Newspaper Page Text
Calanttas Chronicle. Published every Saturday Morning, at Mokelnmne Hill, Calaveras County, Cal.. By H. Hamilton. TERMS. Bu*«criptiows, (invariably in ad vance,) for one year $lO 00 ftix months 6 00 Three months, 8 00 Single copies 25 Advertising, one square of 12 lines, or less, first insertion 3 00 Each subsequent insertion 1 50 JOB PRINTING. All kinds of Job Work executed with neatness and dispatch, and on moderate terms. Public Spirited Employment or Capital. —The progress of navigation and the advance of commercial enter prise in this country, since its posses sion by the United States, has been al most beyond belief. In order to fur nish a criterion by which to establish this fact, we will merely advert to the advertisements of the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, which will ex hibit the complete net work of com merce and navigation which that enterprising association have drawn around the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of the North American continent. In speaking of our side of the house, we perceive that they have a line of steam ers running regularly, up as high as Umpqua Bay, and touching at all the intermediate ports on the route. They also make it a business to touch at any points on the line, where a steamer can fie, and endeavor thereby to elicit all the trade that those places are suscep tible of; causing immense improve ments in formerly secluded spots, and creating gardens, the abodes of com fort and independence, whore formerly no one dared to migrate, for fear of be coming another Crusoe. Many of these boats have for a long time been run at a loosing expense; but undeterred by this fact, they have continued them with the most praiseworthy zeal, in the hope of reaching the harvest of their enter prise at an early period. The Fre mont, a fine boat of nine hundred tons, is put on the route to Umpqua, the CuiUiihmm also i up tte Cc.unib.ft river. The Columbus, of nine hun dred tons, runs to San Diego, touching at all intermediate places, whilst the regular line to Panama offers speedy and easy communication with ports in Mexico. These boats are all of the first-class, and are commanded by able and experienced officers. The facilities extended to immigrants by such an extensive line of accommo dation are incalculable, and tend to pro duce the most beneficial effect on the mercantile and agricultural interests of the community. The immense re sources of Oregon are brought to our very doors, offering every inducement for the settlement and improvement of that productive region, from the facili ties of a market for produce and indus (ry, and direct and constant communi cation. It is impossible to form any calculation as to what the Pacific coast of the United States will be capable of when the grand railroad project for connecting the two oceans shall be com pleted. It must be evident to every one, that all settlements now located must hold a precedence, for a time at least, over perhaps equally good spots now unoccupied. '1 he sphere of action in which the immense resources of this Company have recently been employed takes in every available harbor or cove on the coast of California, tending in an eminent degree to produce the desired result; for justin proportion as they open to the public the resources of the different localities, just in that prompt tisn they induce there, and improvements—such improvjh|ms adding value to our efT hancing the need and of the great railroad enterpris Life’s Changes. — in urging upon the of the Senate a private clainrij said petitioner was once a merchant, a «eat merchant, a man of wealth— been re duced by an unjust pnycution of the Government of the Lilted States, to want, ami was, while soliciting relief, engaged as a day la»rer in the re building of the Capitoß Mr. Seward’s statement so affected me Senate, that the bill for his relief without a vote in the negative. A late Pittsburg paper says, that there can be seen in that place a man beg ging his daily bread from store to store, who, a few years since, was a merchant of great wealth, and whose name and transactions were known in all th» principal cities of the Union.— Provt dence Journal. A chemist has analyzed the Steuben County gold dust, about which such ai excitement was raised, and the result is chat the miners have all gone home. Culmteras Chronicle. MOKELUMNE HILL, CALAVERAS COUNTY, CAL, SATURDAY, MARCH 19, 1853. Correspondence. On board Steamer California , > Acapulco, Feb. 23, 1853. £ Mr. Editor* I presume you re ceived the letter I wrote you on board the Stockton steamer. I should have written you from San Francisco, but the steamboat arrived at 3 o’clock in the morning and 1 was obliged to em bark at seven for Panama. It is just a week since we left San Francisco. Of what shall I write. Of fine weather, calm seas, and gorgeous land sights ; or shall 1 chronicle those little incidents that happerkjop ship board, The latter is in ; , terestmg to the passenger; Cbut if it would be to your readers, is question able. However, to give variet>| I will narrate the most interesting of boHfr-acul commence by the former. The wild and extravagant feature ow the coast, is casually relieved by an* island whose outward appearance would perhaps correspond with that of our Sierras, but still conveys a feeling of poetry, or romance. You can watch them and very distinctly perceive the mountain goat and hear him “bleating aloft, ’’ .and imagine that'the hills'otQmr a valley that would vie with Campbell’s* description of Wyoming. Although this is principally the effect of a mind predisposed to those scenes of romance