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YORKVILLE ENQUIRER. . ISSUED SEtfI'VEKKLT. 4 - - -- - - ^ 4 tjEiST'8 sons, Pabiiihon f & cjfainilp -flctrspapcrr <?or the promotion ojf th^ political, facial, Agricultural and U*cuiincrrial ^Interests of the people. J mholb copt, ht? cents. established 1855 YORK, 9. C. FRIDAY. SEPTEMBER 13^ 1918. IvTO. 74 NEWS FROM CAMP SEVIER Popular Officer of fbe Tblrtlefb Killed lo France. MAJOR PRESSLY NOW A COLONEL Fine Work That Is Being Done In the Way of Reclamation?Community House Is Popular and the Library Is Also Being Appreciated. Correspondence of The Yorkville Enquirer fuinp Sevii-r, fim-nvillf, Septi.-inlK-r I II.- Sinii- Friday more tiian J.tlOOj IruiijM have arrived at Camp Sevier, most of tln-m having been transferred lit-rc Irom Camp Jackson, Columbia. S?-v? ral t hottsand additional troops alexia cied here during tin- wt-t-k. Since organization of the new Twentieth division. which is to train here, was begun .several weeks ago. this camp has assumed an air oi new life and hustle, like unto the days when the Thirtieth division which trained here and which is now lighting in Flanders, was at its height. Since I he coming of the ISth arid 5'ith regiments ot infantry, the -JUtli Signal liattalion and other organizations forming the nucleus of the Twentieth, all cu>n|> activities have been on the inertase. The Hostess House is crowded each evening with many enlisted men and so are the vai ions "Y" halls, the t"amp Library and otliei places ol amusement and recreation throughout the great camp. Friends and aci|uaintaiices of Unvoting officer at i'amp Sevier, learned llll.S week ol the death ol 1st LleUt. 11o|m \V. .Massey, i'o. I, ll'Jth Infantry, :totli Division, who was killed on August ?j. while on jiatrol duty somewhere in France. Lieut. Massey s|>eiit I lie past winter at t'uinp Sevier with his regiment, the ll'Jth, and lie made friends among enlisted men over the camp and throughout the city of * 1,1 1 - ?<? ? !* ( itn itiif llll i nillM 11} i i'lkivil vi ..... ? personality and genial character. The young olllcer was a graduate of the lirst IrainuiK camp at Oglethorpe anil was immediutcly asslitncd to Camp Soviet ii|k>ii obtaining his commission. News of tin- death of l.icut. Massey was contained in a letli r front a brothel- oitieer to a friend in tliis city. "Masscy has gone west," tin- letter said, "lie got liis on August ti. while on |mlrol duty. He died us lie suid he wanted to die?his shoes on and at his post of duty." Aiinouiiceinent was made ut Camp Sevier this week of the appointment of Major K. \V. I'ressly, commanding oftii'er oi the i'anip Sevier Itase Hospital. to the rank of lieutenant colonel. Coining into the military service of his country last September without any previous military experience whatever, the rise of this officer h:is been rapid. Soon after he was commissioned a tirst _r~. lieutflitthe medical cprfli. .Ue gfa? , assigned to the base hospital at Camp Sevier. A few weeks later he was made a captain and unsigned to duty as chief of the medical service. About six weeks ago he was promoted to major, and later when Col. T. K. Scott, commanding officer of the great military hospital, was transferred clsew here, lie was assigned to command. Now comes his promotion to licutcn- , iLilt colonel. Col. I'ressly is a native South Carolinian and before he came into the army was engaged in the practice of medicine at Clover. S. C. Konr hundred ami forty-seven tents, representing a saving to the government of approximately li'O.UUO, were repaired by the Conservation and Keclaination division at Camp Sevier during the month of August. All this work was done by the twenty Cernuui prisoners who have been on this assignment. only one foreman being in charge of the detail of men. Of the tents rc|iaired, 3UU were pyramid tents, commonly known as "squad tents." the others being large and small wall tents. All of the canvas used in repair. was that reclaimed by the Con? nervation and Keclatnution division. Tents too dilapidated to be re|Ktired. were used in rc|iairing other tents. I'rivate Carey I'helan of Camp Se- , vier, one of the best known lightweight boxers in the country, has accepted , the |H>sition of boxing instructor at the | Knights of Columbus hall, and is eager and anxious to teach enlisted men of the camp all he knows about using his hands. Already quite a number of , men. anxious to know of the pugilistic art, have placed themselves under his , instruction. I'rivate Chelan conducts boxing classes at the K. C. hall every owning. Secretary \V. C. IVy. who has been engaged in "Y" work at Camp Sevier for several months pant. has been transferred to ShctHeld. Ala., where he will be similarly engaged. "Cop" IVy. , as he was familiarly known in camp. , was quite popular among the soldiers. ' who will regret to learn of his departure. While at Sevier. Secretary IVy. In addition to his other duties, was official "Y" conservation officer, and gave valuable assistance In the tight against waste which Is being made byall camp workers, both enlisted and civilian. "Community lj?ke." recently opened at Camp Sevier for the benefit and pleasure