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The Charleston daily news. [volume] (Charleston, S.C.) 1865-1873, December 09, 1865, Image 11

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To the Two Houses of Congress at thc Com?
mencement of the First Session of the
Thirty-ninth (jongre?*,
Fclioir-C?izeits of the Senate and House of Rep?
resentative* : To expresa gratitude to God, in thc
name of the people, for the preservation of the
United States, is my first dnty.in addressing; you.
Our thoughts next revert to th? death of the late
President bj an act of pairicAl treason. The
?rief of the nation is still frotiHrit finds some so?
in the consideration thathejivedto enjoy the
_fliest proofs of its confidence by catering on the ;
renewed tvrm of thc Chief Magistracy, to which
be had been elec ted ; that he brought the civil,
war substantially to a dose ; that h?* loss was de- ;
plored in aU parto of tho Union ; and that foreign ?
nations have rendered justice to his memory.
His removal cast upou me a heavier weight ?f
cares than evev devolved upon any one of his
predecessors. To fulfil my trust I need the sup-"
port and confidence of nil who are associated with
ino :u the various departments of government,
?nd the support and confidence ol thc people.
TLere but ono way in which I can hope to gain ;
their necessary aid ; it is, to state with frankness
the principles which guide my conduct, and their
application to the present state of affairs, well
aware that thc efficiency of my labors will, ina '
great measure, depend on your and their undivi?
ded approbation.
The Union of the United States of America was
infended by its authors to last as long as the States
themselves" shall last. 'THE UNION SHALL BE PER?
PETUAL" are the vords of thc Confederation. "To '
rout A MORE p?ti' ECT UxioN,'' by an ordinance of I
.the people of the I nited States, is the declared
' purpose of thc Constitution. The hand of Divine
Providence was ?eyer more plainly visible in the
affairs of men ?1 au in the framing and adopting ;
of that ina trament, lt is, beyond comparison, the !
greatest event in American history ; mid indeed is
it not, of all events in modern tiiucs, lue most
pregnant with consequences for every people of
the earth ? The nu mtiers of the Convention which
prepared it, brought to their work tho exp?rience
of tue Confederation, of their several States, and ;
pf other Beuublie in Governments, old and new; bat
they needed and they obtained a wisdom superior |
to experience. And when for its validity it rt-quir- i
ed the approval ol' a people that occupied a large
pact of a contint nt and acted separately in many
distinct conventions, what is more wonderful than i
that, after earnest contention and lung discussion, i
aU feelings and all opinions were ultimately drawn '?
in one way to ita tnpport V
The Constitution to which life was thus impart?
ed contains within itself ample resources for its
own preservation. It has power to enforce tho
]?ws, punish treason, and ensure domestic tran-J
quility. In case of the usurpation of the Govern-1
ment of a State by one man, or'au oligarchy, it
becomes a duty of the United States to make good j
the guarantee ol that State of a republican form .
ef government, (.nd so to maintain the homogene?
ousness of all. Does tho lapse of time reveal de- !
fe ct.- ? A simpls mode of amendmont is provided
in the Constitution itself, so that its conditions can '
always be mode to conform to the requirements
of advancing civilization. No room is allowed j
even for the thought of a possibility of its coming 1
to an end. And these powers of self-preservation I
havo always been asserted in their complete integ-1
ruy by every patriotic Chiof Magistrate-by Jeifer- I
son and Jaekaoi., not less thou by Washington and j
Madison. The parting advice of the Father of his j
Country, while yet President, to the poople of thc
United States, vt as, that "the free Constitution,
which was the work of their hauds, might be sa- i
credly maintained," an(l??lhe inaugural words of |
President Jefferson held np "the pafferr.a'J -n cf j
the General Government, hi iti^^?'stituuonal
vigor, as the Bh<^eJkfttnclior of omdflf <\ at home
and safety abra (?L* TUp ConatituWS is the work
of "the Pepjr?f the uWtedStatoJlaL ? it*houid
_ba^^aeui^ib^ jtf. .
tution, whichki.a no model in tliefpaet, should not !
>ave lull comprehended tho excellence of their I j
o'.n worfc. Frosh from a ?truggle against ari>i
Vary power, mur. patriots Butlered noni harass-1 '
ing fears of an absorption of th'.^'ato Govern-11
tti.nts by the Ueneral Government, ?? i many from j
I dread that the Stiles would breai" away from
their orbits. But the very greatness of our coun
:ry should allay the apprehension of encroach?
ments by the G.-.toial Government. The subjects
that come unquestionably within its jurisdiction
are eo numerous, that it uiust ever naturally refuse
to be embarrassed by questions that lie beyond it.
Were it Otherwise, tlio Executive would ?ink be?
neath the br rd en ; tho channels of justice would 1
be choked ; legislation would bc obstructed by ex- 1
cess; so that lhere is a greater temptation to j
exercise some of the . unctions of the Ueneral Gov- , 1
eminent through the States than to trespass on ? '
their rightful sphere. "Thc absolute acquiescence I J
in the decisions of the majority" was, at the begiu- j '
liing of the cent ury, enforced by Jefferson "aa the I
vital principle pf republics," and the events of the . (
last lour yeari have Mtabitybg* wc will hope for J i
ever, that lhere lies no appeal to loree.
The maintenance of tho Union briugs with it
"the support ol the State Governments in all their
rights;'' but it is not one of the rights of any State j J
Government to renounce I its own placo in the | j
Union, or to nullify the laws of the Union. The j
largest Ubertris tv foe maintained in the discussion I ,
ofjthe acts of tile FedertJ Government; but there I i
is-no appeal from itB laws, except to the Turtons
branches of tha ; Government itself.or to the pcopie.
who grant to the members of the Legislative auu
o? the Executive Departments no tenure but a lim?
ited one, and in that manner always retain thc
powers of redress.
"The sovereignty of thc States" is the language
of the Confederacy, and not the language of the
Constitution. Tho latter contains tho emphatic
words: "The Constitution, and tho laws of the
United States whick shall be made in pursuance
thereof, and all treaties made or which shall be
made under the authority of the United States,
shall bo the supreme law of tho laud; and the
judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any?
thing in the constitution or laws of air- State to
the contrary notwithstanding."