never realized and only found in novels; still I am informed by one of our pas sengers, a garrulous Frenchman, who seems to be perfectly “posted” in every point on this coast, that one of these islands, called Ceros, or Cedros, is one of the most fertile and beautiful in the ocean. From his description, I would compare it to pirate Hassen’s descrip tion of that spot where he wishes to convey his “ladye love.” “An island there is on the face of the deep, Where the leaves never fade, nor the skies owr weep ” Ac. . > This island, it seems, belongs to Monsieur Ynez Lemantour, the gen tleman who claims San Francisco. By the way, a word in regard to this claim. The above said Frenchman, is a resi dent of the city of Mexico, and went to San Francisco fe regard to Lemantour’s claim. I asked the reason why he had not presented it sooner, and he told me the following: That Lemantour, during the war, was employed by the Mexican government to convey provisions and ammunition to their army. His voya ges had been very successful until he was taken by an American vessel, his ship and property confiscated, and he made prisoner. He remained prisoner till near the close of the war, when he retired to the city of Mexico. He was a very wealthy man, and had received this title (in 1843 I believe) from Gov ernor Micheltoreno, for services ren dered, and while in Mexico this time, he had the grant confirmed by govern ment. After remaining there a year or so he heard of the rapid advancement of San Francisco, and, determined as soon as he saw any feasible means of having his title confirmed, he could make a trip to that city and do so. He had heard that a board of commissioners would soon be appointed, and he de termined to abide their advent into of fice. When this time arrived he was not to make the con temfffSTed* it; but made it a pAntas sdon as he was able to do so. ton-OTspicious of his fellow creatures to trust the document out of his own hands, and therefore would rely upon no other doing that which he intended to do himself. The rest we all know. This is the story given by the French man. As much reliance may be placed in it, as the credulity of the reader will admit of. Another, and still more strange title [this same person says he has, which pretends to embrace eleven-twelfths of [the Weber claim. His story, in regard to this is strange, although perfectly possible. He says that Weber received with eleven Spanish families, a grant to a large tract of land from French Camp, including Stockton and several leagues up the Calaveras; —in fact, all that claimed by Weber himself. Short ly after this grant had been made these eleven families moved away, and when the nucleus of a city had been laid on the site of Stockton, Weber laid claim to the whole of the original grant, sup posing that the aforesaid families were so scattered and knew so little of the laws or customs of the persons who at present were flocking into the country, that they would not come up to reclaim their property. How Weber, and the gentleman who baa been connected with pirn in business could have been eo short sighted as to not settk these per sons and bay their clahn*4-which they doubtlessly could hare bright at a very trifling sum—l can’t connive. How ever, this Frenchman says be was in formed of this by an olcUispaniard, and be immediately proceedlld to the office of the land commissioner|ind examined Weber’s claim, which, ba continues, be was astonished to find Mftold him by the Spaniard. He theo faiade search for the eleven families spoken of, which he found, and bought tbeir right, title, and interest, for a nominal price, and intends, as soon as he shill have exam ined the archives of Mexico in regard to the matter to return, ana present his claim to the board of commissioners. He is at present on his nwy to the city to do this. if- bin claim should bwitified by board, it will create no little uneasiness, in our depot city. Curious that two of our largest cities should be claimed by titles as unexpected as they are create trouble. It is to be hoped, how ever, that persons who have purchased property in good faith will not be suf ferers by the imbecility or neglect of 4hose who should have had more fore sight. We have had a most splendid trip thus far. I only find one fault, and it is one that I have always anticipated at sea, viz: that the officers of the boat— I will exclude the captain —cannot dis criminate between a set of passengers whox/itom* their conduct prove them selves lu be geh'tlemen, and a boat load of canaille. They seem to belong to that school of sea-faring men who im agine that when once at sea, they must treat every one with contumely; that they are “lords of all,” and are deter mined to uphold their ignorant and su percilious dignity (?) even at the ex pense of mortifying the finest sensibili ties of men who by education and man ners are entitled at least to be treated with respect. If I had my trip to make over again I would take the Nicaragua route. This line has met with so much success, and consequently so wealthy, that they imagine they are perfectly safe in acting as they please. Nine, P. M. —Arrived in the harbor of Acapulco at 8 o’clock this evening. The authorities will not allow us to go ashore until to-morrow morning. I will only have time to mail jhia letter, and must therefore omit any description of the town. I will conclude by saying that this is the most magnificent harbor I ever was in. J. J. A. Quick. — The clipper ship Courser, now at pier 7, E. R., left Boston Jan uary 8, 1852, for San Francisco, crossed the equator in 19 days, passed Cape Horn m 50, arrived out in 108, thence to Hong Kong in 42 days, and back from Cape of Good Hope in 38 days, and arrived at New York December 30, which is the shortest passage recorded, the whole time absent being 11 months and 20 days, 103 of which were spent in port. Greatest speed 330 miles in one day.