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IWay afoMqfr & 1&65. We are pleased?a. report that, after ah amicable conference between Gov. Perry awl;- ??he Generals Meade and Gilhnore, all impediments to the pro? per re-establishment pt the civil au? thority, within the State have been withdrawn by the military. The courts of justice and the magistracy will re? sume their functions, and the provost courts will be limited in their jurisdic tion to those cases only in which the* freed negroes shall be parties. But we refer the reader to the .proclama? tion of his Excellency Gov. Perry. It also pleases its to add that the negro troops are fi be withdrawn promptly from the interior of the State, and to be concentrated in garrisons along the coast. Thia information will be grate? fully received by the whole body of our people, to whom the presence of these troops is a constant occasion of annoyance and offence. The neces? sity for their 'removal, however, has been made terribly apparent in the shocking eximes which have been lately committed, the full evidence of which has been famished by the.Go? vernor to the United States Generals, who have pledged themselves to the prompt examination and punishment of the criminals. Even apart from the actual commission of crime, it is enough to know that the whole expe? riment in free negro labor has been mischievously impaired, if not wholly defeated, in all those regions where the black troops made their appear? ance in propinquity with the laborers.. The effect was most pernicious every? where, changing the whole character and conduct of the laborer, making him neglectful, insubordinate and in? solent, and beguiling him off from the plantations, to the ruin of the crop. It is also intimated to' ns that, in most cases, it is to this source do the ne? groes owe the large numbers of fire? arms and the quantity of ammunition which they are known to possess ir many quarters. Certainly, the with? drawal of these troops will be. abso? lutely essential to the good "behavior of the negro laborer, and by theil timely withdrawal we may escape those /horrors of blood shedding arie other more fearful crimes, the" enact? ing of which has already begun. W< are pleased to learn from nis Excel lency Gov. Perry, that his despatchei from the President embody his heart? approbation of all the steps that th* formor has taken; that he encourage his continued progress in the sam* direction, and assures him against an; future interruption of, or interferenci with, his authority on any part. ?-?~m. We publish?I, a few days ago, th expressed hope and expectation o President Magrath, of the South Cn rolina Railroad, that the cars woul< 'be able to run through from Charles ton to Columbia by the 1st proximo As an augury promising to sustai: this hope and conviction, we ari pleased to announce that the trai from below crossed the Congaree R: ver, at 20 minutes to 5 o'clock, on th 31st ultimo. This we learn by a d< spatch from Kingsville in the Charlet ton paper, of Saturday last, addresse to the General Superintendent, Peak? by Mr. McKewn, one of the local si perintendents. The bridge, then, i passable once more, and, with bi fifteen miles of ty-ack to repair, we ma reasonably calculate on the realizatio of President Magrath's expectation. The cholera rages as an epidemic i Constantinople and Cairo, the dea tl otaaly, in the former city, being 25* and in the latter, 600! The Demon . the Scourge is on the wing-is in fl winds. Let the intemperate be war Tliey have ever been the chief suffe ers/* The funded debt of the city of N< York, represented by the bonds ai stocks of the corporation on the iii of February, was $30,658,676.50. ( PlffiE?Mia?B LABOB-We had aa interview, yesterday morning, with a couple of Broad River planters, who report that the negroes are every? where ahandoningthe plantations and repairing to the towns. They do not even wait to receive their proportions of the crop. We take it for granted that the military authorities, at the several garrisons, will see to this matter before we are utterly overrrfh. Already the negroes of this town are in each other's way, and hundreds fail to find employment, even where th ly offer their services for their daily bread alone. What condition of things*will follow from this crowding of the towns,p may be* conjectured when the winter sots in, and when clothing and shelter and fuel shall be even more scarce than food. THE NSW CONSTITUTION or VEBGINIA. -For a synopsis of this instrument, the reader is referred to. our first page, where we have abridged an article from the Bichmond 'Times. We com? mend it to the perusal of all classes of our readers, and especially to the members elect of the Convention of this State. It may assist them in their deliberations on the several constitu? tional topics which are likely to arise during their session, and may inform them on all. f FIRE m CHARLESTON.