of the soldiers, under the direction of the War Camp Community service. Is proving extivmely popular. Every afternoon and evening scores of soldiers are to be found taking a plungs In the lake. Kuilt with that idea alone In view, the hip pond is Ideal for swimming purposes. It is open to soldiers at noon every day except Sunday, when they may swim as early as they please and as last as they like. No charge Is made to them for the pleasure. Sergeant. First Class. Ivan X. Sarvts. Conservation division. Camp Sevier. has recently been promoted to the rank of second lieutenant and assigned to duty at Camp Wadsworth. Spartanburg. as :isslstant to the Camp reclamation oflflcer there. Coming to Camp Sevier Inst fall from Seattle. Wash., with a motor truck company. K>""* Lieut. Sarvis Is one man who has worked himself Into a commission from the ranks. ' Bill" Laval. "Y" athletic director Camp Sevier, proposes to build up a strong football machine In the Twen- * tieth division during the coming fal' and winter. With the assistance ol Carlton Molesworth. former rnanaget of tie- I'.irmingham baseball clui? and now in "V" work at Sevier. T. M. Carring ton and other athletic directors he is already .scouting for football material and is <i>iite confident of tlndinu plenty of it. (lames will he arranged with Camps Wads worth. Jackson Cordon. Wheeler. llanciM'k and othei camiKt around. In fll probability work on lite soldiet laundry for Camp Sevier, which hat already been authorized, will be commenced in the near future. I'ower t( ojH-rate the laundry will he supplied by a special power house. The latin dry will cost about $1."0.000. Kver increasing in popular favot with soldiers here js the Camp Si-viei Iroe library. maintumeu umier im- uiivetion of the American Library association. The library consists of thousands of volumes, including the latest fiction, and scores of soldiers are to In, found in this library building each afternoon and evening. Novels, military works and other literature having a Is-aring on the situation over there, is the most popular reading matter with the daily visitors at the library. "Over the Top." "ITivate I'eat," "A Soldiet ol tin- Sky." and other similar works are always in demand. Jas. 1). Crist. NEW RULE FOR EXEMPTION. Most Cases Wdl Be Determined Or Basis of Formal Claims. Much broader grounds for the establishment of claims for exemption from military service are provided in new regulations now being worked out by the I'rovost Marshal (Jenerai Crowdct to govern the classification of men between the ages of eighteen and fortylive who registered on September 12. Important moditlcations are based upon the change of a few words in the original draft law in passing the new man-power act. The term "industrial occupation" ii eliminated, and the law now provide* IK-rsons ma. he given deferred classification when engaged "in occupation or employment, including agriculture, which can be established as necessary to the military establishment or tht maintenance of the national interest." Bankers May Escape. This section, ofticials pointed out today, with the regulations construing it, will dellnltely allow district exemption boards to exempt bankers and essential bank employes, men engaged in necessary commercial enterprises and necessary workers for Ked Cross and kindred organizations. The regulations will not attempt specially to detine the status of regulations who shall be entitled to exemption, but will allow the bourds to work out the details, ff tilt Blllhniilttrtfwt them. It was said that the regulations would straighten out completely a situation arising since district boards in various localities have ruled, under the old law, that railroads and banks art not industries, and that an importer of necessary war materials and Ills staff are not engaged in industry, Since the requirement that a man exempted because of his occupation must be of such importance as to threaten the continuance of the enterprise to which he is attached, has been retained, however, the sum total of exemption is not expected seriously to affect the new man-powtr which will finally be placed ill class one. District boards, in applying occupational exemption regulations, will have Ih?- assistance of three advisers, industrial, commercial and agricultural, who are now being nominated in every district. Minor Changes In Questionnaire. Only minor changes are incorporated in the revised questionnaire which the registrants of September 12 will be required to fill out. It strikes out the requirement that city police and tlreinen be in service three years before <vntitla,l fr> itofcrred classitlca lion, and allows than to be placed in I'lass 3 without regard to their length of service. It establishes also three new divisions in Class 5, exempting automatically persons discharged from military serv ice "upon ground of alienage or u|H)n diplomatic request." persons who are citizens of countries cohclligciVnt with the I'nited States who come under treaty arrangements entailing their service at home, and citizens of neutral countries who have withdrawn declarations of their intention to become citizensThe questionnaire still requires