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DAILY PAPER $10 A YBAI. "LET OUR JUST CE2VS6rRE ATTEND THE TRUE EFJVET." TI-W4tKLY $7 A IEAR. BY T. A. SELBY. COLUMBIA, S. C., MONDAY XORNING, SEPTEMBR 4, 1865. VOL. I.&-NO. 1 T?LE PHONIX IS PUBLISHED DAILY AND TRIWEEKLY. y ASD THE WEERtY GEE?NE8 EVEBY WEDNESDAY. "BY JULIAN A. SELBY. TERMS-IN AD VANCE. SUBSCRIPTION. Daily Paper, six months.$5 00 Tri-Weekly, " " ..3 50 Weekly, " " .2 00 . Bingle cvpies of the Daily and Tri-Weekly, 10 cents; of'the Weekly, 15 cents. ADVERTISEMENTS In sor tod in either the Daily orTri-Weeklv at $1 per square for the first insertion, and 75 .cents for each subsequent insertion. In the Weekly, $1 a square. JWSpceial notices 15 cents a line. To the PeopU or Fairfield District. ***** In the interview between the Pnpsi .dent of the United. States and the committee of tht* citizens of Charles? ton, it was stated by the. President that bef ore the State could be restored to her political rights, it was neces? sary that the j?eoplo of South Caro? lina should amend their Constitution -so as to provide for the abolition of slavery. I consider that, situated as wc are, this announcement renders it imperative on the Convention to abo? lish slavery. In going into the Con? vention, I should make up my mind to this measure. It is scarcely necessary for me to say to you, that in coming to this conclusion, I yield only to what I con? sider au overruling necessity, and in no degree to what my ideas of social and political policy would "prompt under ordinary eircumsfcmcos. As there is, so far as I am informed, a universal concurrence of public opi? nion on this point, I think it unneces? sary to say anything farther.npon it. Another subject on which it will be necessary for the?Convention to act, is the basis of representation in the State . .Legislature. I think it will be neces? sary to make some important modifi? cation of the existing system. As the Constitution now stands, each parish in the low country is entitled to dne ?Senator in our State Senate. The abolition of slavery, involving such . an immense loss of property in the * low country, has disarranged this sys? tem, and destroyed the motive for allowing it. Under the peculiar cir? cumstances in which they are now placed, I believe our fellow-citizens of the parishes, with that intelligence and patriotism for which .they tire dis? tinguished, will cheerfully acquiesce in tlie necessity which puts an end*to what js special and peculiar in their right of representation, and they " 'themselves will desire to see.the power of the State deposited in that section .where it will be safest, which is where .their own race is in the greatest a^ccn ' ?daney. In reference to the office of Gover? nor, I4hink more important functions should be assigned to this oilieer than those he now possesses^ As the Con? stitution now stands, the oiiiy impor? tant power which the Governor pos? sesses is the pardoning power. He ought, I think, to have the power, by and with the advice of the Senate, to appoint many of tho officers now elected by the Legislature, and the veto power at least in a -qualified form. The Legislature should be confined to its appropriate functions-pas-sing laws and resolutions. Where elections to office are made by a legislative body, it is apt to give rise to combi? nations and manouvres by which th? integrity of the legislative body is affected, and its efficiency impaired. The great and wise mon who framec thc Constitution of the United States ' with the experience of history befon them, guarded against . this abuse bj -conferring the power of appointmen to office on the President, with th? advice of the Senate. The practice of many years lias de monstrated this to be a provisioi founded in the most eminent wisdom I would apply thc* same principle b the Governor, and I have no de-ubt i would be attended with like advan tages. In regard to the Govern o having at least a qualified veto, th advantages sue so manifest t*u;t j seems only necessary to state the pro? position to obtain the consent of every intelligent mind. The vet* power enables the Executive to. protect his dqpartment*against the encroachment of^the legislative power, thus tending to preserve the independence of the separate departments of the Govern? ment. " The veto power further operates as a check on hasty or incon? siderate legislation. Those who are familiar with* legislative bodies know that much of their legislation is crude and ill-consid?red. It is clearly the interest of the people to have a power in reserve to carefully review and de? liberate upon the action of their legis? lative bodies. If the Governor be as he should be, a man of superior talents, his greater ability to the mass of the Legislature will enable him, with a higher degree of political wis? dom, to pass upon the acts of the Legislature; and his responsibility as the