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I f<, i?? ? ISSPgP BKIU'WEKKLY ~ ^ i. *. gbist's sons, PnbH.hen. } & ^wnilg JJett'spaper: J'or the promotion of the political, Social, ^jriealtmpl and Commercial interests of ihg ptogty. j 1ER? ufoo r*!"i*v?"ci!ra"C' ESTABLISHED 1855. YORKVILLE, 8. C., TUESDAY, JULY 2a, 1913. , ISTO. 58. The Mie By CHARLES Tl Author of fThe Day of Soul: (Copyright 1912, The Bobba-Merri CHAPTER VII Pigs and Politics When a man It sixty and has lived well; when he has had money without moiling and honor without envy; has received and amplified to the full ai heritage of the best without effort and without price; when youth and maturity have chastened and molded by that fine, rugged American tradition which began with the founding of Harvard and the Jamestown planters, and followed easily the fighting line of pioneers as the frontiers of the republic were lengthened?when one has, indeed, had, righteously and wholesomely, all there is to be had, there is apt to come am arrest of development. There comes a coolness of blood, a reserve of faiths, a caution of more than age and the finer usage. One will discover at least one family of this sort in every small town of the mid-west ia nf and vat nmrt from the lo cal aristocracy cf the soil-enriched, the banker, the grocer, the lawyer and landholder; a family with an eastern tradition of the best?New England or Virginia?a pretension to the elegance of culture; a group which, while easily the leaders, sits in a state of correct isolation lest their honorable individualism be trampled by the newer needs of newer blood. The Van Harts, migrating leisurely behind the star of empire had beheld afar the dust and shouting; they had been formed by social forces that had run their fire of youth, that of New England state of mind of ante-slavery days wmcn naa once ueeu ui? u?uvUal conscience, but was now vestigial and static. The inpouring of hungrier races to the mid-west, who had scratched the bleak prairies, finding the fat and virgin lands now gone; the surge of the political revolts of the trans-Mississippi settlers, time and again from the days of populism to the present; the pathos and the idealism of all this eager building, had not touched them. Their county, one of the Iowa Reserve, had felt faintly the thunder of the awakening; the dingy offices of the Rome court house had been filled by a group of the "best people" so long that they seemed the hereditament of a class and a leadership. There were younger men who grew * - * * 1 anon Knfnmnn up 10 leei vtvfc ucij iuc io|/<>v what was best In the days of their fathers and the needs of today. Harlan Van Hart, himself, had discerned curiously the rift between the fine spiritual environ of his father's example and the new, troublous, social conscience. In his debates of high school, his loungings about Wiley Curran's news shop, his friendship with Arne Vance, son of Old Jake, the "political farmer," the county's first insurgent, he had wondered at it. The new movement was no hunger-rebellion of the cities, the mid-west was enriched?why, then, the outcry? Harlan was packing for his departure. He thought rather grimly of the Journey east. Elise would be on the * ?? >>?? ?ophnnl nlsrt and nam VII 11CI n?,7 kv wv.-w?., , he would have to talk to her. Elise and all the town were curious with some story concerning him and Aurelle Lindstrom,?nothing definite, but all the more perplexing for that Harlan had slowly flamed since last night with a resentment new In the genial complacence of his life. When the packing was done he sat by the win? (low wnere ne couia see me ?eu ?mu gold filigree of the sugar maples thinly covering the rock face of Eagle Point back of the town. Today a blue haze enveloped the highest pinnacle. Somewhere, out of this lazy freedom, a cow-bell tinkled. It was Saturday, and he knew the boys were gathering wild crab-apples up along Sinsinawa in the hills and routing rabbits out of the fence corners. He felt immeasurably old some way, and out of all this kindly prosiness. He had an inclination to climb to the hills and then checked it with a bitter refusal?the hills and all this autumn glory were a part of her and the inextricable confusion of wrong and right, duty and honor, into which he was plunged. He was angered at his mother; he was enraged at Aurelie. He had asked her to give up this silly business of her prize-winning, and she had sturdily refused at the last. His mother, his class, his tradition, career, Harvard and the law?all had to do with his Intolerable sense of rebellion and defeat. Something was inevitably wrong. perhaps with himself. Perhaps, he did not even love Aurelie so much?it was a summer madness as his mother had . said; but he felt a shame that he would allow this. A man, he told himself, would smash his way through to win, if he greatly desired; but he was a Van Hart and they were not given to that sort of thing. They would coolly consider a great many things before they struck a blow. He had intended to go down to the drug-store corner where the fellows usually met to smoke and chaff and grind out airs on Playter's phonograph while groups of girls came in from school or shopping to buy sodas. He would meet them all in the frank comradeship of the town's way, walk home with one, or loiter at the highschool football practise. There were any number of ways to spend one's last afternoon in the old town where one was so pleasantly a favored son. His father was at court and his mother at her club. But he had a curious disinclination to idle around the square. He took a notion to dress for dinner, although there were to be no guests. His father did so occasionally in their home life; it was understood by the Van Harts as an assertion ol old and real standards. There were but nine families in Rome who even dined at night, and these nine definitely fixed the social life. People