each registrant who desires exemption to make formal claim and present detailed facts substantiating it. The Drama of Holding On.?Place? Second tloor of a season hotel In the State of Vermont- Persons?Guest and a cham*?rmaid. Guest?I infer you are English, are you not? Maid?Yes. sir. Guest?How long have you been In this country? Maid?Eight years. Guest?From what place in England? Maid?Htrmlngham. Guest?Have your people any interest in the war? Maid?I have four brothers in the war?three killed und one still in the army. Guest?Did they leave families? Maid?Yes. sir. Guest?Not getting along very' well, I expect? Maid?Very' poorly, sir; but we don't complain. Guest?What will become of England if the men are all killed? Maid?The women will fight My dear old country can never be conquered. Some time there may .have beer made a more truly noble statement ol the patriotic than this, but the wher and where of It could not be easily found. And this from a simple-hearted English working girl! Nina Van ZAne Spies, who as a girl llgured In the Anarchist trials in connection with the Haymnrket riots ir Chicago in 1887, has been placed under arrest In connection with the boml explosion In the Federal building it that city last week, that cost foui lives. ! HAIL FOB THE SOLDIERS Incorrect Addrew Means Delay or Loss. ' HERE ARE FULL INSTRUCTIONS Every Individual Who Has Occasion to Write to the Soldiers At the Front Should Read This Article Carefully i and Lay It Away for Future Reference. > Washington. Septemiterc 7.?Captain I Frank K. Frazier. I*. S. A.. Assistant Dim-tor of the American Kxpeditionar> Forces I'ostal Service at Tours. France, has been sent to the I'nited " States on a mission relative to postal ' affairs, with authority to furnish in formation heretofore, for military reasons, withheld from the postal officials. He has furnished under seal of secre; ey. to the j?ostal officers a directory ' trivinu the location of troops in France and it record of those on the way. Or ch-rs haw been issred to send mail on i cvriv boat destined to dock at any 1 jxirt in France organized to receive 1 mail. This, and the adoption of a scheme of designation for groups of ' unattached men sent from the I'nited 1 States to replacement camps in Franc*,-, which is recommended by Captain Frazier, will, it is believed, go a long way toward expediting the delivery of letters to soldiers. The mail of more than 5ti,0UU of our i soldiers in France is delayed, and perhaps cannot be delivered at all. The reason for this is that letters for a i greater number than 50,000, in the aggregate, are improperly or inadequate ly addressed. Complaints covering these delays . are sufficient to give the public the impression that the soldiers* mail service is bad. la-cause improper addressI ing bi letters is wofully common. At times there are still delays to the mail after it reaches a fmrt in France. Some of these are unavoidable; others cun be avoided, and steps to that end have ' or are being taken. Usually Within Three Weeks. Only in exceptional cases does it take 1 more than three weeks for a properly - addressed letter to reach a soldier in France who is attached to an organ! ized unit of the army. Most of the mail reaches its destination in less time than that. Kxceptionul circunystanccs may delay a soldier's mail as , much as two or three months, or ho i may not get it at all. In the extreme I eases, where there are several soldiers . of the same name, it will ho because his letters aire improperly addressed. I There are no delays, or at most none greater than a few days, when the . soldier is located with the organized I forces anu tne icuer is property uu. dressed. , There are, of course, many duplica, J&Q# "f nflPTlff '"iJl1"* Expo i ditlonary Forces. The absence of any distinguishing designation for groups i of casual or replacement men has i been a source of difficulty in the d?. livery of mail. Thousands of soldiers . are l?eing sent to France every month , for replacement purposes. They come from various cantonments?like. Hum* . phrcys, Meade, la'wis and elsewhere? and are usually designated simply , "Camp Pike, August Automatic He* , placement Draft." or some similar designation. and part of that particular draft may he sent to one replacement camp in France and part to another. Mail now forwarded to these soldiers, who have been scattered among other organizations at the front?"floaters' mail"?goes to the central postoflice at Tours, and its destrihution there is still further hampered by being mixed up with the accumulation of misdirected mail, it is estimated that 300,000 letters a month were delayed from this cause. This delay in delivery will not occur under arrangements which have just been made to have each replacement unit of 250 men or less as it leaves camp in the I'nited States given a distinctive comjiany number, which it will retain until it reaches a replacement camp in France. Every member of such unit will then be one j of 25u men, intsead of one of 1.500,000 men. So the "John Jones" of the small unit will be easily located. Hut it still rests with the soldier to immediately oArrouunnilontu n? to hiw nor. rect address