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THE ANDERSON INTELLIGENCER,
IS ISSUED EVERY THURSDAY, AT ONE DOLLAR A YEAR, IN ADVANCE. 8?*" If delayed six months, $1.50; and $2.00 ut the end of the year. JTAMES A. IIOYX, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR. Advertisements inserted at moderate rates; liberal tkductions mado to those who will advertise by the Contention Bocumntts. ^Declaration of the Causes which Justify the Secession of South Carolinafrorn the Federal Union. -^The following report of the Committee, o? which Mr. Memmingcr was Chairman, was adopted by the Convention: The State of South Carolina having de? termined to resume her sepcrate and equal place among nations, deems it due to her? self, to the remaining United States of Ameriea, and to the nation of the world, thatshe should declare the causes which have led to this act. : In the year 1765, that portion of the British Empine embracing Great Britain, undertook to make laws for the govern? ment of that portion composed of the thir? teen American Colonies. A struggle for the right of self-government ensued,which resulted, on the 4th July. 1770. in a Dec? laration by the Colonies, "that they are. Und of right ought to be FREE AND IN? DEPENDENT STATES; and that, as free and independent States ; they have full power to levy war. conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce.and td do all other acts and things which in? dependent' States may of right do." They further solemnly declared that whenever any "form of goverment be? comes destructive of the ends for which it was established, it is the right of the pco to alter or abolish it, and to institute a, new government." Deeming the Govern? ment of Great Britian to have: become de? structive of these ends, they declared that tho Colonies ' are absolved from all allegi? ance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the ?State of Great Britain is and ought to be, totally dissolved." In pursuance of this Declaration of Inde? pendence, each of the thirteen States pro? ceeded to exercise its sepcrate sovereign? ty ; adopt for itself a Constitution, and appointed officers for the administration of government in all its departments? Legislative,Executive and Judicial. For purposes of defence, they united their arms and their counsels; and, in 1778. they entered into a League known as the Ar? ticles "of Confederation, whereby they agreed to entrust the administration of their external relations to a common agent, known as the Congress of the Uni? ted States, expressly declaring, in the first article, "that each State retains is sovcr igaty, freedom and independence, and ev? ery power, jurisdiction and right which is not, by this Confederation, expressly dcl egatcd to the United States in Congress assembled." Under this Confederation the War of the Revolution w:is carried on the; 3d of September, ITS.'!, the contest ended,awl a definitive treaty was signed by Great Britain,in which she acknowledged the in? dependence of the Colonies in the following terms-: "Article 1. His Britanic Majesty ac? knowledges the said United States, viz : [New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Ehode Island and Providence Plantations, <2onnecticut,New York,New Jersey,Penn? sylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia, to be FREE. SOVEREIGN AND INDEPENDENT STATES-; -that he treats with them as such; arid for himself, his heirs and suc? cessors, relinquishes all claims to the gov? ernment, property and territorial rights of the same, .and every part thereof." Thus wero established tho two great principles asserted by the Colonies, name? ly : the right of State to govern itself; and the right of a people to abolish a Gov? ernment when it becomes destructive of -the ends for which it was instituted. And .concurrent with the establishment of these principles, was the fact, that each Colony jjecame and was recognized by tho mother country as a FREE, SOVEREIGN AND INDEPENDENT STATE. In 1787, deputies were appointed by the j States to revise the Articles of Confeder? ation, and tho 17th September, 1787, these deputies recommended, for the adoption of the States, the Articles of Union, known as the Constitution of the United States. The parties to whom this Constitution was submitted were the several sovereign States; they were to agree or disagree, and when nine of them agreed, the com? pact was to take effect among those con (jBrrilig; and the General Government as cd with their authority. If only nine of the thirteen States had concurred, the other four would have re maincd as they then were?separate sov ereign States, independent of any of the provisions of the Constitution. In fact, two of the States did not accede to the Constitution until long after it had gone into operation among the other eleven; and during that interval, they each exer? cised the functions of an independent na? tion. By this Constitution.certain duties were charged on the several States, and the ex? ercise of certain of their powers restrained, which necessarily implied their continued existence as sovereign States. But, to re? move all doubt, an amendment, was ad? ded, which declared that the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respec? tively, or to the people. On. 23d May. 1788. South Carolina, by a Convention of her people, passed an Ordinance assenting ! to this Constitution, and afterwards alter- j ed her own Constitution, to