably of her mother-in-law's health and spirits. "Not like herself at all she is this week or ten days I ack. I didn't see her so moped like since the time poor Dinny died last spring." "Poor Dinny" was an elder brother of Jack Lawlor, and old Uioll'o foi'rfcfUn omnntr hpr rl n 11 fh - ter's sons. "Frettin' she is continual, though the dear knows I dunno what call she has to be, and she wid naught to do, only sit wid her hands before her, contint," declared Mrs. Joe, who was well-meaning and unimaginative. "But dwindled away she is till the face of her isn't the size of a tayspoon, whatever ails her." Jimmy soon learned the cause of her grief. Upon his entering the little room, where she sat forlornly in a big chair, she broke into lamentations, moved by his having grown the living image of his cousin, poor Pinny, a deal liker him than Pinny's own brother Jack. "But ah, child dear," she continued, holding him by the sleeve of his homespun coat, "'twas niver in such deeint clothes I seen poor Dinnv. Scandalous ould rags he did mostly have on him, and sure at the very time he was took ne'er a respectable stitch he owned." "A pity it was, to be sure." Jimmy said, at a loss for any consoling remark, "but no fau't of yours, granny." '"Peed was it not!" she said, despondently. "'What fau't would it be of mine, and I that can do sorra the hand's turn these times for him or anybody else? But the lad belike -1 1.- !. tV, io mo nv n UUt'311 I r\IIV?\> IV. r VI UHO iiiuiv ** night he does be comin* to me in me dreams, wid th' ould clothes hangin' on and off him. and he tonkin' at me that sorrowful. Troth now, the holes in his brogues is a show. 'Tis my belief he has the notion in his mind that I might contrive to be gettin' a new suit for him again Michaelmas. Rut, och Jimmy lad, I could as aisy be fetchin' him King Solomon's jewels. There's naught I can do for him. How would I, and me wid ne'er a penny to me name? Look at the mislucky fingers of me, like bits of twisted sticks. I'm nut able so 1 much as to knit him a pair of socks, supposin' I could come by the yarn." "Be sure, granny darlint" what the better would Pinny be lor them," said Jimmy, "that you need be distressin yourself about the matter? Wid the ' help of God, he wants for nothin' I where he is now." His grandmother raised her head and turned upon Jimmy a countenance in which to real grief was added a touch i of startled dismay. I "Is it what better he'd be?" she said. "Whether now, is it a born haythen : yourself is, Jimmy Rial!, to be axin' what better, supposin* his brother Jack was wearin' a good new suit of clothes I for him, say at mass on Michaelmas day, the way poor Dinny'd got the ben> efit of them, wherever he is?" ' JIIIIIIl.V IIHUie nil illlMU'l. rtl llir III"" > ment of his question he had forgotten ' '.hat belief about these material wants I of the departed, and the means of sup, plying them, which was still common i among his elders, a survival from very ancient times and intercourse with I far-off eastern lands, i He knew of the theory that the use , of a dead person's garments could be i conveyed to their former owner if they were worn in public by some one near, ly akin, and he knew that it was the ; custom so to wear them: but he had long since appended this to a lengthi ening list of things that seemed to be ' just 'quare ould notions." t Nevertheless, as he perceived instinctively that to argue against his ; grandmother's views would only shock and puzzle her, it was wiser to keep ; silence while she continued her la ment. "If I had as much as a couple of i pounds," she said, "I could do it for ' him grand. Hut where'd I get that at I all? The bit of money 1 had saved towords me own buryin* went for his. that I never thought, fjod knows, to bo seein', for me daughter was hard up i altogether last April. 'Deed then the whole of us do be as poor as the mice in the wall most whiles. Apt I am to be in me clay before ever I get the chance to lay me hands on a couple of pounds. Still Jimmy sat mute, although now from no inability to imagine a speech that would most effectually console her, for her reiterated wistful mention of a couple of pounds seemed to put the very words into his mouth, so keenly conscious he grew that just this sum was in his pocKet. Nothing, in a way, could be simpler than the handing of it over to her, with a "here it is, granny, and welcome." The vividness with which he saw the transfer taking place positively scared him. He felt as if something were fumbling with the clasp of his pouch, and at the same time clutched coldly at his heart. For to give up those carefully retained bank-notes would be to renounce its dearest wish. Yet