whc dine at six do not dine in shirtsleeves. , Harlan was going to dress for the last home dinner. It would divert him >LANDERS SNNEY JACKSON i. My Brother't Keeper. Etc. U Company.) from his inexplicable dissatisfaction, perhaps. He looked about his room at the trophies of his undergraduate days?banners, dance programmes, favors, his tennis rackets, fraternity parchments?hung as he had cherished them. Now he felt an intolerance of this sophmoric display. He promised that when he came back next fall all this truck should go to the garret. Ta w*. ? MAM'S frtl* fA^QV 11 SMUU1U wo tt mail D 1WUI, IVI vvumj [ he felt no more the boy. He would be the man; something had come to him in his bitterness, his first bewilderment, that told him he must be a man now, and not the lovesick youth, or the trifler with all this easy popularity he had among all sorts of people. He recalled curiously now how his mother had always contrived that he spend his time with the right sort of people; how he was so thoroughly of the gracious life of this kind of people. East or west, somehow, these best homes opened to him; everything good came without effort, without cost. Yet he would have been surprised to believe he was anything else but a democrat? a young man of the easy, full-lived, tolerant American democracy?the sort of fellow who calls on one's daughters, and whom one's daughters marry when he has made enough in the business or become a Junior partner of the firm. East or west, he was the same clean clear-minded chap of family and money. To get on in the world meant no particular struggle; merely common sense ana mausiry, and cultivating the right sort of people, and taking easy advantage of the opportunities that one's position gives one. His father was that sort of man exactly. All the county accepted him as a type of the sturdy democratizing citizen; and Harlan looked out on the people reciprocally,?brown, kind, true hearted people, unconscious, unafraid, unindebted, their wallets filled. He remembered once traveling with Elisc Dickinson and the grocer's daughter had been ashamed of a country uncle who took out a paper shoe-box of lunch and ate fried chicken and pickles on the seat of the coach. Harlan had resented Ellse's feeling. He had no country relations, but he felt a stout kinship with all this prosy, common, wholesome living. They were his home people, these Midlanders, the best of Americans. Certainly he was a democrat, as his father was, without struggle, without cost, without having to soil his hands at anything, or assume obligation. If one had accused him of class-consciousness he would not have taken one seriously. , His father and mother had no comment when he appeared dressed for dinner. Mrs. Van Hart smiled; it was such a likable following of the judge's habits. The affair of last night had been put by; they had had it out after the party, and Harlan had listened in silence. Their hopes of him, their pride in him; all they had built and lived and dreamed for him?they knew he would not throw it away. He had listened, then he had arisen and said "Mother I'm cnine back to school tomorrow. Can't you trust me In this affair?Aurelie Llndstrom?as you can In everything?" And the mother had answered proudly, "Yes." Tonight at dinner he felt his father's kindly eyes on him; his mother's affectionate welcome was unchanged. The matter was not mentioned again. He knew it would not be. Yes, they trusted him?so loyally, so splendidly, they trusted him! They placed on him the unspoken but inescapable heri ocm thov linrl received. He would wrong it in no way. Mrs. Van Hart had summed it up to the judge alone last night. "Harlan would not marry an impossible girl any more than you would, dear?or your father, or your father's father. It was one of those chivalrous madnesses of youth; and the girl is pretty. I was so sorry for her! And this ridiculous newspaper prize-winning! It was mercifully fortunate after all. If anything could cut Harlan to the quick it would be cheapness and vulgarity and notoriety. An infatuation might blind him to her social ineptitude?but this beauty-prize absurdity?nothing could have been better to break the boy's Arcadian romance. Indeed, we got out of it with amusing ease." The judge had sighed. He had, it seemed, discovered in this son some of the inner steel that the mother possessed clothed in her gracious authority. He had been aware of Harlan's questionings for a year or so in matters that did not come clearly in the mother's view; of a mind grasping with dogged slowness but merciless tenacity at altered standards. He stopped now to banter his son r?vor Hi? snun trvine to assume their old fraternity of common views. What did Harlan expect to live on next year when he hung his shingle out? "Perhaps I'll follow Billy I^ee's example," badgered Harlan. "Specialize in irrigation law and go out to Arizona and hustle." i The mother smiled at this gay dissembling. A Van Hart having to : "hustle" was unthinkable. The judge went on: "By sleeping on the office couch and taking your meals at the i Gem?Chicago style?as it advertises? i you can probably pull through and pay for your gas and janitor." "I'm going to give Harlan his first I case." Mrs. Van Hart smiled. "He ! can go before the county board and argue for the Sinsinawa Creek diver? slon. Tayior says we could sell our north eighty if the creek was damned I above the quarry." ! "Mother, that's a matter of politics s and not law." i The judge looked curiously at the son. The assurance of a man was in > him. Harlan went on: "There is a lot of grumbling over the road contracts Tanner gets out of the board with Ban ! Boydston chairman. And now the i farmers are saying that the county is groins to spend thousands of dollars to divert the creek lust, at the point where It won't do anybody any grood except Tanner ahd Cal Rice and Dickinson and?well?us, you know." 