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? - _. '-r- . . . = ; Wtdnegday Morning, Aug. jg, 1865." Something AboatUy BIora|? of Home* The oivihzation of a people depends npon their development of character , and endowment rather than npon their acquisition of wealth.. We live only as we grow, and we grow only in de ' grce as wo put to proper use the seve? ral germs of talent and character which belong to our ejrganization. A people, in like manner, must comprise within their members all the agencies of mind and faculty of whatever sort which have been produced and been found essential to the race, in the progress to maturity of other nations. There .must be wits as wella? sages: poets us well as statesmen; prophets as well as mechanics; andbrjefly, every province of mind, every faculty for art, must be evolved in the progress of a people, however little tho great body, of the people may esteem as ' useful the indi " vidual .possessor, or value the gift within his keeping. If not thus va? riously endowed, and thus develop? ing, in all the province of thought, in all the departments of genius, a race lacks in some necessary qualifies which are essential to its frill-growth, matu? rity and perpetuation; and dies out without making fts mark or leaving its r?cord. Such was the case with .our red men; sueh has been the case with the black men;and the deficiency is briefly indicated when we say that they lacked in art. They hadhuman appetites and passions-but lived an animal Ufe only, and either perished ?or are perishing, in spite of all that philanthropy and a soi-disant philoso? phy has ever done for their preserva tion. Such, too, must be thc fate of ?all white stocks, however superior in natural endowment, if they fail to . nurse to ui?e, if not Vi perfection, those .qualities of the intellect which lead to the growth and full development of the arts. In this hes the real great - deficiency of all purely agricultural people, and here hits been our error ?nd' defeat. We have concentrated ?ll* our faculties, efforts, labors, at the production of so much raw mate;, rial, the production of which called for but little art, and exercised but a small, degree of intelligence. Our su? perior endowments were allowed to " lie dormant. We sought neither the 'fine nor the mechanical arts; we labor ed neither in the fields of philosophy or science; we gave but little heed to jMjetry; we read but few books, and studied less, and- rapidly let ourselves down, in all the provinces of intellect, until we could scarcely claim,oas a people, any other superiority than color, over our slave, the negro. The overseer we put over hun could scarcely, in thousands of cases, write his own name intelligibly. His school? ing did not teach him to spell cor? rectly, gave him no desire to read, and he sought no information or society beyond that of the bar-room, the bar i Tbacue, the horse-race, or the muster ground Was the proprietor much more careful of his own mental exer? cises or acquisitions? Did he read books, and seek for knowledge? Had he any faith in the saving virtues and beneficial influences of poetry, philo? sophy and art? Alas! We need only ask these questions. The silence which must answer them on every hand is enough. What should follow from this terrible non-user of our fa? culties, the' generous gifts of God, in all intellectual respects-for, as a . people, none were ever richer in ?the glonpus endowments of intellect by which a people is saved and made eminent. In the late war, tho South was overthrown aa much by the Yan? kee workshops as by the Yankee arms. . We had no workshops. We had no arte. Was cotton to blame, or negro slavery, for these deficiencies? Surely not These were tho resources and powers of our people, our arms and agencies, and only needling wisdom for their management to make us as great and as full of resources ss any people thus gifted with an article of material wealth, and with an adequate tfhpport in physical labor. Bad the intellect of the superior people been duly trained and exercised in degree with the grand material trusts confid? ed to its management, the'record