immediately upon his assignment to a definite unit in France. Whore the success of a troop movement on the front depends upon se- ; creoy, mail cannot be sent to members of a mobile force until they are established at the selected designation. The same is true when shipments of supplies. munitions, fresh meats, etc., are such as to make an extraordinary demand upon transportation facilities from the French ports. Such delays, however, are but for a few days at most. When a divisional postofflce is moved in connection with a hip troop movement.great secrecy must be pre1 served. Fnder these conditions a week's delay in the delivery of mall is possible. A wounded man may be sent from one hospital to another, and even to several, before reaching a permanent base hospital, and his mail will be delayed until he is at a hospital long enough for It to reach him. If he should be but slightly wounded, not being at the hospital long enough to 1 get his mail, and then shoukl be as1 signed to a new organization, there would be some further delay, but in none of these cases is the delay great. The hospital authorities are required t.? tho Pimtr-il no U'pl) as his company commander inimediate! ly on the arrival of the soldier there for treatment and mail is sent to him at once. There is no delay whatever in mail sent home by or for the ' wounded man. Delays On This Side. Only causes of delay have occurred i at the port of embarkation in this t country. One is the posting of the i letter just too late to make the transr port, when a week might pass before another sailing. The other is the limitation placed upon ocean transportation facilities and lack of information . as to the destination of the ships. Un. less the military port officer at the i American port of embarkation knows that an outgoing steamer is to land at > a French port orgr.nixed to handle the i mail it cannot be sent by this steamer: r she might be bound for a port where there is no American postoffice and no POST OFFICE TAKES OVER THE AIR I The New Vork-Phlludclphiu-Washington airplane mall route passed fori, department August 2, when the first plane left the new landing field near Wu officials uud an Interested crowd. The mail-carrying planes are encircled 1 Mall." < Here's the Way to Addres^Letters to American Soldiers at the Front. * A letter for an American soldier In Europe should be so addressed as to show his rank, his full name, including his middle name, his company or battery and his regiment as well as the branch of service. A letter to "John Walter Smith Jr.," a private in Company h of the 102d Regiment of Infantry, should be addressed us follows: the return address of the sender to appear in the upper left-hand corner of the envelope: , Return to Mrs John Walter Smith, , (Stamp) Street 4 Boston, Mass. Private JOHN WALTER SMITH, Jr.. Co. L?,-102d Infantry, * American E. F. . Via. N". Y. A letter so addressed should reach the soldier at the front promptly. - J ~ postal employes to handle the mall. W the engineer organizations there are lint a new war department order dl- tivcral dilTerent hattalions, eaeh havivcts that Information he furnished the ing company designations the same as military port officer. companies of otiter hattalions. For One of the puzzling things to the these organizations It is therefore necpuhlic hns been that of a letter of a uasary to give both designation of the later date being received before, one company and the number of the tuitmailed a week or more earlier. Ong t^llon. as well ns of the regiment. A explanation is that the postmaster at majority of the Improperly addressed the jKirt of embarkation ha% bejrn as- mail shows carelessness rather than a signed a definite limited space for lack of knowledge of the proper ndinail. and when the amount has ex- dfress. corded this the excess has had to be 'The war department now has under held over until N the next steamer, advisement a proposition to stop all InHereafter, upon notice in advance as completely addressed majl at New to the number of sacks to be handled*. York, returning it to the sender. the entire volume will he cleaned up ? ? ??'* at each sailing. . ? "Yankee?"?What are we I The posglble^e^y that jrould t* W&t <1? for American soldiers? unavoidable In the transportation of a W?k "Sown our British noses at him letter from New York to a divisional and say "Ha* d'ya daw?" postofllce at the front, might he 21 Perish the thought! We are going days?one day in distributing in New to give him the gladdest hand?the York, seven days on aeount of Just k'irls will see to the "glad" eye?that missing a boat, three days on account was ever outstretched. We are goof shortage of cars at the port of de- lug to say, "Shake Sammy!" barkation in France, seven days on ac- Hang our native reserve! We can't count of secret "troop movements, and kill the fatted calf because the food In case of severe fighting a holdup of controller won't let us. But we can trains of perhaps three days. But nor- give them a truer hospitality, u real, tnally it takes from two to three days heartfelt welcome into our most intito deliver a letter at the front after mate circles. its arrival at a French port. Every club in Britain ought to open Delay in the delivery in the United its doors to the men in American States of soldiers' letters is sometimes khaki; every home ought to take them due to the censorship: under excep- in and make them feel at home. *" * - T Win'* .... smi.. eaunnnoiIII 1 \f tional canes it nan neon as mucn as * ?