Certainly the Government of thc United States
is a hunted government ; and HO is every state
government a limited government. With ns, this
idea of limitation spreads through every form of
administration, general, State, and municipal,
and rests ou the great distinguishing principle of
tho recognition of the rights of mau. The ancient
republics absorbed tire individual in the State,
prescribed his religion, and controlled his activity.
The America a system rests on the assertion of
the equal right of every man to life, liberty, and
the pursuit ol happiness fto freedom of conscience,
to the culture and exercise of all his faculties. As
a cons?quente, the State Government is h'mited,
as to the General Government in the interest of
Union, as to the individual citizen in the interest
of freedom.
Stat's, wit! proper timi ta tiona of power, are es?
sential 'o thc existence of th?' Constitution of the
United Sutes. At tue very commencement, when ! I
we assumed a place among the Powers of thc
earth, the Declaration of Independence was
adopted by States; so also were the Articles of
Confederation; anti when "the People of the
United States" ordained and established tho Con?
stitution, it was thc assent of the State*?, ono by
one, which gave it vitality. In the event, too, of
any amendment to the Constitution, the proposi?
tion of Congress needs the Confirmation of States.
Without States, one great branch of the legisla
lative government would bc wanting. And, if we
look beyond the letter ol Ute Constitution to tho
character of our country, it* capacity fur compre?
hending within its jurisdiction a v.i>t continental
empire is due io tim ystemoi Mate.-. The best
security for thc perpi tua] existence of the States
is the "suprema auto, aty" ot thc Constitution of
the United States, .he perpetuity of tho Con
stitutijii brings with it the perpetuity of tho
Statte; their mutual relation makes us what wc
arc, and m our political system their connexion is
iniasolnblc. 'Ino printie cuttDOt exist tritium! the
puns, nor the parts wffhtmt tho w.iolc. Solong
as the Constitution u e United St tee endures,
the States will endux tte destruction of the one ? <
is the destruction <>t .ie other; the preservation
of the one ia the prc nation of the other.
I have thus explained ray views of tho mr
! relation* of tho Constitution and the States
cause ?hey unfold the principle!? on which I ?
*oughc to solve thc momentous questions
overcome thc appalling difficulties that met n
thc very commencement of my administration,
has been my steadfast object to escape from
j sway of momentary passions, and io derive a 1
; iug policy from thc fundamental and uno han;
j principles of thc Constitution.
I found the States suffering from the effects
I civil war. Resistance to the General Oororoo
j appeared to have exhausted itself. Thc Da
States had recovered possession of their forts
arsenals : and their armies were in tho occupa
of every State which bad attempted to scci
Whether the territory wthin the limits of ti
States should bc held as couquered territory,
der military authority emanating from the Pi
dent as the head of the army, was the first qi
tion that presented itself for* decision.
Now, military governments, established for
indefinite period, would have offered no secu
for the early suppression of discontent ; wc
have divided the people into the vanquishers
the vanquished ; anti would have envenomed
fred, ratha than have restored affection. 0
established, no precise limit to their continua
was conceivable. They would have occasioned
incalculable and exhausting expense. Peact
emigration to and from that portion of the cone
is one of tlie best means that can bc thought
for the restoration of harmony ; and that ernie,
lion would have been prevented ; for what c
grant from abroad, what industrious c Uzen
home, would pises himself willingly under mititi
rule ? The chief persons who would have folio*
in tLo train of thc army would have been dep
>]< nit <ut..e General Government, or men who
pected profit from the miseries of their crri
fellow-citizens. The powers of patronage ami r
which would have been exercised, under the PK
dent, over a vast, and populous, and natura
wealthy region, are greater than, unless ont
extreme necessity, I should be miling to en tn
to any one man ; they are snch as, for mysell
could never, unless on occasions of great" cnn
gen cy, consent to exercise. The wilful use of sn
powers, if continued through a period of yea
would have endangered the purity of the genei
administration and thc liberties of thu Stal
which remained loyal.
Insides, thc policy of military rule over a cc
quered territory would have implied that the Stat
whose inhabitants may have talan part in t
rebellion had, by the act, <if those Inhabitant
ceased to exist. But the true theory is, that i
pretended acts of secession were, from the begi
ningi null and void. The States cannot conni
treason, nor screen the individus] citizens wi
may have committed treason, any more than th
eau make valid treaties or engage in lawful cot
merce with any foreign j SWOT. The States .i
tempting to secede placed themselves in a cont
tion where their vitality was impaired, but not e
tinguisbed-their fonctions suspended, but n
Rut if at;v State neglects or refuses to perfon
its offices-, there is tho more need that the Gen
rid Government should maintain all its authnrit,
and. as soon as practicable, resume the exercise i
all its functions. On this principie I have acte<
and have gradual!] and quietly, and by almost in
perceptible steps, sought to restore the rightfi
energy of the General Government and of th
States. To that end, Provisional Governors hav
been Pinpointed 'or the States, Conventions callee
Governors ejected, Legislatures assembled, an
Senators and Representatives chosen to the Coi
gross of the United States. At thc same tim<
the Courts of the United States, ns far as coul
be done, have becu reopened, so that the laws e
tho United States mav be enforced through thei
agency. The blockade has been removed and th
Custom-houses re-established in port? of entrv
so that tho revenue of the United States may b
collected. I he Post Office Department renew
its ceaseless activity, and the General Govern
ment is thereby enabled io communicate prompt
ly with its officers and agent.?. The courts brinj
security to persons and property ; the opening o
tue ports invites tho restoration of industry am
commerce ; tilo po9t office renews the facilitio;
of social intercourse and of business. And is i
not haotf* for ns all, that tho restoration of eacl
one o.^gp.se functions of the General Governmoni
bring,-ttfiiL it a blessing to the States over whist
thoy are extended ? Is it apt a sure promise ol
harmony and renewed attachment to thc Union
that, after ail that has happened, the return ol
the General Govei orient is knowu only as a bent
^Jwr-te .. yr-?J-?-:-^-r^srs
Ilhiow verv well that this policy is afforded
with some ribk : that P>r its snccess it requires at
least ;*ie acquiescence of the States which it con?
cerns : that it implies an Invitation to those
States by renewing their allegiance to the United
State's, to resume their functions as States of thc
Union. But it is a risk that must be taken : in
the choice of difficulties, it is the smallest rinV ;
and to diminish, and, il- possible, te) remove all
[langer, I have felt it incumbent on me to assert
one other power of the General Government-the
power of pardon. Asno State can throw a de?
fence over the crime of treason, the power of par?
don is exclusively vested in the Executive Govern?
ment ol' tho United States. lu exercising that
power, I have taken every pr?caution to connect
,t with the clearest recognition of the binding
Torce of the laws of the United States, and an un
inahficd acknowledgment of the great soda",
mange of condition in regard to slavery which
jas grown ont of the war.