'The farmers?" the Judge's gentle interrogfation came. "Old Jake Vance was saying. And Wiley?" His father frowned. The mother's amused smile came. The News editor was an "Impossible person" who was to be seen carrying his exchanges from the postofflce, in shirt-sleeves, and a derby hat much too small for his head. "Wiley says It's a great scheme of Thad's to get the county to protect his property from the spring floods and the county pays him for doing It!" The Judge was plainly annoyed. "Your friend, Wiley Curran, seems the self-appointed watch-dog of county affairs." "He and Mr. Tanner are always after each other. But that's why I said the creek diversion will be a matter of politics. There' ssure to be a howl raised about It, dad." The judge selected a cigar. The mother nodded covertly to him. "Harlan, dear, you admit the creek ought to be diverted?" "Why, yes. And It'll be a good thing for us, mother. It'll put all our north tract on the market drained." The judge's frown came again. "That has nothing to do with it, my boy. The natural bed of the creek is down the old Pocket where those squatters' shanties are. The quarry gang beyond Llndstrom's?" He paused, for he had not Intended to advert to the name? Llndstrom, the discard, he had sent to jail; Aurenes luoiei minci. There was a silence. Harlan looked up to see his father's eyes averted. He had an idea the judge was suffering. His mother shrugged. "My dear, the Pocket is no man's land?the river made it years ago, and it's the natural bed of the creek. Those people haven't a sign of title!" "I know," the son retorted. "Wiley told me." "I wish, my boy, you didn't get so j much of your knowledge of county affairs through Mr. Curran!" The Judge watched him curiously. "Did you see his scandalous editorial on the supreme court's decision in the labor injunction case?" "Yes. That labor organizer from Earlville, McBride?got Wiley excited about it. It would smash the union movement, Wiley said." The judge sighed. For the first time he had seen a flash of Harlan's old cheerful eagerness?and it took Wiley Curran's insurgency to bring it. "This man, McBride, is organizing the soft nil coai miners on me uppei tici???? those foreigners that were brought in there. And he denounced Congressj man Hall last Sunday at the Earlville Turn Verein meeting, I hear.". j "They're after Hall, father?hard. Old Jake Vance says that Wiley Curran ought to run against him?he says the governor's crowd will get behind any one to beat Hall." The judge laughed. "Wiley Curran in congress? Harlan, I saw him last week down on his knees digging up geraniums for that funny old lady who keeps house for him?they were throwing cupfuls of earth at each other and shouting like children!" Harlan smiled. "I suppose! But, dad, this political move is getting big. Jake Vance says it's the young men's movement Look at the chaps like his t"V*A'a nnmo hork frniTI the uu;yf miiVy nuv o w*??v agricultural school chuck-a-block with what he calls the Wisconsin idea. And see how Governor Delroy won on it? he's the young men's governor." "The state," retorted the Judge dryly, "is in an uproar over nothing. When this Wisconsin senator got up to speak at the last session the solid and representative men simply would not listen?he talked to their empty seats. A demagogue, a disturber?and as for Jake Vance, he has been the county's original malcontent since granger days and Greenbackism." The young man listened quietly. "Father, his son is different. You ought to see how earnest he is. A student-farmer come back from Wisconsin whooping it up.for the initiative and recall, and direct elections, out In his father's locality among the old mossbacks?and showing 'em how to ? t? Kon Kav ovor I'll ISt" UCllCl turn umii v?v. V.v. before! Pigs and politics?Arne says!" "I," smiled the Judge, "am still for the Constitution?and my boy, I'm glad you went to Harvard Instead of our western colleges. If you're going Into politics?" he grimaced, for polltics was distasteful to him, and yet Harlan had grown up with the consciousness that some day he should enter politics. His mother's ancestry of Virginia had given it to him as the milk he drew. It had been the one grievance of her married life that the judge had not cared for a more militant public life. She had an old-fashioned ideal for her boy's future?she was not sure of it all, but it was to be a career honoring the state, reaching up, perhaps, well?one could never tell how far such a son might go, one who had the best of east and west in him. Despite their tradition the Van Harts felt the Midlands to be the heart and soul of the republic, the seat of power and inspiration. Loyal to every inch of the Atlantic seaboard, they knew the mighty valley would home the millions of the best Americans, here would be the breed of the soil, the determining economlsm, the building and enduring individualism. The mother glanced brightly at him. "Of course Harlan's going into politics! And he'll never have the struggle that Billy Lee will have. Here, among his own people?" and she dreamed an instant, her eyes going out to the encircling hills?"Harlan, dear ?there's no limit to what I see for you. Oh, we want you to go on, boy? always on to the best and highest!" She arose in her eagerness and came to him, parted the fair hair from his brow and kissed him. "Dear boy, won't you thank us a little bit?down in your heart?for saving you!" He was still. But his arm stole i about her slender waist. Her smooth cheek under the silvery hair, which i had a girlish trick of coming down bei fore her ears, was against his own. After all she was "the best of mothi ers," as he had told Aurelie. Always i about him this gracious care, this eni nobling presence, this exalting standi ard of life. Always this warm, serene, home-guarding?all that was best. He kissed her . In their old comradeship of mother and son between whom nothing could