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Monday Morning, Sept 4, 1865. On oar first page will be found por ^ lions of SM interesting fetter from W. . E. Robertson, of Fairfield District, to the citizens thereof, by whom he has been nominated to the Convention. .We omit the merely mfroductory parts of his letter, and quote those only which relate to what .must or may be the object of the Convention. On this subject, we musfventure upon a few cautionary remarks. Mr. Robert? son is a conservative. Ile writes mo? destly yet suggestively. His views are in consonance, we believe,,with those of Ml-. Boyce and Gov. Perry; and regarding the required abolition of slavei'y by thc States, as the ?impera? tive condition upon whicn they are to be restored to peace and relieved from martial law, he recognizes thc neces? sity of compliance with the requisi? tion, not as a measure of which he approves, but that thc South may escape worse evils in tho continued domination of the sword.- And in this, perhaps, thero will be found but <? little difference pf opinion throughout : tiki State. And, this done, the abso? lutely unavoidable duty of tho Con? vention will really be at an end. But Mr. Robertson seems not willing that . it should end herc. ' He suggests thc basis of representatjon in the State Legislature as a necessary duty, also, . of the Convention. Wo do not see that this is at all necessary to the re "storation of the State to the Union; and the introduction of th^c topic will bo " fatal, we suspect, to any desire which might be entertained for a speedy finish of the rfusiness for which the Convention meets. The Congress will rcallyTiavc nothing moro to'do with our Sjfcate representation in the Legislature than with any other do? mestic interest; and how you can legislate- upon parish representation in the Senate, without a census of tho * ' State, which shall give the parishes ' tim right representation in the House, based upon numbers-white and black together-aiM with regard to the fu? ture apportionment of the taxes, is not sp clear to any mind ijpt heedless of what would bc proper in the ease, to enter upon and duly canvass these subjects is a work of time, and will prove th? future career of the Legis? lature itself, after due advisement of tho vital facts. We take for granted j that the'Governor's election will b'e given to the people, and have but the single objection that the measure will still farther tend to the depravation Of the popular morals. If they are wiso enough to elect the legislators them? selves, they are surely wise enough to elect the Governor. And we certainly approve, having ourselves long enter? tained the opinion that the dignity of the Governor's office should be lifted, by imposing upon him higher respon? sibilities and duties. So, also, with the Lieutenant-Go vernor, who is now only a sort of contingent official, de? pending for his uses upon possibility. The veto power can do no harm. Its uses aro .specially conservative. It does not legislate-only prevents legist lation, and may thus save us from many an idiotic legislation. As for viva voce legislation, we object to it loto coola. But the argument on the subject is too abstruse for our mode? rate limits, and will require a very # prolonged inquiry, requiring illustra? tion from long periods of Jiistory, and tho experience of mon in all ngee. There is one other subject-the repu? diation of private debts, &c. But with this and some of tho other sub? jects, the Convention? has nothing* to do. ?f that body is wise, rt will seek to do only that which is absolutely necessary, and keep the other subjects in reserve for future agitation at a moro auspicious period. If it at? tempts to agitato them now, nothing will be done. Let tho members take heed of the maxim-never, more ap? plicable than now-'Sufficient for the . ? . fj . ? .e.-, f, . ;.>??**?> - 'i. , - ? ?- ' .. ' ' . ' ; -.? '* - ?. ' '" day is the ervil thereof." We trust, gino, tha> the good w?l suffice. Let our refojftner friends hold .their zeal in curb-keep their souls in patience, .and be not too eager to seize a casual opportunity uow for effecting old and ??ivorite objects, in which, hitherto, they have been baffled, teach in its due season. PARDONS.