— N. Y. Exprett. A Caloric Enoine on the Ohio.— The Cincinnati Gazette is informed that a respectable business house in that city has contracted for the building of a first-class packet boat, to run thence to St. Louis or New Orleans, which is to be propelled by a caloric engine. All honor to the men who first introduce Ericsson’s engines on the Ohio. The Wards, of Detroit, are also preparing to put one of the motors in one of their splendid Buffalo packets. A correspondent of the Vermont Chronicle describes the specimens of gold recently discovered in that State. These were found in Bridgewater, on the Quochee River, (or one of, its (branches,) about four miles above the Village, by Mr. Kennedy, of Plymouth. Bne specimens are not washings, bull vein. The gangue, or rock in whichlhe gold lies, is quartz, contain ing considerable sulphuret of iron, (ft lead, and sulphuret of zinc— gold being found in these, as well Bis in the quartz. They have been iuLamitted to Prof. Hubbard, of and pronounced the genuine article\ The Professor has also several of different color ed ochre, from Slramrd. Further Wonders.— We are as sured by the New Fork Tribune, that there is now at work in that city a thir ty-horse power engine of the Ericsson principle, but much improved, giving the great pressure of fifty pounds to the square inch, and with less coal or other expense than incurred by Capt. E.’s original engines on the new ship. Sixteen railroad bills, tor main trunks and branches, and one to establish a line of steam vessels across the Atlan tic, were passed by the Canadian Legis lature at its late session. Alexander Dumas, the author of Par is, has written fifty dramas, and teroo hundred volumes of fiction t California Land Claims.— We take the following interesting article from the San Francisco Herald : The Land Commission commenced its sessions in January, 1352, and the first petition was filed on the 21st of that month. The time allowed by the act of Congress for presenting claims ex pired on the 3d of March, 1853, to mid night of which day the Secretary’s office was open for their reception. Eight hundred and twelve have been presimted, of which two hundred were puljni after the 23d of February; but of Fhese last the major portion are of fered for parts of ranchos, by parties Wat have acquired their interest through conveyances from the original claimant jyho generally had previously filed his petition for the whole tract claimed by fiirn. The whole number of claims confirmed up to date are thirty-nine. It is said that there are valid claims which have not been presented, and the cause assigned is supineness on the part of those who hold them. We present to-day certain statistics with relation to claims which have been filed, and their accuracy is as near as circumstances will permit. In almost all of the counties there are located claims, the bounds of which are not set forth in the petitions with precision, but which are described simply as contained within natural boundaries. Their ex- in the wxirds of the grants, to asc^rfarnb*dV^vsubsequent sunrey, but as the Mexican law did no* awnWr ize the donation of more than a certain number of leagues, they can in no case be assumed to exceed the quantity of land thus limited. A fair estimate would probably average about three square leagues. We omit in our calculations a small number of grants which called for such minute parcels of land as are described as corrals, orchards, or town lots—with the exception, however, of those located at the Mission Dolores, or in the neighborhood of San Jose— our reason being that elsewhere they are of little comparative importance. Accompanying the petitions as filed in the office of the Commission, there is usually a copy of the original grant under which the claimant derives title. Of these, the earliest date that has come Utiubi u .1* ko 1113 j frciu V! titch lime to 1821 there are represented to have been made about twenty only. This was under the Spanish rule. It was not until the Bth of April, 1822, that Don Pablo Vicente Sola took the oath ot allegiance to the Regency of Inde pendent Mexico ; and in the years ’3l and ’22 we find some eight or ten grants which derive, of course, their whole force from the Spanish law. Subse quently, grants are made by Governors or other persons who are invested with authority from the Mexican Supreme Government. It is also worthy of re mark, that, with but few exceptions, persons occupying territories under li cense from Spanish Governors, have been at the pains to procure a recogni tion of their possession from the Mexi can authority which succeeded. The greatest number of grants made during the administration of any one Governor, was while Micheltorano presided over the province. In the latter part of 1342 he arriveef from Mexico, with a com mission as Governor, clothed, it is said, with extraordinary powers by Santa Anna, who was at that time absolute in Mexico. Alvarado and Vallejo were then at the head of affairs in Califor nia; and after some negotiations with them, he assumed the command in 1843 and held it until February 1844, when, with his convict troops, he was expelled from the country by the revolutionists. About one hundred and eighty-four grunts are dated during this interval. Micheltorano is said to be the best Go vernor California has ever had, and if he could have restrained his soldiers, would have been highly popular. Here follows a long list of grants, in each county, from which we take those claimed in Calaveras and Tuolumne. The following recapitulation we take from the Alla California: Calaveras County. —Number of square leagues claimed, 11 ; quantity in acres, 47,- 740; number of claims, 1; date of grant, 1846 Tuolumne.