conform her? self to tl o obligations she had under taken. . j Thus was established, by compact be tween the States.a Government, with de-; lined objects and powers, limited lo the express of the grant, and lo so much more only as was necessary to execute t he pow? er granted. This limitation left the whole rnmuining mass of power subject to the clause reserving it to the people, and ren? dered unnecessary any specification of re-,' served rights. We hold that the Govern? ment thus established is subject t? the two principles asserted in the Declaration of Independence; and we hold further, that the mode of its formation subjects it to a third fundamental principle, namely: the law of compact. We maintain that in every comoact between two or more par? ties the obligation mutual; that the failure of one of the contracting parlies toper form a material part ol the agroement en? tirely releases the other, and that where no arbiter is providod, each party is re? mitted to his own judgement to determine the fact offailuro, with all its consequen? ces. In the present case, the fact is estab? lished with certainty.* We assert thai r> of the States have deliberately refused for years past to fulfill their constitutional ob? ligations, and we refer to their own stat? utes for the proof. The Constitution of the United States, in its 4th Article, provides as follows: "No person held to service or labor in one State under the laws thereof escaping i into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation I herein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up. on ehsi n of the party t<> whom such service or labor may be This stipulation was so material lo the compact, that without it that compact would not have been made. The greater number of the contracting parlies held slaves, and the Slate of Virginia had pre? viously declared her estimate of its value by making it the condition of her cession of the territory which now composes the States North of the Ohio river. The same article of the Constitution stipulates also for rendition by the several States of fugitives from justice from the other States. The General Government, as the com? mon agent, passed laws to carry intoetieet these stipulations of the Slates. For many years these laws were executed. But an increasing hostility on the part of the Northern States to the institution of slavery has led to a disregard of their ob? ligations, and the laws of 1 lie General (iov crnmcnt have ceased to elect the objects of the Constitution. The Stales ol"-Alaine. New Hampshire, Vermont,Massachusetts. Connecticut. Rhode Island. New York. Pennsylvania. Illinois, Indiana. Ohio. Mich? igan. Wisconsin, and Iowa, have enacted laws which either nullify the Acts of Con? gress, or render useless any attempt to execute them. In many of these States the fugitive is discharged from the service or labor claimed, and in none of them has the State Government complied with the stipulation made in the Constitution. The State of New Jersey, at an early day, passed a law for the rendition ol' fugi? tive slaves, in conformity with her constitutional undertaking; but the current of anti-slavery feeling has led her more recently to enact laws which render inoperative the remedies provided by her own law, and by the laws of Congress. Jn the State of New York, even the right of transit for a slave has been denied by licr tribunals ; and the Slates of Ohio and Iowa have refused to surrender to justice fugitives charged with murder, and with inciting servile insurrection in the State of Virginia. Thus the constitutional com? pact has been deliberately broken and dis duc." regarded by the non-slavcholding States, .and the consequence follows that South Carolina is released from its obligation. The ends for which this Constitution was framed are declared by itself to be "to form a more perfect Union, establish jus? tice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence,jn-omote the gen? cral welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity." These ends is endeavored to accomplish by a Federal Government, in which each State was recognized as an equal, and had sepcrate control over its own institutions. The right of property in slaves was rec? ognized by giving to free persons distinct political rights, by giving them the right to represent, and burtbening them with direct taxes for three-fifths of their slaves; by authorizing the importation of slaves for twenty years; and by stipulating for the rendition of fugitives from la? bor. We affirm that these ends for which this Government was instituted, have been defeated, and the Government itself has been made destructive of them by the ac? tion of the non-slavcholding States. Those Stales have assumed the right of deciding upon the propriety of our domestic insti? tutions; and have denied the rights of property established in fifteen of the States and recognized by t he Constitution; they have denounced as sinful the institu tion of slavery ; they have permitted the J open establishment among them of 'socie? ties, whose avowed object is to disturb the peace and to cloign the property of the citizens of other States. They have en- j couraged and assisted thousands of our slaves to leave their homes; and those who remain, have been incited by emissa? ries, books, and pictures to servile insur? rection. For twenty-five years this agitation has been steadily increasing, until it