-To the 10th bf August, but 500 pardons in all had beeil grant? ed. So say. the New York pupers of that date. There is little chance that there will be any ' great number of those in the S^nith sinniug over the amount of twenty .thousand dollars who will need pardon. There is not a vagrant in the country .who does net point to the over-rich man and say, "?hank God, I am not like this rich publican and atrocious sinner. My industry, thrift, talent and enterprise will never bring me to shame." EMIGRATION T? TUE UNITED STATES. -It appears from foreign advices that the rush of emigrants to this coui^ry from the North of Europe is setting in with more than usual vehemence. Fifteen thousand Polish exiles are making arrangements with the Swiss Government for transportation to tin free soil of the States. From Norway j Hie exodus of the most valuable pari of the population is so great as tl excite tho tears of the authorities, who are endeavoring to check it. JAMES B. CAMPBELL.-The Charles ton Courier publishes thc following ''WASHINGTON, Awgust||30.-I are not a candidaie for thc Convention; do not Avish to be elected, not that ' desire to avoid any duty tho peojde o Charleston may demand of me, a: they have a right to my utmost ser vices, but because I believe 1 can di more good out of the Convention tim in it. Please, therefore, withdraw nv name. Our position demands of cac citizen his best services. We inuit di cido either to participate in the Cb: vemmcnt, to winch we have just rc j newed our allegiance in solemn forre or accept military control of indefinit duration. Gen. Johnston has state our c:ise with admirable precision, believe our future prospects arc with* the scope of human wisdom. Seo ths wo are guided by it. "JAMES 1. CAMPBELL." THE KORAN REPLACED BT TR CHRISTIAN ScmiPTDitEs.-It is worth of notice that f n the Koran, thc M: homctan book of faith, there ?ire n< j less than one hundred^ancUtwent; seven commendations and? andora* ments of the Law and the Gospel ; the word of God. The Old and Ne Testaments ure called by a sacre name. The Koran admits the iniraei j lons conception and birth of Christ i honors him as a prophet, and declar j he will judge the quick and dead I the last day. A serious and growii j religious movement is now going < in Turkey by the influence of a bo : and vigorous reformer, whose ov mind was first awakened by what tl I Koran said about the Christian Seri j tures. Many heed his stirring eon ! sel, which in all cases carry them ? the Bible, and to Christian missio j aries. SCOTCH EMIGRATION SOUTH.-\ : see it stated?that there has arrived '?^Washington a delegation represent! j a large emigration society in SeotTm: : having a capital of .C7rU)!)0, win I they, propose to invest*i South? : lands, if sufficient inducements i j offered. The society is mainly co I posed of the, industrial cLissi>s, and j the reception of a favorable' repi i from their representatives in t' ! country, will increase their capital j ?1,000,000, anel commence emigrati hnmtediatoly. \\ hem an insinne-e e>f eTinie oeeu e>r any case of depravity is brought light at the South, how qnickiy it ! clutched by "designing men anil '? radeel in tho newspapers, to show ! a purpose how unfit* tho South ii -re-enter the Union; yet we .scare ever pick up a Northern journal any promine>iK*e .oiftttote but -wh unfolds crime in every concciva shape. The renison a^signo?! by those v ought to know for the withdrawn tlu; names of Robert E. Lee? ? several othe-rs fre^b the charge ot' c ^piracy with Wirtz-is that these \ sems aro actually or constructive!'' the custody of the United States,* not on trial. "White Labor. Necessary for South. . Carolina. To 'the Editor of the TlertiM: As is known to you and to tho Northern people, the slaves o*f the South have been emancipated, and they are no longer subject to the control and gov? ernment of th? "white man in develop? ing thc resources nnd in the produc? tion of the great staples of the South -cotton, rice, tobacco, lumber, ?SSK. It is very desirable that the South should continue to produce their staples, even in greater abundance than ever before. It is important to this section, and equally important to tho government. _ By the production of these great staples in abundance, it is very clear that the United States must be the most formidable nation, in the world. Because in all the other resources which give strength und greatness to a nation, she surpasses all nations on the globe, and possesses in a most eminent degree all those materials which constitute the great? ness of a nation. In t consequence of thc entirely disorganized condition of the largor of tho South, and thc very great uncertainty as to whether thc negro c?n be made profitable as a laborer, hus caused many of the. think? ing men of this section to come to the conclusion that the production of thc great staples of thc South must to a very great extent cease, unless white labor can