one-man-power will induce him to interfere on behalf of the people at large against what he may consider improper legislation, The veto power is one which can rarefy- do harm, and which may frequently do good, be? cause two-thirds of the Legislature can pass the vetoed measures over the Governor's head. I think, therefore, this change should be made in tho Constitution. One great advantage of giving the additional powers I have, mentioned to the Governor, is, that the office will become more an object of ambition, and tho firsfinun in tho State will seek it. Having added to the powers of the Governor, I would add to those i?f tho "Cieutenant-Governor. ' As matters now stand, the Lieutenant-Govern or is a perfect blank, unless the'office of Governor becomes vacant. I think a beneficial change in this respect would be to make the Lieutenant-Governor President of the Senate. This would make the position ono of considerable importance, and secure a higher grade of men to fill the office of Go vernor in case of a vacancy occurring. ? I" would also change the mode of electing the Governor and Lieutenant Governor. Instead of being elected by the Legislature, I would give the electionSto the people. The advan? tages ol this, I think, are very great. Every well organized government should have- its great departments the executive, legislative and, judi? cial-independent of each other. ?This principle is seriously violated in giv? ing the election of Governor to the Legislature. The Governor elected by the Legislature is apt only to be their echo. To insure his independ? ence of the. Legislature, the only ef? fectual way is to give the election to tlte people. Another ad van tige of giving the eleetion of Governor to the people is, that men of superior ability are more apt to be chosen. Before a small body of mon like the Legislature, wealth, or family influ? ence, or management, may produce an Selection without any particular merit in the person elected; but these influences would be of little avail be? fore the people, who would be apt to be influenced by a sense of merit or superior ability, or political reputa? tion. Besides, I think it elevates and dignifies the people to make them thc elector^ of the highest dignitaries oi their country. Another change which I would make in the Constitution is this: I wonk" require all elections before the Legis lature to be viva voce. The reason foi this is obvious. Legislators vote in i i representative capacity, and theil ; constituents have a right to know hov . they vote. There is no more rcasoi i for secre8y on thc part of a membc i of the Legislature, as to his vote fo United States Senator, or any" otho I public officer, than for Iiis vote on th , passage of any bib. His vote 01 i every bill is public-why shouL 7 his vote for public officers be secret t I see no reason for the distinction i and I would Am away with it. I have thus, with as great bro rit; - as possible, made known such am?ne i meuts as I think ought to be made i . our State Constitution, and I luigi o pause here, but that another subjet t has been'introduced into the canvas, i- I refer to the repudiation *of privai r debts. On this point it is perhaj e sufficient to say that the? Conventk t is absolutely without authority, as tl Constitution bf the United-States ex? pressly provides as follows: "Art. 1, Sec. 2. No State shall pass any law impairing the obligations of con? tracts." This clause absolutely and positive? ly closes the door on any such legisla? tion in the Convention. The 6th Article of the United States Constitu* tiou also says: *'This Constitution shall be the supreme law of the land, and tho Judges in every State shall bo bound thereby-, anythiug in the Con? stitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding," How, then, can thc Convention ordain repu? diation of private debts, or contracts in any form, when such provisions as I have just cited m the United States Constitution stare it so boldly and unqualifiedly in the face? Whatever* can'be done; to ameliorate the condition of debtors will devolve upon the Legislature/ Perhaps a practical plan for tho Legislature to pursue in thia regard would be to bor? row money on the credit of thc Stato and loan it on time with ample secu-' rity to those who, by political vicissi? tudes, find themselves more in delft than their present abiSty to pay. I would heartily approve of any policy which tho Legislature might puisutfto aid the debtor class within the scope of the Constitution and a wise foresight. . Pass a liberal insolv? ent debtors law-homestead law--ex? tend the stay law, or any measure that would alford relief ip debtor, will meet with a hearty concurrence on my part. I am not without hopes, too, if the Southern States manifest wisdom and moderation in the present juncture of our-affairs, that the United States may be liruught to reimburse, in part at least, the owners, for the emancipated slaves. It is a well known fact that Mr. Lincoln proposed, in the peace con? ference at Fortress-Monroe, to pay the South lour hundred millions of ftol lars for their slaves. I don't despair but .that some such measure as this may yet become the law. * * * * * ' * W. H. ROBERTSON. . WrjsNSBOKO, Aug. 23, 1805. GENERALS LEE AND GRANT AS HISTO? RIANS.