The next step which I have taken to restore the con
ititutional relations of thu States, has been an Invitation
tO thew to pAl'ticipato in tbs high office e>f amending
he Constitution. Every patriot must wish for a geni?
al amnct-ty at the * arlie stepoch consistent with public
lafe'.y. For this great end there is need of a conenr
ence of all opinions, and the spirit of mutual concilia
ion. All parties tn thc lato terrible conflict must work
ogetbor in harmony. It is not too much to ask, in thu
lame of the whole people, that, on the one side, the
dan of restor.nion <^all proceed in confotxuity With a
rUUngneat Iv cast the disorders of the fast into obli
io?! md that, on the other, the evidence of sincerity in
he future maintenance of the Union shall be put oeyond
iny doubt by the ratification of the proposed amend
neut to the. Constitution, which provides for the aboli
lon of slavery forever, within the limits ol' our country.
Sd long as the adoption of this amendment is delayed,
>o long will doubt, and jealousy, and uncertainty pre
fail. This is the measure which will efface the sad me
nory of the past ; this is the measure which will mos:
.'ertainly call population, and capital, and security to
hose parts of the Union that m ed them most Indeed,
it is not too much to ask of the States which are now
resuming their places in the family of thc Union, to
live this pledge of perpetual loyalty and peace. Until it
is done, the post, however much we may desire it, will
jot bc- forgotten. The adoption of thc amendment re
mites us Seyond all power of disruption. It heals the
A-ound that is still imperfectly closed; it removes sla?
very, the element which has so long perplexed and dirt?
ied the country; lt makes of us once mon.' a united peo?
ple, renewed and strengthened, bound more than ever
JU mutual affection and support.
The Amendment to tho Constitution being adopted, it
would remain for the States, whose pow e. s dave been so
long m abeyance, to resume their places in the two
?ranches of the National Legislature, and thereby com- ]
pletc the work of restoration. Here it ii for you, fel
ow-citizens of the Senate, and for you, fellow-citizens of
he House of Representatives, to judge, each of you for
i 'ur.-e-v. ?f the elections, returns, and qualifications !
?f your o?., members.
The full assertion of the powers of thc General Gov- j
?rament rejuires the holding of Circuit Courts of the
united Slates within thu districts There their authority
las been interrupted In the preseut posture of our ?
public affairs, strong Objections have been urged to hoki?
ng those cou ts in any of the Slates where tho rebellion ;
lias cxitted; and it was ascertained, bj inquiry, that the !
,'ireuit Court of the United States would not be held
within the District of Virginia during the autumn or
.arly winter, nor until Congress should have ~an oppor?
tunity to consider and act on the whole subject." To'
cour delibcraii .ns the resioratiou of this branch of the
kivil authority of the United State-s is, therefore, neces?
sarily referred, with the. hope that early provision will
be made for the resumption of all its functions. It is j
manifest that t eason, niosr flagrant in character, has
\)Ml committed. Persons who ste charged with its
jomuiissiou should bave lair and impartial trials in tile 1
highest civil tribunals of the country, in ordi-r that the
Constitution sud the laws may be fully vindicated; the .
truth clearly established and affirmed that treason is a
.rime, that traitors t.houid be punished and thc offence
nude infamous: and. at thc same tame, that the question ;
may be judicially settled, finally and forever, that no
?State, of its own will, Las thu right to renounce its place !
in the Union.
'Hie relations of the General Government towards the j
four; millions of inhabitants whom the war has called
into freedom, have engaged my most serious considera- j
tion. On the propriety of attcmptiw,'tn make tb-j ired- ;
men electors by the proclamation Of lbj Executive, I
took for my conn-el the Constitution itself, thc in?/rpre- i
tations of that iustmment by its authors and their eon
Iciuporarief, and .ecmt legislation bj-Congress. When, ]
it the first movement towards Independence, the t.'on- !
g ress of thc United States instructed the several States !
to institute governments of their own, they lett each .
State to decido for itself the conditions for the enjoy- i
meut of thu elective franchise. During ihe period of j
the Confederacy there continued to exist ? very great j
diversity in the qualifications ol electors in the several
: tates; and even within a state a distinction vi qualin- '
.cations prevailed with regard to the officers who we
Ibo chosen. The Constitution of t!io United Statef
?co nixes these diversities wLim it enjoius that, in
? choice of members of the Hu"?e of Representative
I thc United States, "tho elector1 ; iu f*'h State shall 1
the qualifications requisite..electors of thc t
numerous branch of tho State Legislature." A
the formation lot' the CcnsUritlon, lt remained.
? before, the uniform osage f r each SJite to cri
the body <>f its electora, nccu.tnng to its own judgin
and. under this system, one Sf.tc ofter another has
eroded to increase thc numb, j yf its electors, until
universal suffrage, or something very near it, is the. g
ral rule. So Axed wa* this ri r watton of power in
j habits of the people, and so uu vtcetlonrd has been
interpretation of the Constitution, that during the .
war the late President never-h^facred the purpose
tainly never avowed thc purpi* ?-of disregarding it :
lu the acts of Congress, during th:* period, nothing
be found which, during the tinriuuanco of boattUI
much less alter their close, w-.;ld have sanctioned
departnro by the Executive fruin s poUcy whick lift!
uniformly obtained. Moreover, a concession of the e
tivc frtmcbise to the freedmen, hy act of the PresirJ
of thc United States, must 'Jnwo becu extended t(
colored men. wherever foum" .iud so must have es
lished a change of suffrage lu t \e Northern, Middle,
Western States, not less than !utJit Southern and Soi
n estera. St?h an set would o*v?, <.'.< nted s ni w das
voters, and would have besn .. . (sumption ol power
tbe President ivhidi nothing u ?oe Constitution or 1
of the United States would bu P. : . ?ji-*d.