bo obtained to work thc lands in this section. It i?? tho. universal desire of the land owners to employ white labor on their farms and as house servants. . I ana fully satisfied that Eon thousand lab?r ers wo tl 1 d be in i m c< 1 i at olyA *n i p I <>y c cl a t. fair juices in Abbeville District, S. C. This section of the State is very healthy, ami the lands are fertile. There is no portion of the State mere desirable to live in, or ottering greater inducements to white laborers. The labor of the South must evciftuallybc entirely white, if it would enjoy any degree of prosperity, in thc imme? diate neighborhood of the writer, one j thousand white laborers would bc j employed at once at high wages; Lu I fact, there never hus been such a pro ! fitabic field for white emigrants. Me j chanics of all hinds, us well aslabor j ors, will l*o welcomed ; und ii a sullicient supply can be obtained, tuen the prosperity of the country must increase; while, if the negro is to he relied OK to supply the wants, in these respects, of thc country, then gradual but inevitable ruin is the certain des? tiny of the South. A railroad passes through almost every district of the citato, and any portion 01 tho State can be reached in forty-eight hours from tho eily of Newr York. With a prosperous South, thc United States I will certainly control the commerce of j the world. But in the present tho- j roughly disorganized condition of labor, and the disinclination of the j negro to continue to work, the pros-! peet is indeed gloomy for tho future. ! The supply of cotton, instead of being next year at the maximum,* will cer? tainly be far below the minimum of torn 1er years. A GREENWOOD (S. GT) PX<AXI?EII. DEATH OP TUT: CELEBRATED RACE MAKE AUHXE.-The celebrated tiio I rough-bred mare Albino, we regret to : say, died at the Laelede Association j Training Grounds, near tin's city, on Saturday, from the effects of a strain J or rupture ueceived while moving in a sl?xw gallop on.Wednesday last. She belonged to John Canley, Esq., of South Carolina, but during the pas sago of tin; Federal armies through that Stftte, was confiscated by an officer,and brought West. By him I she was passed to the temporary pos? session of Dr. J. W. Weldon, one of] jour most active turf men, who began j 1 to put her in training tor the coming ?St! Louis and Oinoinuiiii full meetings. At the latter city she was ox peeled to jenter tl ie. lists, against Asteroid and I other aide aspirants for the Burnett I lleuiso plate of one thousand five huu I dreil dollars. ? Albino was a sorrel in I color, and was pronounced by cou I noisseurs tobe one of tho handsomest janinjalsin the world. St^>- was of ir ] reproaeb??M? blood, being sired by j Jeff. Davis, and grand-sired by Hero. In the seasons of 1850 and 1860, she j made a. brilliant record as a racer hy j boating Fanny Washington nnd thc j great Planet, in three and four mile j heats. "Mr. Canty, her rightful owner, ! had becninforrned of Her presence in j St. Louis, ?md in good time would have recovered possession of liis?io j perty.-"Si. Lions Kcjjuhliaxn, lotti ult. J Professor William H. Aytcfhn, the i well-known editor of J Hack wood'* I Mfa;/i fi io i.>and son-in-law of Professor ! Wilson (Christopher North), thc pre j ceding editor, died ou the Ith ult. The Smithsonian institute, a part of which was destroyed ">yfire last J winter, i<? being rebuilt tire-proof. '*..*? ? I1 ? ? ? I I ll ? j f '* - Europe. THE SCHIiESWIO-HOijSTECrf* QUESTION. It is now stated "that Baron von Werther had transmitted to <#onnt von Meuadorg Pomily new proposals from Herr von Bismarck wr?n regard to the bouchies. These proposals Hear tho character of ?a defrnitive decision on the subject." The Neue Freie Presse, of Vienna,, asserts that Baron von Werther and Count von Mendsorff Pomily had come to a? understanding, in accordance with which the possession of the Thiehies. should continue ou a new basis, and the present Commissioners should be replaced. Herr von Beust was on a visit to Viennif on the question of the Duchies, and had boon received by tho Em? peror. * * A Berlin telegram says: It is stated on reliable authority that the opinion delivered by the Crown lawyers upon the succession question in the Duelrics contains the following conclusion: First : The Duke of Austenburg lias no right of succession to the whole or palt"of the Duchies. t Second: The claims of the Grand Duke of Oldenburg are only valid with reference to the (?lottoi pi'portion of the Duchies in virtue of eventual, reversh n lary rights. Third: The rights of King Christian IX, recognized