-The dwelling house of Mrs. Dallas-a brick house on Queen street-was destroyed by fire oruFriday last, and so rapid were the flames that the inmate&narrowly made their escape through the windows. The house was insured at W. B. He? riot's agency for $1,200, as was also some tobacco to the value of $600, on the same premises. The flames com? municated to a building on thc East, adjoining, belonging to the estate of Harvey, and occupied by one Irving Chester, a colored man. The building was saved, with the loss ofc?ts roof. Three cargoes of railroad iron have reached Charleston within a few days, designed for the South Carolina Bail road, the officers of which seem reso? lute to make up for. lost time, and are pushing upwards with steam impulse and race-horse fervor. We hor* to see them soon, panting, puning, snort? ing and blowing, at the well known station on Bridge street. BIOT AT CHESTER.-The^Darlington Southerner, of the 26th ultimo, has a statement that a riot occurred.at Ches? ter C. H., in this State, on the 12th, between colored soldiers and citizens. We give the statement as it appears in. the Southerner: $ It appears that on the day named, (12th,) many of the citizens from all pacts of tire District had met on spe? cial public business, and among them many who had been in the Confede? rate army. Colored troops who were stationed there took every opportunity of insulting them by jostling against them, or saying something very offen: sive. Eventually, the parties insulted were forced to reseat the indignities put upon them, and a gen eraP fight took place between the citizens and the negro troops, in which three of the latter were killed, and many -on both sides wounded. As soon as the riot was quelled, the Provost-Marshal sent the troops from town. % * DECISION OF THE COMMISSIONER OF INTERN AL REVENUE IN REGARD TO SPECIFIC LEO ACTES IN GOED.-The Commissioner of Internal Revenue to? day decided that while under the terms of a will the legatee can de? mand of the executor the delivery of gold, he cannot We held to receive a legacy of money merely; for in such case the executor would be discharged by a payment in currency. It must, therefore, be treated as a specific legacy, the, clear value in currency of ?which at that time the legatee re? ceived it*, would be taxable. When an allowance over and above the valua? tion of a specific legacy on wliich the tax had been paid is afterward real? ized by the safle of such specific legacy, such^odvanee is regarded as neither taxafra*legacy uSrincome. \ -1 **? By the wiJJ of the late Marchioness of Londonderry, which places all her property at compound interest for the next twenty-one years, the then Earl "Vane will be the richest man in Eng? land. * WrxjjiNGTON, A BBEVHILE DISTRICT, Angustio, 1865. Editor of ike Phoenix-SIB: I pro .pose to address j ou one or two letters on a subject, which, while it serves as a topic of speculative and political discussion to the people of the North? ern States, is, to us of the South gene? rally, and <af this State most especial? ly, one of life and death. The system of 4aber-with which we have lived ?h a prosperity sufficient for our own wishes, and certainly with a degree of order, .freedom from crime, and ?ap piness enjoyed by few civilized com? munities-has disappeajy d fief ore the sentiment of the age and the fortunes of war. Regrets are not only idle but mischievous. The habits.fflid memo? ries of our past system of life, plea? sant though ?hey be, serve only to "blind tour judgment and hamper our energies. Any attempt %o resuscitate the past relation of the two races who inhabit this country will fail; any attempt to substitute, one of a similar character? even if partially successful, will be but apiece of patch-work, gall? ing^ the poor jades who ^arry-it, -wast? ing' our time, our.strength arid our energies, without any afequate result. Facts are s tarn an? uncompromising reasoners, and the sooner wo recognize them the'* sooner will we be in a con? dition to- make the best available use of what small resources we still pos? sess. It may be unpleasant to snap all at once the wgfll defined, useful1 and kindly relation, in which we formerly stpod to Cuffee; but if we don't, Ctiffee will, and in most places has very sum? marily done so already. "We must recognize that he is now free, with all ^be motives of self-interest which free? dom developes, with all those of self indulgence implanted by his nature, and with very little if-any of the ' intelligence, capacity or energy, which civilized freedom requires. Although he may, in many Cases, recognize that his former condition was materially better than that he now actually en? joys, yet he is- not willing to return tc it. Experience would seem to havt proved that the condition of slavery, though under certain circumstances ii may improve the inferior races o' ?mankind, is not agreeable to any; anc that even, the savage, improved a nc semi-civilized ?s a slave, frequently looks back with regret to his state o barbarous freedom. Besides, "hop springs eternal in the human breast,' I and our African* brother has an arte( sian well of it constantly bubbling \x\ in his bosom. What though" he dir? to-day on a roasting ear of -Arn filched from ft fteighboi's held, in th? fancied mirror of the future he see; himself feasting on bacon, molasses rum and tobacco, without a care anc with the barest modicum of labor. But to ourselves, the first and mos important care in commencing a n?v career is to obtain a clear and accurate idea of our actual bearings and atari with a definite purpose. IJnf?rtu nately, we must patch for the present the two races are here, and the relatjoi between them must be defined, ii order to diminish the probability o ?actual collisions dangerous" to th security of society. For this purpos the most liberal regulations seem th most safe, and the most likely t attain our ends. 