come. "Mother, dear?" he answered slowly, "I know! Oh, It's been a battle, but I know!" And he looked up to see now his father's patient eyes shining upon them. Tea, they had lived only for him?they lived for him now. When he went out later, they watched him swing across the lawn and down High street in the unbroken spirit of youth, a noble sunniness, a clear freedom about him. They had given him to the land, the best that the land could offer. They watched him go in a pride that was a gratefulness to God. (To be Continued.) INVASION OF MIDDLE WEST Columbia Real Estate Exchange Wants Help in Enterprise. The Enquirer has received the following from the Columbia Real Estate Exchange: Dear Sir: At a meeting of the Columbia Real Estate Exchange held Tuesday evening, July 8th, a resolution was adopted and a committee appointed consisting of three members of the exchange to co-operate with boards of trade, chambers of commerce, real estate dealers, railroad companies and business and public spirited men throughout this state with a view of equipping a car containing an exhibit showing the ag-. ricultural and manufacturing industries of this state. ll ih uie purpose ui uie cAcuwigc iu equip a baggage car with the exhibit and have a Pullman attached to same for the accommodation of ten or more representative men whose duties will be to accompany the exhibit furnishing reliable information regarding the resources of the state and perform such duties as may be outlined at a meeting to be held in Columbia on Tuesday, July 29th, at 12 a, m., at the office of the chamber of commerce. The trip is proposed to be of from thirty to sixty days duration and as at present outlined to cover western Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois and Indiana, earring to the people of those sections practically the same exhibit as South Carolina had at the national corn exposition. We confidently feel that this will be the grandest advertisement for this state that can be had. We believe that it will produce much better results even than the national corn exposition which was held in Columbia a few months ago, as In this way we will reach thousands of farmers who did not atend the corn exposition as well as those who did. * * ? ? 111 ^ t /?1!Arif AS mis exmuiL Will ucuciu on; part of the state we feel sure that all public spirited citizens, and especially the chambers of commerce and real estate dealers in all the cities and towns of South Carolina will be willing to bear their proportion of the expense of same. We have taken the matter of the cost of the trip up with the railroad people and we find that the entire expense will not be over ten thousand dollars. As this expense will be prorated among the numerous towns and cities, we feel that it will not cost any one individual very much. We wish to have representatives from every town and city in the state meet with us in Columbia July 29th, so that we can put the plan into the proper shape and begin preparations which will enable us to send the exhibit out September 15th. We take it for granted that on ac count 01 tne great guuu hub wm uu for our state, especially in bringing thrifty citizens of the middle west to help us develop our farm lands, a great portion of which are lying idle for the want of tennants, that you will gladly give this plan wide publicity through your columns, for which we thank you very much in advance. We urge that you give the meeting to be held here on the 29th, especial attention and help us to have as large an attendance as possible. Yours truly, W. B. Dozler, Chairman. Edwin T. Bookler, W. T. Love. HE MADE ONE MISTAKE Quaint Persian Tale of the Taming of the Shrew. In Persia a wealthy man will often have a friend of whose society he is fond, living in the house with him. Abdullah was such a friend to Aly Kahn, a very wealthy and influential merchant of Ispahan who was delighted with his charm and cleverness and so pleased with his services that he thought he would make a very' good son-in-law and suggested him as such to his beautiful daughter. She was very overbearing and bad tempered; but, thinking that Abdullah was rather good looking, she agreed to it. They were married. Soon his friends came to congratulate him, among them Housseyn, who was known to have a very overbearing and bad tempered wife. He said, "I congratulate you on your marriage," and then he asked the bridegroom. "Are you really happy with a woman who is known to have such a bad temper?" "I assure you that she is perfectly charming and that I am perfectly happy." "May I ask how you manage it?" "Certainly," answered Abdullah. "On the night of the marriage "I went into her apartments in full uniform with my sword on.- She did not take any notice of me, but put on a supercilious air and made a parade of stroking her eat. I quietly picked up her cat and cut off his head with my sword, took the head in one hand, the body in the other and threw them out of the window. My wife was amazed, but did not show it. After a few seconds she broke into a smile and has been a most submissive and charming wife ever since." Housseyn went straight home and put on his uniform and went into the harem. The domestic pet came to greet him. He seized it with the hand that was accustomed to caress it, drew his sword and with a single blow decapitated It. At the same moment he received a blow in the face delivered by his shrewish wife and before he recovered from his astonishment a second and a third. "I can see to whom you have been talking," the lady hissed, "but you are too late. It was on th first day that you ought to have done this."?Exchange. |PiscfUan?us Reading. 