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The Anderson intelligencer. (Anderson Court House, S.C.) 1860-1914, February 01, 1866, Image 1

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Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84026965/1866-02-01/ed-1/seq-1/

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Tlie Intelligencer
at'theee dollars pee ahhum,
Advertisements inserted at the rates of One Dol?
lar per square of tVrelve lines for the first insertion I
and Fifty Cents for each subsequent insertion.
"Obituaries and Marriage Notices charged for at J
these rates.
trhe TT. S. Senate in the Days of I
the Giants.
A. correspondent of the Times and TVii
mess, of Chicago, who witnessed the
^United States Senate "in itto daj-s of the
\xia?ts," furnishes from Washington the
following graphic picture of " Auld lang |
Sync" in that city:
Gibbon relates the celebrated story of J
the Seven Sleepers." During the persecu?
tion at Epheus, seven noble youths 'con-j
sealed themselves in a cave. They im-j
mediately, so goes the legend, fell into a
deep sleep, which was miraculously pro
3onged for one hundred and eighty-seven
years. On awaking they entered the
?city, b*fc found, everywhere, Christians
?so degenerated, churches so conformed
to th? world, all, in short, so changed,
that they- burst into tears and earnestly
prayed to God -they might return to their
slumbers again. Such are my feelings as,
1 eit hero and look upon this body and
listen to s their debates, with the light of]
other days around me. Only a few years
ago I occupiod this very seat, and heard
with pleasure, the great men of the land
deliberating for the general weal of the
whole nation. 2vT ow, how many seats are
vacant; and the discussions are about the
late war, the treatment of rebellion, and
(th* reconstruction of a shattered Union;
topics, the very sound of which might
cause the founders of this great Republic
to torn in their coffins.
.Among the many sad reflections, there
is one which especially depresses my
hcartf as. I look down on this conclave of j
grave, venerable and patriotic Senators.
It is, that there survives not a single one
of thtse statesmen whose voices used to
be heard throughout the entire country.
Once it -was a great privilego to paes a
morning hero, when " there were giants
in the lano." Yonder roposod, in silent
grandeur, the massy form of Mr. Weostcr,
To his right taking snuff and conversing:
pleasantly with his neighbors, was the
light, graceful person of Mr. Clay ; while
iartothe Hft, cark, sombre, with keen,
flashing eyes, was that incarnation of j
dignity and severe logic, Mr. Callioun,
looking like a cast-iron man. When
either of these men was to speak, the
ohambor was crowded early in the day,
. and everybody studied their speeches.
And in reason; for in genius and true
preliminary eloqnence, they were men ot
pre-eminent. greatness differing intellec?
tually and morally, very much as they
did in theirpersonal appearance.
So remarkablo were the head and figure?|
of tho-Mas9ach?setts Senator that, when
he was in London, the porters and day
laborers in the street used to cease from
their work to gaze at him; and here each
dayj- aa he entered the Senate, all eyes
were-converged towards "the man," and
the whisper was heard on all sides in the
galiftties, .^That is he." Everything in
his presence was imperial. For myself,
, I never looked upon that brow, that ma?
jestic aspect, those " Atlantcan shoulders,
fit to bear the weight of mighty mon?
archies," that face, on which deliberation
sat, and public care," without a some?
thing, I Jknow not what, of awe and rev?
erence which I could not shako off, oven
i?i familiar conversation with him. As a
?writer, his siyle is the very best in our
language; rot so elaborated as Dr. Char
ning's, but easier, more flowing and trans?
parent. Mrs. Fanny Kemblo told me
that her fatier, a man of exquisite taste,
uned often to say to her, " Come let jis I
road Webster; his style docs me good." j
In many passages, especially in his argu?
ment on the trial of the Knapps and in
his reply tc Gen. Haync, that was true of
him which was said of Luther: "His
words are half battles." But be was a
tame, poncerous speaker. In the perora?
tion of his speech on Foot's resolutions,
he.glowci as with etherial fires, but gen?
erally he was dull, heavy, phlegmatic. Ho
was a perfect master of language. Most
public speakers would find words exceed?
ingly unmanageable things. At bis com?
mand the best, fittest phrases came and
fell "into perfect phalanx." His logic
was poriect, also, demolishing every thing
like error, " hammering away," " smash?
ing everything in his path," (to use the
pithy vords of our two great Generals,)
bat it was not "logic on fire;" and his
options will always receive wore admira?
tion when read than they did when de?
livered. His address at the completion
of Banker Hill Monument is itself a monu?
ment of classical taste, of profound
thought, or elevated atatesrnanship, which
will outlast the solid granite. Yet Mr.
