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%n M?kM M?v ?o?rmu-#tioWi t? politics, Sefos, pcrafmt,
BY JAMES A. HOYT. ANDERSON C. H., S. C, THURSDAY MORNING, MARCH 22, 1866. VOLUME 1.?NUMBER 40, Tiie Intelligencer IS PUBLISHED WEEKLY AT THREE DOLLARS PER ANNUM, V. S. CURRENCY, OR, 82.00 A YEAR IF SPECIE. . HATES OF ADVERTISING. Advertisements inserted at the rates of One Dol? lar per square of twelve lines for the first insertion and Fifty Cents for each subsequent insertion. Obituaries and Marriage -Notices charged for at these rates. MILITARY TRIAL. - [continued.] Citadel, March 10, 1866. The Commission met at 30.30, A. M., ?nd continued the trial of James Craw? ford Keys, his son, Robert Keys, and Eli sha Byrem. His Exeelleney James Lawrence Orr, witness for the defence, being examined ?out of order (the prosecution not having closed), to enable him to leave the city, deposed i That he went to school with Crawford ? Keys in 1833; that Keys is nine years his senior, being about. 53 years, of age.; that he (Keys) lives two miles from Anderson, where he (witness) lives; that Keys is regarded as a prosper? ous man; that Crawlord Keys came to bis (witness') house, on Monday, 9th Oc? tober/about 8 o'clock, and asked him to .get his cotton at Brown's Perry released by Provost Marshal, saying that eleven bales belonged to him (C. Keys), and five bales he had received as agent of tax in kind; that witness and Keys went to the Provost Marshal's office, and there heard of the murder at Brown's Ferry; that Crawford-Ke3-s exclaimed, "Good God! you don't say so^? that was my cotton they woro guarding; 1 desired that the guard should be placed there;" that the witness watched Keys closely; that his oyes were clear, not blood-shot as in onom of loss of rest, and his demeanor in con eonance with his exclamation above re? lated; that he (witness) had-known Craw? ford Keys continuously for 30 yeaivj very intimately; that his character is good ; that he- b?A .recommended him to Col. Br^wn for the position.of Provost Judge, as "being a just and fearless man. who would dojustice between the black and white man. Being cross-examined by the Judge Advocate, i.is Excellency said that Craw Keys was an Agent of the Q. M. Depart men't ^during the late war; that he (wit? ness) had been Keys' counsel; that he was applied to. to act as his counsel iu this.case; that has not acted as such, but &yf:*dYi*ed Key*' friends as to the con? duct of the case; that he has not con? ferred on bohalf of Keys with the Milita? ry authorities to obtain his release; that his knowledge of Keys' character de? pend* upon both public- opinion and his personal knowledge; that C. Key? is a determined, self-reliant man. The following questions were asked by tie Judge Advocate : Question?Have you ever known him (Crawford Keys) to employ violence in anjj transaction, public or private. 'Answer?I have heard of it; whether ?it is true or not, I can't say. Question?State what you heard ort the subject. ' The accused, by his counsel, objected to the question. -The witness cannot state what he heard. He must speak, of hie own knowledga; and further, on the question of character, the issuo alwa}Ts is as to the general character and reputa? tion, arid not particular facts." Th<e-Judge Advocate insistod on the -question being put on the following grounds : The witness is called to prove the gen? eral character of Crawford Keys; he states that the opinion which he has ex? pressed is based on both personal knowl? edge and the opinion of others. The object of the cross-examination is to. ascertain upon what foundation the opinion or statement of the witness rest*. Twe statement derived from ge neral opin? ion must necessarily rest on the state? ments he has hoard others make on the subject. Now it is just this basis of fact that is sought to be inquired into. It is not contended that we can inquire into the actual existence of tho facts as supposed by the .counsel of the accused. All we can do is to find what statements form the groundwork of the opinion which the witness has expressed. The decision of tho Commission was as follows: The subject beforo us is one of reputa? tion, which is necessarily derived from the aggrogato speech of people; upon this point the witness has testified that tho character (using the word in the sense of reputation) of tho defendant is good. It seems to the Commission that, on cross examination, it is proper to show that I the witness has heard people speak against his character, or that it may be shown that the