— Number of square leagues claimed, 24 ; quantity in acres, 103,960; number of claims, 3 ; date of grants, 1845. RECAPITULATION. Butte Co., 324,500 Santa Cruz 202,123 Calaveras 47,740 San Diego 381.640 Colusi 290,780 S L. Obispo 243,040 Contra Costa 326.670 S Francisco 174,324 Los Angeles 299,755 San Joaquin 190,960 Marin 607,600 Ditto Valley 300,460 Merit osa 91,140 Solano 91,140 Mendocino 520,800 Sonoma 431-830 Monterey, 525,360 Shasta 22,700 Napa 107,080 Tuolumne 308,960 Sacramento 173,600 Tulare 91,040 Sae. Valley 615.000 Yolo 169,200 San Barbara 573.804 Yuba 26.040 Santa Clara 373,864 -# Total, 7,818,196 Equal bo 11499 fquare sail*. Governors or California.—Wo find, in the San Francisco Herald, the following historical sketch of the Gov ernors of California and their duration of office : The first Spanish Governor in Upper California was Gasparde Portola, who (with the title of captain-general) was sent to the territory in 1769. In 1775, iie was succeeded by Felipe de Neve. Pedro Fages assumed command in 1783, and he was relieved in 1792 by Josef Romeu. In 1795, Diego Borica wa» invested with the charge of affairs. Jose Joaquin Arrillaga became Gover nor in 1806, and to him succeeded, in 1812, Jose Maria Arguello. In 1315, commenced the term of Pablo Vicente Sola, during whose administration the P<K>vkc« of Mvxica declared its inde pendence of Spain. All these officers derived their authority from the Crown, and were clothed with the chief milita ry and civil command in the Territory. After Portola, they bore the titles of Governor and Military Commandant. It was, of course, some months after the Bfan-qfkruala was published, be fore the nevSs of the establishment of Mexican independence could reach this distant province ; and it was not until the spring of 1822 that Sola acknowl edged the change of affairs. Mean while, Iturbide bad been shot, and it was to the Regency of Independent Mexico that the California Governor took the oath of allegiance. Sola took the title of Political Chief and Military Cotni»ndant, and remained in office during which year he went to Mexico, leaving as Political Chief tad interim, Luis Antonio Arguelo. He acted until 1825, when Jose Maria Echeandia arrived from Mexico, with a Commission as Political Chief. Echeandia was superceded in 1839 bj Don Manuel Victoria, who was ex pelled from the country by the people in November, 1830. California wan then governed iu an irregular manner ; the southern portion recognizing the former Political Chief, Echeandia, who remained in the country, at Los An geles, while the northern portion was under the control of Captain Agustia V. Zamordeu, a native of Florida, who commanded the troops at Monterey. At length, in the beginning of 1833, General Don dose Figucrop arrived from Mexico with a commission as Political Chief and Military Comman dant, and with bis arrival commenced in fact the regular administration of government according to the laws of Mexico. He died on the 39th of Sep tember, 1835, having previously, in the beginning of that month, resigned the government to Don Jose Castro, the eldest member of the Territorial Depu tation, or Council of Government. Cas tro, in a short time afterwards, resign ed the government to Colonel Nicolas Gutierrez, who beld.it until the arrival of Don Mariano Chico with a commis sion from Mexico. Chico was expelled by the people of Monterey, in the month of July, 1836; Gutierrez recovered the command, but was in like manner, ex pelled in November following. In the meantime the Federal Consti tution of Mexico had been overthrown, and the Central system was in progress of establishment. The Californians were opposed to the latter, and upon the expulsion of Gutierrez the Deputa tion declared California independent, and called on Don Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo to assume the government of the Slate. He, however, hesitated, and Don Juan Bautista Alvarado, as eldest member of the Deputation, took the place of Governor. Don Carlos Antonio Carrillo, of Santa Barbara, was appointed by the President of Mexico as Governor of the Department in 1837; but Alvarado soon drove him and bis adherents into the Peninsula, and rado was, in 1833, confirmed in his of fice as Governor by President Busta mente, with Vallajo as Commandant- General. These officers continued to govern the country, in peace, until the latter part of 1842, when General Manuel Micheltorena arrived as Governor and Commandant-General. Alvarado and Vallejo were at first inclined to resist his authority, but at length they acqui esced, and in the beginning of 1843, ho took command and maintained it until February, 1844, when, by a sort of revo lution, be was expelled. As we bare before intimated, the principal cause of complaint against him was the charac ter of the troops which had accompa nied him from Mexico. The office of Governor being thus vacated, Pio Pico, eldest member of the Departmental Assembly, undertook the functions of the chief civil authority, while Jose Castro possessed the office of Com mandant-General. They remained in power until the occupation of Califor nia by the United States. Douglass Jerroid says that “earth in Australia is so kind, that just tickle her with a hoe, and she laughs with at har vest. ;J NUMBER 23.