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BY JULIAN A. SELBY.
COLUMBIA, S. C., TUESDAY MORNING, OCTOBER 2. 1866.
VOLUME II-NO. 16^
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BY JULIAN A. SELBY,
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PRESIDI JOHNSON'S MESSAGE.
FELLOW-CITIZENS OF TUF. SENATE
AND HOUSE or REPR?SENTATIVES :
After ii brief interval, the Congross of
the United Skates resumes its annual
legislative labors. Au all-wise and
merciful Providence has abated the
pestilence which visited our shores,
leaving its calamitous traces upon
some portions of our country. Peace,
order, tranquility and civil authority
have been formally declared to exist
throughout tho whole of the United
States. In all of the States, civil
authority has superceded the coercion
of arms, and the people, by their
voluntary action, "aro maintaining
their Government in full activity and
complete operations. The enforce?
ment of the laws is no longer ob?
structed in any State by combination
too powerful to be suppressed by the
ordinary course of judicial proceed?
ings, and the animosities engendered
by -tlic war are rapidly yielding to the
beneficent inilucnces of our free in?
stitutions, and to the kindly effects of
unrestricted social and commercial
intercourse. An entire restoration of
fraternal feeling must be the earnest
?wish of every patriotic heart. We
will have accomplished our grandest
national achievement when, forget-"
ting the sad events of the past, and
remembering only their instructive
lessons, we resume our onward ca?
reer, as a free, prosperous and united
people. In my message of the 4th
December, lSo?, Congress was in?
formed of the measures which had
been instituted hythe Executive with
a view to the gradual restoration of
tho States, in which the insurrection
occurred, to their relations with the
General Government. Provisional
Governors had been appointed, con?
ventions called, Governors elected,
and Representatives chosen to the
Congress of the United States. Courts
had been opened for the enforcement
of laws long in abeyance; the block?
ade had been removed, custom-houses
re-established, and the internal re?
venue put in force, in order that the
people might contribute to the na?
tional income; postal operations had
been resumed, and efforts were being
made to restore them to their former
condition of efficiency. The States
had been asked to take part in the
high function of amending the Con?
stitution, and of their sanctioning
the extinction of African slavery, as
one of tho legitimate results of our
internecine struggle. Having pro?
gressed thus far, the Executive De?
partment found that it had accom?
plished nearly all that was willan the
scope of its Constitutional authority;
one thing, however, yet remained to
be done before the work of restora?
tion could be completed, and that
wes the admission to Congress of
loyal Senators and Representatives
fi om the States whose people had
rebelled against the lawful authority
of the General Government. This
question devolved upon the respective
Houses, which; by the Constitution,
are made the judges of the election
returns and qualifications of their
own members, and its consideration
at once engaged the attention of
Congress. In the meantime, the
Executive Department, no other plan
having been proposed by Congres-,
in its effort to perfect, as far as was
practicable, the restoration of the
proper relations between the citi?
zens of the respective States, the
Federal Government extended, from
time to time, as tho public interests
seemed to require, the judicial revenue
and postal systems of the country,
and with the advice and consent of
the Senate, tho necessary officers
were appointed and appropriations
made by Congress for the payment
of their salaries. The proposition to
amend the Federal Constitution, so
as to prevent the existenc of slavery
within the United States, or any?
place subject to their jurisdiction,
was ratified by the requisite number
of States. On tho 18th day of De
comber, 1865, it was officially declar
ed to have become valid us a part of
the Constitution ol'thc United States.
All of the States in which the insur?
rection had existed, promptly amend?
ed their Constitutions so us to make
them conform to the great change
thus effected in the organic law of
i the land; declared null and void all
1 ordinances and laws of secession, re?
pudiated till pretended debts and ob?
ligations created for the revolutiona?
ry purposes of the insurrection, and
proceeded in good faith to the enact?
ment of measures for th? protection
and amelioration of the condition of
the colored race. Congress, however,
yet hesitated to admit any ot these
States to representation, and it was
not until towards the close of the
eighth month of tho session that au
exception was made in favor of Ten?
nessee, by tito admission uf her Sen?
ators and Representatives. I deem
it a subject of profound regret that
Congress has thus far failed to admit
to seats, loyal Senators and Repre?
sentatives from the other States,
whose inhabitants, with those of Ten?
nessee, had engaged in the rebellion.