On tbe other hand, every d.- i$er of conflict ls avol
lwhen thc settlement of the o. istiosi is referred to
'several Statt s. They can, esc 4 < or itself decide on
measure, nnd whetlicr it ij*. be adopted at once i
absolutely, or introduced gr- t'lly and with conditio
In my judgment, tho freedme'l ut they show patie:
and manly virtuos, will soone_^.btain r. participation
the elective franchise throug:"Aa. States than throi
thc General-Government, eve] ..fit had power to ml
vene. When the tumult of emt-; ons that had been ral
by the suddenness of the sociai change shall have si
sided, it may prove thnt they *'<1 receive the kindli
usage from somo of those on i ft>m they have heretof
most closely dopended. fr
But while I have no doubt ts^i now, after the close
thc war, it in not competent lot the General Goverumi
to extend the elective franchise in the sever d States,
ls equally clear that good faith requires the security
the freedmen in their liberty ?rid their property, th
right to labor, and their right ti claim the just return
their labor. I cannot too stroi.jdy urge a dispassioni
treatment of this subject, whic:,should be carefully ki
aloof from all party strife. We oiust equally avoid' ha;
assumptions of any natural inpossibility 'for the t'
races to live side by side, in a s tte of mutual benefit a:
goodwill. Thc experiment tT5^*iv rs us in no ?neons
tency; let ns. thon, go on and, .Jake that experiment
good faith,and uot be too easily .^heart/'ned. The count
is in need of labor, and the freddnxen aro in need of ei
ph-yment, culture und protect; n. While their right
voluntary migration and expatuAUon is not to be que
tidied, I would not advise tl ir forced removal ai
colonization. Let us rather encourage them to bone
ft'ilpt-and useful industry, wbCM it may be beneficial
themselves and to the coimuy; and, instead of han
anticipations of the certainty"bf fallare, let there I
notting wanting to the lair triiyil the experiment. Tl
?hange in ?heir condition is tb j?ub?tilntinn of labor I
attract for the stitus of stavtry. The freedman cai
not fairly-be scensed of unwillingness to work, so kn
as a doubt remull?s about hOf^-.lom of choice in li
pcrsnits, and .thc certainty of fis recovering his stip:
lated wages. In this the intenf b. of thc employer au
the employed coincide. Thc i aployar desires in h
workn.1 II spirit and alacrity, jj ii these can be penni
ucutly secured in no other tria . > uti if the one ougl
tobe able to enforce the cont?:' , so ought the otha
The public interest will be h: si promoted, if the seven
States w ill provide adequate pr. lection and remedies Kt
the freedmen. Until thin is, in ? rue ....?}., accomplish^
there is no chance for the t-lrtmtageous usc of thai
labor; and the blame ofiU-SUCcM will not rest on th n
I know that sincere philanthropy is earnest for iii
immediate reahzation of its lvtiLotest aims; but Uine I
always an element in reform. ,t is one of the greata
acts on record to have bronghTour millions of peopl
into freedom. The career of fr* iudtistry must be fairl
Open to them; and then their frrure prosperity and cot
ditton mr st, after all, rest i ?v on themselves. 1
they fail, and so perish away. ltjTus be careful that th
failure shah not bc attributable fo any denial of jnsUcc
In all that relates to the desthiy ol' thc freedmen, w
need not be too anxious to rend tho future; many Ind
dents which, from a speculative peint of view, in ig h
raise alaru, will quietly settle themselves.
Now that slaver}- is at an end, or near its end, th
greatness of its evil, hi the point of view of public ?eono
ruy, becomes moro and more app?tent. Slavery wa
[ ssentially a monopoly of labor, arid as such locket
tbs sutes where it prevailed against the, incomiu?
ot free industry. Where labor was tho property of tlii
:apitallst, thc white man was excluded from employ
meut, or had but the second l i st chance of finding it
md thc foreign emigrant turned away from thi
.egion where his conditio.1 would bc so pre
:arious. With the destruction of the monopo
y. free labor will hasten from all parts of the civiliz
zed world to assist in develo ping various ano immea
lurable resources which hav<- hitherto lain dormant
The eight or nine Buttes ne,rest the Gulfiof Mexicc
?aves soil of ? xuberant ?erti^V-'.. rMmstu friendly te
min.! ?. y^.ifij.:./ J^jfc&rZ&K^*^'* J^^^^l?r-.
nftux of population to them'wiU bo injury from th?
;"<- .>.., or from tbe most cultivated nations "in Europe.
?ruin thc 'iifferinps that have attended them during our
ate struggle, let us '.ook awdy to the future, which is
inn to be laden for them with grc?*r prosperity than
tas ever before been known. The removal of the mo
lopoly of slave labor is a pledge that those regions will
je peopled bj a numerous and enterpi Ising pop?la?
los, which will vie witta any in the Union in compact
icss, inventive genius, wealth, and industry.
nur Government springs noni and was made for the
icoplc-not the people for the Government To them
t owes allegiance; from them it IHUH: derive its courage,
itrengtb, and wisdom. But, while the Government bi
hus bound to defer to the people, ?'rom whom lt derives
Ls existence, it should, from the very consideration of
ts origin, be strong iii its power of resistance to tbe
stublisbmcnt of inequalities. Monopolies, perpetul?
les, and class legi.-lation, are contrary to the genius of
ree government, and ought :aot to be allowed. Here,
here is no room for favored cit??" s or monopolies, the
irinciple of our Government is that of equal laws and
leedom ol industry. Wherever monopoly attains a
bothold. it is sure to be a source, ol danger, discord,
ind trouble. We shall but fulfil our duties as legi.-la
ors by according "equal and e^aet jnstice to all men,"
ipecial privileges to none. Tnt Government is lUDordi
iste to thc people: but, as the agent ami represen tau VC
if the people, it must be held superior to monopolies,
vhieh, 1J themselves, ought never to be granted, and
vhich, where they exist, mnat be subordinate and yield
o the Government.