has now secured to its aid the power of the com? mon Government. Observing the forms of the Constitution, a sectional party has found within that article establishing the Executive Department, the means of sub? verting the Constitution itself. A geo? graphical line has been drawn across the Union, and sill the States North of that line have united in the election of a man to the high office of President of the United States, whose opinions and purposes tire hostile to slavery. He is to be entrusted with the administration of the common Government, because he has declared that that "Government, can? not endure permanently, half slave, half free," and that the public mind must rest in the belief that slavery is in the course of ultimate extinction. This sectional combination for the sub? version of the Constitution, has been aid? ed in some of the States, by elevating to citizenship, persons who. by the supreme law of (lie land, are incapable of becoming citizens ; and tle ir votes have been used to inaugurate a new policy, hostile to the South, and destructive of its peace and safely. On the 4th March next, this party will take possession of the Government. Tt. has announced that lite South shall be ex? cluded from (lie common Territory; that the judicial tribunals shall be made sec? tional, ami that a war must be waged against slavery until it shall cease through? out the United States. The guarantees of the Constitution will then no longer exist; the equal rights of the Slates will be lost. The slaveholding Sttttes will no longer have the power of self-government, or self-protection, and the Federal Government will have become their enemy. Sectional interest and animosity will deepen the irritation, and till hope of rem-1 edy is rendered vain, by the fact that public opinion at the North has invested a great political error with the sanc? tions of a more erroneous religious be? lief. We, therefore, the people of South Car? olina by our delegates, in Convention as? sembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge ?of the world for the rectitude of our in? tentions, have solemnly declared that the Union heretofore existing between this Stale and the other States of North Amer? ica, is dissolved, and that the Slate of South Carolina has resumed her position among the nations of the world, as a free, sovereign, and independent State; with full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which independent Slates may of right do. And, for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of j Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to ! each other our lives, our fortunes, and our" ! sacred honor. -* ; JG?g"- A young lady shouldn't be unhap ? py because she isn't quite as tall as she j would like to be. Tt is ai very easy thing j to gel:: spliced/'" ATTEMPTED REINFORCEMENT OF FORT SmiTER. ~\Yc copy the following particular of the late abortive attempt to reinforce the gar? rison at Fort Sumter.from the Charleston Mercury of Thursday last: The first gun of the new .struggle for independence (if struggle there is to be) has been tired, and Federal power has re? ceived its first repulse. About 7 o'clock yesterday morning, our citizens were started by the firing of heavy guns in the direction of Sullivan and Mor? ris Islands. It was at once surmised that the steamship Star of the West, which had been reported by the special tele grahic correspondents of the Mercury as having left New York with reinforcements and stores for Major Anderson, had at? tempted to pass the battery on Morris Island. Our reporters were immediately despatched to the entrance of the harbor, and after visiting all the fortifications now occupied by our troops, the following facts were elicited: PARTICULARS OF THE AFFAIR. Yesterday morning, shortly after re? veille," die sentries on Morris' Island re? ported a steamship standing in for the ship channel. The long roll was imme? diately beat, and all the troops were promptly under arms. Lieutenant-Colonel j. Ia- Branch, of the Pcgimcnt of Rifles commanding. These comprised the Vigi? lant Hilles. Capt. Tupper(90 men ); the German Pillemen. ('apt. Small (!)U men); the Zouave Cadets. Lieut. Chichcster (4"> men); aid a detachment of 40 from the Citadel Cadet Corps. The last named body were at once marched to the batte? ry, commanding the ship channel, which, at this point, passes within from one half to three quarters of a mile of the beach. At 7 o'clock, when the Star of tin' West had reached a point within range of the guns, Major Stevens fired a shot across her bows, as a signal for her to heave to. After waiting three or four minutes no diminution in the speed or change in the eourse of the steamer could be noticed. A moment after, the United States (lag was run up at her foremast. The Star of the West continuing thus defiantly to pursue her course towards Fort Slimier, the or? der was given to the men at the Morris Island guns to open lire. Five rounds were accordingly discharged in quick suc? cession. Two of these are reported to have taken effect; one forward and the other abaft the wheel. At the sixth dis? charge the Star of the Wed rounded to and steered outwart towards the bar. At the same time, the ensign which she dis? played in mediately after the warning gun. was lowered. Three more shots were fired from Fort Morris and three from Fort Moultrie; one of these latter, it is thought, took effect. A gentleman on the Island