Ten States, more than one-fourth oi
the whole number, remain without
representation. The seats of fifty
members in the House of Represen?
tatives,'and of twenty members in thc
Senate, aro yet vacant. Xot by theil
own consent: not by a failure of elec?
tion; but by the refusal of Congress
to accept linar credentials. Theil
admission, it is believed, would hav(
accomplished much towards the re?
moval and strengthening of our rela?
tions as one people, and removed se
rions cause for discontent on the par
of thc inhabitants of those States
It would have accorded with thc
great principles enunciated in th<
declaration of American independ
once-that no people ought to bea:
the burden ot' taxation, and yet b<
denied the right pf representation
It would have been in consonant
with the express provisions of tin
Constitution-that each State shoult
have at least one representative, an?
that no State, without its consent
shall be deprived of its equal suffrag
in the Senate. These provisions wert
intended to secure to every State, ant
to the people of (-very State, th
right of representation in each Hons
of Congress; and so important was i
deemed by the framers of the Con
stitution, t'that the equality of th
States in the Senate should be prc
served, that not even by an amend
ment ot' the Constitution can an
State, without its consent, be denie
a voice in that branch of the Xationt
Legislature, lt is true, it has bee
assumed that the existence ot* th
States was terminated by the rebe'
lions acts of their inhabitants, an
'that, the insurrection having bee
suppressed, they wen; thenceforwar
to be considered merely as conquere
territories. The legislative, exect
tive, and judicial departments of th
Government have, however, wit
great distinctp.ess and uniform coi
sistency, refused to sanction a
assumption so incompatible wit
the nature of our Republican systeu
and with the professed objects of th
war, throughout the recent legislatio
of Congress, the undeniable fa<
makes itself apparent, that these te
political communities are nothin
less than States of this Union. A
the very commencement of the rebe
lion, each House declared, with
unanimity tis remarkable as it wt
significant, that the war was nc
waged upon our part in any spirit c
oppression, nor Tor any purpose (
conquestor subjugation, nor pnrpos
of overthrowing or interfering wit
the rights or established institutioi
of those States, but to defend an
maintain the supremacy of the Coi
stitution, and till laws made in pu
suance thereof, and to preserve tl
Union with all the dignity, equalil
and rights of the several Statesunin
paired; aud that as soon as these ol
jects were accomplished, the wi
ought to cease. In some instance
Senators were permitted to contint
their legislative functions, while :
other instances, representatives we:
elected and admitted to their sea
after their States had formally d
dared their right to withdraw fro
the Union, and were endeavoring \
maintain that right by force of arm
All of the States whose people we
in insurrection ns States, were i:
eluded in the apportionment of tl
direct tax of ?20,000,000 annual
laid upon the United States by tl
Act approved August 5, 1861. Co
gress, by the Act of Mareil 4, 18(5
?md by tho apportionment of repr
seutatiou thereunder, also recognize
their presence as States in theUnio
and they have, for judicial purpose
been divided into districts as Stat
alone can be divided. The same i
cognition appears in the recent legi
fation in referenco to Tenncsse
which evidently rests upon the fa
that the functions of the State we
not destroyed by the rebellion, b
merely suspended; and that print
plo is, of course, applicable to tho
States which, like Tennessee, attempt
ed to renounce their places in the
Union. The action of the Executive
Department of the Government upon
this subject has been equally definite
and uniform, and the purpose of the
war was specifically stated* in the pro?
clamation issued by my predecessor,
on the 22d of September, 1862. It ?
was then solemnly proclaimed and j
declared that hereafter, as heretofore,
the war will be prosecuted for the ob?
ject of practically restoring the Con
[ stitutional relation between the
I United States and each of thc States,
j and the people thereof, in which
States that relation is, or may be,
suspended or disturbed. The recog?