as he listened to the plaintive voice, he was aware that he might at any moment yield to an irrevocable impulse. It appeared to him that by tarrying there he hazarded all his prospects in life. So he abruptly cut short his disappointing visit. Evidently this was no time for talking to her about presents and prizes, and he went off with a show of being in a great hurry to catch his train. As he sped down' the narrow path to the gate he passed close to the window near which her big chair was set, and looking in, he saw her huddled up, a feeble, melancholy figure. She was not watching to see him go by and wave farewell, as she would otherwise have done. Her eyes were fixed on vacancy, and her lips moved in a muttering to which ever and anon she dejectedly nodded assent. "Frettin' herself to fiddle-strings she is. sure enough," he said, running away from the sight, and letting the little gate clap behind him. But he did not escape far. Under a massive, dark-ledged furze-bush he halted, to examine again the contents of his purse, surely not a dangerous proceeding now that nobody except himself was by. How could he foresee that the sight of his two precious notes would arouse in this foolish person a feeling that to keep them for his own use was a cruel action? Yet so it happened. Then after a few moments a sudden flame of wrath sprang up in his mind. "If there was any sort of raison in * 1 " ' ! J A " U!w,r.Alf "if ' tt'O O Oil ph t n( ne set in n? iiimscii, 11 i???o Mun..v at all that she really wanted, 'twould be a different thing. But to be throwin' them away on this old, nonsensical tomfoolery, that's sorra an atom of use to man or mortal?sure 'twould be annoy in' entirely: more than a joke you might call it. Och to goodness, 'tis the quare, foolisn notions folk take up wid, and you needn't trouble yourself to be argufyin' agin them that haven't got the wit! You might as well be tryin' to strike a match wid ne'er a head on it." Certainly nothing in these reflections seemed logically to account for his next proceeding, which was to rise up from the furzy bank and bolt back toward his grandmother's house. Plunging into her room, he laid the two notes on her knee. "There it is for you, granny," he said. "Only torm^ntin' you a bit I was all the while. Sure, I'm after getting' a cart-load of money out of me examination, so there's the price of the suit that Jack can be wearin' for Dlnny, and don't you go botherin* your head about it any more. Kindly welcome you are," he added, feeling while he spoke as if a bad dream had come true. It was some time before the little old woman fully understood or realized her good luck, and when she did, her amazed delight could at first express itself only in ejaculations. But at last she broke into more coherent raptures: "Och, thanks he to God, Jimmy mon)n-oo nnw T <-nn rnnthrive it ill? I pant! There's Micky Cahill of Coolnaflraph 'ill make as pood a suit as heart could wish for one pound ten, and Owen Oerthty over at Mornbep charpes seven and sixpence for his hoots that d<> he super-excellent. So that 'ill lave me plenty for a cap and a scarf. Poor Dinny had a preat wish ever for a nice scarf, and some of them was tell in' me they seen lovely preen ones for ninepence wid pould harps, down below at Martin's! Boy, dear, he's made up entirely! ()ch, but I'm the happy woman this day, plory he to God!" Jimmy did not forepo some thrills of sympathetic pleasure as he listened while she ranp the ehanpes on her joy, yet they seemed for him to echo dismally the death-knell of the hope that he had slain. Soon he made an excuse of the late hour to take his second leave. As he planeed in at the window apaiu. he saw that she was smoothinp out the notes on her lap with a most contented smile: and this aspect of the matter he tried to keep in view on his rather dreary tramp across the hop. Before he reached the station the mellow September sunset had ebbed off the somber plain, and was bripht only alonp its rimminp ridpe of the Knoeknieraii hills. As he approached the ticket-office, a shed built thriftily of old sleepers, he fancied that he saw his Aunt Marparet's face at the small end window which looked into a black bop hole, but he thoupht he must be mistaken. 'Tor what at all would brim; her trapesin' over here?" When he got round to the front, however, sure enough, there she was. standins; at the door. He would have perferred her absenee, being in the humor for solitude and regrets. "Well, Jimmy," she said, "it's a long while you are delay in'. What kep' you'.' 