witness has heard of the defendant being connected with deeds of violence. By this cross-examination, no second is? sue will bo. raised, because the cross-ex? aminer does not undertake to prove that the defendant has been guilty of the acts of any of which tho witness has heard ; out, if he can bring before the Court the evidence that the witness has heard of such transactions on tho part of the de-, fendant as tendiug to show that the ?wit? ness is in error in stating that the repu? tation of defendant is good, the Court think, therefore, that the question may bo put. His Excellency having replied that he had heard five or six years ago that Crawford Keys was engaged, with others, in lynching two men, ho was asked by the Judge Advocate tho following ques? tion : "State tho names of the persons and the nature and circumstances of the transactions as you heard them related, as far as they concerned Crawford Keys." The accused objected "that, under the ruling of the Court just given, the wit? ness may be asked if he heard of any act done by the accused impeaching the good" character given by the witness. This question goes further, and opens up all the particulars of the fact." The question was withdrawn by the Judge Advocate, who proposed the follow? ing: "Did you know for what cause the two persons mentioned by you were lynched? If so, what was the cause ?" The accused objected on the ground that tho witness may testify as to the fact, but not as to the particulars of the fact or the motives which induced it. or the circumstances which accompanied it; and further, that if the witness is to tes? tify- as to the cause, we must uo into an examination of his opportunities of ob? servation; and further, that it is all hear? say. The Commission sustained the 'objec? tion, and the question was not put. Hi? Excellency sai.d that the commu? nity at Anderson would not sanction acts of violence against persons guilty only of adhesion to the United States Govern? ment. Being asked this question by the Judge Advocate?"Assuming that some action had been taken by such parties to express and communicate such opinion (favorable to the United States Govern? ment), what would the community have judged of acts of violence against such persons ?" The accused objected to the question '?because it asked the witness to suppose something, and then to suppose what would ba the opinion of the community on that something. It i6 a supposition mounted on a supposition. Whereas, it it is respectfully submitted, the witness must testify to tacts, and to facts in his knowledge. Tho Judge Advocate insisted on the question, urging "that the object of the question being to ascertain whether the standing and reputation of Crawford Keys among his neighbors was such as to bo inconsistent with tho commission of the offence in question, it is important to know how the community has, until re? cently, regarded acts of the class to which the caso in question belongs; namely, cases in which a local interest is in con? flict with the general interests of the United States Government. Without in? quiring for the present into the precise class of motives concerned in the murder, we may assume for the present that they had a public and local character.'' The objection was sustained. His Excellency stated in reply to fur? ther questions, that the acts of violence referred to did not produce an unfavora? ble Impression on his mind as to Keys being a just, upright man; that ho had apprehended that suspicion would rest upon Crawford Keys, under the belief that the cotton belonging to Keys had been removed from the Ferry by the mur l derors; that tho samo belief led him to ask Crawford Keys if his sons were at home that night; that he replied, "All but Peter;" that from his experience in the Courts, he would suppose that tho perpetrators of a grave offence would most likely exhibit symptoms of nervous? ness, restlessness, excitement,flushed face, blood-shot eyes, where the}- had lost sloep; that his observations of criminals was confined to those accused : that he scrutinized Crawford Keys, to judge by observation if ho wero implicated in the murder; that from an acquaintance of thirty }'cars, he believed him incapable of such a crime; that his knowledge and appreciation of Keys'character may have produced a bias on his (witness's) mind, in concluding from his observations that ! Keys was not implicated in the murder, ! but that ho was not conscious of such j bias; that Elisha Byrem lives three-quar j tors of a mile from Crawford