nition of the States by the Judicial
Department of the Government has
also been clear and conclusive in all
proceedings affecting them as States,
had in the Supreme, Circuit and Dis?
trict Courts. In the admission of
Senators and Representatives from
any and all of the States, there can
be no just ground of apprehension
that persons who arc disloyal will be
clothed with the powers of legisla?
tion, for this could not happen when
the Constitution and thc laws are en?
forced by a vigilant and faithful Con?
gress. Each House is made tho
judge of the election returns and
qualifications of its own members,
and may, with the concurrence of
two-thirds, expel a member. When
a Senator or Representative presents
his certificate of election, he may at
once be admitted or rejected; or
should there bc any question as to
his eligibility, his credentials may
be referred for investigation to the
kapprooriate committee. If admitted
to a seat, it must be upon evidence,
satisfactory to the House of which he
thus becomes a member, that he pos?
sesses ;he requisite constitutional and
legal qualifications. If refused ad?
mission as a member, for want of dm
allegiance to thc Government, ami
returned to his constituents, they arc
admonished that none but person.'
loyal to the United States will be al
lowed a voice in the legislative coan
cils of the nation; and the pol?tica
power and moral influence of Con
gress are tints effectively exerted ii
the interests of loyalty to the Go
vernment and fidelity to the Union
Upon this question, so vitally affect
ing the restoration of thc Union aut
the permanency of our present forn
of Government, my convictions here
tofore expressed have undergone n<
change; but, on the contrary, thei
correctness has been confirmed b;
reflection and time. If* the admission
of loyal members to seats in the rc
spective Hous:sof Congress was wis
and expedient a year ago, it is no les
wise and expedient now. If. tin
anomalous condition is right now-i
in the exact condition of those State*
at the present time, it is lawful t
exclude them from representation,
do not see that the question will b
changed by the efflux of time. Te
years hence, if these States romain a
they are, tho right of represeiitatio
will be no stronger-the right ot es
elusion will be no weaker. The Coi.
stitution of the United Statt
makes it the duty of the Presider
to recommend to the consider;
tion of Congress such measure
as he shall judge necessary or expi
dient. I know of no measure mor
imperatively demanded by every coi
sideration of naiional interest, soun
policy and equal justice, than til
admission of loyal members from no
unrepresented States. This woul
consummate the work of restoratioi
and exert a most salutary influenc
in the re-establishment of peace, ha:
mony, and fraternal feeling,
would tend greatly to renew the coi
iidenee of thc American people i
the vigor and stability of their inst
tntious. It would bind us moi
closely together as a nation, and ei
able us to show to thc world the ii
herent and recuperative powers of
Government founded upon the will <
the people and established upon tl
principles of liberty, justice and ii
tclligence. Our increased streng!
and enhanced prosperity would irr
fragibly demonstrate the fallacy i
the arguments against free institi
tiona, drawn from our recent nation
disorders, by tho enemies of republ
can government. The admission
loyal members from the States no
excluded from Congress, by allayii
doubt and apprehension, would tm
capital, now awaiting an opportuni
for investment, into the channels
trade and industry. It would alle\
ate the present troubled condition
those States; and, by inducing en
gration, aid in the settlement of ft
tile regions now uncultivated, ai
lead to an increased production
those staples which have addi
so greatly to the wealth
the nation and tho commerce of t
world. New fields of onterpri
would be opened to our progressi
people, and soon tho devastations
war would be repaired, and all trac
of our domestic differences effac
from tho minds of our country me
In our efforts, to preserve the unity of i
Government, which constitutes us
oue people, by restoring thc States to
the condition which they held prior
to the rebellion, we should be cau?
tious lest, having rescued our nation
from perils of threatened disintegra- !
tion, we resort to consolidation, and
in the end absolute despotism. As a j
remedy for tho recurrence of similar
troubles, the war having terminated,
and with it all occasion for the exer?
cise of powers of doubtful constitu?
tionality, we should hasten to bring
legislation within thc boundaries pre?
scribed by the Constitution, and to
return to thc ancient land-marks
established by our fathers for the
guidance of succeeding generations.