1' ' . ' ' BOOM AT BAGDAD Land of Abraham Transformed by Modern Institutions. The Holy Land Is waking up. A "boom"?a regular Tankee fever of progress and construction?has broken out In Palestine and swept east to ancient Chaldea, where even the old Garden of Eden is being irrigated and put back on the map and the market. Outside the crumbled walla of Nineveh. Yankee mnwlnc machines are humming In wheat fields that cover the bones of kings. Down on the big Euphrates Irrigation dam cube concrete mixers from Chicago are busily digesting old bricks, taken from the walls of Nebudchadnezzar's palace at ruined Babylon. Aleppo, so long a "sleepy, Old-World Syrian town," Is planning a $6,000,000 union depot, and low-speed Jerusalem donkeys are now dodging the noisy motor-cycles of nervous tourists?doing Palestine "on the high." In the date gardens around Bagdad, where for 2000 years the Arab farmer was content with his rude "cherrid"? (an ox-power goatskin and windlass device for lifting -irrigating water.) over 400 English gas engines now puff away, pumping water from the ancient Tigris. On this same historic stream motor boats from Racine sputter about among high-pooped Arab "saflnas" and "buggalows"?still built Just as In Sinbad's golden age. In the dark, narrow, camel-smelling bazaar streets of Bagdad I saw Yankee sewing machines, dollar watches, safety razors and American patent medicines, offered for sale beside costly Persian rugs, bronzes, sticky native candy, and prayer-bricks made from the holy dirt of Moslem graveyards. By one cable order a Bagdad importer bought fifty American reapers, for use in Assyrian wheat fields. From this region?made famous by New Testament history?the stagnation of centuries is passing, and travel writers can no longer dub it "changeless and inert." "It's a railroad?the same magic power that built up our vast west? that's rousing this long-dormant region of the middle west. It's a great railroad, too, greater far in possibilities than even the famous Russian road across Siberia. The "Bagdad Railway," this singularly significant road is called, and already it is half-completed. When finished it will stretch 1870 miles?from Scutari to Basra on the Persian Gulf, the old "Balsora" of Slnbad the Sailor's tales. From the Mediterranean to the Euphrates, now sDanned bv a temDorary bridge, the line Is In operation, and on three sections under construction 72,000 men are steadily at work. From the Euphrates the route pushes east to Mosul?on the site of old Ninevah? thence down the classic Tigris to Bagdad ^pd Basra. One hundred million dollars is what this road will cost Turkey, and Germany Is building it. Every tool, tie, rail, and piece of structural steel comes from the Fatherland. Thousands of engines and cars, including splendid diners and sleepers, are being built in Germany for this line, and all the engineers are Germans, these benefits accruing .to Germany under the terms of the concession. Bagdad, Mosul, Aleppo, Horns, Konla?all towns on this railway route?are full of whlte-helmeted, kaiser-mustached German engineers, with their pipes and beer and native servants. From Bagdad to Basra?the last 500 miles of the road's course to the eastern sea?the British will do the work, and this section will be operated as an "International line." The British demanded this arrangement, because of tne blood and gold tney spin jn suppressing piracy In the Persian Gulf, and opening that region to commerce, In Mesopotamia 80 per cent of all trade la in British hands, and all Bagdad's foreign commerce Is hauled up and down the Tigris on flat-bottomed, side-wheel, Mississippi-type of steamers, owned by a London company. One Yankee Arm, established in Bagdad merely to buy licorice root for flavoring chewing tobacco made in the United States, ships out whole cargoes of its Juicy product on these boats. Till now this fleet of Tigris boats has had no competition, but It is easy to see that the new railway, with Its quick, cheap freight haul from the Bosphorus, will give the Germans a firm foothold. And where it once took three weeks of perilous caravan travel to go from Bagdad overland to Smyrna, the railroad will take you in two or three days. In days gone by all goods from Persia for Europe came out to Bagdad by caravan, down the Tigris, and thence by the Persian Gulf, Indian Ocean, Red Sea and Suez Canal to European ports. But the German railway's spur from Bagdad to the Persian frontier will absorb all this important trade?as well as some 200,000 Shla pilgrims who annually plod down from Kurdistan en route to Holy Kerbela, southwest of Bagdad. With this railway through the Holy Land comes that second magic power in desert regions?the irrigation ditch. About the old city of Babylon, below Hit on the Euphrates, where Bible students agree the original Garden ol Eden was located, a vast irrigation project is being deevioped, 5,000 Aral: workmen, directed by British engineers, are cleaning out the old laterals and canals with which Nebudchadnezzar watered this Babylonian plain centuries ago, and in the Euphrates a) Hindieh an enormous dam of concrete i and American interlocking steel piles is being built. You can ride for hours I about this flat, rich, but long empty ! plain and have always in view the , ruined ditches and tile-strewn mounds ! that mark the sites of settlements and cities long forgotten?towns that flourl ished when Herodotus saw Mesopoi tamia, and called it 'a forest of veri dure from end to end." Sir William I Wlllcocks, the Egyptian Irrigation ex' ?I- nhar-tra nf thin a'firlt and already the Arab peasant farmer? i whose lands are watered by completed I ditches are benefiting enormously s When this giant project is finished it . will have reclaimed from the desert i and the Euphrates marshes something like 12.000,000 acres of date, grain and i cotton land?cotton land as fine as any i in Egypt. Already land values in tht Garden of Eden are rising, and ai work progresses Adam's old homestead is getting more and more desirable as a place for investment. With the advent of white engineers, traders and their army of clerks, the ambitions of the Greek and Armenian youths settled In middle eastern cities have been aroused, and now schools where English, book-keeping, typewriting, etc., are taught, are found In many centers. French?so long the only foreign tongue spoken in places like Bagdad?is now less desired than English. The printer's trade is spreadI >..! 