The Costitution confers on Congress the right to re?
gulate commerce among tho several Sutes. It ls ol the
irst necessity, for the maintenance of the Union, Cat
.hat commerce should be frc? and unobstructed. No
state can bc justified in any device to tax the trausit of
ravel and commerce betwem States. Thc position
if many Statea is such that, if they were allowed to ta?;0
idvantage of it for purposes of letal revenue, mc coin
nerce between States might bo Injuriously burdened,
>r even virtually prohibited. It is best, while the coun?
ty is still young, and while the tendeucy to dangerous
nonopohes of this kind ls soil feeble, to use the power
)f Congress so as to prevent ?ny selfish impediment to
he free circulation cf men oui merchandise. A tax on
travel aud merchaudise, in. tb?.ir transit, constitutes one
of thc worst forms of mouopdy, and the evil is inert as
;d if coupled with a denial of the choice of route. When
thc vast extent of our couutrr i3 considered, it is plain
[hat every obstacle to the fre? circulation 01 commerce
lietween the States ought to be sternly guarded against
Ijy appropriate legislation, within the limits of the Con?
The report of the Secretary of the Interior explain.* the
^tradition of the public lamb, the transactions o' the
latent Office ami the Pensioa Boreen, the manage.neut
if our Indian affair?, the progress made in the construc?
tion of the Pacific railroad, and furnishes information
in reference to matters nf Ioctl interest in the District nf
Columbia. It also presents evidence of the successful
jperatiou of the Homestead ?ct, under the provisions of
which 1,160,533acres Of the pul lie lands were entered
luring the last fiscal year-?ore than one-fourth of the
?heile number ol' acres sold eir otherwise disposed of
luring that period. It is estimated that the receipts de?
rived from this source are roaVient t? cover the expenses !
incident to the survey and disposal of the lands entered i
linier this Act, anti that payments in cash to the extent
if from forty to fifty per cent, -viii be made by settlers,
n hi> may thus at any time acquire title bet?re the expira?
tion of the period at which it would otherwise Ve -t. The
?omcstesd policy was established only sfu r long sud I
.arnest resistance; exptrienceyroves its wisdom. The I
lands, in the hands nf ntdnstrlons settlers, whoa? labor
rt s tes wbalth and nm tributes to the public resources,
wurth moreto the United States than if they had been
erved as a solitude lor inure purchasers.
Tba lamentable events of the last four years, ami tin
Mcrinces made by the gallant men of our Army anil N:.
vy, have swelled the records of the Pension Hurtan tu an
unprecedented extent. On ibeSOdi ilay of June la-t th.
te.tal number of pensioners was B9.W6, retiniringtor their
annual pay, exclusive Of expenses, the sum of $6,023,445.
Thc number of applications that have been allowed since
that date wii: require a large Int ros sf of this amount for
the next fiscal year. The means for the payment of th?
stipends due, undi r existing laws, to our disabled sol?
diers and sailors, anti to the fatigues of such as have per?
ished in the se n ice of thc country, will nu doubt be cheer?
fully and promptly granted. A grateful people will not
hesitate to sanction any uessUreS having for tli-ir object
the relief of soldiers mutilated ind families made father-,
less in the effort to preserve our BS tiona] existence.
The report of the Postmatter-Gcners] presents an en?
couraging exhibit of the operations of the Post Office De?
partment during the year. Tl:>- revenues of the p:tst
year from the kryal 8tsies alone exceeded the maximum
annual receipt? from all the States previous to the rein '.
lion, in the sum of $0,036,001; and the annual average
increase nf.revcnc.c duringth?- last four years, compari ?!
with the revenues of the lour years immediately preeed- ,
ing the rebellion, was $",.r?;C!,w.'i. 'The revenues e>: the ,
last fiscal year amounted to (14,550,158, and thc exj el t?- :
tures to (13,G94,T28, leavinga surplus of receipts over ex
pendltnres of 1861,430. Progress has been mad.- in re- j
storing the postal service ill th- Southern State s. 'ike
ricws presented hythe Po?lisaster.General against the
policy ur gnullingmbftidiesto iv. nu tam s!".irnsh lp lines
upon established routes, and in fara of continuing the
present System, which limits the compensation for ocean
service to the postigo, earnings, .ire rey-otimienled to the
careful consid?ration of Congress. ?
It appears, from the report nf the Secretary of tbjfl
Navy.tli.it wliile, at the conn:i-:i.-.-:;i"ut ,>i t!ie?l'i?*gjH
y.-ar, tin-re \vvs-r-is QljBjHSps^SH
a xl d<;s<-riptions. arni" 1 with :..?.? ajj^f l?atuiiM UfT
si,noe. mon, tie- muniier o:' ve ss. ls a; iir"s5flS"f:i i^>iunj?Sr"
sion is 117. with S?W guns and U.?-i mtsv. Iiy-Jfiis
prompt reduction of.theniv.i! torces the cxisyi^eSW thc
i .ov. rim,,-nt have bcBAj?jlfciiimii '.. an t a tnir.b?r
of Vi suels, piu-chasetxfHflHR r>-u-p'><.., ?r..??! th?'m??
chant marine, have j?^M^Hp 1 to -:*il jmr
- ?its of. ,.";,;.. r : >?';f_ :.. . V-.q . -MO:: ut active- hos?
tilities ??ur ?-reign squudrtras" -?svv Leer. rv-cstitbUahed,'
and consist ot'\> --.-is much' nxii-fl effirieiit than those
employed on similar service previous to the r?bellion.
The suggestion tor the enlarg.'inc'tit of the navy-yardB,
and especially for the establishment of one in fresb water
for iron-clad vessels, is deserting of consideration, as is
also the recommendation for a ditfereut .ocation and
more ample grounds for th" Naval Academy.
In the report of tile Secretary of Vwir. a general summary
ir given of the military camnslgni of i%4 and UMS, ending
in the suppression of armed resistance to the national au?
thority in the insurgent States. The operations of th- gem
ural administrativ.' bureau* of the UCar Department during
the past year are detailed, and au edimate made ot the
appropriation that will be rtrjaired for military purpose.-,
In thc fiscal year commencing the UOth day of Jnne,
iHCii. The national . lilitary ??rce on the 1st 6f llay,
?HG5, numbered l.UOO.SIC men. It is proposed to reduce
the" military establishment to a peace footing, compre?
hending fifty thousand troops of' all arms, organized so i
as to admit of an enlargement bv tilling up the ranks to
eighty-two thousand six hundred, if the circumstances 1
of the country should require an augmentation of the
army. The volunteer force has ?lready been reduced
by tlie discharge from sen-ice of over eight hundred 1
thousand troops, and the Department ls proceeding rap?
idly in the work of further reduction. The war esti?
mates are reduce?l from $316,210,131 to $33,81*,*ol,
which amount, in the opinion of the D.-.paituient, is
aden, a to for a peace establishment. The measures of
retrenchment in each Hureau and branch of tho service
exhibit a diligent economy worthy of commendation.