'Twasn't the load you're carryiif. for after bein' all that time away there, it's much if you have e'er a brass bawbee left." "A few odd shillings I have yet." said Jimmy, "but not a great lot to spake of, the worse luek, if you was wishful to borr.v a bit more," lie added, with a further sinking of his heart. "Rorryin' bedad!" said his aunt. "The fine fool I'd be to think of such a thine, and you the best part of the day among them ones at home. I'd be apt to hurry as nitieh off an empty nut. No. a vie, but it's hringin' baek your own couple of pounds I am." And with that shft held them out to him, a-tlutter in the gloaming breeze. "Why, Aunt Meg, what's wrong wid them, and wasn't you wantin' them Latest and Best J.. P. M< f t . : ^ (I 1 H ^ VM \ /? IfMWHw #& ^ t N Copyright. 1910. by American Press Ai I just now?" Jimmy said, perplexed and| apprehensive, indisposed to conjecture anything fortunate. "Wantin' them I wasn't and I am not," she said, "sorra a bit. All 1 was intendin' was to keep them safe for yourself. For don't I well know, Jimmy, the big, soft, good-natured gaby you are ever ice you were born? A grand scholar you may be, but a grain of sinse you haven't got! And couldn't I tell the same as if I was inside you the way your money'd go wid the pack of them there about you? Sure, if ould Batt, the pony, come makin' a poor mouth to you, it's slingin' him pinnies you'd be. So says I to myself, 111 make it me business to see that he'll have a triile left, anyway, when he's got quit of them,' I says. And there's notes, Jimmy, and I only wish I'd took a couple more off you while I was about it." Jimmy's face lighted up with a reflection from his horizon, which was suddenly all aglow once more. 'Thank you kindly, Aunt Meg," he said. "It's a great rogue you are, glory be to goodness! The two pounds 'ill be plenty, and yourself had sinse enough for the both of us this time, at all events. I'll be seein' about me classes tonight, I will so. I'm thinkin' the train's a bit late."?Youth's Companion. A WHALE IN A HURRY. The Truthful Mariner Tells How Fast the Big Fellow Went. "Sometimes you can put an iron into a whale and lie won't splash on the surface, but will start off like a rocket or perhaps will go light down and you have to cut loose and lose your lines and irons," said the truthful old mariner. "We were lying becalmed one day off the Cape of Cood Hope. Ity and by we saw two or three whales com INK U|> lo IJIlin illM'Ul HVO lllll'... ilVVUJ. "The captain oallt'il the watch up. anil a couple uf boats started for the whales, which were lying still, as if sunning themselves. We raced with the other bout and got ahead, for my men were lithe and tough, and by and by we got alongside of one of the big fellows. The steering oar was pulled in, the oars were packed?that is. piled in "so that they couldn't strike the water?then on iron was thrown into the tloaiiug island. "The whale lay still for a moment, as if struck with amazement that any one should dare to touch him. Suddenly he made up his iiiiinl what to do. He started off like a locomotive, the rope whizzing around in a way to ..wt....iwll .. 1*1 11.11 II1.1 VI* lw.it ill.. rope was out we were rushing by tin* captain's boat like mad. "All we could do in that double ended boat was to sit still and see her no through the water. I candidly believe that we went at the rate of a mile a minute and the water wis a very wonderful sight. It reminds me. now that I think of it. of foe's maelstrom. where tin- water went round so fast and was so black that it must have seemed like a wall of polished' bony. "The pressure downward piled the water up on both sides of us so that it seemed to be at least three feet higher than the edge of the boat, but it couldn't run in. for we were going so fast it hadn't time. "Kvery one's eyes were blurred with the wind, which seemed to be blowing a hurricane against us. It looked as if the whale would never get tired out, and we were going to sea at an amazing rate. The ship went a*way as if by magic, and we had lost sight of the other boat. Finally tile line all at once slackened. "The whale hadn't stopped and for all I know, is going ahead at the rate of a mile a minute still, but tin- iron had conn- out. "We rowed back to the ship, niida* we came along the captain called over the rail: "'Where's the whale?" "'Oh. said I. "the iron incited out. he went so fast." "'Just what I thought,' said the captain, and that night we all had plum duff and grog." Chicago Inter Ocean. Picture of organ, Who Is 111. H Vfek flBk Hi Xv V fk 'it- :"x: M^il W ssoclatlon ilUscrUatuons grading. PROGRESS.IN CORN. Article xxiii of Clemson Extension Work By Prof. D. N. Barrow. In an address upon the occasion of the 'meeting of the Farmers' congress held at Clemson college during the first two days of