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4 > _^^aaBaBHKSBBSHBBa^BB^Saa l. m. grist's sons, PubU.her., | & s?nw<:_4?r ?< promotion of th<political, fecial, Jgriraltura! and Commrrcial Jntcresfa of tl< ^opl*. j .*??"* established 1855. . yorkvil-le, s. c., fbfday, march 22, 1913. _ no. 24. ^ | THE VIRGINIA ] r | | Primitive People W I ity of The murder of a Judge, a prosecuting: attorney and a sheriff by a prisoner and his friends as a climax to a ^ trial in a court room back in the Virginia mountains has served to emphasize to the rest of the United States that a race almost entirely different from the people living: around them has grown up in the southern mountains. That the conditions leading up to the outrage in the Carroll county court house were not new, but the product of years of development is also likely understood by few persons. The people who have taken a foothold in that portion of the Blue Ridge lying in Virginia North Carolina Kentucky, Tennessee and Georgia are not unlike in spirit to the Indians whose rule they succeeded, and on whose footsP prints they trod closely in settling the ?ah that thev ask is l*T8onal liberty, the right to live their own lives as they want to among the peaks and coves of the mountains that they consider theirs by right. Unfortunately, it happens that the chief expression of this personal liberty must be in the manufacture and sale of whisky, regardless of the restrictions in the shape of revenue taxes placed on that traffic by the government The firing of their stills and the marketing of the product is to the mountaineers the first of their Godgiven rights, with which no man has a right to meddle. And It was a "moonshining" charge that lay back of the arraignment of Floyd Allen, the prisoner whose pistol shots killed Judge Massie. To understand the conditions in the southern mountains it is necessary to go back to the beginning of these people who live there now. This mountain race had its origin in all of the riff^ raff of the white stock of the south w during the period in which the institution of slavery was being established. The wealthy took possession of all of the fertile land between the mountains and the sea on the one hand and the mountains and the Mississippi on the other, and the poor were forced gradually into the barren hill country, where they settled, mostly as squatters, and proceeded to make the best of a bare existence, which was at least free. By the time that the civil war shook ^ the -ronntry tMs-separate mountain race?for It had indeed grown to be such, so different were its people from the plantation owners surrounding them?was as distinctly developed as ^ it Is today. Indeed, in many parts of 41? ~~.nt.lna Inhabitants have I HO Illl/uuvoaiio Mtv changed little since the 60's. And the first expression of their love for freedom was in their hatred of slavery, not because of principle, but on account of the fact that wherever they came into contact with slave labor they suffered by competition. The poor whites of the southern mountains were united in their sympathy with the northern side of the war for the preservation of the Union. It is the irony of fate indeed that the # Union which they supported in that conflict should have become responsible for their troubles since. The tax on whisky was adopted as a war tax, and It hit none harder than the inhabitants of the mountains, whose chief means of livelihood was the turning into spirits of the corn raised on the hillside patches. They rebelled against ^ the tax on what they considered their vested right, the "moonshine" still replaced the open manufacture of the staple and the clashes with authority and the spilling of blood began. In spite of the best the revenue officers t could do, the whisky tax has never been more than nominally enforced in the southern mountains. The law having endeavored to deprive them of what they considered their chief right, the mountain people view it as a curse and have sought to ^ evade it in every possible fashion. B They have shut themselves up in their V own corner and refused to recognize W the law except where its arm has l>een * strong enough to compel them, and then it has been a surly submission at 4 best. State laws that harassed them in smaller particulars have been treated with contempt altogether. These mountaineers have recognized only the Federal law and are proud only of being citizens of the Umon. State pride has no meaning to them. ^ This attitude toward the outside world has bred suspicion in the mountain folk. Strangers are unwelcome and are likely to be roughly treated on intruding into the moonshine coves if they are suspected of being representatives of the law. Education is unnecessary. from the mountaineer viewpoint. It is something that the fathers got along without and so why should the children be trained in "book learning." And teachers are particularly suspected on account of the stories that members of their profession have carried to the outside world in the past regarding the benighted state of the mountaineers. The pride R~ of a "mountain Doomer is not io du trifled with. Altogether the condition of life among the natives of the southern mountains has been for a half century I that of a primitive people. The stock, largely English, has retrogressed since the original squatters took up their abode in the mountain fastnesses. But in spite of their defiance of the law of the the land the people do not live in a state of complete anarchy. There are unwritten laws which must be observed if the mountaineer wants to keep his residence in a community, and if these are recognized he is likely to be looked upon as a fairly creditable citizen regardless of sporadic indulgence in gun play when he has taken too much "white lightning." For instance, if a mountaineer wants to keep his slate clear he must avoid all risk of l>elng suspected of "inform) iiig" ? furnishing the revenue officers with evidence whereby they may discover blockade stills. "Informing" is viewed as being as great a crime as1 r.? t".?