Inference is also mada in the report to th* necessity of
providing for a uniform niiiiti? system, and to the pro?
priety of makhig suitable provision for wounded and 1
disabled officers and soldiers.
Tlie reven'.e system of the country is a subject of vi- f
tal Interest to ifjrhoiior ?nd prosperity, and aho'iM
command tho earnest consideration of Congress. The I
Secretary ol the Treasury will lay before you .a full and
detailed report of the receipts and disbursements of the :
last fiscal year, of the first quarter of the present fiscal
year, of thc probable receipts ami expenditures fot the
other til ree nu irters, ami the estimates tor th?; voar fol- 1
lowing the 30th of Jane, 18CC. I might content mvsclf
with a reference to that report, in which you ?Ol find
ail the information required for your di lib?rations sud
decision. Dot the puraiuouut importance of the subject
to presses itself on my own mind, that I cannot but lay
beiore you my view? of the measnn ? which are required
for the good character, and, I might almost say, ?br the
existen' e of this people. The lue of a republic lies rer- j
Uiinly in the energy, virtue and intelligence c f itt citi
:?'M: but it is equally true that c good revenue system
is the lif?* nf an organized Government I meet you at
? time when the nation has voluntar!^ burdened ItscM
with n debt uuprecedent il in our ntuals. Vastas is
it:i amount, it hid? s awsy into nothing when compared '
with the countless Mornings jthaiiwi'l l?e coutcrred ?
upon ou;- connu/ and tapoo esau Jo/ thu pres-*: ?
abn of the nation's life. Ne*-, on the* tb st occa- '
lion of tho meeting of Confress) since the retuni
if peace, lt ls cf the utmost Importance to inaug?rate
- just policy, which Shall at duce ne nut in motion,
md which shall commend itfeif to those who come?'
'titer us for its continuance. We must aim at nothing
less than tlie complete effacement ct the fasnejal evils
that necessarily followed a state of civil war. Wo must . .
endeavor to apply thc earliest remedy to tho deranged i
?tate of tlie curreucjr", and not shrink irma devising a
policy which, without being ojipressivc to the people,
?hal] immediately begin to etlcct a reduction of the
iebt, and, if persisted in, discharged it fully within a j
icfaiitcly fixed number t-f years.
It is our first duty to preparo in earnest 'or cur re- ?
?very from the e'er-incrc^sing evils of on ir-edeemablo !
inrrency, without a sudden revulsion, and yet without !,
untimely procrastination. For that end we must, each '
in our respective positions, preparo ?he. way. I hold lt .
the duty of. the Executive to insist upon frugality in tho |
expenditures; and a sparing ccondniy is itself a great ;
national resource. . Of the banks tel which authority bas ;
t>een given to issue notes secured b>* bonds of the United
States, we . iay require the greatest moderation and pru
.en tte, and the law must lie rigldt.y en/or'sed when its , ,
Limits are exceeded. We may, eadi ono of qs, counsel J.-(
na detive and enterprising cmntrymen to bc cqustantly
>n their guard, to 1 i qi: ! da te debt? contracted in a paper
:urren*y, and, by conductia* business ts mrly sa po?.
?ble on a system of cash oaa'monts or ehdrt ??01118, to I
Hol l th-mselves prepared To retten to the standard of {
{Old and silver. To old ow leUdW-cltirens ia the pru?
dent management of their monetary affaire, thc duty de
?.vivs ou u? to diminish by law the a tie.nut of papo
noney now ia cirouLittou. Five yeats ago the w.ekj
.'ircnlation of thu country amounted to not mr.chr
han two himdrod itlillons: new.th? circulation,'
and national, i-xTedr s>veri hm. .Ired million?.
?ii - -'fciiil ii iii ii , ? r -^h^Miu-j- 'm?*,
han any wonts ot junie comnTTb, ^M??K.:T%\:
*es train lng this expansion. The gradual reduction of ' 1
ho currency is thc only ni-asur.- that can nave the bnsi ]
io* J of the country from ?lisustrous calamities! and this \ \
.au be almost imperceptibly accomplis bed by gradually ; \
anding thc national circulation tn securities* that may : t
ie made redeemable at the pleasure Of the Govern- i
u< nt
Dur debt is doubly secure-first, in the actual wealth J
md still greater undeveloped resources of the country; j
cid next, in the character of our instituti->n<?. The most i t
t.telligent observers among political economista have , ]
mt faded to remark, that the public debt nf a country t
s safe in proportion as its people are free; that thc debt | j
?f a republic is the safest Of all. Our history confirms .
iud establishes th- theory, and is, 1 firmly believe, des- ! .
i ned to give it a still more signal Illustration. The Be?
ret ot this superiority springs not merely from the foot ?
hat in n republiit theiiutional obligations arc distributed !
nore widely through countless numbers in all rlsssrsof i
ociety; it has its root in the character of our laws. :t
1?re all men contribute to th" public welfare, .and bear ?
heir fair share of the public burdeus. Daring the war, J,
Hider the impulses of patriotism, the nu ii of the great .
?ody of our people, without regard to their own com- f
larative want of wealth, thronged to our armies and ;
Hied our fleets ot' war, and bela tbeowelvefi ready to ? j
.lier their lives tor the public zuod. Now, in their turn, j *
he property and income of the country should bear I
heir just proportion of the burden el taxation; wb'.'e ; 1
u our Impost system, through means of which Increased
itality is Incidentally imparted to ?til the. industrial in- ? *
?.tests of the nation, tho duties sjtould be si adj listed !
s to full most heavily on sr*^iei of luxury, leaving tho '
leceasaries of life as fru- ftum taxation aB the absolute . '
vants ol the Gif,eminent, economically adminis.ered, i ?
viii justify, ,VU favored class should demand freed m ' J
rom, assessment, sud the faxes should be so distributed 1
IS hot to fall unduly on th. poor, but rather on the ac- j *
:uninlated wealth of thc country. We should look at : t
lational debt just as it is-not asa national blessing, "
jut as a heavy burden on the industry of the country, '
o be discharged without unnecessary delay.