September of this year, the Hon. E. J. Watson gave some figures on corn that are well worth the study of the farmers of the south. The average yield of corn per acre has Increased in South Carolina from 7 bushels in 1900 to 16.7 bushels in 1909, as against 37 bushels in 1900 and 35.9 bushels in 1909 in Illinois. In farm value per acre South Carolina corn has increased from 4.48 to 15.03 in a like period as against 11.84 and 18.67 for a like period in Illinois. In farm value per bushel the Carolina has increased from G4 cents in 1900 to 91 cents in 1909, as against 32 and 52 cents In Illinois. If the Illinois farmer can raise corn and grow rich at those values how much better opportunity have the farmers of the south to do even better. In addition to the corn we raised last year, we spent six million dollars for corn and corn products, a great deal of which was of very questionable feed value. The man who sold us this corn and the railroads together cleared 39 cents a bushel, or nearly three and a half million dollars. Wo can produce corn as cheap or cheaper per bushel than this same corn cost to produce; so we not only paid out this profit, but lost the additional profit from the growing;. Then too had this rorn been grown here all of that six million dollars would have remained here as a permanent asset. That these facts are being realized by the farmers of the smith is evidenced by the steady increased average planted to corn and the increased yield per acre. We are learning that It not only pays to plant more corn, but also to give that crop better cultivation and attention than we have heretofore done. We are also beginning to realize that while cultivation and fertilization are important factors in determining our yield, yet t^c factor of blood and inheritance also play no small part. With this knowledge has come a closer attention to the detail of corn raising and breeding. But while in the south a number of men have been giving these points thought and work, yet to a large extent each has worked along independent lines. Each man has tried to hew an independent road to success for himself, forgetting that much more rapid progress could be made if he joined with his neighbors and all pulled together. The worst fault that the agerage farmer has is this very thing of going it alone, lie breaks his land with a single horse, does all of his cultivation with the single horse and one furrow and pulls his crop to market with his one horse. He has become so accustomed to the one horse idea that he himself has never learned to work in double harness. As it will pay him in breaking his laud to combine with his neighbor and plow double, so it will pay to combine with some neighbor in this effort to increase his corn | production. It was with the idea of [affording an opportunity of this doubling-lip process that the South Atlantic t'orii exposition, to be held in Columbia, December i". to s inclusive, has been planned. Steps were taken to this end last spring at the time of the meeting of the Corn Breeders' association. when the state legislature 1 was asked to assist such an enterprise and responded liberally by an appropriation of one thousand dollars. In making this appropriation then was but one string tied to it and tha was that four thousand more should b( raised by other means. This same ae placed this fund under the control o a board, consisting of the state com missioner of agriculture, the presiden of the Corn Breeders' association, thi director of the agricultural departmen and the superintendent of the ex tension division of Clemson college This board, organized by the electioi of Mr. A. D. Hudson, president of th< Corn Breeders' association, as presi dent. Public spirited men both a home and abroad were appealed to fo help and nobly have they responded The one thousand dollars with whicl the exposition was started has growi until now there Is the magnificent sun of ten thousand dollars offered li prizes. Not content with helping Soutl Carolina alone the exposition has beet expanded until It now includes the tw< neighboring states of Georgia am North Carolina. Liberal premium: are offered for the best corn of differ ent varieties both In display. In lots o ten ears and individual ears first fo: each county, then each district in eacl state, and flnallv those are brough into competition with the other states The best ten ears of corn that is 01 exhibit from these three states?thosi that win the grrand champion sweej stakes, will take off about four hundre< dollars. This certainly ought to brini out ten good ears. The other pre miums are proportionately liberal. Th' commission asks every farmer in th< three states