*t. . r. - t'. - .r-*. .t~ | ,i|r..f,r1j,|t|||||r> fvTVTwTTvTwTvTtrTVTVTVTVTVTV f MOUNTAINEERS. I ho Dispute Author- | Law. i murder, and will be punished by the death of the offender If he is detected. And there Is no slur that can be cast in the mountain country as withering as that of "sheep stealer." The ownership of personal property is rigidly respected. This Is the typical picture of the southern mountaineer, Illiterate, shiftless and happy In his poverty. But It is not a fair picture to draw of the section. The mountain white has a keenness that make* him the superior at all times of the negro, and In many districts where conditions have been favorable the population has advanced from the squatter stage to a place where mnny own considerable property. It Is usually the case that this advancement has taken place in localities where the land happens to be more than usually fertile and where the struggle for existence has not been so hard. In general, however, the man who owns his patch of ground and volro of o*en is accounted wealthy. J In some districts, however, conditions are worse. In these dark corners the population has so deteriorated that all sense of morality has disappeared, virtue being little regarded among the women, and It is nothing out of the or- | dlnary for a man to have several families, housing the mothers of all their offspring under the same roof in apparent tranquillity. In such districts too, the head of a family is frequently the law of that family, even, in rare cases, having practically power of life and death. It is in these districts that life is cheapest and where the man who has a death or two to his credit is more or less of a hero. In such circumstances it is only natural that shootings frequently result in family feuds, such as have wiped out practically entire households in eastern Kentucky and often the opposing families, if strong enough, will form their clans. The Allen family, which was responsible for the tragedy in the Carroll county court house, has its clan, on the trail of which the state of Virginia has set armed posses. But in spite of feuds there is one common enemy that unites the opposing factions in crises, the -evenue force. When the Federal officers start into the mountains on the search for illicit stills the factional hostilities are interrupted for the time being, either for the purpose of concealment or active opposition. Regardless of the feud fights, wars against the "revenues" and the distilling of moonshine whisky, religion flourishes in the southern mountains, religion of the shouting, mourners' bench sort that appeals to the primitive minds of the congregations. And, incongruous as it may seem, the pillars in the church, laymen, deacons, preachers even, are directly and personally interested in the traffic in liquor. To run a blockade still is the proper and accepted thing to do, and the only social and retigious outcast Is the weakling who is so craven as to pay his tax when he should smuggle his goods to market. The mountaineers are almost entirely Methodists or Baptists and the only Baptists in the mountain section are of the "hard shell" or "foot washing" sort. This sect has almost disappeared from all other parts of the country, except from among the negroes. The ceremony of "foot washing" is observed regularly and often in conjunction with the other rites of the church. The deacons wash the feet of the preacher, who in turn washes the feet of the reacons. The lay mem&ers are allowed to minister to each other, the men and women sitting apart on opposite sides of the church edifice during the ceremony. Their religion is not free from superstition. A form of the Mack magic belief exists among the mountaineers. The |K?wer of evil, however, is supposed to be extended over animals and not over human beings. A deacon in one of the mountain churches in western North Carolina was long believed by his fellow church members to possess this evil Influence over the hogs of his enemies. Whenever an epidemic of any sort struck the swine of the neighborhood the deacon got the alleged credit for it. And he, being canny according to the ways of the mountaineers, never took the trouble to disillusion anyone. The l?elief In the powers of a select few to "conjure" does not end the superstition of the moonshiners. A strap of eelskin bound around the wrist will keep oft rheumatism. A mole's foot, properly dried and tied to a string around the baby's neck, will keep the youngster in prime condition. And yet, the physician is the one visitor from the outside world in whom the mountain folk have confidence. As primitive as their religious belief is the attitude of the mountaineers toward their women. The woman is the inferior being. She accepts the fact without question, and every where that she goes with her lord and master, instead of walking t>eside him, she follows in his footsteps. And if the family hound is along, as it usually is, it too precedes the wife in the procession. Of recent years new causes of trouble are appearing in the moonshine district. Northern capitalists are buying up timber tracts and seeking to evict the squatters from the trout streams and the hunting grounds that they consider theirs. The forest reserve agitation has aroused the spirit of the mountain folk for the same reason. The trespassers and interlopers from the outside world are breaking into the squatter's paradise, and the fear of the rifle ball fails to stop them, although now and again a lumberman or a surveyor is the victim of a pot shot fron some hunter who is. never found. The problem of what to do with this mountain rate that does not stop at ravaging a court room Is a stupendous one, but those in closest touch with them believe that the answer is in ed ucation, not in elimination as in the case of its predecessor, the Indian. Considering the enduring prejudices of the mountaineers the talk of educating them is a staggerer. They hated the negroes In slavery days and that hatred is still so intense that they will drive out any blacks that attempt to settle among them. They became Republicans in