reports that after the Star of the West bad cleared the bar and proceeded a considerable distance beyond, a steam propeller, of about S50 tons burthen, joined her. apparently as a tender, and the}' .steamed oil' together in an F. N. E. direction. Thus terminated the first attempt of the Federal Government to reinforce the great stronghold of coercion in our har? bor. The approach of the Star if the. West to Fort Sumter, taken in connection with the facts that her clearance iras for AV? Orleans, and that her troops were smuggled aboard outside of the harbor of New York, proves clearly enough that the President bus ehocsen the coercive policy, and that his oflicials will not hesitate to promote its success. THE NEGOTIATION'S. About ten o'clock, a boat bearing a white flag came from Fort Sumter to? wards the city. On its arrival at the wharf it was found to contain Lieut. Hall, of the garrison of Fort Sumter, with de? spatches for the Governor of the State. The presence of this officer in the city, owing to the events of the morning, gave rise to considerable excitement, and spec? ulation was rife as to the? object of his vis? it. During Ids interview with the Gov? ernor the public curiosity rose to the high? est pitch, but it was two o'clock before the purport of his commutation was made public. When the people learned that Major Anderson had sent to inquire wheth? er firing at Moms' Island was sanctioned by the Governor, that the Governor had replied in the niSmntivc, and that Major Anderson had thereupon signified his in? tention oi' cutting off all communication by water between the city and our forts, tho expressions of indignation were deep and universal. The most active meas? ures were immediately set on foot to strengthen the forcc$aft the various points about the harbor, and people were every? where discussing how the threatened af? front and injury should be resented. On i his return Lieut. Hall Avas escorted to ! his boat by General Subcr and Lieutenant j Gibbes. Thus matters stood until half-post 6 o'clock, when the white flag was again seen coming from Fort Sumtcr. This time the communication of Major Ander? son, brought by Lieut. Talbot, was of a less menacing character. It briefly stated that he designed deferring for the present the course indicated in his note of the morning, until the arrival from Washing? ton of the instructions he might receive from his Government, and asked safe con duet for his bearer of despatches. -HJ? Eccentricity of Genius.?Some ten years ago there lived on the St. Charles road, nine or ten miles from St. Louis, a family by the name of Stringer. The old? est son. Jacob, or Jake Stringer, as he was called; was a most eccentric genius, and took every occasion to show his odd ness. One day, while sitting before the fire, whittling a shingle, his mother said to him: "Jake, I want you to- go down to the store, (about half a mile distant.) and get a quarter's worth cf tea, and a duartcr's worth of sugar and a quar? ter's worth of soap. Now, mind what [ tell yob, Jake, and be quick about it." Jake roused himself4 up, brushed the whittlings from bis lap. and started forth on his errand." clothed in his fustian breeches, and vest of the same material, and a thick woollen shirt, without any coat. He did not return that day, and his mother waited long and anxiously for her tea, sugar, and soap, but in vain. Ten years passed by; and no tidings were heard of the errand boy. As the family were sitting down at their Thanksgiving dinner, the door opened, and in came a tall, moustached, good looking mar)j with some bundles in his band. It was Jake Stringer. All of the family sprung to their feet in astonish? ment, but the mother and Juke were per? fectly cool. - Mother." said Jake." here's your tea. sugar, and soap." "Lay them down on the table, and cat your dinner," said Mrs. Stringer. " You ought to be whipped, Jake, for being gone so long." A Graceful Compliment to a Wife. ?The-following neat and beautiful reply was made by the late Daniel O'ConncM, in reponse to a toast given in compli? ment to his wife, who was the object of bis long and aftectionato attachment.? It was given at a political meeting. The Fiiiglish language could not furnish any? thing more touchingly tender and gracc ' ful: " There aro some-topics of so sacred and sweet a nature that they may be comprehended by those who are happy, but they cannot be possibly described b}* any human being. All that I shall do is to thank you in the name of her who was the disinterested choice of my early youth; who was the ever-cheerful com? panion of my manly years'; and who is the sweetest solace of that - sear and yel? low leaf age at which I have arrived. In her name I thank you; and. this you may readily believe, for* experience, J think, will show to us nil* that man cannot battle and struggle with the malignant enemies of his country, unless his nest at home is warm and comfortable?unless the honey of human life is commended by a band that he loves." True Life.?The mere lapse of years is not- life. To eat" and drink and sleep; to be exposed to darkness and to light; to pace around the mill of habit, and turn the wheel of wealth; to make reason pur book-keeper, and turn thought into im? plements of trade?this is not life. In all this, but a poor fraction of the conscious? ness of' humanity is awakened, and the sanctities still slumber which make'it most worth while to be. True