Choato, who was on the platform with
him, tells us that ho never. suffered so
much in his life, the delivery was such a
j failure.
I Much has been said as to the morality
of Mr. Wehster, but de vwiiuis nihil ntii
bonum. Of one trait in his character I
can testify. I mean his great reverence
for the Bible. When I first came to this
city, I found that buying male slaves and
sending them South was a regular busi?
ness, and I was so shocked that I went
to Washington to see if anything could
be'done to stop so nefarious a traffic. In
conversing with him on the subject of
slavery, I found that he was most anxious
that some measure should be inaugurated
for its gradual abolition. Ho confessed,
however, that he could not see any reme?
dy, and thought it a vulnus immedecabile.
But whenever I quoted a passage from
the .Word of God, ho always received it
as the truth to which all should yield en?
tire obedience.
In this reverent -submission to the sa?
cred Oracles, I grieve to say Mr. Calhoun
was aa inferior to Mr. Webster as he was"
superior him in the unimpeachable purity
of his moral character. I knew him well,
both in Washington and at Fort Hill, his
residenco in South Carolina, and I'never
knew a man more upright, conscientious
and virtuous. Ho was, too, a somewhat
regular attendant of the Episcopal Church
in Pendleton, though never a communi?
cant in any church. But his intellectual
pride and independence made him intol?
erant of any authority higher than his
own reason. He professed to believe in
the inspiration of the - scriptures, but for?
getting that important part of knowledge
which informs us of the limitation of the
human understanding?jealous of faith,
lest it should be credulity?accustomed
to inquire as to . every doctrine, not
whether it was conformable to God's will
but to his own; loving truth, yet loving
system more than that truth; satisfying
himself that he had established his point
if he could show the objections to any
one position, without considering those of
all others, in short never suspecting his
own judgment, always confident in his
own decisions, and therefore resolved that
no argument could bo adduced which
might change his opinions, ho knew noth?
ing of that humble, teachable spirit which
is the great element in Christian faith.
He sincere!}' regarded slavery as a divine
and beneficent institution. " The negro
and the white man," he said to me, " are
both elevated by it,"
HI quoted a text which oxprcsscd his
views he would give it hearty assent and
dwell upon its certainty. But if it con?
demned his cherished convictions ho as
promptly questioned it. I was with him
during his last illness, and upon one occa?
sion, when I cited that command, " Honor
all mon," he turned quickly to mo and
said, " What, honor all men ? Never, im?
possible, God never said that. God can?
not require me to honor the man in the
White House, nor the unprincipled poli?
ticians, the selfish demagogues now in
both Houses of Congress who are bring?
ing ruin on tho country."
Of his power of conversation a great
many have spoken; but in fact he never
conversed; he harangued as earnestly
when alone with you as when in the Leg?
islative halls. Ho loved the society of
young men, and won their hearts by the
courtesy and condescension with which
he listened to them. It was, however,
only that politeness which was a striking
trait in his character. If ho paused to
listen, it was but the interval between tho
flashes of lightning, which soon blazes out
again, smiting and shivering all opposition.
As an orator ho was a perfect contrast
to Mr. Webster. It is well known to his
friends that ho proposed Demosthenes as
his model, and studied closely those Gre?
cian master-pieces to which all who know
what eloquence mouns, how it is as high
above rhetoric as tho heavens are above
the earth, will ever look up in admiration
and rapture. If, in his well known remark
about "Action" as the essential ingredi
ont in speaking, Demosthenes meant
graceful gesticulations, the South Caroli?
nian was utterly defective. Thero was
something stiff, angular, awkward in his
manner. But nobody, unless it bo a
teacher of rhetoric, can ever thus degrade
those words of deep and noblo wisdom.
No, again, no. It was not by thepucrilo
tricks and starts of an accomplished de
claimer that tho Athenian
"Wielded tho fierce democracy,
Shook th? arsenal, and fulmined ovor Greece,
To Macedon aud Artaxerxes's throne."