'The privilege c voting and of acting as jurymen car not safely be entrusted to the negfc It is very possible that he would, i left alone, not abwse the power fo any definite purpose whether of mc or otherwise; but designing and ai principled men, appealing to tho hoi tile feeling already exhibited, woul make tools of them for their own sel ish purposes and to the detriment < society at large. But in every otb.* matter it would seem really wisest i leave them perfectly^free from speci legislation, without any attempt eith? to bolster them up or pull thenf dowi Summary jurisdiction should be give magistrates for the strict enforcemei of all contracts not above a certai pecuniary value, and stringent lav thoroughly enforced against vagrancy . But such laws need not even mentic the negro; pride of race alone wi keep* us from subjecting ourselv* to their penalties and thus leave the: for whom they are really designe* While, by thus acting, we take ava from those who pretend to so gre? an affection for the black man and 1 so great an estimate of Iiis ability i to consider him superior to the whit all shadow of. an excuse for a?eusir us of injustice. One thing is certoL if, as some fanatics claim, the negro equal or superior to the white man, i partial - or class legislation will loi prevent him from asserting that poi tion. On the <^|r hand, if, as" tl . experience of the world for centuries ?>ast attest, he is inferior, that in ?riority ?rill be only &e moro readily and quickly exhibited ? by placing him fairly and solely J on hi* otgi. re? sources; in the comp?tition with the ttfiite ?nan. Disabling; statutes, by de? fining his status, will really serve'to prop him up, just as his well defined position as a slave served for his pro? tection, ami by withdrawing himfrom actual personal competition 4nrith white labor, actually gave him an ad? vantage over it. The white mechanic did not enter into competition with the negro, when his triumph would be certainrbut with the wealthy capital? ist who owned negroes, where the contest was too unequal ?o be main? tained. Indeed, so undoubted is the 'superiority of our race in every quality necessary for civilized Ufe, despite the injury which our ideas and habits o? monastry have received by soi lone communication with the black rac*' .that I feel the most perfect confidence of our triumph in thostruggler whether merely moral or physical, which?seems in?vitable-T-and ? thafj^Jup'on anything like equal terms of liberty to both races, ?very attempt to advance the negro to equality, antagonism, rivalry and competition with our race, will only the more surely and promptly accelerate $is destruction. I speak not of acts' of vio^ncQ; it seems in? evitable that occasional erneutes will occur; and as in the past, so in the future, they will commence on the part of the negro; the blind effort of misguided ignorance to reverse the decree of Aovidence by an exliibition of brute force. But I do not speak of this; I allude to' the sure, steady^and even more rapid strides of poverty, disease and starvation, encountered is an unejrjual contest with a race' supe? rior in every mental and moral quality. While, however, such mea? sures of expediency, as are above sug? gested, will be necessary in our pre? sent legislation, it is all-important that we should recognize their purely temporary character. We are not tc put faith in them as calculated to es? tablish a permanent system of labor*. It is indispensable, that while con? structing from tne debris of the shat tered wreck, a frail and uncertain raft, for present use, we should provide c more noble and st?tely ship for th? future; or, to drop all metaphor, it ii *a matter of life and death, fhat w? should direct our. energies to thal policy, which alone can now, restort us to prosperity, the encouraging o: white immigration. Without ii, w? enter upon a future more pdoofty evei than the terrible present. With it we ^nove with confidence to th,e tifinment bf a prosperity, greater, in j material point of view, than that for morly enjoyed, and more stable^be cause 'Jtuore in accordance with^hi humors of the age. Of tim, of tin obstacles in the way of immigration of their removal, and of our duties ii respect thereto, I propose, should i meet with your approbation, to speal in my next letter. . CAU?ASIAN. -?? ** ELF?TTON OF A CATHOLIC M. P. n ENGLAND.-Only one Catholic was re turned to the late Parliament by ai English ' constituency, and he repre sented not an open constituency, bu %he Bpke of Norfolk's borough o Arundel. So positive has been thi exclusion that the advo'cates'of a rep resentation of minorities have given i as an instance of tne grievances the wowld remedy, ajfd have said, plans: bly though"incSrectly, that the Eng lian Boman Catholics have not bee represented at au. It is satisfactor to find that religious zeal does not i all cases urge tne British electora t vote against a Papist> The Bridge north/people, in returning Sir Joh Acton, have .not fnly shown then selves superior to the prejudice th? has hitherto prevailed, but they hov placed in the House di Gommons a accomplished man," and one of th most thoughtful and judicious arnon the members of his