to help it make this firs attempt at a corn exposition the sue cess it so richly deserves. There ii probably nothing that will have i I greater effect or give the corn industry greater impetus nor is there anythiui that is of greater educational value. The object of the exposition after al is purely educational. Its object is t< learn what good corn is and how t< grow it. Here will be assembled th< best corn of the three states, a studj of which cannot fail to be of immense value to all who are raising this sta pie. In addition to this means of im struction there will be held daily un der the supervision of the extensiot division of Clemson college, a cort school. The personnel of this schoo will consist not only of Clemson pro feasors, but will be reinforced by th< services of a number of the greates Ctntno instruction will be free to all who at tend the exposition. Let us all unite ir making this the first corn exposition oi the south the greatest success. Foi information and premium list, apply tc A. D. Hudson, Newberry, S. C. WONDERS OF SAWDUST. Brandy, Bread and Marble Now Made From Wood Waste. Only a few years back sawdust was regarded by owners of sawmills as sc much waste, to be got rid of anyhow, and as quickly as possible. Anybody could have it. and welcome. Somt proprietors even paid people to carl it away. Today all this is altered. Sawdust, so far from being looked upon as rubbish, is greatly prized and turned to account in a hundred different ways In arts and manufactures. Sugar, for Instance, is made from It. So too, Is alcohol, which is, ol course, the basis of all spirits. At e recent banquet, attended by famous chemists from all over the world, excellent "brandy" was served which had been distilled from sawdust. II was mellow, of agreeable flavor, perfectly free from any odor or taste ol turpentine, and none of the guests knew, until they were tolcl, that II was other than the genuine juice ol the grape. Sawdust, again, forms the basis ol more than. 20 different kinds of explosives. The.so-caled "white" and "yellow" gun-powders are merely sc much sawdust saturated with certain acids. Gas for lighting purposes can b? manufactured from sawdust equally as well as from coal. In the lumbei regions of Canada, where sawdust is cheap and plentiful, many towns and villages are lighted with sawdust gas The mode of production is the same as is used for coal gas. The sawdust is baked in retorts, and yields front 20,000 to 30,000 cubic feet of gas per ton. What Is known as wood-meal fodder for cattle is just sawdust, mixed into a mash with hot distillers' wash and flavored with rock salt. It cun be fed to the beasts in its fresh state, or it can be dried and pressed into molds like oil cake, or it can be baked in the form of dough. Similar sawdust dough is made into bread and eaten by the peasants in some parts of Russia and Germany. Mortar made from sawdust is now largely used in building operations. In fact, a house could almost be built throughout, for there is a sawdust stucco on the market, and all kinds of imitation wood is made of sawdust, from plain deal planks to the most elaborate oak and mahogany mouldings, ornamental doors, windows, &c. Then there Is a wood marble which is used for mantelpieces, and which is sawdust combined with ivory waste and colored with certain pigments. The raised "velvet" wall papers, now so fashionable, are made of sawdust sifted over a surface that has been previously sized with an adhesive paste. All kinds of dyes are now manufactured from sawdust, and are both cheap and permanent. A pound of sawdust dye, for instance, costs only about half as much as the same quantity of logwood extract, while possessing four times the dyeing power. ordinary sawdust is used by jewelers to clean tarnished silver, and beech sawdust is the best polishing powder for gold. Sawdust is also used In laundries in lieu of soap, since friction with it is very etiicacious in removing dirt. Tens of thousands of tons of sawdust are pulped and made into paper every year. Pressed into round molds it is made into stoppers for bottles; into tlat molds, with dyes, it comes out in the form of colored plaques and tinted wooden tiles. Sawdust is now used for tin cheaper kinds of linoleums instead of the more expen<?..? Is 1 11 c t ??n/l louCi.l III I oil (iMitrs art- laid witli small blocks of colored sawdust "granite" arranged in patterns. In fact, there seems to be no end to the uses to which this accommodating substance is put. The motorist owes to it tiie brilliant headlights, from which, by the action of the water. acetylene gas is prepared.? Pearson's Weekly. a THE "NEW NATIONALISM." t e Just What It Implies