By "Action" he meant Delivery, ear
nest, impassioned Delivery, in which the
whole soul is fused into every utterance,
and which can no moro live arid glow
with anything artificial than fire and
straw can dwell together in a heated
ovfcn. Who can listen to a moro finished
rhetorician than Mr. Everett ? His face
and person were pleasing. Every move?
ment had been practiced. His beautiful
passages filled the mind with admiration
and delight. But whoever felt hi? heart
burn within him; who was ever conscious
of that "something immense and infiV
ite" of which Quintilllan speaks; who
ever felt himself transported, melted to
tears, fired to enthusiasm, while listening
to his elaborate compositions? In straight
forward, close-linked argument, in a no?
ble contempt for all trappings and deco?
rations, in condensation, in a vocabulary
terse and emphatic, in energy, vehe?
mence, passion, Mr. Calhoun closely re?
sembled his iilustrions model; while in
all tho moral qualifications of a great or?
ator he rose immeasurably above him.
For even his euemies confessed that he
possessed a courage which no opposition
could shako, and an integrity that no
temptation could corrupt.
In mental greatness, in learning, deep
thought, and all the attributes of the
highest order of genius, Mr. Clay was
inferior to his two great contemporaries.
But in the physical combinations, and all
the natural furniture of a soul-stirring
orator, he far surpassed them both.
His mouth, that most expressive fea?
ture, was an organ created by God for
the pronunciation of largo and hcroical
thoughts. Then, what clear, blue eyes,
now calm in their azure depths, then
laughing in genial mirth, and then, when
he was thoroughly roused up, sparkling,
almost blazing. In his wholo counte?
nance what play of all generous feelings;
the 60ul of honor, friendship, chivalry,
breathing in his face. Above all, that
magnificent voice, at one moment soft
as the breeze, presently swelling until it
beat the vaulted roof, and rebcrberating
far beyond the walls of tho chamber,
away into the adjoining rooms and re?
cesses. Rufus Choate had no superior at
home, but going to Washington as a Uni?
ted States Senator, he, on one occasion
drew upou himself a single broadside
from the Kentucky orator, and it so
frightened him that he was afterward al?
most silent, crest-fallen, and (to employ
his own favorite phrase) "utterly flabber?
gasted." Everybody remembers Mr. Clay's
duel with Mr. Randolph. On his last
journey North, in an almost dying con-'
dition, tho Virginian was carried into the
Senate Chamber. Mr. Clay was speak?
ing. "Stop," 6aid the sick man to those
who bore him. "Stop, lot me hear that
voice. I camo here to hear that voice
once more before I die." The grace and
boauty of Mr. Clay's elocution were con?
summate; his whole being informed with
his subject, and instinct with the love of
truth. And his warm gushing sympa?
thies seldom failed to draw you to him,
and bear you along with him, causingyou
to feel that "one touch of nature makes
the whole world kin." The last time I
heard him was at a meeting of the Colo?
nization Society. As ho reclined in tho
chair, he seemed to be an old mail "bro?
ken with the storms of State." But
when he rose and spoke, thcro were no
traces of years upon him. All felt that
his soul was still erect and young, and
that, as an orator, his eye was not
dimmed, nor the force and vehemence of
his strength abated.
I had intended to say something of his
death ; but this communication is already
too extended. His father was a Baptist
minister, and the son never forgot " the
faithful sayings" which ho learned from
that lather. And though ho betrayed
sad infirmity as to religion, saying to Dr.
Curtis, in Charleston, that "a public man
ought to join no church, if he wished to
be popular," (a sentiment, by tho way.
on which thousands act without tho can-.
I dor to confess it,) and after he had iden?
tified himself with a church, frequenting
the theatre ; 3-ct he lingered long under
tho salutary discipline of a sick room, his
last pillow was wetted with penitential
tears, and, of the three groat compeers,
ho alone departed confessing himself a
sinner, and reposing all his confidence up?
on tho blood and righteousness of the
I sit here and look at tho places which
oncq knew these three men, but now
know them no moro, and I 6ajr, 0, that
they were with us yet! Whatever their
orrors once, we'ro they now living, I be?
lieve that in this crisis of our country's
history, their counsels would be those of
moderation, wisdom and patriotism.