1 Dnkirl/vn la I nig loni, anu uic ?ivuu vi uav/ iun 10 the striking name of one Arabic sheet printed at Bagdad?perhaps tLe precurser of an English daily to come when Bagdad, with Its ideal winter climate and historic surroundings, shall rival Cairo as a tourist resort. Even Broadway, New York, is no longer terra incognito to Mesopot&mian 1 youths, for an Americanized Greek? 1 traveling with a moving-picture out- ' fit and showing American views?has J taken piasters from Bagdad and Basra. Nor is the pilgrimage to Mecca nowadays a hardship to the faithful. 1 No more arduous camel-rides across ' the blistering desert! Mr. Moslem De- 1 votee?who fain would see Mecca and gain the right to paint his whiskers < red and enjoy the title of "Haji"?has 1 only to buy a railroad ticket Then he ? can ride, via Aleppo, Horns and Da- ' mascus, right into A1 Medina?within 1 a few short miles of Forbidden Mecca ' itself?saying his prayers or smoking < his bubbling water pipe all the way! i Such is the awakening of the Holy i Land. With quick communication by < rail, the reclaiming or vast areas or i productive land," and the development i of oil fields famous since Alexander's i day?those deposits near Hit from < whence some say Noah got bitumen to i caulk the ark?this region of the mid- i die east seems destined soon to become as productive, as wealthy, per- j adventures, as Egypt Itself. As re- i gards the tourist trade, it may be left J to the wily Oriental to make the most . of the lure of Bagdad, of Babylon and l Its tower, of Nineveh and the tomb of i Jonah?for the oriental "guide" is long i since "awake" to his chance with the ! 'tourist?Frederick Sims, former consul at Bagdad. i ? e ? i ORIGIN OF COMMON THINGS. Articles of Every Day Use Corns In 1 Gradually. Forks?Forks were unknown In England until about 300 years ago. A knife was used to cut up food, but the food was conveyed by the fingers to the mouth. The first evidence of a use of the fork In the twentieth centurv fash ion was by a noble lady of Byzantium, who. In the eleventh century, had married a Doge of Venice, and ate in that city after her own custom, cutting her meat very finely up and conveying it to her mouth with a two-pronged fork. The act was regarded in Venice as a sign of expensive luxury and extreme effeminacy. Shoes?As coverings for the human foot, shoes have been worn from the earliest times. The shoes of the Jews were made of wood, rush, linen, or leather. The Romans were the first to set the example of costly shoes, and introduced various decorative adornments of ivory and precious stones. In the Middle Ages fashion played some fantastic tricks with shoes, and in England, about the middle of the fifteenth century, shoes with such long points were worn that they had to be tied to the knee for convenience of walking-, the dandles using sliver chains for the purpose. It was about 1633 when shoes of the present form were Introduced, and in 1668 the buckle came into use as an ornament. Chimneys?The oldest certain account of a chimney, places it In Venice In 1347. None of the Roman ruins show chimneys. The chimney of antiquity was a hole In the roof. A kitchen In Rome was always sooty, and the wealthy Romans used dry wood which would burn without soot. Silk?The first silk was made B. C. 2600 by the wife of a Chinese emperor. Aristotle at 350 first mentions silk among the Greeks. The manufacture of silk was carried on in Sicily In the twelfth century, later spreading to Italy, Spain and the south of France. It was not manufactured In England before 1604. ?? - lea??ea wan imruuuueu iniu Dugland about the middle of the seventeenth century, when It was a great luxury and fetched from ?6 to ?10 a pound. Up to about 1885 the greater portion of the tea imported Into this country came from China; the bulk Is now obtained from India and Ceylon, although China tea of good quality is again working Its way Into favor. Beards?These were regarded as a sacred possession by ancient races. The Jews were proud of their beards, and they wore them through the days of their Egyptian bondage although the Egyptians shaved. The , Greeks and Romans of the ancient days mostly shaved, and the term "barbap rous" (beard-.wearing), was applied for a long period to people who were considered out of the pale of good socl. ety. Beards have been taxed occasionally, as In Russia by Peter the Great, and at an earlier date In Eng, land. . Pins?Pins were in existence, no [ doubt, in prehistoric times, and have ( been unearthed in British barrows. Brass pins were Introduced Into Eng, land from France about 1540, and were being made In this country three years [ later. They were manufactured by , machinery In England in i?z?. Matches?Lucifer matches?that Is, , matches tipped with an explosive sub! stance that bursts Into flame on being , struck?were first used about 1834. , Many improvements have been made In , matches since then, the most importI ant of which was the Invention of the safety match, striking on the box only. Wire?This was originally made by hammering, but is now produced by ! means of powerful machinery which' draws the heated metal through a seI ries of holes of gradually diminishing , size. The first wire mill in England was I set up at Mortlake In 1663. Enormous quantities of wire of differing grades , and sizes, are now being used, ranging . from a thickness difficult to bend to the , finest thread.?Tit Bits. 1 - ?4" Many a fellow who weds an helr, ess marries Miss Fortune. 