and How Best t< Preserve State Rights. It will be a great mistake If critic! and opponents of the "new national alism" permit tbeir criticisms and op position to be construed merely as am tagonism to Theodore Roosevelt. Re sistitig Roosevelt, the man, and hii ambition, is one thing and is Justiflec by one set of reasons. Rejecting cer tain definite 'Ideas and proposal: which he has promulgated is anothei thing and justified by another set ol reasons. The man himself may b< considered, and by a growing numbei 4 of Americans he is considered dam gerous to our institutions, not s< much on account of what he stand! for as for what he is?his charactei and temperament, his habits ol thought and speech and action. Bui it may also be held, and Is held bj - ...... that fKo IiImb ho &tnnris for flr* j ...? ? s dangerous In themselves without ref . erenee to the personality of theli f chief advocate. To attain clearnesi on this point, it is desirable to polnl r out precisely what those ideas are. i Now, there seem to us to be at leasi t five propositions or proposals in th< "new nationalism," as expounded bj ' Colonel Roosevelt in his westerr 1 speeches, which look distinctly t< e very important changes in our sysj tern or plan of government, and as , such they ought to be considered 1 That is to say, it is incumbent on oui I people *o consider carefully whethei . or not they favor departing, in thest a severs.1 respects, from our establish~ ed practice under the constitution p Here ere the five features of the "new t nationa.lsm" which have this charac. ter: 1. Colonel Roosevelt announces 3 that the conditions of today are such i that no only did the fathers fail tc f foresee them, but that in dealing with T them "the political theories of a hun4 dred years ago" simply will not work That sweeping contention may be helc 1 ir. a way to cover all the others; but t the revolutionary character of th( others is clearer because they ar? 1 more specific. I} 2. Colonel Roosevelt holds thai ir government must concern itself with * business and industry more Intimately than the fathers dreamed. This " general contention is not uncommon; - but he goes on to propose for this in. tervention and control a form thai unquestionably controverts established legal and constitutional principles 1 Big fortunes are to be allowed only II 1 in the winning and keeping of them . a distinct service to me puouc is rendered. It Is not enough if It car ? merely be said that no positive damt age is done to the public. In thai j case the big fortune is not to be permitted. He goes further, and contends that in dealing with the corpor1 ations we must not only distinguish f between the good and bad and punr ish the bad, but we must see to it that those which are good yield a fair ' profit. 3. He would, by a commission or bureau, also, see to it that laborers In protected industries get the benefit of the protection. Clearly, this proposal, as well as No. 2, looks to governments al interference with earnings in various industries. 4. He contends that this great ' increase of governmental powers i and activities shall go to the nation, not the states; and he ' stands, further, quite, distinctly, for r increasing the powers and function* of the Federal government at the ex: pense of the states. This also can only be interpreted as a proposal ol 1 radical departure from our constitu' tional usage. , 5. He has not merely criticised the I courts for such decisions as he holds to have created or permitted to exist the "twilight zone" in which neither national nor state legislation is effeci tive, but he has set up a new stand, ard for the courts to guide themselves by. He practically says that 1 It is not enough for them merely to i Interpret the law as they find It. He . would also have them take account of the public welfare and the demands of democracy as he understands them. ' Here, unquestionably, are very grave and far-reaching changes proposed. > '"Revolutionary" is hardly too strong a word to apply to them. It certain! ly behooves us all to look into them t carefully before we accept them, f Their meaning Is fairly plain, but their ultimate consequences no man can foresee. It is to the last degree unreasonable and misleading to talk as if one's attitude toward them inI volved nothing more than approval or disapproval, trust or distrust, of 1 the m- i who proposes them, i Of the five innovations proposed in the "new nationalism," the one that t has so far seemed to provoke the most opposition in Colonel Roosevelt's own ' party is the setting up of a new standard for the courts. But oppo, sition to the proposal of still more centralization, of more power for the 1 