ante-bellum days because the Republican party stood for abolition, and Republicans the mountaineers remain today, although that party is responsible for the whisky tax which they evade. The indications are that there will be more trouble, lots of it. ere the moonshine stills cease to smoke In the Blue Ridge and their operators are assimilated into the new order of things ?New York Sun. TALK WITH FLOYD ALLEN. Virginia Outlaw Interviewed In Hillsville Jail. Hillsville, Va., March 18.?"This is the most serious affair I ever got into, or probably ever will get into in my lifA" mm Tciovd Allen to the reDre sentatlve of the News-Leader, as he lay on his cot in Jail here Saturday, shortly l>efore he was taken to Roanoke. , "It all comes by my not listening' to my wife. Had I taken her advice I wouldn't be in this fix now. But remember one thing, it'll be Floyd to the end. I've always been a man and I intend to be one to the last. They'll find me a man every time. "My wife said to me Thursday morning before I left home, 'Floyd, goodbye. You go on down to HUlsvilleand If the jury convicts you take your sentence. Go to Richmond and serve your term and then come back and lead a different life. This life you and your brothers have been living ain't been satisfactory to me nor you, and you are old enough to know better, and young enough to make a change in your life. My feelings for you ain't going to change because you go to the penitentiary.' "I promised her that I would take my sentence like a man and not cause no trouble. It ain't like an Allen to go to jail though, so when my brothers began to tell me about shooting any man who tried to take me to Jail, I got persuaded away from the way I had made up my mind after my wife talked to me. My brothers kind of fired up my blood, and I put my gun underneath my vest and decided that if I got sentenced I wouldn't go, and I ain't gone yet. My leg is broken but I'm still a man, and can take keer of myself. "Yes, sir, this is a sad affair, and I feel sorry for the widders of the men who got shot. There warn't no finer man In the state than Judge Massie; I'm sorry he's gone. It never would have happened if I had listened to my wife, but now JitaJL it has happened, I have got to take keer of myself as best I can. "I ain't trying to dodge blame for nothin' I done, but I will say one thing. This all comes from not treating a man right." Asked If he meant by this that he; had not been fairly treated, Allen de-1 cllned to amplify the statement. "Tain't worth while talking about that now. That part of it is over and gone, but my advice to folks is to give every man square treatment." Allen is a tall, angular man. About 55 years old. He has gray hair, gray eyes, and a long, drooping mustache, typical of the kind worn by mountain residents. His moustache and hair were once red, there still being discernible an auburn tinge in them. Allen has one of the most pleasant faces you could find in a day's travel. If all that is said of him is true, and there seems no reason for doubting the main facts (although they probably are slightly embellished) he is a bad man. Rather than bad, he is fearless and recognized no law except his own passions. He has been famed for his ungovernable temper from childhood. But he has not a bad face by any means. His long, beetling brows, shade as kindly and gentle a pair of gray eyes as are i>ossessed by a child. His face is pink, his chin short and tlrm, and his jaw thin and long. His bushy hair gives liirn a wild look, but in speech and general appearance he is mild and presents an inoffensive aspect. He was in full view to Hillsville on Saturday, when he was placed on a cot and put in a Dayton and taken to a point on the road opposite the court house to await the fonnation of a guard of Baldwin men to take him to Roanoke. The curious crowd surged around the I>a.vton and gazed upon the face of this bold, bad man, but no one breathed a word against him. This was doubtless due to the fact that quiet bad been restored and the natives realized that Floyd was in the hands of the law and the Allen gang was at last on the verge of extinction. Judge Bolen and Attorney Tipton, who served as counsel for Floyd during his trial here last week, went to the side of the Dayton and shook hands with the crippled prisoner, stretched out on the flat of his back. Floyd looked up at them and smiled. He grasped their hands and pave them a hearty shake. "I told Victor to send you gentlemen a check for your service to me," said Floyd. "You'll get it. I pay my debts. Judge. I want you gentlemen to come over to Roanoke to see me. I want to talk to both of you." The two lawyers promised that they would see him in Roanoke. It might be inferred from this that they will represent him when he is tried for murder. As the Dayton moved off toward Galax, where a train was waiting to take Floyd and the other prisoners to Roanoke, the maimed desperado said to Judge Rolen: "This all comes from not treating a man fair." To a spectator who watched the caravan move off, and who shouted "goodbye" to Floyd, the prisoner said "Goodbye, I ain't coming back." Pulverized street rubbish and coal tar have l>een found to make good fuel briquettes in Amsterdam. Interesting tests in Germany have shown that pens made of tantalum outwear those made of steel or gold. X" ' Roughened plates, which nay be attached to a shoe, have been invented to keep a man's foot from slipping as he climbs a ladder. Jttiscllanfouo ^caditifl. GOVERNOR BLEASE ON ISSUES. Gives Out Interesting Interview At Newberry. Newberry Herald and News. Governor Cole L. Blease came to Newberry on Sunday to spend a few hours at his home here. This being court week, he stayed over in Newberry Monday morning: to shake hands with his friends who were here from various parts of the county. Governor Blease was asked this morning for a statement as to several matters of general interest, with which he and his administration are now being connected in the newspapers and In the dispensary investigation now in progress. His attentioh was first directed by the