and result mn?t have been far otherwise, At another time, it may be within our plan to ask why we have failed, and by what perverse influence we have been led to waste that intellectual , capital upon which our material pros? perity depended wholly?. But in this sentence lies the whole key-note.'of our secret. Th? material resources of a people must depend wholly on the degree in whjch they shall morally and intellectually, develope. And- thus it is that by law-not the mere dictum, the brulum fidmcn-of a conqueror, we lose om? slaves, but by the absolute 'laws of God, laid down at the begin? ning, which we have neglected, dis? obeyed or refused to learn. The proof may all \>e adduced logically from the lex ScripUt,- on record" for sis thousand years. We forfeit the right to the slave when we lose the only claim upon which the right was origi? nally founded. When we have edu? cated the negro to an equal skill with ourselves in the culture of corn and cotton7, unless we can assert a supre? macy over, him in the essentials of art, he may well be taken out from bond? age.. When th? . Jews, under Egyp? tian culture, could evolve from then own masses men like Moses and Aaron, fully equal to their Egyptian .masters, and capable of governing their people, the race could no longer be kept in bondage. Con truing our? selves to agriculture, the result of fifty years of training in that single field, brought tho negro slave into dose inteUeotual proximity to his white master. If the master continued nothing but an agriculturist, the dis? tan*; between the two races would continue to lessen, and did lessen day by day. At length, the master em? ployed his own slave .as a driver-or overseer, or manager-childed tho plantation to his ?skill and superin? tendence, und became himself tan idler, an absentee, neglecting his in? terests as welles his dut^s in his ap? petites for pleasure, and Aus forfeited his whole claim to superiority'over the subject race, and in doing so, accord? ing' to the moral law, forfeited his right. There are thousands of negroes who wero as good, if not better planters and farmers? than their owners or th? overseers put over them. Owners and overseers, in thousands of cases, were grossly ignorant of all tho laws of culture, never improved their lands, never improved themselves, were con? tent to hunt and shoot, and drink a ad game, and wander off, to all manner of places and indulgences, until sensual? ism proved too strong to be over? thrown . by any exercise of will or effort. Here were our tyrannies; not the slaves, not the cotton, but in the bad trainings of our people; in thc mistaken policies of the state; the vicious and destructive system, which concentrated all our capital upon ag? riculture, the most inferior of all the arts, to the exclusion of all others. The arts, properly, must?exist togeth? er, if you would have a nation pros peroua They are intimatelyblended, and kindred, and must be mutually dependant. Lord Bacon describes agriculture, commerce and manufac? tures, as the three mighty vessels of State, which, rolling together with corresponsive motion, bring in wealth to a nation like the rushing of a spring tide. Agriculture, alone, is always weak and feeble. Agricultural people are more ignorant than-all others, except the pastoral and nomadic. No purely agricultural people that thf world has ever known, from the first dawnings of time, have ever produced literature, art or science. Let us de? velope from the two sources of capital still left us, the soul and the soil. But we must lift the soul above .the soil and keep it up lifted. How shall we do that? By the industry, the fos? tering of all the arts; by patient work? ing with intelligence; by good educa? tion, of which work is the basis; by a modest, pressing progress, in our righi callings, according to our endowments; by refusing competence in the pro? fessions; and driving the impudent pretender from the .desk of authority to his proper place at the plough tail or the anvil Our tyrannies have been indolence, ignorance and presump? tion, and we are sorry to believe that they are still very far from being over? thrown among us. CETMDJAXI CASES.