Keys. Citadel, March 12, I860. The Commission met at 10.30, A. M., and continued the trial of James Craw Keys, his son, Robert Keys, and Elisha Byrem. Tho Judge Advocate stated that ho re? ceived irjformationfrom the Counsel for the accused, and from other sources, that one of the horses of the soldiers murder? ed at Brown's Ferry, on the 8th of Octo? ber last, had been found in Anderson or Pickcns District.. An arrest of the per? son, in whose possession it was found, bad been made. No such information has yet officially been, communicated to the military authorities in Charleston, al? though a reply has been received from Gen. Ames to a telegraphic dispatch ma? king an inquiry as to such rumored fact. He further stated that he did not wish to delay the case, but at tho same time deemed it proper to say that evidence may be elicited, in the event of such in? formation proving true, which it would be important to introduce in this case. That, if no serious objections existed, ho would prefer to suspend the prosecution, permitting the defenco to introduco such testimony as they may deem proper to 6iibmit, before the final close of the pros? ecution, and renew the prosecution as soon as the result of the investigation in? to tho matter can be known. On motion, and in order to allow the Judge Advocato opportunity to obtain further information in the matter referred to, the Commission adjourned to meet on Wednesday, the 14th irist, at 10.30, A. M. -? The Food we Eat. Jn the first place, we shall consider what to cat. As every one knows, though but few observe it, that which is most nutritious and most digestible is the food most conductive to good health. While our diet should consist, to a certain cx tent, and in a largo proportion, of animal food, yet it ought not to be entirely ani? mal, but consist partly of vegetable; for, while both are good and necessary for us. it is pretty well admitted that neither one separately is adapted to man. There fere, there should be a fair proportion of* each. In the cooking of food much euro should be observed, in preserving as much as possible its nutritive element, which is the essential part of it. The majority of people cat meat cooked almost to a cin? der; the consequence is, that all the nu? triment has been extracted, and to all practical purposes, as far as actual nour? ishment, as well as flavor, are concerned, they may as well cat a piece of shoe leather. Beef and mutton should always be rare. An experienced eye can almost invariably distinguish those that eat rare meat from those that eat it as dry as a chip. While the former present a coun? tenance ruddy, and as though there were some blood in their system,. the latter look as if they lived on milk and water, a sort of namby-pamby specimens of hu? manity. Eat rare meat; but, at the same time not raw. When cut, it should loek like meat, not a cinder. Ask somo patients the question. "How do you eat your meat, rare or well done ?" and the answer will bo, "Oh, well done, of course," as though it were barbarous to eat it otherwise.? Advise them to eat it rare, and they will turn up their noses with an expression of disgust, and tell you, "Oh, I never could bring my mind to cut it so?the idea alone is disgusting." They eat the su? perficial and throw away tho material, for in tho juice of the meat is the nutri? tion, not the meat itself. It is about as sensible as to squeeze an orange, throw away the juice, and eat the rind. The plainer food is cooked the better, for no condiments conduce to health; but on the contrary, arc invariably the cause of dj'spepsia, constipation, and their hun? dred and one concomitants. Salt is, fcho all-sufficient seasonir- necessary. Pork and veal every one is better with? out, for while it is generally supposed the former generates worms, besides being an unclean animal, the latter possesses littlo or no nourishment. Salted meats and fish should be avoided. Fresh beef, mutton, poultiy, fish, etc., etc., should be tho diet of animal food. Of vegetables almost all are. wholesome?therefore, it is not necessary to revert further to thorn. "Now wo come to when wo eat, which, though nature has indicated, and we don't always observo. The period of eating should bo divided into three?morning, noon and evening?and tho hours should be regular, not eati?g at this hour to-day, and another to-morrow, but every day at tho same hour. Tho morning meal should bo quite as substantial as any other. Many of our readers will no doubt bear evidence to our assertion, that there is nothing that