43" On the laugh-and-grow-fat prlncl' pie, he laughs best who laughs last. int. law amu inc. uuu Principles that Have Been Established As to Canine 8tanding. Every owner of a dog should know his own responsibilities, and the standing of the animal before the law. By the old common law, all animals are divided into two classes, wild and domestic. Wild animals are those that have not been tamed or reduced to subjection by man. They are not recognized as being the subject of property rights; the owneroMn nf th#m whan thav nra alive. belongs generally to the state, and not to private individuals. Thus, a moose roaming at will in the woods of Maine is a wild animal, and belongs to no one person; that same moose, captured and tied to a tree, or tamed and harnessed, belongs to his captor; or again, that same moose killed by a hunter belongs to him if he Is not himself a trespasser upon another's land. on the other hand, domesticated animals are as mucn the subject of owneramp by sale and delivery as any nner property. Midway between these two classes stands the dog, neither a wild nor a domestic animal in the eye of the old common law. His exact status In the animal kingdom has been the subject at learned dissertations by Jurists and legislators. It has been gravely argued that because he is generally kept to protect, he must retain in some degree the natural ferocity that characterized him when wild. If he is thus kept, trained, and used, the grave argument runs, he Is likely to uecome a private nuisance; ferocious and accusomed to bite persons, he Is, therefore, dangerous to the community, and a public nuisance. Another profound reason brought forward in support of this position is the fact that his flesh Is not edible; he is not bred to furnish food-supply. Moreover, the dreaded hydrophobia Is laid to his account, and & balance struck against his admittance withiu the charmed circle of domestic animals. The practical teachings of usage and experience, however, have superseded the dicta of the old common law. Today, in spite of these principles of the common law. the dog does occupy an honored place in the life of man, if not on the Btatute books. As stated In 1884 by Chief Justice Appleton of the supreme court of Maine, the modern principle is as follows: "A dog is the subject of ownership. Trespass will lie for an injury to him. Trover Is maintainable for his conversion. Replevin will restore him to the possession of his master. Ue may be bought and sold. An action may be had for his price. The owner has all the remedies for the vindication of his rights of property in this animal that he has in any other species of personal property." In this quotation are answered the principal questions that might be asked about the attitude of the law toward the dog. He is on exactly the same basis as is the horse or the cow; he is simply a chattel, one of the many forms of personal property, and subject to the code of laws that govern chattel property. The possible danger from the bite of a dog is not so peculiar a menace that a special code of liability attaches to it The kick or bite of a horse, the attack of an ox, the scratch of a cat or, in fact any injury inflicted by animal 4a In thfi OA1TIA OUjr UUillVOUV AM JIM ...W ...... category, and is governed by the same rules. As, however, the dog, more than any other domestic animal, is restrained in his habits and closely attached to man, these rules are more likely to be applied in his case than in the case of other animals. For the same reason, the dog owner in most states is subjected to a special license. It applies to all dogs, without regard to value, and is imposed, not for purposes of revenue, but upon the theory that if any man thinks enough of his dog to pay a tax or license for him, he will care for him and properly feed and water him, so that the animal will not become vicious and a menace to the community. The theory of the law is often frankly, although brutally, stated In the reverse?that all homeless, ill-fed, and, therefore, dangerous dogs should for public safety be killed. Actual ownership and care are the universal rule. In most states, dogs found without a license tag, or a collar with the owner's name?as evidence of ownership and care?can legally be killed at sight. Such statutes, however, do not authorize a person to convert such a dog to his own use. Although, as was remarked by an Idaho Judge, "the dog is generally recognized as an essential part of every well-regulated family, of a higher degree of intelligence than other domestl9 animal, and, therefore, given privileges not accorded other animals," those privileges do not protect It in wror? doing, induced either by its own or Its master's viclousness or negligence. The trespassing dog is, like any other trespasser, responsi ble for its trespass ana 01 its actions, and the person upon whose land, or against whose person or property the trespass is directed, may resort to any means necessary to protect himsell to his property. As in the case of other trespasses, the owner of the land may use such violence as is necessary to protect or restrain, and In conformity with this rule, he may kill such trespassing animal if he has just reason to fear danger or damage. But he must be sure that the danger is real; he is not warranted, as a defendant in an Illinois court found to his sorrow, In killing a frightened dog that had run upon his premises, but had neither done nor attempted, at that time, any injury, even though he was suspected of having previously done injury upon the premises. Nor was another Illinois defendant excused because he thought that the dog he killed was a wolf. On the other hand, a man need not inquire into the value or ancestry ol a dog if in fact it is working himsell mischief. Evidence of the highest market value and of the politest pedigree are equally unavailing against positive evidence of harm. So an xuano court jusuneu a ranuner in aiuing certain hounds that chased his chickens and harried his hogs, although the owner of the dogs