-A military com? mission, at Hilton .Head, has found Paris Eddy, odored, guilty of mur? der, and sentenced him to be hung the Major-General commanding, how? ever, has remitted the sentence ol death and substituted for it ten yean imprisonment in the Albany peni? tentiary. Another military commis? sion, at Orangeburg, has convicted Edward W. Andrews, of Mansianght er, and he is also sentenced to ter years in the Albany penitentiary. Il thug appears that the same penalty attaches to murder and manslaughter We know not the nature of tho ori ilonoe in either -?a^e. S tunda, rda of Money Vaia?. We give below a'table of money values in thev Southern States during, the late war. Messrs. Barber & Son are good authorities, and their tables have been well kept. They may be relied upon. We shall have occasion hereafter, however, to suggest-some considerations on the ? subject of the application of gold standards to any? thing but the currency. There ore numerous clements of the subject to be taken into cnosideration befora you can apply thc gold standards to the subject of produce: MEHSRR. EDITORS : In consequence of numerous inquiries daily as to the price of gold for Confederate notes during a certain period, we have, for the convenience of our citizens who may have settlements to make, pre? pared a table from our books, showing actual sales from January 1, 18G1, to May 1, 18G5, which is at your service, should you think proper to publish ! the same. Very respectfully. F. C. BARBER & SON, Exchange Brokers. AUGUSTA, GA., June 9, 1865. Price of Gold for Confederate Xotes from January 1, 1861, to May 12, 18t?5, facht? rire: 1861. j i Jan. 1 to Mav 1.5 pr. j May 1 to Oct. 1.10 pr. j Oct. 1 to Oct. 15.12 pr. j Oct. 15 to Nov. 15.. .15 pr. i Dec. 1.Q.20 pr. I Dec. 15...30 pr. I * . 1862. Jan. 1...-..20 pr. Jan. 15.20 pr. j Feb. 1.:.25 pr. Feb. 15.40 pr. March 1..50 pr. '? March lo.65 pr. April 1.75 pr. April 15....80 pr., Mav 1.90 pr. May 15.95 pr. Jnne 1.95 pr. June 15.:.2 fori July 1.2 "1 July 15.2 "1 Aug. 1.2 20 "1 Aug. 15.,.2 20 " 1 Sept. 1. .2 51) "1 Sept. 15.. ....2 50 "1 Oct. 1.2 50 "*1 Oct. 15.2 50 "1 Novol to Jan. 1.3 "1 1863. Jan. 1 to Feb. 1.3 " 1 Feb. 1 to March 1.3 10 "1 March 1.3 25 "1 March 15 to May 15.5 "1 Mav 15.6 "1 June 1.*6 50 44 1 June 15.7 50 "1 Julv 1.^. 8 " 1 Jul V 15.10 . "1 Aug. 1.1-4 "1 Aug. 15.15 - 44 1 Sept. 1.14 "1 Sept. 15.1-4 "1 Oct. 1. .13 "1 Oct. 15.12 50 "1 Nov. 1.13 "1 Nov. 15..,...15 50 M 1 Dec. 1.20 "1 Dec. 15.21 ?. 1 1864. Jan. 1..21 "1 Jan. 15.20 "1 Feb. 1.20 "1 Feb. 15.21 "1 March 1. . ?. .26 "1 March 15.20 "1 April 1.18 "1 April 15. .21 "1 May 1.20 "1 May 15. .18 "1 June 1 to July 15.18 "1 July 15 to Aug. 15.20 " 1 Aug. 15.22 44 1 Sept. 1.20 50 "1 Sept. 15. 22 50 "1 Oct. 1....27 ?? 1 Oct. 16.25 "1 Nov. 1.26 50 "1 Nov. 15......26. " 1 Dec. l....r.32 44 1 Dec. 15.35 J4 1 Dec. 81.51 "1 1865 Jan. 1.,.60 "1 Jan. 15... .65 " 1 Feb. 1.50 44 1 Fob. 15.46 " 1 Mar. 1... ?.55 "1 Mar. 15.50 " 1 April 1.70 " 1 April 15.80 " 1 April 20.100 ?. 1 April 26.'.200 44 1 April 27.300 44 1 I April 28.500 44 1 April 29.800 44 1 April 30:.1,000 44.1 May 1.1,200 44 1 j Which was the last actual sale for Confederate Notes. A Yankee in Kansas sells liqlior in a* gun barrel instead of a glass, to evade the law and make it appear beyond dispute that he h polling by tho barrel. sccs- 1 ^^^^wmr^^w^mmmrF^^^^r^r^^^ - L.ett?r from Hon. John M. Botts. WHO NEED MOT APPLY FOB PARDON8 2b the Editors of ike Bichmond Repub? lic: Enclosed yon w?l find for publica? tion a letter from the Hon. John M. Botts, giving his construction of some of^ the most important features of President Johnsor '\ Amnesty Procla? mation of May 29. I had prepared a communication for the press, but con? curring with Mr. Botts in Opinion, I addressed him, knowing one from him would carry with it far more weight and influence-being mutually desi? rous of not only saving to our needy people everywhere money which they could poorly afford to expend, but to relieve their minds and give them as much peace and qmetude as possible in repairing their wrecked and shat? tered fortunes. Hoping the press .