-The following we clip from an exchange : The* two leading generals of the late war, Lee and Grant, aro now engaged tn writing up the history of their respective campaigns. lu both cases we suppose that the histories' will lie almost purely military in their charac? ter. Lee, however, will have some advantage over Grant, in that his his? tory will not be made in the form of an official report, and hence he can in? dulge in greater discursiveness of statement and a greater freedom of style than is customary in official d( ?cuments. * Grant is a very* close and accurate writer, and we may say that Lee in general has the same characteristics. The hist of Grant's campaign, of which thus far he has given us a full report, was that which was crowned with the splendid victory at Chatta? nooga in the latter part of 1863; and we have always considered that report as the master piece of military writing and military philosophy that the war has produced. The last ftill military report of General Lee that'we remem? ber to have seen, is that of the battle of Gettysburg, fought two years ago. Lee's report of his'campaign will be confined entirely to operations in Vir? ginia, while Grant's ro^i?rt Viii be of battles fought and won over half a continent. From Belmont to Vicks? burg, from Donelson to Chattanooga, he campaigned in the South-west: from the Wilderness to Petersburg, and thence, around to Louisa Court House, was his battle mareil in Vir? ginia; while during the last year ol J the war lie directed, combined and co ^ ordinated the movements of all tin forces over all tho States of the South . It.will be interesting to rend the re i ports pf Grunt and Lee of thc grea t operations during tho last year pf tin t war, when the two'.great masters o . tho art struggled with cadi other ii i Virginia. i Hon. John BeU is living unmolested 3 j in Nashville. Lynch l*?w tm the Preaa. We hope the courts now in session in Washington and elsewhere "will not allow themselves to influenced hy? the current of .public opinion and feeling which has been excited by the major portion of the Northern press. So strenuous have been the efforts of journalism of late that wo doubt if a sworn jury of twelve men could *pos sibly be assembled in all that region. We take the following just rebuke from the New York World: Rebellion is a bad thing, and- bush? whacking is a worse; buA there aro worse things yet than ?either bush? whacking or rebellion, and one of ^?eso worse things is the trial and condemation .of rebels and bush .whackers by irresponsible newspaper corespondents. There is absolutely nothing to choose between Lynch law administered by vigilance committees in Alabama and Lynch law administered through the columns of the press in New York. The journalist who clamors for tho blood of captured prisoners not yet tried and denounces them as guilty of tre? mendous crimes on his own or any other unjudicial authority, is just as distinctly a murderer in tho eye of tho law and of Christianity as any "regu? lator" who ever ran lip a suspected "abolitionist" to tho first convenient tree in Arkansas or Texa?. Crimes of this sort have been so common in the press since the rebel? lion was crushed that whenever tho most conspicuous rebel prisoners now awaiting trial at our vhahds shall be brought into court, American justice itself will necessarily be put upon trial .with them. Without dwelling upon the news? paper prosecutions of Jefferson Dans, and move recently of Capt. Wirtz, tho telegraph yesterday informed us from Nashville that the "noted guerrilla," Champ Ferguson, now in prison in that city, had an interview on Thurs? day List with his counsel, being the first interview ho has ever had with him, and that he utterly denied the most atrocious oj the charges brought against him. These charges have been sent broadcast over*- the country for weeks on weeks; the prisoner who now grasps at the tardy ?chance of exculpa? tion held out to lum was long ago tried upon them at tho bar of public opinion, fount guilty without hearing, and, "rhorally speaking," put to death. Were he to be executed to-morrow without the semblance of a trial, the. telegram announcing the fact would bo accepted without a thrill of interest or inquiry by the whole community, so thoroughly has the public mind been imbued .with the conviction that lje has committed pretty nearly every crime, of which it is,possible for a human being to be guilty. Yefrdhis man may bc* innocent! Tujg CHOLERA-ITS FLIGHT WEST? WARD.