protested that because of their distinguished descent and careful training, it was absolutely foreign to their nature to hunt anything except wild animals. About the legal soundness of the historic verdict in the case of dog Tray, the authorities are divided. Thus, under a Kentucky statute, although any dog found worrying or injuring cattle, even outside their owner's enclosure, may be killed, it was held that a dog may not be killed merely because he was found In the company of other dogs that had been previously worrying cattle. Tet other courts have held that such vicious association exonerated the executioner. Mere proof that sheep have been worried by dogs is not admissible upon an action against the ownor of the sheep for killing a dog unless there is some evidence to connect the animal with the slaughter. Although to warrant redress, the damage indicted must be real and serious, a succession of petty annoyances by dogs may amount to such an aggregate as to constitute a nuisance, and be enjoined In an appropriate action. In a case where dogs barked continuously, night after night, a judge granted an injunction against the owner, remarking that to murder sleep was as reprehensible as any other offense, and as liable to punishment If a dog Is unlawfully killed, the measure of damage for such killing is the value of the dog, and that value is determined, not exclusively by the market value, but by the usefulness of the dog or the attachment between It and Its owner. Nor does the question of value determine the fact of property or ownership. Thus the law dennitely recognizes the sentiment that exists between the dog and its master. The newsboy's mongrel Is as carefully protected as is the most highly bred and trained animal. Although strictly punitive damages are not allowed, if the circumstances attending the killing reveal viclousness or wantonness, the circumstances may be shown, and may affect the amount of damages. Concerning the liability of the owner for injuries inflicted by dogs, a few general remarks can be made. If the dog is rightfully in the place where the injury was Inflicted, the owner will not be liable unless he had knowledge of the vicious propensity of the animal. In an action for any such Injury, the complainant need /vnlv tvwAva qiiaH IrnrvtulAitffA' Ha nAArl not prove negligence on the part of the owner?that will be presumed, so If the owner of a dog knows the animal to be dangerous, he is bound at his peril to keep it secure; if any one is injured by It, the owner will be liable for all the damages sustained. If, on the other hand, a person with knowledge of the evil propensities of a dog wantonly excites the animal, or voluntarily and unnecessarily puts himself in the way of attack, he will be adjudged to have brought the inJury upon himself, and will not be entitled to recover damages. Knowledge on the part of the owner may be established by what happens at the time of the injury complained of; it is not always necessary to prove prior cases of injury. If, however, it is shown that a dog has once bitten a person and the owner had notice thereof, the proof of knowledge will be complete. There are some exceptions, but the only safe course for the owner of a savage dog to take, is to restrain the i animal that it cannot Injure a person who Is rightfully going about his business. In estimating the damage from an Injury Inflicted by a dog, the fears concerning the future bad results, the 1 permanence of the Injury, and the degree of disfigurement are all proper matters for consideration. > .oreover, if the owner Is proved to have been negligent in allowing a dog to 1 run about unmuzxled, exemplary or 1 punitive damages may be awarded. Statutes have been enacted in different states that Impose additional 1 liability on the owner of vicious dogB, but the principles stated above can safely be followed. For an example of the exceptions, there is a Massa1 chusetts statute that provides for double the amount of damages sus1 talned under some circumstances. Under this statute, the keeper of a dog was held liable for double the 1 amount of damages sustained in con1 sequence of a sudden attack that made the plaintiff's horse unmanageable. So, also, under a similar Michigan 1 statute, the owner of a dog that as* saulted a person traveling the hlgh. way was held liable for double damages, because the dog attacked the man's horse, and caused it to kick him in the face and run away. Many states provide by statute that the proceeds of dog license shall be paid into a fund from which the town compensates persons injured by dogs. The statute particularly applies to injuries to sheep. Although the town is thus primarily liable, it recovers from the owner of the dog the dammm it is comDelled to Day. In many ' states, the owner of sheep thus Injured by a dogr can kill the dog if he ' knows its identity; and in other ' states the owner of sheep can recover double damages for *heir death or injury. In none of these cases need i the owner's knowledge of his dog's ' vicious habits be shown. The fact of i killing presupposes viclousness on the part of the dog, and knowledge on the ' part of the owner. And any person i knowing of such injury to sheep by : dogs may kili the offending animal. In some states, if injuries are ini dieted on sheep by more than one i dog, the liability of each owner is ' limited to the damage proved to have ' been inflicted by his dog. In most ! cases this provision would make it i impossible to maintain any action for damages. In other states, however, i a more just rule prevails, and any i owner of any of the dogs concerned Is liable for all damages. As has been said, all the principles ! here discussed have been modified in ' many states. The wise reader, if he : owns a dog, will remember that the > exceptions may be in his own state, : and in case of trouble, will consult a t lawyer.?Youth's Companion.