Church. ^London Times.: THE OATH OF OFFICE.1-Under th Government of the United States, b an Act of Congress passed in 1862, n man can hold office save he take th folio wing oath: * I, -4P---, do solemnly swear (c affirm) that I haye never voluntaril borne arms against the United Statt since I have been a citizen thereo that I have voluntarily given no* aie countenance, counsel or encourag* ment to persons engaged *in arme hostility thereto; that I have nev< sought, nor accepted, nor attempte to exercise the functions of any offic Whatever, unct?jK- any authority, ( pretended authority, in armed hostil ty to the United States; that I hiv* not yielded a voluntary support i any pretended Government authority power or constitution, within tj United States. To insure insertion, advertisers- are re quested to band in their notices'before f' o'clock p. m. , Dr. %m. P. Geiger yian yesterday elected" Alderman for Ward No. 3. Qt POSTAGE STAMPS.-Ovfr citizens ard . in formed that they can be supplied with the' above article by applying at this office. We aro indebted to Major Moighan for copies of late New York and Virginia papers. L Gov. PERRY'S . JADQUABTEBS.-We are gratified to state that, after the 7th inst., thc -headquarters M? his Excellency Gov. Perry will be in Columbia-to which placo all communications for him must bo /td drcssed. _ _ ?4 It will be seen, by reference to Mr. H. E. Nichols' advertisement, that'he has removed his insurance office to ?.?more central lo? cality-corner of Assembly and Washington streets. We would urgo all who desire to put themselves on the safe siA of accidents, to give him a call. STATE CONVENTION.-Th? election, yester? day, for members of thc State Convention, passed off quietly, in tlids city, with the fol? lowing result. The returns from the coun? try boxes will be received to-day: Wade Hampton. .304 F_W. McMaster..20S *A. K. Tavlor.141 John Caldwell.... 13}$ Wm. Wallace.183 J. P. Carroll.121 Jr G. Gibbes.105 W. F. DeSaussur? ?4 W. A. Harris.82 . NEW ADVERTISEMENTS.-Attention is called to the following advertisements, which aro published for thc first time this morning: Jacob Bell-Citation. .Medical College of the State of S. C. * Wm. Cronenberg-Cabinet Maker, etc. Darbee & Walter-Cottage for Sale. Apply at this Office-House. Wanted. A. PalmerW-Old Copper, etc., Wanted. Gov. "Perry-Proclamation. " " -Headquarters at Columbia? " " -NotiCo to Attorney-General. E. E. Jackson-New and Desirable Good*. Mons, and Had. Dovilhens -?Music, Ac. P*d?Mc Sentiment 1? Sooth Carol!sm. .^Provisional Governor Perry, of South Carolina, made a speech re? cently, at Greenville, in which, after giving a circumstantial account of his interviews with the President and leading members of the Government at Washington, he said: "In conclusion, let me (say to yon, fellow-citizens, that I am-well pleased with all that I saw and heard at Wash? ington in reference to the Southern States. Let us now dolour duty, take the oath of allegiance, elect good atnd wise men to the Convention, reform our State Constitution, abolish slavery, equalize the representaci?n .of the State in tho Senate, give the eleetibir* of Governor and Presidential electors to the people, and all will be well." This was good advice; he told his hearers, also, that*he had pledged them to <s? all this, to the President. . 'I told him that the people of "South* Carolina accepted the terms of bis proclamation, find were disposed to return to their allegiance to the Union. That from having^ been the most re? bellious State in the South, I was satis? fied South Carolina would, henceforth, - be one of the most loyal of the South- . ern States. That she woulcf reform her Constitution and abolish slavery, give the election of Governor and Pre? sidential electors to the people, and equalize the representation ? of tho State. I gave it as my opinion that the. disunion feeling of the South had originated in the parishes." Upon this, a morning journal says: "Although no man has better op? portunities than Govesnot Perry, for forming a correct estimate of the state of public sentiment in Souih Carolina, these - positive statements must be taken, we fear, with some grains of allowance. That a strong under-cur? rent of Union sentiment exist? in that State, we dp not doubt, but a conver? sion so radical as that indicated above would be little short ci miraculous." We <J| not see why Mr.. Perry's words should be doubted. He is not, to judge from Iiis first speech, a kind of man to set his face boldly against a strong public sentiment; he is more inclined to follow what he thinks the current. But he speaks out squarely now, after having traveled over the Stat? and taken pains to acquaint himself with the public sentiment. South Carolina, before the war, was in the hands of a fe* wealthy families. The people had b?fc the slightest sharo in the government of the State. Governor Perry tells the President that he J?hetieves they will readily re? form their institutions in such a way as to make them more democratic, and tsvke the political power from the few and give it to the mun v. Is this im probtjtye? Is it not highly probablo that if they understand the proposed change they will almost unanimously vote for it?-New York Evening Post. The Czar agrees to complete, the telegraph line to America to the bound? ary of his dominions.