Washington establishment and less for the state establishments, also instant? ly showed itself among Republicans; and Democrats, of course, found there the most direct challenge to tb m. There are, of course, two ways of meeting it. One is the merely argumentative way. The other is the practical way. Both from the constitution and from broad considerations I of expediency, one can draw strong i reasons against the proposal. The states having come into the Union on terms set forth in a carefully framed ' written document, It is not Idle to say that they have rights under the instrument which cannot with justice be taken away from them unless the in strument is amended. Equally strong is the consideration of the value of the principle of home rude, of local self-government?and the practice also. It is best for different communities to attend themselves to afflairs< which belong to them severally, to care for their own interests, make their own laws. But it is doubtful if mere reasoning, no matter how sound, is the best way to oppose the tendency to overcentralizatlon. The more practical way to preserve for the states their rightful powers is to see that those powers are actually exercised, and wisely. When all the states take up vigorously and sensibly the work of conservation?as some of them have in fact, begun to do?the likelihood of the nation's monopolizing that sort of activity will diminish. When they control properly the corporations they charter, so far as their present legal authority goes, we snan hear much less of the necessity of the nation's taking complete control, and so in other respects.?Harper's Weekly. THE WRIGHT BROTHERS. What Their Fellow Citizens Think of Them. "Will you kindly direct me io the factory of the Wright brothers?" I requested of a policeman soon after I arrived at the railroad stution in Dayton. Ohio, one day near the end of the summer Just past, says a writer in the Nature and Science department of the November St. Nicholas. He mediated for a moment, as if puzzled, and then a happy thought seemed to strike him as he exclaimed: "Oh. you mean the Wright boys who have (lying machines, don't you?" I at once admitted that I did. and later adopted the Dayton custom of referring to them as "the boys." Before the day was over I had met "the boys," but not until after an aged resident, of whom I inquired as to how tlie epoch-making Invention came to be originated in Dayton, exclaimed : "Because they were just the kind of boys to do it. Their father was a bishop, ami so they didn't have to help in a business, run errands for a store, or be kept busy, as clerks are. They had plenty of time for their .studies and outdoor projects. They liked to fuss around as many other , boys do." "Do you think they have been trying for many years to Invent a flying machine?" I asked. "No. not so very long, but they always were fond of kites and such things; they also liked the bicycle and had a 'fever' for the printing press. First, they had a printing of9 flee, a good many boys, you know, hav*" . a fancy for that. Of course, they made 1 it a 'business," but I always felt as If it was only boy style, 'amateur' perhaps you would call it." "How long clid they continue at that?" "Not long. Next they had a bicycle store, chiefly, I suppose, because they were fond of the machine. Then J later I often saw them sliding down hill In the air. They would take a big box kite and go up to the top of a hill and slide off, not many feet from the ground, of course, you understand, but high enough for them fo "land' pretty hard at times. "I wonder how they came to think of putting it in an engine?" "Quite naturally, I should Judge. You see, I said they had a bicycle store. A bicycle is run by the feet, so is a glider; it runs In about the , same style as a bicycle 'coaster. You . start It with your feet and then let It go Itself. t "Now, I reason It out this way; an ? automobile, for Instance, is a big 4wheeled 'bicycle' that has an engine in It so you can sit still and go up hill as well as down?anywhere?except at times/' The old man laughed, and continued: "It's my philosophy that the flying machine is about the same?a glider with an engine in it and a propeller at the rear so you can go up as well as down, most anywhere In the air, right over the tops of trees and telegraph poles?'sailing in the air*?except at times!" "It's my philosophy that the flying machine is about the same?a glider with an engine in it and a propeller at the rear so you can go up as well as down, most anywhere in the air, right over the tops of trees and telegraph poles?'sailing in the air'?ex. cept at times!" When I first met "the boys" in the , evening