Herald and News to the comments and Inquiries of several newMjmper* im hi mo ?9vv |j?uu nov. v. W. Creighton of Greenwood, out of the public funds. "Well," said Governor Blease, "Instead of Mr. Creighton getting $900, I presume that by now he has been paid $1,200. Along during the first of my administration I secured the services of Mr. Creighton for the purpose of giving me general information in regard to how. the officers In different counties of the state were enforcing the law, and as to violations of the dispensary law and other laws throughout the state. Mr. Creighton has made his regular reports to my office from different parts of the state, and in those reports I have received very valuable information, and from them I have gained Information which I hive transmitted by letter or otherwise to the sheriffs of the different counties, to my detectives, which I have had working in the various counties, and to other officials svhose duty It was to enforce the law, and In this way I have been enabled to have a better enforcement or ine law umn i wuuiu nave i/vnv> wise had. Mr. Crelghton's services have been very valuable In the assistance he has rendered my administra- , tion by securing this information, and thus enabling me to keep In touch with the situation throughout the state. His reports are on file in the office, and are , public property, and can be investigat- , ed at any time by any one who wis.ies to see them. His vouchers were made J out regularly and sent to the comp- | troller general's office. The amounts , were deducted from the law and order ) fund, and not from the contingent fund, as was falsely stated by the , newspaper reports. They are on file , In the comptroller general's office. The j comptroller general then furnished him ( a check, which he endorsed, and these , checks are filed in the treasurer's of- j flee. They are all public property. Nothing has been secret or under cpv- , er, and the public is entirely welcome ^ to the whole transaction* Mr. Crelgh ton is still in my service in this particular line of work, and will so remain, at the salary of J100 per month, ( if he desires to hold the position, until ( his services become unnecessary, or he , tenders his resignation, regardless of ( what any newspapers or others may ( think or say or do. Of course, his usefulness, to some extent, will be lm- , paired by its now becoming public ^ property that he Is doing the line of work, because, until it was so made public, he could gather much information which, of course, now, the world j knows his business will be a little more cautious In allowing him to catch on to. "On Saturday I gave a like commission to Colonel Leon M. Green, who will perform a like service throughout the differet t parts of the state. I preBume the newspapers would like to ( have this, In order that they may know that Col. Leon M. Green Is not starving, notwithstanding the fact that the News j and Courier beheaded him. It Is true, ( I am cursed for standing by my friends, but I am continuing to do so, and am doing business at the same old stand . ?Room No. 1, State House building, Columbia, S. C., where I will be for the balance of this and the next two years, . unless Providence takes a hand by bringing into play the all-powerful death." "What work is Colonel Green doing Just now?" was asked. ( "I have sent him to' Olar," replied 1 Governor Blease, "to make a thorough ( examination of the lynching of the three negroes a few days ago. His thorough knowledge of newspaper work, bringing him in close observation, and his knack of getting right into things made him, in my opinion, particularly well suited for this job. I also sent another party with him, who will do some of the secret work, looking into the investigation. "I presume if I hsul not investigated , it I would have heen criticised, and. of | course, as I am investigating it, I will < most assuredly be criticised." I Asked as to what he thought of the , supreme court decision granting a new | trial to the two negroes In regard to j putting whom in the penitentiary for safe-keeping Governor Blease's action ( caused a great deal of comment, the ! governor said: "I do not care to criticise the supreme court as it is at present constl- ; tuted. I am well pleased with it, and * am sure that there, will he no friction | between that department of the gov- , ernment and the executive. However, I I think the wisdom of my policy in ' having those negroes removed to the ; penitentiary for safe-keeping has been well demonstrated. The feeling that was against them was most assuredly ' very high and bitter. This has been ( clearly shown by the fact that the su- i preme court takes cognizance of that bitter feeling, and almost entirely up- J on that ground granted the defendants a new trial. And I understood that I (me of the supreme court justices said j that if the facts were as they were represented he would most assuredly ] favor giving a new trial. I was in- | formed by some gentlemen well posted upon Florence affairs that if this was done the negroes would be lynched. I thereupon had the sheriff to bring 1 them to the penitentiary for safekeeping. For this I was severely criticised. The supreme court justice has kept his word, the new trial has been ' granted, and I am satisfied if these negroes had been in Florence, particular- | ly now, just after the outrageous murder of the little Jackson boy, and the feeling l?elng as bitter as it is, there would have been imminent danger of their being summarily dealt with. In 1 fact, I believe there is little doubt of | it. And even now, when they are car rled there to be tried, with the man ppon whose testimony they were convicted having been hanged, and with the legal technicalities which will have ^o'he overcome In order to secure their re-eonvlctlon, I would not be surprised Sheriff Bunch had not best be very tautious In guarding his prisoners. In paying this, I am saying nothing ^gainst the good people of Florence. The majority of them are law-abiding, beaceable, honorable people, but there w a limit to which people