*?. u? oum ww. .vo,?v/..o.?..v three weeks. on to the wide shoulders of the Y. *M. Complete Po.t.l Sy.tem. *' A- an(l sin,ilar organizations. The . , . American is a lover of home life. It A complete postal system corre- .. , . ., . ., . .. * . ? ....... means everything' to him. Let s make sponding to that In the United States . ... Britain a home in the real sense, is now in operation in France, with a ,, . ? . ... . _ A . . _. . _ . Some one has called this influx central postoftlce at Tours. ! ranee is , . . A .. ...i.i. u Americans The return of the Maydivided into three postal districts, each ? . * , . Mower." When the old Pilgrim fathin charge of an army officer, who was ... ... . .. , . , . . . . , , .. ers landed on Plymouth Bock the welformerlv a postal official; and these , . ..... . ,. . . , come they got was starvation and districts are under the supervision of , . .. ., ... . , . .... . cold and misery. Now, they are eomthe director at the central postoftlce at , , . , , m t. r* I T r? inK ,,ack in thoir millions, let us reTours. Lt. Col. T. D. Howe. I'erma- . ., ...... . ...... . verse it and prove to them that there s nent postofllces are established at nu- . . .. . ... . M something in the old proverb about morons points, and mobile postottices ..... ... . . l. . .u ? i i.u blood Iteing thicker than water. So? nre right nt the front and move with " _ . . . . .. ., . ?. Shake Sammy?Shake hard!?London a division to which they are attached. ... Tit- Hits They are frequently under fire. Each ' _ company or military establishment is _ ' . .... , Two years imprisonment for perreq uired to have a mall orderly, and ... ... , .... , , ? so"8 who seek fees from relatives of he is required to keep a record of of- . . ... , .... , , ?. ...... ,. eifad soldiers for collecting back pay fleers and men attached to his unit, . .. . . , . ... . .. . . . . , . ,. and allowances is proposed in a bill by and a so n record of changed address- T) , < *? ??k.. , , . Representative Treadwav of Massachues. \\ here a man is sick or wounded ,. . . . . , . , , . . , , , . . . .. setts, ordered favorably reported last and the orderly has not record of his ~ ... . . .. . .... _ . ....... , , Saturday by the house military cornwhereabouts. mail for him is endorsed , , . ,., .. , . mittee. Lawyers in Washington and "sick or "wounded, giving the date. . , , .. _ , elsewhere. Mr. Tread way told thecomThe letter then goes to the central . ... .. ^ , mittee. have begun a systematic search postoftlce at Tours, which is furnished . . .. , , ,, ... ... . . . , , ,1. .. , ? relatives of fallen soldiers, with a by the hospital with the names of all ........ . . . .. .... . . view to profiting by unnecessary serthose under treatment, identified by . . ... , . , , ... ... .. . . ' vice In connection with money due designation of the unit to which they . ,. . , _. . , - . 'r?m the government. belong. The central office Is Informed rtlort nf atmrr rnm/tfol nf o onl/UfiP fmm one hospital to another when In hos- ARMY PIGEONS GO pital Ion? enough to establish an address. The central postoffioe at Tours is a * clearing house for any mall that can- a f&yr* It is estimated that a million letters ^ a day arrive in France for the American Expeditionary Forces. Ware- I ty/fy ^E_55-? houses have been built at ports of de- | barkation for sorting bags of mail as | they are received. When boats arrive, * W full carloads of bags of through mail | made up in Chicago and New York, y nddressed to companies and batteries. | nre sent to destinations in France in B [ charge of a guard, who returns to the g F port in a ut three da>s. w " ^5 I Many thousands of letters are being gy ;.h constantly received which cannot be on account of the manner in which they are addressed. The initials "A. I C." may mean "Ambulance Corps." or "Administration Company." or "Avlatlon Clearance Office," while "A. C. C." means "Aero Construction Com- k&ftJBf pany." "A. R. "American Red struction Centre," Duplication of *& ,, j names of officers, as well as soldiers. |fc runs into hundreds and in some cases into thousanda The name of the sol- ^nfikMpMBHOMQfiS^IBPggi dier addressed should be written in trMjv. -j full, instead of using initials, and the branch of the service to which the soldier is attached should be written in Carrier pigeons of the British an full, with the designation of the com- V* valuable asset of the British a pany and regiment, or battery and reg- which was formerly a bus, loading 0] Iment, as well as that of the branch of firing line*. The casualties among m the service to which he belongs. There about 2 per cent. They are *?nn are machine gun companies and ma- '' * hawks. The birds are p ac n chine gun battalions, entirely different gassed they are cared for a a osp and separate organisation*. In some bird, which have been captared. - WAIL SERVICE .w A^^v~-jWgJ^ffp?M^nKm^^jr^^B>Bl nailly into ilit.