Whatever their differences in other days,
had they been spared, I am confident
that, after the terrible lessons of tho last
four years, they would have buried all
animosities, and with one heart and one^
mind have sought to quell the passions of
the hour, and 'to lay broadly and deeply
the foundation of a Union, harmony, lib?
erty, prosperity, which nothing could
airain disturb. Their absence at a timo
j O
like this fills me with regret and sadness.
But "the Lord reigncth." "In the year
when King TTezmU died, I saw the Lord
high and lifted up." The prophet moan?
ed for the loss of a wise and able prince;
but ho found consolation by raising his
eyes to that King who sits exalted in the
Heavens, upon the throne of the uni?
verse, ordering all -events for hi? glory,
and for the accomplishment of the de?
signs of unerring wisdom and unchang?
ing love.
Hd. Qrs. Department S. Carolina,
CHARLESTON, Jan. 1, 1866.
I. To the end that civil rights and im?
munities may be enjoyed ; that kindly
relations among the inhabitants cf the
State may be established; that the rights
and duties of the employer, and the freo
laborer respectively, may be defined^;
that the soil may be cultivated and the
system of free labor fairly undertaken ;
that the owners of Estates may be secure
in the possession of their lands and tene?
ments; that persons, able and willing to
work, may have employment; that idle?
ness and vagrancy may be discontinued,
and encouragement given to industry and
thrift; and that humane provision may
be made for the aged, infirm and desti?
tute, the following regulations are estab?
lished for the government of all concern?
ed in this Department:
II. All laws shall bo applicable to all
the inhabitants. No person shall be held
incompetent to sue, make complaint, or
to testify, because of color or caste.
III. All the employments of husband?
ry or of the useful arts, and all lawful
trades or callings, may bo followed by all
persons, irrespective of color or caste;
nor shall any frecdman bo obliged to pa}'
any tax or any fee for a license, nor bo
amenable to any municipal or parish or?
dinance, not imposed upon all other per?
IV. The lawful industry of all persons
who live under the protection of the
United States, and owe obedience to its
laws, being useful to the individual, and
essential to the welfare of society, no
person will be restrained from seeking
employment when not bound by volun?
tary agreement, nor hindered from trav?
elling from place to place on lawful busi?
ness. All combinations or agreements
which are intended to hinder, or may so
operate as to hinder, in any way, the em?
ployments of labor?or to limit compen?
sation for labor?or to compel labor to be
involuntarily performed in certain places,
or for certain persons, us well as all com?
binations or agreements to prevent the
sale or hire of lands or tenements, are
declared to bo misdemeanors; and any
person or persons convicted thereof shall
bo punished by fine not exceeding five
hundred dollars, or by imprisonment not
to exceed six months, or by both such fine
and iiaprisonment.
V. Agreements for labor or personal
service of any kind, <St for the use and
occupation of lands and tenements, or for
any other lawful purpose, between freed
mcn and other persons, when fairly made,
will be impartially enforced against ei?
ther party violating the same.
VI. Freed persons unable to labor, by
reason of age or infirmity, and orphan
children of tender years, shall have al?
lotted to them by the owners suitable
quarters on the premises whore they have
been heretofore domiciled as slaves, until
adequate provision, approved by tho Gen?
eral Commanding, be made for them by
the State or local authorities, or other?
wise; and they shall not be removed from
the premises, unless for disorderly beha?
vior, misdemeanor, or othor offence, com?
mitted by the hoad of a family or a mem?
ber thereof.
VH. Able-bodied frcedmcn, when they
leave tho premises in which they may bo
domiciled, shall take with them and pro?
vide for such of their relatives as, by the
{aws-of South Carolina, all citizens are
obliged to maintain.
VIII. When a freed person, domiciled
on a plantation, refuses to work there,
after having been offered employment by
the owner or lessee, on fair terms, ap?
proved by the agent of the Freodmen's
Bureau, such freedman or woman shall
remove from the premises within ten
days after such offer, and due notice to
remove by the owner or occupant.
IX. When able-bodied freed persons
are domiciled on premises where they
havo have been heretofore held as slaves,
and are not employed thereon or else?
where, they shall be permittod to remain,
on showing to the satisfaction of the
Commanding officer of the Post, that
they have made diligent and proper ef
forts to obtain employment.