It is estimated by tbs Secre tary of tho Treasury ! '
lint the expenditures for the fiHCalycar ending thc .
Wth of June, 1S6?, will exceed the receipts ?lTi,- ! ,
194,917. It is gratifying, however, to state that it 11
s also estimated that the revenue for the year end- ; i
hg tho SUth of Jone, lbt!7, will exceed the expend?- ; 1
lures in the sum of 1111,682,818. This amount, or I
it? much as may be deemed sufficient for the pur- j
poe?, may bo applied to the r?duction of the pub- |
lie debt, which, ott thc 31st day of October, 18(55, \
was i2,74d,S"i4,7.?0. Every reduction will diminish j,
the total amount of interest to be paid, and so en- ?
large the means of still further reductions, until i
the1 whole shall be liquidated ; and this, as will be
seen from the estimates of the Secretary of the ?
freaMiiy, may bo accompLsdicd by annual pay- i
mcnts even within a period not exceeding thirty !
years. I have faith that we shall do all this with?
in a reasonable time : that, as we have amazed the
world by thc suppression of a civil war which was
thought to bc beyond the control of any Govern-j
ment, so we ahall equally show the superiority of |
(?uv institutions liv tho prompt and faithful elis-1
charge of our national obligations.
Tie- Department 'd' Agriculture, nmler itu pro
sent direction, ia accomplish toe much in developing ?
ami utilizing the vast agricultural capabilitiew of
thecouutrv, and for inform?t ion respecting tin 1
details of its management reference is made to |
the annual report of thc Commissioner.
I have dwelt thus fully on our domestic affairs j
bocausc of their transctimlciit importance. Un-j
der any circumstances, our great extent of terri-,
tore and vari< ty .? ?l?mate, producing almost '
everything that is iieccsMtry for tlie wants, and
e ven tlie comforts ' r mai:, make us singularly in?
dependent of thc varying policy of foreign Pow- ;
ors. and protect us against every temptation to
"entangling alliance?/' while ftt tho present mo
j^nt the reestablishment of harmony, and the
strength tha: comes from harmony, will be our
lies* security against '.nation.-* who feelpiwer and
forget right." For myself, it has been am', it will
bc mv constant aim to promote peace and amity
with all foreign nations and Powers ; and [havo
i rerv r< a? n to believe that they all, without ex?
emption, are animated by tie.- .samo disposition.
Oui- relations with tie- Emperor of China, so re?
cent in their origin, are most friendly. Our com?
merce with his dominions is receiving new devel?
opments : and it is very, pleasing to lind that the
Government of that great Empire manifests satis?
faction with our policy, and reposes just conti-,
dence in the fairness which marks our intercourse.
The unbroken harmony between the United States
an.! the Emperor of ltussia to receiving a new
support from an enterprise designed to carry tcl
ei'raphic lines aciews thc continent of Asia, .
' ?irongli hiB^c^nTjj^g^rrirt iio tow?fiet ns witt
ij?^BRii^TiViii? Empire of Brasil. ' xmldi.si :n
HM party of mi'M of>civ-i*<- .'.ho hav*Mfc?cont
HjTIcft dur country ;.> m.xko a scientific cxpw?ration
fbf the natural history and rivers and mountain
rrapgcs of that region, have received from the cm
|*per<?r that generous welcome which was to have
I been expected from his constant friendship foi
[ che United Stsios, and his'wejhjknown zeal i:? pro?
j muting the advancement of Knowledge. A hon*
is entertained th^tonr commerce with the ric*}
? and populous countries that border thc Me (liter?
I ranean sea may be largely increased. Nothing
I will be waning on the part of thia GOT eminent
; to extend thc protection of our flag over the cn
terprite of our fellow-citizens. We receive Hom
: thoJPp'wers in that region assurances ol good
? will ; find it is worthy of note that a special envoy
? lia* brought UH messages of condolence oh the
death of our late Chief Magistrate from the Bey
, of Tunis, whoso rule includes the old dominions
of Carthage, oil the African coast.
Our domestic contest, now happily ended, hts left
some traces ia our r:lations with one at least of the
, msritinio Powers. Tbe-'fornial accordance of heiligeren I
j rights to the Insurgent States was unprecedented, and
; has not leen justified, by the issue. But in the systems
j of neutrality pursued by the Powers which made that
concession, there was a marhed difference. The mate?
rials of war for the insurgent States were furnished, in a
[great measure, from the workshops of Great Britain; and
British ships, manned by British subjects, and prepared
for receiving British armaments, sailed from the ports
of Great Britain, to make war eu American coman ere *v
under the shelter of a commission from the insurgen 1
States. These ships, hiving once escaped from British
ports, ever afterwards entered them in every part of the
world.to refit and so to renew their depredations. The
cons?quences of this conduct were most disastrous to the
States then in rebellion, increasing their desolation and*
nilEery by tfcr prolongation of our civil contest It bad,.
moreover, the effects to a great extent to drive the
American Hag from the sea, andjo transfer mnch of Un?
shipping and our commerce to the very Power whose
subjects had created the necessity for such a change.
These events took place before I was called to the ad?
ministration of the Government The sincere desire fox
peace by which 1 am animated led me to approve the
proposal, already made, to submit the questions which
had thus arisen between tho countries to arbitration.
These questions are of such moment that they most
have con- mandad the attention of the great Powers, and
are so fi.lerwoyeo with the peace and interests of every
one of tin'iii, sato have ensured an impirtial decision.
I regret to inforne-you tint Great Britain declined Ihe
arbitrament, but. oU'the other hand, invited us to tho
formation of 9 joint commission to settle mutusl claims
between thc two countries, ?"rom which those ?or the de
predations before mentioned should be excluded Tho
proposition, in that very tm satisfactory form, has been
The United Stater, did not present the subject as an
impeachment of thc good faith of a Power which waa
professing the most friendly dispositions, but a? involv?
ing questions of public btw, of which the settlement ia
essential to the peaoe of nations; and. though pecuniary
repa rationne their injured cjtiz ns would have followed
incidentally ou a decision against Great Britain, such
ci.ni|. .isatio-! W..U ii,>t their primary obit.ct. They had
a higher motive, ?ud it wa* hi the Inter) -?ts of peace and
justire lo establish important principles of international
law. The correspondence will tte placed before you.
the ground on which the British Minist r rests his jus?
tification is. substantially, that thc municipal law of a
nkili.u. anti the domestic interpretations of that'
law, aro ?the measure of its duty at a neutral;
and I feel hound to declare my opiiuou, before yon
and before tho world, that that justification can?
not be sus tamed before the tribunal of nations. At
the hime time I do not advise to any present at?
tempt at redress hy acts of legislation. For the
future, friendship between the two countries must
rest on tho basis of mutual justice.