on the porch of their little and attractive, yet unpretentious . home In a side street of Dayton, I repeated to them something of the old resident's philosophy, and they seemed much pleased by it, laughed heartily at my surprise in learning of their being generally called "the boys." I accepted their Invitation and spent half-of-one day at their factory in the southern part of the city. The wreck of the machine in which Brooklns had, but a few days before, met with his somewhat serious accident. had Just arrived. The Wright brothers greatly enjoyed telling of their earliest acquaintance with Brookins, and how he was once greatly frightened by the flapping of some sheathing paper tacked loosely ' on a window?a decided contrast, ' they thought, to his present daring ' bravery. The factory is not much dlf; fere.it in appearance from any woodworking shop with carpenter's , benches, power planing and sawing machines and lathes. [ The lumber, which is pine, Is selected with the greatest care, seasoned .for at least a year, and then worked out by skillful workmen. The greatest strength must be secured , with the least material. The greater part of another day I spent at the testing grounds at Slmms, Ohio, which Is on the traction road ; about eight miles north of Dayton. Here I found a skilled young man of somewhat limited experience, teaching another young man who had been ; in a flying machine only a few times. It was explained that by Labor day, then about two weeks ofT, he must be sufficiently trained to put up and operate a machine. That afternoon the manager arrived and told me that therj were seven appointments for public exhibitions on Labor day, and only six to operate the machines. In starting a flight the aeroplane Is dragged to the smoothest part of the field, usually to a place where the ground is somewhat inclined. Two men hold it back from the fear, others start the propellers. When the engine is full in motion the current of air from the revolving blades is strong enough to blow an attendant's hat off and a good many feet away, but quite refreshing after pulling the machine up into place for starting. Sometimes the roughness of the ground and the abundance of weeds at the bottom of the slight Incline interfere so that the machine does not rise. In that case the aeroplane has to be pulled back and another start made. But to the aviator all the patience and work are for many reasons worth while; to the spectator in air sailing above the trees, is a beautiful sight. i ? ' SAVED BY AN ELEPHANT. Interesting Story Told By an Old Time man. An old showman tolls the following exciting story of his experience when connected with a well-known menagerie during an engagement at a town In Kentucky. "After the exhibition was over." he says. "I passed into the menagerie to talk to the watchman. For some cause he was absent from his post, and I walked across the amphitheater toward my old friend the elephant to give him an apple, for we were the best of friends. He was one of the largest elephants I ever saw. and was as good-natured as he was large. "I was half way across the ring when I heard a growl, and, looking around, saw to my horror one of the lions out of his cage and approaching me in a crouching manner ready for a spring. "I thought a thousand things In a moment, and among them I must have regretted perpetrating so many old, wornout Jokes at the performance that night. I had sufficient presence of mind to realize my dangerous situation and to know that it required the utmost caution to extricate myself from it. "One hasty motion on my part and I would be in the jaws of the monster. I felt that my only hope was the elephant, if I could reach him, but he was chained by the foot and could not reach me. "Nearer and nearer came the lion, waving his tail in a manner that meant business. If I turned my back he would spring; if I took my eyes from him I was lost. "It was a terrible moment. I glided backward as swiftly as I dared. I had another fear. I feared stumbling back ward, and knew If I did fall I would never rise, but that where I fell I would make a meal for that lion. "As I neared the elephant I saw that the lion understood my movements, and, fearing he would be balked of his prey, he prepared to bring the matter to a crisis. I then saw that I had but one hope, and that was t?j rush with all my speed to the elephant. "I think I must have jumped 20 feet when I turned, and I know the lion jumped 30, but iie Just missed me. "How I completed the race 1 do not know. I only know that the elephant's trunk was around my waist and he was lifting me up on his head. I only knew that I was saved."?Philadelphia North American.