will enable any ono to bear a bard day's work better than a hearty breakfast, for tho reason that the hours since last eating being replenished, tho system is invigorated, all the func? tions receiving fresh vigor, besides there being a greater supply to admit of waste, which naturally accompanies exertion or fatigue. For this to be substantial, a cup of coffee, a piece of toast, with an egg, is not sufficient, but should be meat and vegetables. Dinner, if it is in the middle of tho day, which is undoubtedly, the most hoalthy, does not require much notice, as every one well understands what dinner ought to be, and, therefore, it is generally sub? stantial. Should the noon meal, how? ever, bo lunch, as it is frequently, instead of a piece of pic, or some light dyspepsia generating trash ?f that sort, let it be something more substantial, resembling what tea or supper should be, if dinner were in the middle of the day. Of this tea, a few remarks will not bo out of placo, as it is the meal most neg? lected. The word lea generally conveys the idea of what it too frequently is, an apology for a meal?bread and butter, some sweetmeat, and a cup of tea. Why should it be as light as it is, wo cannot sec. Tho system requires recuperation just as much after the waste intervening between noon and then as between tho two previous meals, particularly when we consider the length of time that will elapse before the next meal. Now, wo don't advocate stuffing and going to bed on a full stomach; but we advocate mak ng the supper a more substantial, meal than it is. It is very amusing to sec per? sons advocate tin's meal being light, and then when they get hungry in an hour or two after, which they will, go out to a restaurant and cat a hearty supper, very soon after which thoy will probably re? tire. Now, did they eat a moderately substantial meal at the propor time thero would be no necessity for this, and a suffi? cient time before going to bed would elapse for all injurious effects to bo dono away with. Let the meal, instead of slops, consist of something substantial, partly meat. While retiring on a full stomach ;s injurious, doing so on a empty or hungry one is equally so. Lastly we come to the question, how to eat, which, though last and not least, has been, to a certain extent, alluded to above. But still there is something to be said about it. As we remarked before, have regular hours for eating, and be punctual to (hem'. Nature admits of no delays and postponements, being one of the most exacting of all maators. Don't let business or anything else interfere with hours for eating. Let it constitute part of the business of the day, and, when eating, don't eat as though it were for a wager, with some one eis?, to see who could eat the most in tho shortest space of time; but sit down and eat like a civ? ilized being, chewing the food thoroughly. Food ! oiled, without being chewed, does little or no good; for by it tho wheels of digestion are clogged, and tho whole ma? chinery, more or Jess, thrown out of gear. It is pretty well established that, while children are, in many instances, under? fed, grown person? as often ovoreat them? selves. Never eat until a feeling of over? loading the stomach is produced, or, as we have heard it expressod, "I have oaten so much that I feel as though I should burst." This is equally as culpable and injurious, though not recognized as such, as drinking until drunk. Eat no moro than can bo borne with comfort. Tho montal and physical powers will be both better for it. Nature never intended the stomach to bo a receptacle for all this miscellaneous trash people choose to cram into it; but the reservoir from which tho various organs, which keep together the vital spark, receive thoir functional sup? port. Therefore, do not overload it. Tho stomach, like a horse, can bear just so Euch, but no more. It is the last straw that breaks the camel's back. In conclusion, what wo wish to impress upon our readers is the necessity of nu? tritious and easily digested food, and as near as possiblo oqualizing the quality and quantity at each meal?not making one a feast, and the other a fast; and at tho same time, while care bo observed in not overloading the stomach, yet the other extreme should not be gone to, of not eating enough, and that of too light and not sufficiently nutritious a nature.? Lancet. -o The greatest man is he who chooses the right with invincible resolution; who resists tho sorest temptations from within and without; who bears the heaviest bur? dens cheerfully; who is