The Constitution, which, at any time,
exists until changed by any explicit
and authentic act of the whole peo?
ple, is sacredly obligatory upon all.
If, in the opinion of the people, the
distribution or modification of thc
Constitutional powers bc, in any par?
ticular wrong, let it be corrected by
an amendment in the way in which
the Constitution designates; but let
therebe.no change by usurpation,
for it is tho customary weapon by
which free Governments arc destroy?
ed. Washington spoke these words
to his countrymen, when, followed
by their love and gratitude, he
voluntarily retired from the cares
of public life. To keep in all things
within the pale of our constitu?
tional powers, and cherish the
Federal Union as thu only rock
of safety, were prescribed by Jeffer?
son as rules of action to endear his
countrymen to the true principles of
their Constitution, and promote a
union of sentiment and action equally
auspicious to their happiness and
safely. Jackson held that the action
of the General Government should
always bo strictly confined to thc
sphere of its appropriate duties, ant"
justly and- forcibly urged that om
Government is not to be maintained
nor our Union preserved by invasion:
of the rights and powers of the sevc
ral States. In thus attempting t<
niakc our General Governmen
strong, we make it weak. Its tm
strength consists in leaving indivi
duals and States as much as possibL
to themselves; in making itself felt
not in its power, but in its beniti
ceuce; not in its control, but in it
protection; not in binding the State
more closely to thc centre, but leav
ing each to move unobstructed in it
proper constitutional orbit. Thcs
are the teachings of men whose deed
and services have made them illus
trions, and who, long since, h av
withdrawn from the scenes of lift
have left to their country the ric
legacy of their examples, their wi;
dom and their patriotism. Drawin
fresh inspiration from their lesson:
let us emulate them in love of com
try and respect for the Constitutio
and the laws.
The report of tho Secretary of tl;
Treasury alfords much informatio
respecting the revenue and common
of the country. His views upon tl
currency, and with reference to
proper adjustment of our revem
system, internal as well as impost, a:
commended to thc careful consider
tion of Congress. In my last annu
message, I expressed my gener
views upon these subjects. I nen
now only call attention to the nece
sity of carrying into every depai
ment of the Government a system
rigid accountability, thorough r
trenchment and wise economy. Wi
no exceptional nor unusual expent
tures, the oppressive burdens of tax
tion can be lessened by such a mot
fication of our revenue laws as w
be consistent with the public fai
and the legitimate and necessa
wants of the Government. The i
port presents a much more satisfy
tory conditio i of our finances ilw
one year ago, the most sanguine cou
have .anticipated. During the fisc
year ending the 30th June, 18(i5, t
last year of the war, the public de
was increased 8941,902,537, and, i
the 31st of October, 18G5, it amount
to 82,740,854,750. Ou the 31st d
of October, lb?ti, it had been rcduc
to 82,551,310,000; tho diminutic
during a period of fourteen monti
commencing September 1, 1SG5, a
ending October ol, 1SG0, having be
8200,379,505. In the last annual :
port on the state of tho finances,
was estimated, during the thn
fourths of the fiscal year ending t
30th of June last, the debt would
increased $112,194,947. During tl
period, however, it was reduced 83
19L?,J87; thc receipts of the y<
having been 889,805,905 more, a
thc expenditures 8200,529,235 le
than the estimates. Nothing cot
more clearly indicate, than th?
statements, tho extent and avai
bility of the national resourc
und the rapidity and safety w
which, under our form of gove:
ment, great military and naval esti
lishments can bo disbanded, and i
penses reduced from a war to a pet
footing. During the fiscal year ei
ing thc 30th of June. 18GG, the re-1
ceipts were $558,032,620, ami the ex- i
penditures 8520,750,940; leaving an
available surplus of $37,281,6S0. If
is estimated tljat the receipts for the
fiscal vear ondina: 30th June, 1867,
will he* $475,061,380, and that the ex?