* control of the post otlice shinttton In tlie presence of governmeiif ?y u hiitnl with the Inscription "U. S. HAIG SEES VICTORY. German Army Has Spent Its Great Effort. "We have passed throUKh many dark days. Please God these will never return," says Field Marshal HnlK. commander In chief of the British forces in France. In Hn order of Monday. The commander then says: "The enemy has now spent his effort." The text of the field marshal's order of the day read: "One month has now passed since the British army having successfully withstood all the attacks of the enemy, once more took the offensive In their torn. In that short spare of time by a series of brilliant and skilfully executed actions, we have repeatedly defeated the same German armies whose vastly superior numbers compelled our retreut last spring. What has happened to the British front has happened also on the front of our Allies. "Less than six months after the launching of the groat German offensive which was to have cut the Allied front In two the Allied armies everywhere today are advnnelng victoriously side by side over the same battlefield on which by the courage and steadfastness of their defense they broken the enemy's assault. "Yet more has been done. We have already pressed beyond our battery lines of 1917, and have mnde a wide breach In the enemy's strongest defense." "In this glorious accomplishment all ranks, arms and service of the British armies in France have borne their part in the most worthy and honorable manner. .. . v "The capturo of 76,000 prisoners and 750 guns in the course of four weeks fighting speaks for the magnitude of your efforts and the magnificence of your achievement." "Many thanks are due to all ranks cf the fighting forces for their indomitable spirit In defense of their boldness in attack, to all commanders and their staff officers under whose able direction such great results have been attained, and also to all those whose unsparing labors behind the actual fighting line have contributed essentially to the common cause. To havo commanded this splendid army which at a time of grave crisis has so nobly done its duty fills me with pride." "We have passed through many dark days together. 1'lease God these will never return- The enemy has now spent his<effort and we rely confidently upon one of you to turn to full advan . L _ 1,1,.I. ...... .1,111 Illge nil' llppuri mill > nuiLii jum onm, courage and resolution have created." Philadelphia's Jewish population aggregates 200,000, the thlnl largest in the country-. New York ranks first with 1.500,000. and Chicago Is second with 225.000. The Jewish population of the United States Is estimated at 3,300.000. These figures nre given in the American Jewish Year Hook for 5679 (1918-19), edited for the American Jewish committee by Dr. Samson Oppenhelm. Neutral correspondents, Dutch and Swiss, state that a recent British air raid on Coblenzth was the severest of 'the war, and the nervousness of the Rhinelanders is evidenced by the information that in Mannheim "the inhabitants hide even when German airplanes appear above." . ? . ?* Six German ships, Interned in Peruvian waters, are to be turned over to the United States for war service. The six shipe total more than 25,000 tons. IN6 TO THE FRONT rllMt\irf i' f /c.' '"r^mS/gk fl: .. *3 ny behave like disciplined eoldlers and rmy. Here la shown a motor-transport p with the pixeons to take them,to the essenyer birds of the British army are not only by enemy shell, bat by attackfas-proof baskets, bat should they be taL There Is also a prison for easoy * ' , ... TO MOBILIZE THE WOMEN More Tbao Two Million of Tben Will Be Needed. MANY HAVE ALREADY BEEN LISTED Country Will Await Their Patriotic Reeponee With Aeeuranca?They Wil Be Needed Not Only as Munit^pr Workers; But In Many Other Fleldi of Industry. The women of America will solve the labor situation that officials now admit is critical and which will be aggravated Just as soon as the extension of the draft ages begin making inroads into the industrial man power. Despite all the efforts that will be made to protect vital war industries, it is thoroughly understood here that there will have to bo a large replacement of men called to the colors, and following the statement by Bernard M. Baruch, Chairman of the War Industries Board, that ;he country has only begun to tue its woman power, plans for tapping tl.e huge reservoir are going forward with a rush. Conferences between the War Industries Board and the National Labor Policies Boa) d looking to the most effective means of mobilizing the women of the Nation behind the men at the front are already in progress. The plans havo not been rounded into final shape, but it Is oaid that an intensive drive to bring out the full woman power of the country will begin within a few we?ks. As a basis for its work th? Government has a list of not more than 3,373,000 women who, in response to a call by the Council of National Defense, registered^ themselves as willing to enter any work the Government finds them needed in. Nothing like all of these will be found available for the tasks that must be uttacked, but an estimate that 2,000,000 women may have to b'?