-everywhere will aid in- diffusing the welcome intelligence contained in Mr. Botts' letter, I am, most respectfullv yours, JOHN R. WOODS. . - AUBURN, NEAR BRANDT STATION, , August 4, 1865. MT DEAR STE: Your letter of the 30th- July, asking for my interpreta? tion of the Proclamation of President Johnson of the 29th of May, 1865, has been received, and I avail myself of the first leisure moment to answer it. I think it clear that the oath of am? nesty and pardon is, by that procla? mation, offered to all, with the excep? tion of the fourte^ different classes of persons enumerated, and from them the benefits of the amnesty oath are withheld until a special pardon is ob? tained, and 'this pardon, as ^under? stand it, when obtained, only remits ?e penalties that have been incurred WT those who have endeavored to Overthrow the Government, without conferring any political privileges whateve?, whjcb are controlled ir some instances by -the enactments ol the United States Congress, and in others by the provisions of State Con? stitutions and State laws (as in this State,) neither of which are or can bi disturbed by the pardon of the Presi? dent. In reference to the thirteenth soe tion which reads: "All persons who have voluntarily participated in said rebellion, and th< estimated value of whose property ii over twenty thousand dollars. " This clause seems to be less under stood than.any of the exceptions con fained in the proclamation; and ther< are very many making application fo: pardon who are not at all embraced ii the exception. Union ?md loyal men throughou the war, persons of advanced age, an? others who have had no participatioi in the rebellion, either voluntarily o involuntarily, all seem to* think tha because their taxable properly exceed twenty thousand dollars that it is ne cessanly liable to confiscation unies a pardon is obtained from the Fresi dent, and by their numerous applica tions ase not only unnecessarily in creasing the labors of the President Attorney-Genaral and other official in Washington, but are throwinj away their own means and time, an< making a harvest for the lawyer;* wb are engaged in that branch of busi ness. It is manifest that the thirteentl clause is susceptible, of no such con struction. To those who have no "voluntarily participated in the rebel lion," this clause has no apprehension no matter what amount of tnxabl property they may own; and whethe they have voluntarily participated o not, is a matter that must be bes known to themselves, but there ma be other modes of voluntary uartici pation than that of actually bearin arms against the United States; i: other words, there were othe means to be employed for the ovei throw of the Government than b bearing arms, for the worst of th secessionists were generally those wh were the last and the least willing't take np arms. These contributed a their means and energies; some b investment in Confederate stocks f< the purpose of aiding the rebcllioi others by running the blockade an other "bomb-proof" occupations, t they were called-all for the overthro of the Government of the Unite Strtes. All this I should call volui tary participation ia the rebellion. But you ask particularly wheth? detailed farmers, ing my opinioi would come under the class of excep ed cases; to which I should an s we not necessarily. I know myself of number of cases in. which - tho mo loyal men in the State became detail? farmers only for tho purpose of avdi< ing military duty in the field, and < obviating tho necessity for taking r arms against the United States a> - thorities; and yet a detailed farm' might have done many things th would subject bim to the exceptio: therefore, I'think each particular ca t would have to stand upon its own merits, ss no general pr universal role could bo applied, # * t Every man best knows lois own mo tivest and knows whether he did what he could, whether in ono capacity or another, to aid the rebellion, and upon his own conscience must rest the ne? cessity for an application for pardon, f he is conscious of having done nothing voluntarily to aid the rebel? lion, then I should say it would be quite time enough to ask for a pardon when steps were taken against him for the confiscation of -his property; and in the meantime to save his time and money for better purposes than that of enriching lawyers and paying agents. I om, respectfully and very truly, yours, JOHN M. BOTTS. Iiooal Items. To insure insertion, advertisers are re? quested to baad in their notices before 4 o'clock p. m. QLCX.