penditures will reach the sum of
8316,428,078, leaving in the Treasury
a surplus of $158,633,308. Fer the
fiscal year ending June 30, 1808, it is
estimated that tin; receipts wiil
amount to $130,000,000, and tba? the
expenditures will be $350,247,641;
showing au excess of $85,752,359 in
favor of the Government. These es?
timated receipts may be diminished
by a reduction of excise and import
duties; but after all necessary reduc?
tions shall have been made, the reve?
nue of ?the present and of following
years will doubtless be sufficient to
cover all legitimate charges upon the
Treasury, and leave a large annual
surplus to bc applied to the payment
of the principal of the debt. There
seems now to be no good reason why
taxes may not be reduced as the coun?
try advances in population and
wealth, and yet the debt be extin?
guished within tho next quarter of a
The report of the Secretary of
War furnishes valuable and impor?
tant information in reference to
thc operations of his Department
during the past year. Few volun?
teers now remain in the service,
and they are being discharged as
rapidly as they can be replaced
by regular troops. The army has
boen promptly paid, carefully
provided with medical treatment,
well sheltered and subsisted, and is
to be furnished with breach-loading
small arms. The military strength
of the natiou has been unimpaired
by the discharge of volunteers-the
disposition of unservicable or perish?
able stores, and the retrenchment of
expenditure. Sufficient war material
to meet any emergency has boen re?
tained, and from the disbanded vol?
unteers, standing ready to respondi?
the national call, large armies can be
rapidly organized, equipped and con?
centrated. Fortifications on the coast
and frontier have received and ave
being prepared for more powerful ar?
maments. Lake surveys, and harbor
and river improvements, aro in
course of energetic prosecution. Pre?
parations have been made for thc
payment of the additional bounties
authorized during the recent session
of Congress, under such regulations
as will protect the Government from
fraud, and secure to the honorably
discharged soldier the well-earned re?
ward of his faithfulness and gallant?
ry. More than six thousand maimed
soldiers have received artificial limbs,
or other surgical apparatus, ami
forty-one national cemeteries, con?
taining the remains of 101,526 Union
soldiers, have already been establish
ed.( The total estimate of military
appropriations is $25,205,609. Ith
stated in the report of the Secretary
of the Navy, that the naval foret
at this time consists of 278 vessels
armed with 2,351 guns. Of these.
115 vessels carrying 1,029 gnus, art
in commission, distributed chiefly
among seven squadrons. The num
ber of men in the service is 13,600
Great activity and vigilance havt
been displayed by all the squadrons,
and their movements have been judi
ciously and efficiently arranged ii
such manner as would best pro
mote American commerce, and pro
tect the rights arid interests of ou
countrymen abroad. The vessels un
employed aro undergaing repairs, o?
are laid up u ntii their services ma]
be required. Most of the iron-clad flee
is at League Island, in the vicinity o
Philadelphia; a place which, until de
cisive action should be taken by Con
gress, was selected by the Secretary o
tho Navy as the most eligible locatioj
for that class of vessels. It is im
portant that a suitable public statioi
should be provided for the iron-cla<
fleet. It is intended that these ves
sels shall be in proper condition fo
any emergency, and it is desirabl
that the bill accepting League Islan
for naval purposes, which passed th
House of Representatives at its las
session, should receive final action a
an early period, in order that thor
may be a suitable public station fo
this class of vessels, as well as a nay
yard of area sufficient for the want
of the service on the Delaware River
Tho naval pension fund amounts V
$11,750,000, having been increase!
$2,750,000 during the* year. Th
expenditures of tho department io
the fiscal year ending 30th June las
were $13,324,526, and the estimate
for thc coming year amount to $23,
568,436. Attention is invited to th
condition of our seamen, and th
importance of legislative measure
for their relief and improvement
Tho suggestions in behalf of thi
deserving class of our fellow-citizen
uro earnestly recommended to th
favorable attention of Congress.
The report of the Postmastei
General presents a most eatisfactor
condition of thc postal service and
submits recommendations which de?
serve the consideration of Congress.