From tito moment of the establishment of our
free Constitution, the civilized world haa been,
convulsed by revolutions in thc interests of de
mocracy or of monarchy; but through al; those
revolutions the United States have wisely and.
(irmly refused to become propagandists of repub?
licanism. It li the only government suited to outr
[.oudition; bnt we have never sought to impose it
cm others; and we havo consistently followed the
iidvico of Washington to recommend it only by the
careful preservation and prudent use of thc bless?
ing. During all the intervening period the policy
?European lovers and of tl e Lnitod 8tates lise,
M the whole, ''eon hairnonious. Twice, indeed,
rumors cf th: .Avaion cf some parts of Amorica,
in the inter XIBKL. 'larchy, have prevailed; twice
uy predict ; "WBR^hau t ecaaion to announce
^?e views ot'ibisIMF.1 .11 r-.spect to such in ter?
rence. On botlrW.-asiuus the remonstrance of
wUnited States Tas-respectad, fb^e deep een
?u:i. on tho part of ^^g^^^h^rumente. .
lave advanced in wealth .^M^ower; butwo retail/
ihe name purpose to l?uve the nations of Europe
:o choose their own dynasties a"d form their ow?
tvsteras of government. Thia c-insistent modcra
ion mavjnstly demand a corresponding mod?ra?
lo?. \VJ should regard it as a groat calamity to
)urt*?Ivee, to the;canee of _rood government, and
o the peace of the world, should any European
Power challenge tho American people, us it were,
0 the defence of republicanism against foreign
nterfer?nce. We cannot foresee anti ure unwilling
o consider what opportunities might present
hemscives, what combinations might otTer to pro
ect oiutelvcs against designs inimical to our form
if government. The United States desiro to act
11 the future as they have- ever acted heretofore;
hey never will be driven from that course bnt by
he aggression of European Powers: and wc rely
m the wisiitiin and Justice of those Powers to res
ice t the system of non-interference which has st>
ong been sanctioned hy time, and which, by ito.
;o<id results, has approved itself to both com
The correspondence between the United States and
'rance, in reference to questions which have become
objects of discussion between the t*-o Governmenos,-.
viii, at a proper time, be laid before Congress.
When, on the organizati m of our Government, under
be Constitution, the Pres' lent of the United States deli
ei-cd his inaugural address to thc two Houses of Con?
fess, ne said to them, and through them to tho country
ind to mankind, that "the preservation of the sacred fire
if liberty sud the destiny of the republican model of gc
rernmeut arc justly considered as deeply, perhaps as
inally staked on the experiment intrusted to the AmeJcV
an people." And the Hmso of Bepresentatives *n
iwered Washington by the voice of Madison: "We adore
he invisible hand which has led the American people,,
hrougu so many dilflcultles, to cherish a conscious re?
sponsibility for the destiny of republican lihorty." More ?
Lan seventy-six years have glided away since these ?
ivords were spoken; the United States have passed,
through severer U-iala than were foreseen; and now, at.
this new epoch in our existence as one nation, with our
Union purified by sorrows, and strengthened by con
iict. and established by the virtue of tho people, the
{realness of thc occasion invites us once more to repeat,
with solemnity, the pledges of our fathers to hold our?
selves answerable before our fehow-men for the success
af the republican form of government. Experience has:
proved its sufficiency in peace and in war; it has vindi?
cated its a Uhoriiy through dangers, and afflictions, and
sudden and terrible emergencies, which would have
crushed any system that liad been le's firmly fixed in
tho heart of the people. At the inauguration of Wash?
ington the foreign relations of the country were few, and
its trade ivas repressed by hostile regulations; now afj
thu civilized nations of the globe welcome our commerce,
and their Governments prot'tss towards us amity. Then
our country felt its way hesitatingly along an untried
path, with States so little bound together by rapid means
of roiumutiica ion as to be hardly known to one another,
ami with hi .oric traditions extending over very few
years ; now intercourse between the States is swift and
intimate; the experience of centuries has been crowded
iut-j a few generations, ami has created an intense, inde?
structible nationality. Then our Jurisdiction did not
reach beyond the inconvenient boundaries of the terri?
tory which had achieved independence; now. through
cessions of lauds, first colonized by Spain and France,
the country !:us acquired a more complex character, anil
has for .ts "natural Lunts the chain of Lakes, the Gulf ol
Uexlov, and on the cast sud the west the two great
oceans. Other nations were waited by civil wars for
ages before they could establish for themselves the ne?
cessary degree of unity; the latent conviction that our
form til government is the best ever known to the world,.
has eoablt d us to emerge from civil war within four
years, with a complete vindication of the constitutional
authority of the General Government, and with our lo?
cal liberties and State institutions unimpaired. The
throngs of emigrants that crowd to our shores are wit?
nesses of the confidence of all peoples in our perman?
ence. Here is the great Und of free labor, where indus?
try is blessed with unexampled rewards, and the bread
ol the workingman is sweetened by the consciousness
that the cans . of the country "is his own cause, his own
safety, his own dignity." Here every one enjoys the
free use of his faculties and the choice of activity as a
natural right. H?r<\ .tinier the combined inliueiico of a
fruitful soil, genial climes, ami happy institution?, po?
pulation has increased fifteen-fold within a century.
Here, through the easy development of boundless re?
sources, wealth has increased with two-fold greater ra- .
pidity than numbers, so that we h ?ve become secure .
against the financial vicissitudes of other countries, and,,
alike in business ami in opinion, are self-centred and
truly independent. Here more ami more care is given to
provide education for every one born on our solL
Here religion, released from pol?tica] connection with
the civil government, refuses to subserve the craft o?
statesmen, and becomes, in its Independence, thc spirit?
ual life ot the people. Here toleration is extended to
every opinion, in thc quiet certainty that truth need*

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