X. Freed persons occupying premises
without the authority ?f the United
States, or the permission of the 'owner-,
and who have not been heretofore held
thero as slaves, may be removed by the
Commanding officer of tho Post, on the
complaint of the owner, and proof of the
refusal of said freed person to remove af
tcr_ten daya notice.
XL Any person employed or domiciled,
on a plantation or elsewhere, who maybe
rightfully dismissed by tho terms of agree?
ment, or expelled for misbehavior, shall
leavo tho premises, and shall not return
without the consent of tho owner or ten?
ant thereof.
XII. Commanding officers of Districts
will establish within thoir commands re?
spectively, suitable regulations for hiring
out to labor, for a period not to exceed
one year, all vagrants who cannot be ad?
vantageously employed on roads, fortifi?
cations and other public works. The
procoeds of such labor shall bo paid over
to the Assistant Commissioner of the
Frccdmen's Bureau, to provide for aged
and infirm refugees, indigent freed people,
and orphan children.
XIII. The vagrant iaws of the State
of Sout^Carolina, applicablo to free white
persons, will be recognized as tho only
vagrant laws applicablo to the freedmcn;
nevertheless, snch laws shall not bo con?
sidered applicable to persons who are
without employment; if they shall prove
that they havo been unablo to obtain em?
ployment, aftor diligent efforts to do so.
XIV. It shall bo tho duty of Officers
commanding Posts to soo that the issues
of rations to freedmcn are confined to
destitute persons, who are unablo to work
because of infirmities arising from old
age, or chronic diseases, orphan children
too young to work, and refugee frcedmen
returning to their homes with the sanc?
tion of tho proper authorities ;. and in or?
dering these issues Commanding Officers
will be careful not to encourage idleness
or vagrancy. District Commander? will
make corsolidatcd roports of these issues,
XV. The proper authorities of the State
in the sov?ral municipalities and districts,
shall proceed to make suitable provisions
for?their poor, without distinction of col?
or; in default 01 which, tho General
Commanding wili levy an equitable tax
on persons and property sufficient for
the support of the poor,
XVI. Tho constitutional rights Of all
loyal and well disposed inhabitants to
bear arms, will not be infringed ; never?
theless this shall not be construed to sanc?
tion the unlawful practice of carrying
concealed weapons; nor to authorize any
person to enter with arms on the premi?
ses of another against his consent. No
one shall bear arms who has borne'arms
against tho United States, unless he shall
have taken the Amnesty oath prescribed
in the Proclamation of the President of
tho United States, dated May 29,1865, or
the Oath of Allegiance, prescribed in the
Proclamation of tho President, dated De?
cember 8, 1863, within tho time pre?
scribed therein. And no disorderly per?
son, vagrant, or disturber of the peace,,
shall be allowed to bear arms.
XVII. To secure the samo equal justice
and personal liberty to the frcedmen as
to other inhabitants, no penalitics or pun?
ishments different from those to which
all persons are amenable shall bo imposed
on freed people; and all crimes and of?
fences which are prohibited under exist?
ing laws, shall bo understood as prohib?
ited in tho enso of frcedmen; and if
, committed by a frecdman, shall, upon
conviction, bo punished in the same man- j
ner as if committed by a white man.
XVIII. Corporal punishment sh'all not
be inflicted upon any person other than
a minor, and then only by tho parent,
guardian, teacher, or one to whom said
minor is lawfully bound by indenture of
XIX. Persons whose conduct tends to j
[ a breach of the peace may be required to
give security for their good behavior, and
in default thereof shall be heid in custody.
XX. All injuries to the person or prop?
erty committed by or upon freed persons,
shall be punished in the manner provided
by the laws of South Carolina, for liko in?
juries to the persons or property of citi?
zens thereof. If no provision bo madG by
tho laws of tho State, then tho punish?
ment for such offences shall be according
to the course of tho common law; and in
case of any injury to person or property,
not prohibited by the common law, or for
which the punishment shall not be appro?
priate, such sentence shall be imposed as,
in the discretion of the Court before which
the trial is had, shall be deemed proper,
subject to the approval of tho General
XXI. All arrests, for whatever cause,
I will be reported tri-monthly, 'with the
I proceedings thereupon, through tho pro-^
scribed channel, to the General Comman?