go. and ^rhen it is reached, even the best people sometimes take the law into their i wn hands and administer a swift ; ustlce. Of this in some- instances I I Idividually cannot complain, but as I wvernor of course I regTet to see It." "What about the dispensary InvestlSitlon now In progress?" Governor lease was asked. "Oh, well," he sajd, "I think the Columbia Record hit the keynote Saturday afternoon when it stated: "Testimony taken so far has been chiefly to refute the charges made by Governor Blease against the members of the Ansel commission and the present attorney general." I think it Is clearly seen hv all the world that the commls slon is taking the defendant's testimony, and that of the witnesses for the defendants, in order to show up everything In the hest light for the defendants. That Is what I said when the commission was appointed. It is composed of the most hitter partisans. In their personal conversations, and In their actions in the senate and in the house, they have shown that they are doing Just what I thought they would do?trying to white-wash and clean up for everybody on their side, and sneaking around and endeavoring to smell out something that they think will be deterimental to my administration, and particularly to me, In my candidacy for re-election." "Why did you refuse to turn over the Felder letters to the commission?" was asked. "Because," said the governor, "I believe If they had got them Into their hands, the letters would have been 'lost, strayed or stolen,' and that each one would have denied having anv knowledge of having seen them last, or that, if they had fallen Into the hands of the attorney general, he would have taken pleasure In destroying them In order to wipe out the testimony which I hold against Felder In his transactions with the officials of the state dispensary. Then the commission and Mr. Lyon could have helped Mr. Felder in his claim that they were forgeries, and demanded the proof of me, and I would have been helpless. When they get those letters, some court, and the highest court in this country, will have to take them by lawful, but determined, force. "If they desire, from a sense of doing what is right and Just, to see the original Felder letters, I will permit them Ik1 examine them, provided they will allow me to be in the room with as many guards as I may see fit to select, to protect the letters from being1 lost, Trom straying, or from being stolen. They have no right to criticise me for this, for I am taking the same position that their side of the house took before the supreme court when the Stackhouse commission wanted to look Into their papers, and which position the supreme court as then constituted, saw fit to sustain." In discussing his race, Governor Blease said: "I have spoken recently before several very large audiences, and I am thoroughly satisfied that I am strong?r with the majority of the people tolay than I was two years ago. I am receiving reports from every section of the state, from good and true men, and those reports are very encouraging, md I am absolutely satisfied that I will l>e re-elected. I have no fears whatjver along that line. My friends are sitting steady in the boat, the water is nice and pleasant, and the victory is In sight." Asked if he had any statement to make as to the campaign being waged l?y Mr. Jones, Governor Blease said: "I thank God that I was not Irnrn a oward. I also thank God that I was i)orn a gentleman. And not being a oward, but being a gentleman, I never strike any man behind his back, by word of mouth or otherwise. Therefore, I have no comment to make upon Mr. Jones's actions or his candidacy." CLOVER CULLING8. Cotton Receipts?What the Oil Mill Is Doing?Fertilizers Behind Last Year ?Yorkville and Filbert Road. Correspondence The Yorkrllle Enquirer Clover, March 21.?Nearly 5,000 bales of cotton have been bought by the local buyers since the opening of the season last fall, and it is estimated that they will buy not less than 1,000 more between now and Septem?..?1.I?? I br. 1?1 eo-uut nnrnhiiMPU ill the history of the market. The cotton has come from a wider territory than ever l>efore, much of it being hauled from 12 to 15 miles. Up to this time the Clover Cotton Oil and Ginning company has ginned 1,067 bales of cotton?about 1,000 bales more than last season. Mr. L. 0. Thompson, the manager, says that he expects to gin a few more bales yet. but has no Idea that the final total wl!l exceed 3,075. This is the third season that the oil mill has been operated and the output of oil, meal and hulls has been decidedly larger than either of the previous seasons and the results promise to be quite satisfactory to the stockholders. Owing to the fact that many of the farmers throughout this section have learned that they can save money and get equally satisfactory results by mixing their own fertilizers, the local demand for meal has been far greater than ever before. Not exceeding one-half as many carloads of fertilizers have been received here up to this time as at the same date last year, and the outlook now is that many farmers will be disappointed in getting what they want In time for their crops. The dealers claim that their customers have been backward about placing orders, or even stating the amount they would likely want, and as a result they (the dealers) did not place orders with manufacturers as usual, as they did not cure to buy fertilizers unless reasonably certain that they would not be left on their hands, as it is a commodity for which they have absolutely no use except to sell. Mr. Jas. A. Clinton recently sold his house and lot on the east side of Main street to Mr. S. A. Slfford, proprietor of the Clover Hardware company. at ah andsome advance over the price he paid for it three or four years ago. The lot is centrally located?one of the best unoccupied business sites In town?and while Mr. Slfford has not as yet definitely decided to do so. It is probable that at some time In the future he will erect a commodious brick building on it to be used as a home for his business. Master Frank, eldest