- found before the middle of next summer to take their place In Industry is not disconcerting any officials here. Latest statistics available, show that of the 17,623,992 women in Kngland there are now employed, exclusive of Inmhuttl r servants, saleswomen, war nurses, etc., 4,538,000. or slightly more thun 25 p r cent- The women of the I'nited States, according to the 1910 census, numbering 45,299,761. The number employed was a little more than 3,647.000 or about 8 per cent. These figures show that to make the proportion of women employed here equal to the showing by the women of England it would be necessary for more than 8,000,000 American women to take up behind the lines the burden of war. It is estimated that 600,000 have already replaced men called for military service. '' principal- >iwbj liMLoroiBp'.tsking this is the United States Employment Service of the Department of Labor, which is already enlarging and improving its machinery. With 600 branches scattered throughout the country, particularly in large industrial centres, this organization, the original function of which was finding Jobs for immigrants, is flndlnj workers for jobs. In its work so far as the employment service has had the benefit of the machinery built up by the National League for Woman service, which even iiefore the United States entered the war sent investigators to France and England. It has also had at command the government surveys showing its essential and less essential industries. It has also had the active co-operation of labor unions in many places. The general plan followed so far, * ?L,-u ?.*it A uKf Iaoq fnpm tha hn. anu wmcn win u?uuuv? iv.u. .... ? sis of the big drive, is to recruit willing, but untrained women through women's organizations and to draft trained women from less essential work into the war plants. An illuminating instance of how it did the latter was recently when a gas mask factory established by the Government on Long Island rcqaired 1,000 otitchers. Agents of the Employment Service visited such plant^ as the collar factories of Troy and won recruits. In Manhattan factories where women had worked on women's fancy collars, baby cups and corsets more were located. Within a week the thousand needed were found and at work. The variety of industries in which women have already been found capable of replacing men is almost without limit. Thousands 1 ave taken their places in munition plants. But When the big cr.U for women workers came, other less romantic, but necessary industries will have to be supplied. They will be needed in pl.-nts not apparently directly connected with the war, but vital in oome way to the military forces of the civilian population. The railroad will need them. Tht Pennsylvania is already employing 2,500 in places formerly held by men and they are making good as cai cleaners, messengers, drawbridge tenders, crossing watchmen, parcel room aiienaauis, umci asvuu ->*u wu ? tion hands. In Ohio, women are replacing mer In glass factories. In Arkansas thoj are at work In lumber camps. On th? coast they have been placed in th< shipyards as painters and carpenters In hundreds of shops they are a 1 read; 'proving capable as machinists and lr various kinds of other metal work. Schools Fit Thsm For Workin many munition centers there an already maintained by factories "vestibule schools," aul it is through their | that trained women And their way U \ perminent work at the bench. Plant ! already made for increased use of wo i men contemplate the enlargement ci I these schools and the establishment o : mnrA. Such statistics as are available hen show that women already talcing th< place of lighting men are working ap ! proximately the same hours as th< i men and receiving equal pay for equa .work. As beginners tbey natural!] have not received as high compenaa tion as experienced men, but with ex perience some have even outstripped male shopmates. In almost all Indus tries, reports to the Department of La bor indicate, they have proved them selves efficient, and in some kinds 01 machinery work, notably the manufac'. ture of certain shell cases, have gener I ally proved more adept. | The principal call for women It 'manufacturing plants la for the great war plant belt stretching from Massachusetts to Maryland, in Michigan and Illinois and now the Southern States I are beginning to make calls Calls for women to take the places of men in stores are coming from all parts of the country. While the call to the munition plant is one readily understood by women, officials point out today that other : places of men must be token, and ' when the recruiting drive is on it will 1 be emphasized that man's place must 1 be taken in many other Industries. The government is sure of the reI sponse. RIGID TESTS FOR AVIATORS. 