The revenues of the department for
the year ending June 30, 1866, were
814,386,986, and the expenditures
815,352,079, showing an excess of the
latter of $965,093. In anticipation
of this deficiency, however, a special
appropriation was made by Congress
in the Act approved July 28, I860.
Including the standing appropriation
of 8700,000 for free mail matter as
a legitimate portion of the revenues
yet remaining unexpended, the actual
deficiency for the past year is only
8205,003; a sum within 851,141 of
the amount estimated in the annual
report of 1864. The decrease of
revenue, compared with the previous
year, was one and one-fifth per cent.,
and tho increase of expenditures,
owing principally to the enlargement
of the mail service in the South, was
twelve per cent. On the 30th of June
last, there were in operation 0,930
mail routes, with an aggregate lengthy
of 180,921 miles in aggregate, until
transportation of 71,837,014 miles,
and an aggregate annual cost, includ?
ing expenditures, 88,410,184. Thc
length of railroad routes 32,092 miles,
and the annual transportation is 30,
009,467 miles. The length of steam?
boat routes is 14,346 miles, and
the annual transportation 300,411,
962 miles. The mail service is
daily increasing throughout the whole
country, and its steady extension in
the Southern States, indicates their
constantly improving condition. The
growing importance of foreign service
also merits attention. Tho post office
department of Great Britain and our
own have agreed upon a preliminary
basis for a new postal convention,
which it is believed will prove emi?
nently beneficial to the commercial
interests of the United States, inas?
much as it contemplates a reduction
of internal letter postage to one-half
the existing rates; a reduction of
postage with ail other countries to
and from which correspondence is
transmitted in the British mail, or in
closed mails, through the United
Kingdom; the establishment of uni?
form and reasonable charges for the
sea and territorial transit of corres?
pondence in closed mails, and au al?
lowance to each post oflico depart?
ment of the right to use all mail com?
munications established under the
authority of the other for thcdesi)atch
of correspondence, either in open or
closed mails, on the same terms as
those applicable to the inhabitants of
the country providing the means of
The report of the Secretary of the
Interior exhibits the condition of
those branches of the public service
which are committed to his supervi?
sion. Duringthe last fiscal year,4,029,
312 acres of public land were disposed
of; 1,892,516 acres of which were
entered under the Homestead Act.
Thc policy originally adopted relative
to the public land has undergone
sundry modifications. Immediate
revenue and not their rapid settle?
ment was the cardinal feature of our .
land system. Long experience and
earnest discussion have resulted
in the conviction that the early
development; of our agricultural
resources and the diffusion of au
energetic population over our
vast territory, are objects of far
greater importance to the national
growth and prosperity, than the pro?
co?.]., of tho saie of the land to the
highest bidder in open market. The
pre-emption laws confer upon tho
pioneer, who complies with the terms
they impose, the privilege of pur?
chasing a limited portion of unoffered
linds at the -minimum price. * Tho
homesteud grants relieve the settler
from payment of purchase money,
and secure him a permanent homo
upon the condition of residence for a
term of years. This liberal policy
invites emigration from the old and
from the more crowded portions of
the new world. Its propitious re?
sults are undoubted, and will be mere
signally manifested when time shall
have beeu given to its wider develop?
ment. Congress has made liberal
grants of public lands to corporations
in aid of tho constructions of rail?
roads and other internal improve?
ments. Should this policy hereafter
prevail, more stringent provisions will
1)0 requireel to secure a faithful appli?
cation of the funds. The title to the
lands should not pass by patcut or
otherwise, but remain in the Govern?
ment, and subject to its control.
Some portion of the road has been
actually built; portions of them
might, then, from time to time, be
conveyed to the corporation; but
never in a greater ratio to the whole
quantity embraced by the grant than
the completed parts bear to the entire
length of the projected improvement.
This restriction would not operate to
tho prejudice of any undertaking con?
ceived in good faith and executed
with reasonable energy, as it is the
settled practice to withdraw from
market the lands falling within tho
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