son of Mr. T. W. McElwee, has been quite sick for more than a month and until last Thursday, when he was operated on by Drs. Pressly and Nell was growing steadily weaker. Since the operation he has been improving: steadily and now seems to be well on the road to complete recovery. The second annual meeting of the stockholders of the Clover Mutual Building and Loan Asso., was held on Tuesday night of last week, and the report of the secretary and treasurer, Mr. F. El Clinton, showed that the affairs of the association were in fine shape and that if it continued along the same lines It has traveled so far, and there Is not a shadow of reason to Imagine that It will not, the stock will mature on schedule time. The outlook now is that by reason of the decision of the county commissioners last summer to adopt the lower route for the road to be constructed from Yorkville to Clover and on to the North Carolina line, that there will be two excellent routes between f'lnvor to Ynrkvlllf? and nf nrartleallv the same length. As everybody knows, who has traveled It, the road has been shortened between Yorkville and Filbert by about three-fourths of a mile by reason of the fact that a most excellent short cut has been opened up between the Qulnn place and Filbert and now comes Mr. A. J. Farrott who proposes to open up a new road on an easy grade from near Filbert to the Allison c/eek trestle, where It will Join the "lower road." It is said that the road will be made equally- as good, If not better, than the one the chalngang is building. McLAURIN ON MONEY. Marlboro Statesman Discusses Interesting Subject. Former Senator John L. McLaurln, who has taken large interest in the state cotton warehouse plan, says the Columbia State, has written an interesting letter to Harry D. Calhoun, president of the Home bank of Barnwell, who wrote Mr. McLaurin, suggesting, among other things, that the new national currency and banking law should enable the government to lend money, at stated Interest, to all banks to the amount of their surplus, but not to exceed their capital. All the south needs, said Mr. Calhoun, is capital to properly utilize Tts natural resources and advantages. Mr. McLaurln's reply follows: Mr. McLaurin's Letter. Bennettsvllle, March 14, 1912. Harry D. Calhoun, Barnwell. My Dear Sir: Yours of the 12th lnat., and contents noted. I thought posslbly you had seen a public letter In which I stated my opposition to the Aldrich bill. I believe that money should be Issued by the government as nearly direct to the people as possible. It belongs to the people; it Is made by their agent, the government, whose flat Imparts legal tender, without which It Is not money. If you would solve the problem of the "predatory rich," underpaid labor and depressed agricultural products, study the subtle process involving in the making, issuing and control of money. The true economic function of money Is as a measure of value in exchanging the fruits of labor. Its actual function under our present system Is In fixing, not measuring, value* We are on the single frr,ia standard, and theoretically every paper and silver dollar is redeemable in gold. If this be true, then If the volume of gold does not Increase as fast as the products of the country increase prices decline; per contra, if the volume of gold increases more rapidly than the products, then prices advance. In the first case we have with advancing prices a wave of prosperity, in the second case we have with falling prices a wave of.depression, resulting sometimes, as In 1907, in a panic. The scarcity of gold In the eighties caused us to cry qut for blmetalism. The discovery of gold in the Klondike and the perfection of many chemical and mechanical improvements gave us the advancing prices and prosperity that reached its height in 1901; then the tide turned and business so far outstripped gold production that it took the panic of 1907 to restore the equilibrium. Those who demonetized silver have given us "sound money" and a currency system so inflexible that our prosperity depends not upon how much we make but upon the amount of gold that the mines of the country yield. The Aldrich bill is certainly an effort to impart elasticity to our system, and is a recognition of the fact that flat money is the real money that is carrying on the commerce and maintaining the civilization of the world. To that extent I favor the bill. The theory that nothing but gold is money is a relic of barbarism under which it will not l?e jjossible much longer to hold productive labor in bondage. The fundamental objection to the Aldrich bill is the abdication by the government of its sovereign power to issue money, and the ceding of all of its fiscal powers to a private corporation in no sense responsible to the people. I l>elleve that it would mean the total subversion of popular government. They call this corporation "the National Reserve association," but It is actually a huge central bank, the very thought of which would make "Old Hickory" turn over in his grave. All of the cash in the treasury and all taxes as paid are turned over to this central bank. The 2 per cent circulation bonds are retired, and instead of the present national bank notes, this central bank issues its own notes, and let them out on approved collateral to banks who are members of this National Reserve association. You are mistaken as to state banks not being allowed to participate. They are on the same footing as national banks. There is no use expressing myself on what I think should be done. Nobody cares what I think. It is to some purpose, however, to forecast what is going to happen and take advantage of it. In some form a bill from the monetary commission will become a law. It is likely many features of the Aldrich bill are to be retained, and there are some excellent ideas in it, a more flexible currency system and more and more of the business of the world done on paper. It is evident, too, that the section whose assets are represented by bonds and stocks are determined that they shall be used as the basis of our future