the calmest in storms, and whose reliance on truth, on virtue, on God, is the most^unfaltering. ?"Wood is the thing after all," as tho man with a pine leg said when a mad dog b'it it. Cotton or Grain ? Shall cotton or grain bo our main crop this year, is a question of no little mo? ment at this time. In our impoverished condition, the fu turo rnoro than ordinarily uncertain, and free labor a problem of doubtful solution, it is natural that everybody should desiro to plant all the cotton possible, which will pay at least S150 per bale, and if the season bo favorablej enable the planter to buy his provision, &c, and lay by some? thing for contingencies. Many arc going to make cotton their sole crop?planting only little corn or oth? er grain. Everybody is going to plant some cotton, and those who never saw a cotton stalk are now buying seed, and calculating with paper and pencil the great returns they are going to make. Cotton presents tho readiest means of making money, and therefore, all are hat in hand to his Majesty?now, more than ever, King. But thore is an old econom? ical adage?"don't put all your oggs in one basket"?which might be advanta? geously remembered by the cotton-wor? shippers. If the season should be unfa? vorable, if tho worm, tho grasshopper, or any of the other enemies of the "great staple" should make the crop a failure, and bring all tho pencilled estimates of profits to nought?nay, make the result, after paying the freedmen and supporting them, a loss instead of a gain, where is the mouoy to como from to buy provis? ions,. &c ? Or suppose that the crops of the "Northwest should fail, or bo insuffi? cient, and prices advance considerably above the present high standard, evon supposing that we do make the cotton we expect, and get ?150 per bale for it, if we '..innot buy provisions or are obliged to pay an immense price for them, where is our profit ? Last year all the labor that was availa? ble was emploj'cd in growing corn and wheat, and yet it is an admitted fact that the supply of brcadstuffs in the country now, is insufficient, and that this is one of the causes of tho present high prices of grain. Tho supply of labor is now materially reduced below what it was last year, both in quantity and quality, and if it be almost exclusively employed in the production of cotton, to tho neglect of .brcadstuffs, we may depend on it, that when driven to a Northern market to buy all wo want, and thrown On tho ten? der mercies of railroad companies to bring us what wo buy, we will find that the magnificent profits of our cotton, if wo realize them, will pass out of our pockots into those of "our friends of the great Northwest," of whom wo heard such flattering tales during tho war, and into the insatiate maws of tho railroads, to whom the direst popular necessity, is tho most favorable opportunity. The temptation to plant cotton is very strong. It will certainly pay largely if we make a crop; but that if depends on two other ifs, namely: ii the season bo favorable, and if the freedmen "conclude to work." It would bo wise, therefore, to guard against contingencies, and let each agriculturist, whether he be the large planter with his thousands of acres, or the humble farmer, plant enough of grain at least for his own use, and then he may woo tho smiles of King Cottou as much as he pleases "Make all the money we can this year, and sell out," is the cry of petulance and impatience, and has no wisdom m it, for it amounts to the same thing as killing the goose that lays the golden egg. Plant cotton, but remember that roast? ing oars aro not to bo despised ; that a few bushols of wheat at home, without sending to Cincinnati to get them, and then sonding to tho depot day after day to soo if they have arrived, aro a great contribution to comfort] and that a little ryo for a grazing patch, and other purpo? ses, may be cultivated with advantage, if used in moderation.?Southern Banner. -4? ? In a jolly party over a glass of. champagne, the following good one was told by a jolly good fellow, and a Federal officer too. Raising his glass, ho said, 'Gentlemen, I give you the same toast that a sensible Dutch officer gave in New York. Being called on he said, 'ladies and shenteelmen, I gives you Shoneral Putlor!' Here there was great apparent^ indignation. 'Ladies and shenteelmen, I gives you Sheneral Putler!' Here the excitement increased, but the Dutchman stood.his ground and kept his countenance. 