by the law of s'ne ccs??on?)f the 31st July, 1863, having been published and duly introduced in the Duchies, His Majesty's right of succession must be considered u.s legally established, and these have been transferred by the treaty of Vienna tit Prussia und Austria. A Vienna paper states that if the new negotiations between'Austina and Prussia should fail, Austria will im? mediately urge the Federal Diet to : recognize tho Duke of Austenburg as sovereign of tho Duchies. THE HIGHT OF EN<?L.V>;D ACKNOW? LEDGED TO Tiiv. ISLAND OP SOMBRERO. -Nature, in its widest sense, is bound? less in lier resources. She furnishes all that contribute to tin- material con? venience and welfare of nianUind. When from an increased population and thc advance of time, the huge forests had disappeared before the axe of progressive civilization,, and when by the invention of steam a new sou ice of supply was needed, from the depths id' li n- bosom, she poured forth the hitherto hidden mines of coal, and thus responded to the demands->f the i hour and of improvement. And when i the ordinary means ol' fertilizing tho j soil had proved insufficient, and agri j culture for its products required new (d?ments, smaM islands unfit for the habitation of man, and merely the wibi resting place of the birds of the air, were discovered and found to con j tain upon their surface large quanti ! tics of a substance by the application of which, worn-out or exhausted lands could be recuperated and fruitfukaess restored. ?Among these was the island o? Sombrero, one of the so-called Lee? ward Islands, in tho Caribbean Sea. i It contained a vast und rich natural ? deposit of the phosphate of lime, ont I bf the most valuable fertilizers oi which we have any knowledge. Ame? rican enterprises, in 185(5, set -afioal its ships and vessels, and in awhorl ? time over 100,000 tons of itjiad been imported into this country, and most of.it used on our Southern lands. lt now appears that this island wai first visited by a gentleman from Eng land in the year LS1L, ami again in thc year 1S'25. and that he then report?e to the British authorities the" benefit' 1 which would accme to agricnltiir< I from taking advantage of .its rich de posits, but that this met with but lit j tie encouragement, and was pass?e ! idly by. As soon, however, as tin energy of our people hud hewn out tin way and begun to make iB available the british Govo?'nnientset up its pro test und claim on the ground of prio discovery. An official corresponden c< hus taken place between thc two (Jo I vernments, and the right of Grea britain to its possession conceded I The Boyal Agricultural Society hav had its adaptation for the purposes o increased production under conside ration, ?nd have announced its prc i prietorship as of great importance t i th*e british farmer, and as acceptabl I to the agriculturist as it is likely to b j valuable to the merchant hod slii] owner.-Charleston Courier, 22ri ult. (b?v. Sharkey, of Mississippi, ha issued a proclamation Calling on th I people to form two companies in cac I county, one of cavalry and the othc ? of infantry, for the purpose of puttin I a stop to murders and robberies. I Page k Co.'s cotton factory at Men I phi?gwas burned on the lilth instan I Loss ?10,000. Madame LoVcrt will soon publis a volume entitled "Souvenirs .of tl I War." I^ocal Items. *Our readers aro reminded that the elec tion for members of thc Convention take? jdace to-day. Comply with thc law ami poll your votes. Messrs. Townsend & North arc thecgeMa in^this city for thc Charleston Kde*. Wt, are indebted to them-for a copy. Weare a??jo under renewed obligat*??tis to the Southern Express Company for late pap?is. * Our readers are reminded that Mr. D. T. Harvt>y is running a daily line ol' four-horse post coaches between this city and tho tcr -minus of thc Charlotte Radroad. As his teams are in line condition and th<ire aro relays of fresh horses on thc route, the trip is mad?; in the shortest time. Mr. H. hus made the necessary arrangements and is now carrying a daily mail between the two points, which is a matter of croat" impor? tance to the entire community. Persons residing in that section of country desirous of obtaining the news from Columbia, can now do soby forwarding their subscriptions to the Pha??c. PROMTS?.U OF TSG PHOENIX.- \v*e have great satisfaetion in announcing to our readers tho safe retain of our vigorous and enterprising publisher from New York, wherp he has siteeecded in procuring such supplies of matci'"o'.