currency system. Why Not? When you reflect what a United States Steel or railroad bond really represents, I would like to know why a collateral representing so many pounds of cotton is not as good as one representing so many pounds of steel rails. What better basis for a curren cy issue can there be than a warehouse receipt for cotton when the state of South Carolina guarantee* the delivery of that cotton on the production of that receipt? Cotton is a non-perishable export crop. It has standard grades and prices the world over. It Is almost an American monopoly, and is the one great export crop. It is folly not to take advantage of such a situation. If our cotton warehouse certificates are used as they expect to use similar collaterals In other sections of this country, it will simply mean that we can utilize our assets and get money as readily as the holder of bonds and stocks. I have heard thoughtful men say that they did not believe It would be a good thing to use these certificates in this way, as there would be a tendency to warehouse and hold cotton indefinitely. I do not think so. I do not think that with cheap money planters would hold for high prices. I see very few cotton planters getting rich, and the labor on our plantations gets the pooreet pay and has fewer comforts than any people I know any thing about A man can not grow cotton and count a fair price for his own services, Interest on the Investment, waste, and wear and tear, at lees than 11 cents a pound. Cotton ought to be 20 cents a pound In proportion to the price of everything else. I do not see, however, after the price of cotton reached a basis fair to consumer and producer, how there could be congestion, because whenever the Increase In the volume of domestic money raised the price it would pay better to sell Instead of to warehouse. Cotton would come out of the warehouse until the equilibrium price was restored. In fact, all that the warehouse can do or was Intended to do is to enable the supply and demand of cotton to be kept In relative proportions to the supply and demand of money. I adverted to this in my former letter to you, and will not repeat I thank you for your courteous letter, and am ready to do anything In my power to better conditions. I will simply say in conclusion that, having the actual wealth, it is merely a question of our ability to utilize It If we haven't the brains to seize the fruits, why someone else will get them, or rather continue to appropriate them, as they do now. Very truly yours, John L. McLaurin. WITH NEIGHBORING EXCHANGE8 Notes and Comments About Matters of Local Interest. Lancaster News, March 19: Bethel Presbytery will convene for its spring meeting in the Presbyterian church at this place on the 16th of April. Messrs. ?. C. Secrest, John T. Green and T. Mclver Hughes are the committee on entertainment appointed by the local church. Gaffney Lodger, March '19: News reached Gaffney Friday that a negro boy named Claude Smith, whose home was in this city, had been killed In Rlacksburg Tuesday evening, presumably by a train. The boy was the son of Paul Smith, an industrious and well thought of colored man of the town. The boy was only fifteen years of age, and becoming dissatisfied with home, had run away Thursday. He got as far as Blacksburg on a freight train and had stopped there. During the day he told a negro boy that he Intended going on to Charlotte. Nothing more was heard of him, nor was he seen again until Friday morning, when his body was found about 100 yards from the Southern station. The limbs had been torn and crushed, the body being almost across the track. As soon as the officials were notified of the case they took the matter up and ascertained that the boy lived in this city. His father was then notified. Coroner Vlnesett was also notified of the happening and it was requested that he come to Blacksburg and hold an inquest. The coroner prepared to make the Journey but owing to the cloud burst, travel between this city and Blacksburg was well nigh impossible. The coroner therefore got into communication with magistrate H. A. Ligon in Blacksburg and the Inquest was held by Mr. Ligon Friday. The Jury returned a verdict to the effect that the deceased came to his death by mischance while trying to steal a ride A strange happening occurred near Mr. R. C. Howard's residence during the terrific rain last week. Mr. Howard states that he heard a very strange sound coming from nearby and he and Mrs. Howard waded out to investigate. With the rain falling in sheets, he found quite a number of toad frogs banded together, all stand-1 lng on their hind legs, with their faces raised to heaven, giving vent to most unearthly sounds. This was quite queer as very few people have ever heard a toad frog make a noise of any kind. Gastonia Gazette, March 19: Marriage licenses were issued by the register of deeds Saturday to two couples, Marion Jackson, of King's Mountain, and Miss Minnie Slsk, of Cherryville; John S. Cloninger, and Miss Ethel Goldsmythe, of Lowell Gastonia will have the honor and pleasure of again having here for three days, either the last week In May or the first week in June, the rifle teams of the twelve companies of the First Regiment and five companies of the Coast Artillery, North Carolina National Guard. These teams will bring 200 or more men here and they will spend three days at Camp Holland, the target practice and all shooting contests taking place on Lelnster Range. Last year was the first year the shoot was held in Gastonia. It was the first of 'May and unluckily came in a cool wet season which caused some discomfort among the soldiers. It was probably on this account that it was placed this year the last of May or the first of June. Oapt. Bui winkle, of Company B, has not as yet been informed of the exact date. Among the teams here will probably be one from the cavalry company recently organized and mustered in at Lincolnton Between 2 and 4 o'clock Saturday morning fire of unknown origin destroyed the two store houses and a warehouse belonging to Mr. H. S. (Van) Sellers on King's