'Ladies and Shenteelmen, I gives yt?u Shoneral Putler, because I have no use for him mysolf!'" -:-O ? Hours of joy go dancing by with down upon their foet; but those of sorrow drag as heavily as though thej' had tar I on thoir heels. I TuADDETTS STEVENS?His AnTECX JENTH j ?The notorious Thaddens Stevens com? menced his political lifo in 1836 in the Legislature of Pennsylvania, as an anti Mason demagogue. His hobby then was anti-Masonry as it nowis the negro. His first public act was to spy out the secrets of Masonry. It is thus alluded to by the Pittsburg Post, which says: "The object of this inquisition was to extort from men connected with the in? stitution of Masonry an exposition of their principles, including tho secrets of the Or? der, which, it is alledged, they had sworn to preserve inviolate. To this end many of the most prominent statesmen of the Commonwealth wero dragged before this Star Chamber, and held in durance vile for weeks, and compelled to submit to eve? ry indignity that malice could invent. Had they been the veriest criminals they could not have been subjected to greater ignominy, "Among those who wore thus outraged may bo mentioned the lamented Govern? ors Wolf and Shunk, and the Hon. George M. Dallas; nor did even the sacred desk escape tho persecution of this fanatical anti-Mason. The Eev. Mr. Sprolis, an ominint divineof the Prosbyterian Church, was dragged by an officer of the House before the 'modern juggernaut/ as lie ap? propriately styled tho Committee, and put under the torture, with a view of compelling him to divulge, under oath, what ho knew about this anciont and respectalo institu? tion. But he, following the example of the distinguished statesmen we have na? med, spurned tho miserable tyrant who would thus have him violate his honor. TheBo men were only ^released from du? ress by the united votes of the Democrat? ic members, with a few of the opposition. "We next find this man, Thaddens Ste? vens, in 1838, at the head of a wicked conspiracy to overthrow civil government in our peaceful old Commonwealth^ by ignoring the clearly expressed will of the peoplo at the ballot-box, and but for the indomitable courage of tho Domocratio members of the Legislature, the hellish plot would havo succooded. and ;the elec? tion treated as though it had never boon held.'" -*-: Tue Tragic History o? Mr. Brown Stout.?.The following will bo immensely interesting to the drink uu> uf English beer: A colebratod brower in London had in his employ a fat porter by the name .of Stout. Ono day Stout was missing, and they knew nothing of- him for several weeks. In tho moan time his Loudon customers plied him with orders for more beer like the last supplied. The brewer was at a loss to know in what consisted tho superiority of that particular browing until the beer was drawn from the vat, when to their astonishment and horror thoy found tho remains of poor Stout. Ho had fallen into the vat of hot beer and had been scaled to death. Tho citizens of London had drunk him up, with the ex? ception of the parts not soluble in water; nothing was loft of him but his hair, toe and finger nails and tho bones. This cir? cumstance gave the name to that particu? lar kind of liquor known as 'brown stout," which has established for itself a world? wide celebrity, and is sold in all parts of the civilizbd World at fabulous prices. - ? We desire to ombalm the following oxtraordinayily sublime, eloquont,.and el? egant perorations. The first is said to have been delivored before a court of jus? tice in Pennsylvania: 'Your honor sits high upon the adorablo of justice, like the Asiatic rock of Gibraltar, while the eternal streams of justice, like cadaverous cloulds of the valloyrfl?w meandering at your extended feet/ The next is by a Celebrated lawyer, of New Jorsoy: 'Tour honors, I fancy, do not sit there like mar? ble statues, to be wafted about by overy idle breeze.' -?-: j ? There is a whole sermon in tho say? ing of the old Persian:?"In all thy quar j reis leave open the door of conciliation." ? Some of our Western friendB have a talent for the figurative. One of our Ten? nessee exchanges describes another, as "holding its left hand under the swallow tail of its constitutional dignity, and ex? tending the nose-wiper of interrogative pathos in its right. -# He who says what he likes hoars what he does not like. While the tall woman is stooping the little one hath swept tho house. A foolish friend does moro harm than a wiso enemy. He who expects a friend without faults will never find one. Ho who has no bread to spare should not keep a dog. A thread-bare coat is armour against a highwayman.