-We have dates from Gibralter to August tS. Cholera appears to be cropping Westward. Tho towns on the Eastern coast of Spain, in their dread of the introduction of the epi? demic, aro imposing quarantine on each other. The following .are ex tracrs from letters? dated Consttrnti nople, July 27: Durit^ the cholera, many people don't come to town any longer; many villages on the Bosphorous have b<#n deserted. Our Stock Exchange (Con? solido Khan) is open for only about two hours and a half duly. I don't remember eyer seeing such a gloom, and well may people fear, after the ' example of ('airo ami Alexandria. At , tire Galeata Tower, we have two pro? visional hospitals. Up to the present, I believe, we are on the increase, and ; although the nuJhber of attacks has only been COO odd per day, which, ; with a populaban o? more than one - million, is *aot a very groat number, f yet, as no ono can tell when, where - and how it will finish, it is natural", ; that the alfy m should spread. The greatest member of deaths has been - 1811 per day, but of course tltis may t bo doubled, in thc course %f a few ; i hours, or it may bo redjneed as much, f j One peculiarity is that up to the jire l j sent momentvAt has, with one or two I exceptions, bera exclusively confined to the poorer and indigent classes. 1 It must be admitted, in justice to the Government, that it has spared . ? no means to come to, the assistance o the public. Money, provisions, shel ter, and every other requisite or ne? cessary, have been furnished with a liberality which must call forth th? praise of evesy honest person. Many- , very many-of the inhabitants ara deserting the place altogether, and every steamer carries away great num? bers of the Constantinople people. The French steamer which left yester? day was s,o crowded that the agents were obliged to refuse tickets, although a very large boat. JULY 31.-I am sony' to say that since my last tho cholera has greatly increased, and I am afraid that during the last ' two or * Jhree days the cases must have attained the number of eight lmndred odd daily, although, for some reason or other, the local papers do not give tho number of attacks. The mortality is about thirty to thirty five per cent., as neal as I can learn? .although some days it reaches fif JUST RECEIVED AND FOR SALE DY M *j j&& m sw x.v^j AT HIS RESIDENCE, Cartier Blanding and Bull Streets, T^rNE GtfRSETTS, Black SEWING SILK, ?C Ladies' BUCK GAUNTLETTS and GLOVES. Ladies' Whito KID GLOVES. Ladies' Mourning and Emb'd H'DK'FS. SDL VER THIMBLES, SCISSORS. Kev Rings, Crape Collars^ Cologne, (pure and line.T Lubin's Extractsv Pomade. Butterfly Cravats, China?)olls. Fancv Tuck Combs. Black Flax Thread, Satinets. Cassimerc, for suits. Embroidery Cotton, Silk Gloves. Silk Tissue, for veils. Bleached Shirting, LcatAor Belts. DeBege, for travelling dresses. Ladies' Merino Vests. Low-priced Ladies' Hose. Fancy Vest and Dress Buttons. Diaper Pins? Agato Buttons. ? Gent's linen Collars, Thatches. Blade and Colored s Uk Belting. Brooms, Black and Green Tea. Spool Cotton, all numbers. Mourding Calico. Boys' Half Hose, Felt Hats. Ruta Baga Turnip Seed, ?cc. Ang 22 4 TBE 0BAXGEB?TR??C()I??I1\ RUNS a CARRIAGE or SPRING WAGON to Orangebnrg, at 2 p. m., Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays-making connec? tion with ihe Charleston trains thc following mornings. " On arrival of train on Monday, Wednes? day and Friday, a vehicle starts for Colum? bia. For passage, apply to J. H. FOWLES or E. COFFIN, at the store.-of R. M. Stokes, Plain street. . Sept 2 4* COLUMBIA, S. C. THE undersigned, having leased the LA lt GE and COMMODIOUS, BUILDING known as tho "Columbia ' Methodist Female College," will open it as a. FIRST-CLASS HOTEL, on September 7. T. S. NICKERSON, Proprietor. UV Papers thronghout tho State inse?t ^twice a week for five weeks, and send bills to this office. . ' Aug 17 UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA. " THE next session of this institution (which was never discontinued during the war) will commence, as usual, October 1, 1865, and end July 4, 1806. The institution is organized into eleven distinct schools, with as many Professors. Six of the schools are Academies, (besides that of Chemistry, which is also Medical;) four bel#ng to the Medical and one to tho L:ew Department. The College expenses, for tho fsession of nine months, will be from $320 to $350, ex? clusive of text IxKiks, of which sum about $215 will bo required upon admission, and the rest between that time and the 1st of April. For farther information, applv to S" MAUITN, Chairman Faculty. . Post Office-"University of Virginia." ang 28 t5* Brass Foundry. milE subscriber, thankful for past patron _L age, woidd inform his friends and tho public that he is still prepared to furnish all kinds of BRASS CASTING in a workmanlike manner and with despatch. ROBERT MCDOUGAL, July 31 in Gadsden, near Washington bt.