-Any. one jn Columbia having a supply of the above article, will ?u d a ready sale by immediate application at thia office. Cox CURT MCSICAXE.-It will be a pleasant announcement to those who enjoyed the treat of the musical concert, given here a week ago, to be told of ? repetition of the pleasure this evening, at the old College Chapel, in the campus. The programme for the e venin j-for. which see bills o? the day-is particularly rich and various. Such an entertainment, bx the ?bsenc? of ?Ii other amusements in Columbia, issn event, and we should make the most of it. To the old, the concert will be a memory; to the young, a lesson. Let them bo sure to be present. _^_ ^_ EDUCATIONAL.-We note with pleasure that Major J. B. White and Captain H. 8. Thompson, well known, the former as tho j*rurcipaL. the latter as Professor, in the , Military Academies, have announced thc opening of an academy for young men, in thin city. Tho long experience of these gentlemen, in a school of such dimensions and such exacting duties as the Citadel Academy in Charleston, is a. sufficient guar? anty to the public, and .4ould entitle the professors to the most perfect confidence of ? hu community. We liavc personally, ax well as publicly, known thom, in their Offi? cial positions, for several years, and freely . ipress the opinion that, for thc training, UH well as teaching, of the youth of the country, no abler persons can bc Ibu nat: NEW ADVERTISEMENTS..-Attention is called to the following advertisements, which are published for the first time this morning: M. M. Cohen-Pine Apple Cheese. C. A. Scot*--Warm Meals. W. M. L'eckham-Daily lane. I Tradewvll Haskiu--Lavi Notice. Edward Hunt-Administrator's Notice. I Thomas Taylor-Dwelling to Lernt. [? Juiiii Commins A Co.-Com. Bv.smest. I F. J. Mose?-Mare Stolen, j J. W. Davidson-Select School, i J. G. Gibbes-Nails. ! John Stork-Shoes. Durbec lc, Walter-Auction. FOREIGN.-The Cholera, in its West? ward travels, hael reached Ancona, Italy, where thirty-four persons were dying of the terrible disease daily. "Advices from Spain confirm the state? ment of the probability of war being again declared by Spain against San ? Domiego. Significant ministerial changes have taken place in Austria, all in the direc? tion of freedom and liberalism. The >Iet*sernichean policy of the Austrian dynasty appears to have been com? pletely reversed. This change, if persevered in, augurs well for Hna gary and the other nationalities includ? ed under German rule, United Staten five-twenties were quoted at GS to. 681. on the London Stock Exchange on the 5th inst,; British Consols 89% ip 90. * Gold was quoted, on the 14th inst., at 42}<i to 43. Foreign, exchange had assumed a firmer tone. * .The cotton market was dull, but holders were generally firm at our an? nexed quotations.. The sales were 800 bales. We quote upland as follows;. Ordinary, 32; middling, 43; good mid? dling, 47. Coffee was quiet, but holders, in view of the limited supply and the unfavorable prospect for a speedy re? plenishment, were generally asking an advance.-JV. Y. Herald, lblh. A HARVEST OP Gonn.--An official report of ali the American gold re? ceived at the United States mint and its branches from our first gold dis? coveries down to June 30, 1864, shown a grand total of ?597,178,724, of which $556,718,872 came from Cali? fornia; $9,183,071 from Colorado; $9,121,397 from North Carolina; $6,909,375 from Georgia; $6,142t433 from Oregon; $2,308,3?5 from Idaho; $1,558,874 from Virginia; $1,352,969 from Alabama and the balance from other States and Territories. HARRIED, On Thursday morning. 17th inst., by RCT. Frederick Auld, Mr. APPL1NG- WELLS, or Newocrry District, and Mis? CARKD' k BEaPX, of thia city.