-presses, founts of type, varieties of letter and ornament-as will enable tho Pho:nixto take a still farther flight, on a still broader wing, surpassing all previous Rurpussings, and showing as proudly and galliinlly in thc air as any rival nows organ in om- atmosphere. Star's, and Stats, and Eagles, and Banners, Couriers and Mercitries. shall not soar or shine morv# proudly in thc literary or political world; and, as an augury of thc resuscitation, growth ami future graiuleor of Columbia, tho Ph-r-nix will steadily preserve her up? ward .-.nd onward course, until she becomes a first--lass messenger of prosperity and triumph to our people. Let them ta kc those Assurances in good faith. In a little tina-, and al! our pronHaes shall be mole than . realized. --~ .-.- m - NICKEKSOX'S Ii' /r.'U.. -Some siatecn wagon loads of furniture, for Niokerson's Hotel, which arrived on Friday, sufficiently assures our public that there will be no diftlcuity in providing lodging and nil thc comforts for the members of the Convention at the ap preaching session. Mr. Nickorson\s well len o wu energy is not lacking now. when i:. is so mnch needed. Wc have '.n? to add that tho members of tho Convention anil the Legislature need he under no :?ppre'.i?,n sions of a deficiency ol' shelter, bread, ? ieat and all tho creature comforts in Columbia., whenever the publie duties shall ?c?uip>-l their ??ppcarunce bor'. Nay, the lev.ines will not lie wanting with all those whoso patriotism r< quires '.n external stimulus for action. Our "Local"-we -<uirs?.?lf- th? .plural im* of thc pivei::Ct- -uaw been at. pains to obtain tue assicaneo from private housekeepers, ?'uat accommodations shail not be wanting. Venerable senators and seniors of the State have only to apply to us at the %Phonix office, and we will secure them good lodgment, in good quarters, under the management of fair liouserkcep ,ers, who will make them forget that they are temporarily j?ieeitt from the certainties and sweets of Ironie. Let them take our assurances, and believe that we are fully competent to fulfill our words. DISTINGUISHED AIUUVAES?-His Excellen? cy Governor Perry arrived yesterday from' Greenville, and has his quarters at the Shi? ver House. Generals Meade and Gilliriore, of the United States army, baie also arrived at ?be capital, and taken lodgings at tho Shiver House. General Meade.is on a tour of survey, inspection and examination throughout this miiibtry district, where lin ff?\ have milch to learn. These distill-', guishod persons are met in conference upon the state of affairs in S nub Carolina, ami there is much of evil to exercise and require the utmost wisdom, and no small will, nu? its correction. We hear of most atrocious outrages in many places, on the part of the black troops-outrages Of a chairautcr too shocking to designate by name. For ?vbat good purpose these troops are kept in J?ie country ?iud scattered over it, il would be difficult to say. It P process were particu? larly required, for defeating all the hopes of tuc experiment, at Converting slave into free labor, and for driving thc white population to madness*, no.better one could be devised, j Wo hope that those gentlemen, thus cn trusted with the great and difficult work cf I carrying out a most novel experiment, at once in montis, politics, society and labor the uro.-; complicated problem, perhaps, ever i-ubin itt eu-to y people - wiil bring to this conn renee a lU grce of wisdom, justice, ami conci?ati.ii, snell a;* has not hitherto been very conspicuous in tho management >f our affairs, it is true that th" people of the South are a conquered people; but wc have been told and have assumed, that it is no part of the plan of the Government that they should be treated ns. such, ft cert air. Iv? is not'the policy ol the Government that it should be so.. let sb it certainly is ?it pre? sent. -, ^ NEW ADVERTISEMENTS.- -At tention is called to the following advertisements, which aro published for the lirst time this morning: Gibbes Si Co.-Barque for Liverpool. .Conner's United States Type Foundry. Lawrence, Baldwin & Co.- -Brokers, ?vc. The Missesnfctenry-School Notice. Moise ?V Orchard- For. Public benefit. Mordecai & Co. -Com. Merchants, ftc. Jas. A. Black-Compt roller-Gen."s Office., Nomination of Dr. Geiger. Lox 88,'Newberrv- -Drug Store for Sale. Shelton, Calvo & Walsh-Shoes, ftc. Regular Meeting Fire Department. Several persons have been arrested in .San Antonio on charges of makin?: away with public property and money I culbrae?>d in the terms of surrender. The work on the Mississippi ('en? trai Railroad progresses rapidly, ami |4t vii] probably be completed and in ? operation by October 1.