love, knowledge, beauty, goodness and faith alone can give vitality to the mechanism of existence. The laugh of mirth, which vibrates through the tears which freshen the dry wastes within; the music that brings childhood back; the prayer that calls us near; tho doubt which makes us meditate; the death which startles us with mystery; the hardship that forces to struggle; the anxiety that ends in trust?these are the true nourishments of our natural being. --* A Happy Fireside.?Home is the resi? dence, not merely of the'body, but of the heart; it is a place for the affections to unfold and developo themselves; for chil? dren to love, and learn, and play in ; for husband and wife to toil smilingly togeth? er, and make life a blessing. The object of all ambition should be to be happy at home; if we are not happy there, we can? not be happy elsewhere. It is the be*t proof of the virtues of a family circle to see a happy fireside. -4? Men of wit are rarely the captives of beautiful fools. One often meets dead men in their walks?ghosts of their former selves. Willis ox Southern Society.?In a recent leading article for the Home Jour? nal. "Willis thus laments over the "es? trangement of the South " : Politics, trade and sectional differences quite out of the question (and "News" knows these branches of the question aro sufficiently discussed in the other papers.) we are Sustaining a great social loss in the estrangement of the South. In all the larger and more refined circles of our American society?at Saratoga and New? port, in our gayeties of the cities, and on our routes of fashionable travel and resort ?the Southerners are unquestionably the class most sought and admired as " the nicest people." It would be hard to find a cultivated " society man." probably, anywhere at the North, who does not number many of his most valued frienda and pleasantest acquaintances in this class. Explain it by what social alchemy you please, too, the infusion of the South? ern amalgam in any alembic of politeness at the North, exceedingly improves tho metal?partly, no doubt, from the correc? tive given by the South to the more angu? lar angular and calculating qualities of the North. The American travellers who shine most at foreign courts and in for? eign society, arc from the South. They arc. in fact, our country's natural patri- * ciahs. And?abused though they are, an a distance, by some of tho Northern newspapers as an offensive' "oligarchy" ?the tribute of preference and admira lion is paid to them, by theso very Northerners, at this very time, whenever they eomepersonhlly in contact. And so, with all the " momentous issues" of seces? sion left to more gregarious discussion, may we''not fairly own. that, individually Northern men arc regretting exceedingly the social estrangement of the South ? - ?aT Beautiful things are suggestive of a purer and higher lite, and fills us with a mingled love and fear. They have a gra ciousness that wins us, and an excellence to which we Involuntarily do reverence. If* you aro poor, 3-et pure and modestly aspiring, keep a vase of flowers on your table, and they will help' to maintain your dignity, and secure for you consid? eration and delicacy of behaviour. It was Goethe, who said this beautiful thing : !,The longer I live, the more cer? tain I am that tho great difference between men, the great and Insignificant, is ener? gy?invincible determination?an honest purpose once fixed, and then victory.? That quality will do anything that can be done in the world, and no circumstance, no opportunity, will make a two-legged creature a man without it." Time wears slippers of list, and his tread is noiseless. The days come softly dawning, one after another; they creep in at the windows; their fresh morning air h gratcfiil'to the Hp's that part for it; their music is sweet to the ears that lis? ten to it; until, before wc know it, a whole life of'days has possession of tho citadel, and Time has taken us for its If wc work upon marble, it will perish; if we work on brass, time will efface it; if we rear temples, they will crumble into dust; if we work upon immortal minds? if we imbue them with high principles, with just fear of God and of their fellow men, we engrave on these tablets some? thing which no lime can efface, but which will brighten to all eternity.?Daniel Wehster. The hfost beautiful may be the most ad? mired and caressed, but they are not al? ways the most esteemed and loved. We discover great beauty in those who are not beautiful.if they possess genuine truth? fulness, simplicity, and sincerity. No de? formity is present where vanity and affec? tation are absent. The old man's secret.?An aged cler? gyman, who had not known one day's illness, was asked his secrefcjtMDry feet and early rising," was histtfcplyj these are my only two precautions.^' -.--+-,-a? fey An exchange advertises for com? positors ': who won't get drunk," and adds that " the editor does all the getting drunk necessary to support the dignity of the establishment!" Use tho best language in your common conversation at home, and you will soon acquire the habit of using it on all occa? sions. 'Why is a thief in a garret like an hon? est man! Because he is above doing wrong. Society, like the shaded silk, must be viewed in all situations, or its colors will deceive you. EST Reflection is a flower of the mind, giving out wholesome fragrance a?* The Lady who fell back on her dignity came near breaking it.