XXII. Commanding officers of Districts,
Sab-Districts, and Posts, within their com?
mands respectively, in the ahsence of the
duly appointed agent, will perform any
duty appertaining to the ordinary agents
of the Bureau of EefugcesrFreedmen and
Abandoned Lands, carefully observing
for their g^uiclanco all orders published.by
the Commissioner or Assistant Coramis
sioncr^ or other competent authority.
XXIII. District Commanders will en?
force theso regulations. by suitable in?
structions to Sub-District and Post Com?
manders, taking care that justice be done,
that fair dealing between man and man
be observed, and that no unnecessary
hardship and no cruel or unusual punish?
ments bo imposed upon any ono.
By command of
Maj. Gen. D. E. Sickles.
W. L. if. BURGER, Assistant Adj't Gen.
Official c Alexander. Moore, .
Brevet Major and Aid-de-Camp.
-?-? .
"What Next.?Major Gen? King, com?
mandant of this District, accompanied by
his wife, and another gentleman and lady
drovo out yesterday afternoon, and when
about three miles from the city wer?
met by two men on horseback, who en?
quired tho road to Milledgeville, and af?
ter the interchange of a few words, de?
manded of the General to surrender to
him tho horses which ho was driving.
Tho demand being accompanied by the
exhibition of shooting irons, tho General
gracefully, but reluctantly, surrendered
to overpowering force,-from the fact that
he was unarmed; and doubtless, came to
fhe conclusion, under the cirourastances,
that discretion was the better part of val?
or. The robbers immediately unharness?
ed the General's horses and bid him an
affectionate farewell.
After di'iviug on a short distance*those
highway robbers met a gentleman and
lady, riding on horseback, who accompa?
nied General King 'and lady from the
city, and with the utmost audacity com.
manded tho gentleman to dismount,
which he did, and his horso was then ap?
propriated; making in all three horses
which they had stolen. This is in every
respect the boldest highway robbery
which we have of late chronicled, when
we consider tho time, the place and tho
prominence of tho victims of this outra?
geous proceeding. General King, on his
return to the city, sent a detachment of
mounted men after the Tub hers, .and we
sincerely trust that they will be arrested
and punished severely for this high-hand- ?
ed outrage.
The General is an officer of the old
Army, and has, by his jjudicious and im?
partial administration of all matters com?
ing under his jurisdiction, won tho rcspoct
and esteem of our citizens, and we sin?
cerely regret the occurrence of this daring
highway robbery.
Tho General, no doubt, appreciates a
good joke, and we imagino that tho fore?
going is too practical to be appreciated.?>
Augusta Constitutionalist.
Somo of our "colored lYn-ruU" object
to our use of the word negro, in referring
to them. "With characteristic affectation
they want to be called " colored people."
"Wo generally endeavor to call everything
by its right iiame. If we said " colored
man," we might mearteitbor a Mongolian,
Malaysian, Indian, Caucasian, or negro:
The expression would apply equally to a
black man, a blue man, a green man, a
red man, or " any other man !" "Wo used
the word negro bocause that is tho name
of the race to which they belong; in tho
same way that we used the word Indian
to designate the aboriginal Inhabitants of
the country. Besides, black is not a color,
but tho absence of all color, and therefore
a black man is not a " colored man," but
a no-colored man. Would they prefer tho
latter title ??Exchange.
Modern Wisdom.?I hav finally cum
tow tho konklusion that there aint truth
cnuff in tho world, just now, to do Dizzi?
ness with, and if sum kind uv kompromise
cant be had, the devil might az well step
in and run tho consarn at onst.
Dont tell the world yure sorrows, enny
more than you would tell them yure shame
Philosophers are like graveyards?-they
take all things just as they cum, and give
them a decent burial and a suitable opi
Enny body lean tell where lightning
struck last, but it takes a smart man tew
find out where it is going to strike nex .
time?this iz one of tho differences be?
tween laming and wisdom.
Ther iz men of so much learning and
impudence they wouldn't hesitate tew
criticize the songuv a bird.
I have seen men so full of indecision as
an old barn, alwus ready but didn't know
edzactlv which way to pitch.

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