Mountain, route one. Only a very small amount of goods was saved and the buildings were totally destroyed. Mr. Seller's residence nearby was not injured. The stock of goods destroyed was valued at $1,200 or $1,300 and on this there was about $700 Insurance. The owner has no idea as to how the Are originated. It Is probable that Mr. Sellers will rebuild at once. He has been in the general merchandise business for a number of years and has a good trade. The store Is located near the junction of the King's Mountain and* Bessemer City roads leading to Cherryville.... .Jailer O. R. Rhyne returned Saturday night from Rutherfordton, bringing back with him Prank Melchor. a negro wanted here for the murder of John Ross, another negro, at Hardin about a year ago. Melchor was arrested near Ellenboro last Thursday. He was placed In the county Jail here and will be tried at the May term of superior court. Melchor does not deny killing Ross but says that the dead man was attempting to strike him with a rock and he Bhot in self-defense. He says he has been In the coal fields and was on his way back to give himself up and stand trial when he was arrested. Jailer Rhyne, however, learned that the negro had been working around In Rutherford county since about Christmas. Chester Reporter, March 19: Mr. T. liner Monai, or mis cuy, wan amotiK the passengers on No. 36, which wu In a smash-up at Killlan's this morning, and had the misfortune to be severely hurt. W_ was taken to the Magdalene hospital immediately upon the arrival of the train here at 1:30 o'clock this afternoon, and will probably be laid up for several days. He was bruised about the head and limbs, and while no bonen were broken was severely shaken up when hurled out of the train against the ground. The accident was caused by No. 36 running Into the rear end of a freight At the passenger station it was reported this afternoon that twelve or fifteen passengers were hurt, no others, however, very severely. The others must have been taken to Columbia, as Mr. Moffat was the only one that got off here Mr. Fred Padgett died at his home at the Eureka mill Friday evening and was burled yesterday afternoon in Evergreen cemetery after funeral services at the home by Rev. J. S. Snyder, pastor of the Baptist church. Mr. Padgett was about thirty-five years of age and leaves a wife and several children The L. A C. passenger train came around this morning over the Southern's track via Rock Hill, and will return this afternoon over the same route. The train ran dovn to Fort Lawn shortly after arriving here, and will make this trip each day until the regular schedule is restored. Supervisor Hardin states that the trestle over Catawba river Is badly damaged and four or five days will be required to repair the damage The community was saddened Friday morning when It became known that Mrs. John C McFadden had died suddenly the night before. Although she had been suf fering with heart trouble for some time past, and had had several spells at the time her condition did not appear at all serious just before her * death; and when she passed quietly and quickly away Thursday evening family and friends had no warning whatever that the end was so near. Mrs. McFadden was Miss Margaret Louisa Waters before her marriage, and she was born in the western section of Chester county, though much of her life before her marriage to Mr. McFadden on February 18, 1868, was spent in York county, she was the daughter of W. E. and Elisabeth W. Waters, and was in her seventy-second year. Surviving Mrs. McFadden to mourn her loss are her husband, Mr. John C. McFadden, one son, Mr. Saml. E. McFadden, and three daughters, Mrs. John G. White, of Chester. Mrs. D. N. McLauchlln, of Austin, Tex., and Mrs. J. H. M. Beatty, of Columbia, In addition to a host of friends. GROWTH OF 80CIALI8M. Underwood Charges It to Alleged Improper Court Deeision. Democratic Leader Oscar W. Underwood, supporting the proposed excise tax bill in the house last Monday, charged that the supreme court, by Its annulment of the income tax in 1895, was responsible for the growth of socialism In the United States. The pending measure, which probably will pass the house tomorrow, is expected to raise between $50,000,000 and $60,000,000 a year in revenue for the government. Multi-millionaires? Andrew Carnegie, J. Pierpont Morgan and John D. Rockefeller?would be compelled to pay their run snare 01 taxation under Its teijns, the Democratic leader declared. "When the government had the right to tax wealth," said Mr. Underwood, "we did not hear the socialistic cry of unrest." Mr. Underwood defended the measure under a rapid Are of questions from Republican Leader Mann, Representatives Madden of Illinois; Longworth of Ohio, and Campbell of Kansas, all regular Republicans. A remarkable demonstration marked the speech of Representative Littleton of New York, early In the day. He devoted more than an hour in citing from court records to prove the constitutionality of the bill and urged Its passage. "I want to say that if we expect to tax the wealth of the country as we ought to tax It," he said, "we must not stand paralyzed before this impending influence of the court. We cannot forecast the Judgment of the court, but we must not let that impede ua "I do not want to be misunderstood as railing at the Judiciary," said Mr. Littleton. "I do, however, want to be understood as criticising the supreme court's decision of 1895 on the Income tax law, which cut off at one stroke three-fourths of the taxing power of the government" Mr. Littleton occupied the space in front of the speaker's rostrum, surrounded by a small mountain of lawbooks. When he had concluded practically the entire membership of the house docked around him and it was with difficulty that order was restored. He was followed by Representatives Clayton of Alabama; Irvlngton of Maryland, and Sweet of Michigan. Democrats; and Crumpacker of Indiana; Towner of Iowa, and Maltby of New York, Republicans, against It.? Washington dispatch, Monday. It** Escaping poverty is Just as hard as capturing riches.