1 Physical and Mantal Fit nets Mutt Ba Perfect "More rigid physical tests have boon prescribed tor aviators of this country." writes the Washington corres|K>niient of the New York Medical Journal. "All men who have won their wings in the air service now ore required to pass a new heart lungs, ears and 1 eye test to establish their physical and mental titness when high in the air. and particularly to indicate at what heights they are in a condition to fly. Cadets receive a test before they finish their schooling; fliers are given the tests periodically to eliminate any whose physical or mental efficiency luts become impaired in any way. Special Apparatus Devisad. "The prescribed tests are the result of study and investigation by tlie medical research laboratory at Hazclhurst Field, Mineola, Long Island, whose staff has devised apparatus and determined upon a standard examination for classifying pilots. "To stay in the rarefied air at an elevation of 20,000 feet for any length of time has been found to be a strain even upon the most physically perfect. It also bus been discovered that many of the most seasoned fliers cannot undergo the sudden quick changes In altitude occasioned by diving and climbing without physical deterioration. It was recognized as too great u risk to subject these men in actual flying tests. Therefore the research laboratory at Hazelliurat Field undertook to devise some way of getting the same result by means of ground tests. "In the early teats the pilot was placed in a sealed airtight cylinder from which the air was gradually exhausted and then replaced to simulate a flight into the rurefled air of high altitudes and back to earth, but today the pilot sits .comfortably in the same room with his examiners. His nose is - ? > a X * U iciumpeu su no uinnui urcamu nuvufu ' it. Over his mouth is placed the | breathing apparatus, which is connected by tubes with a tank of measured air and with the instruments that record every breath lie takes. The air is analyzed at various stages of the run. As fast as he exhales, tho air is taker into ' aTWWfoff; * Airs'It' ca.r-* bon dioxide and then returns to the tank. Gradually he uses up the oxygen, and thus air conditions of high altitudes are duplicated. "The higher one goes up the rarer the air becomes; Just so with the man under test, for after a certain time he has consumed an amount of oxygen that leaves the remaining supply just equal to the oxygen available to a certain altitude. Watched "All the Way Up." "All tho way up so to speak, several specialists watch him; one his heart, pulse and blood pressure; one his eyes, the ethers his responses to signals and observations. Records of his pulse and blood pressure are made every other minute; the eyes are tested every three minutes. "The man under test is kept folrly busy,Just as he would bo piloting an airplane. Before him on a table Is a blank of small electric lights, one or another of which (lashes every five seconds. These he must extinguish as fast as he observes tbem and before they go out He has but & few seconds. Below the lamps is a correspondi"? ? >? nt liiittnnn which, with a pointer held In the right hand, extinguishes the respective lights. Two observers watch them constantly and check his errors or delayed actions. Sergeant Orson VV. Wilcox of Wellsboro, Tioga county, I'a., was Blabbed six times and killed and Sergeant Elmer O. Kawdon of Akron, O., was so seriously wounded that he is not expected to recover when they were attacked last Saturday by a band of young "apaches" (French thugs) in the old French city of Angers. The assailants of the two American soldiers were Marcel and Maurice Choisy, brothers, aged 16 and 18, respectively, and Francis Evano, 16 years old. The three "apaches" were arrested. Ac> cording to the police, Marcel Cholsy confessed he attacked Wilcox because Wilcox refused to give him tobacco. 1 He stabbed the sergeant repqgtedly, Severing the carotid artery, and then 1 turned on Rawdon. Sergeant Wilcox was buried with military honors. French civil and military authorities 1 attended the funeral services, and the ' mayor of the town, in an address at the cemetery, voiced the indignation of 1 the citizens. The sergeants were at' tached to a base hospital. Wilcox ! was formerly a champion boxer at 1 Pittsburgh university. Bawdon was a student at the University of Virginia. r . m * i The chief surgeon of the American expeditionary forces has Just completed arrangements for a hospital barge - in Iramiuirt American wound . ed with the least possible movement, i according to the Stars and Stripes, the > official newspaper of the American s army in France. Barges 120 feet long, . with a draft of one foot, will be used. t France's extensive canal system will f greatly facilitate the. work. The substitution of water transport for rall; way travel is expected to save many ) lives. It is estimated that 80 per cent . of all wounded are able to return to i the front within forty days: 00 per 1 ceni wno reacnea neia amuuuujces ref co\'er; 96 per cent recover who reach . casualty clearing stations, and 18 per . cent recover who reach baae hospitals. 1 Senator Henderson of Nevada, has . the distinction of being the first mem. ber of the United States senate to reg. Ister under the new draft law extendf tng age limits to men under 48. He . has filed with the Washington draft . authorities a registration certificate to be forwarded to his home at Elko, i Nev. He Is 46 years old.