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ifjullefitk PUBLISHED EVERY FRIDAT. Wm.TOMAN, Editor and Proprietor V'fflcc in lihxxi'* Building, on the South Side of Main St., Four Doors from Bridge. -TERMS or SUBSCRIPTION: ti.SO per Annum, In Adviaofc RATES OF ADVERTISING: SPACE. 1 w. 1 3 w. 31. 6 m. I 1 yr. I i do i so :t 501 so 2 00 I 3 00 6 00 10 00 5 00 8 00 111 00 18 00 I 7 50 I 10 00 I SO 00 I 35 00 10 00 15 00 35 00 55 00 i4ne Square, Ifwo Squares, V Column, Column, One Column, Leffal and Official Advertisements, One Dollar per square for the first, and Fifty Cents per square for each subsequent insertion, up to (our insertions. A square Is equal to ten lines of Hrevier tvpe, or eight lines of Nonpareil, the tvpe of this paper. Business Cards of six lines, or less, $6.00 a year. Marriage, Death and Religious Notices insert ed without charge. Obituary Notices ten cents per line. ATTORNEY S. FRANK JENNINGS. A TTOKNEY AT LAW. OFFICE OVER A- O'Brien's Store, Independence, Iowa. J. E. COOK, ATTORNEY AT LAW, INDEPENDENCE, Iowa. Office over A. H. Frank's Restau rant, Main St. H. W. HOLM AN, (SUCCESSOR TO J. S. WOODWARD), A TTOKNEY AT LAW AND COLLECTION J\. Agent. Office over Tabor & Son's Drug Store, Independence, Iowa. FRANK D. JACKSON, ATTORNEY AND COUNSELLOR AT LAW. J\ Special attention given to Collections. Of fice over Chicago Clothing House. O. M. G1LLKTT, ATTORNEY AT LAW AND NOTARY PUB- lic. Office in Osgood1s bui Iding, up stairs, next to the river. JAST. fi. JEWEL, IAWYER OFFICE IN MUNSON'S BLOCK i with Lake & Harmon, Independence, Iowa. Collections a specialty. Will practice in all the Courts of this State and Federal Courts. Col lections and conveyances made, taxes paid, houses and land rented or sold. All business in city or country, and before Board of Super visors will receive prompt attention. Also ag-cnt for Equitable Life Insurance Company, of Des Moines, Iowa. D. D. HOLDKIDGE, ATTORNEY AT LAW, NOTARY PUBLIC and Land Agent. Office over Taylor's Hardware Store, Independence, Iowa. LAKE & HARMON, ATTORNEYS AT LAW, INDEPENDENCE, Iowa. Office in Munson's Block, Main St. JF.I) LAKE. M. W. HAKMON. BIUJCKART & NEY, ATTORNEYS AT LAW, INDEPENDENCE, Iowa. Office over Morse's Store. Consul tations in English and German. D. W. BRUCKART. JOHN J. NET. W. G. & J. B. DONNAN, LAW, CONVEYANCING, WAR CLAIM AND Land Agency ()lliee. Office in First Nation al Bank building. Independence. Iowa. J. S. SNIFFIN, Counsellor At Law, Walker, Linn County, Iowa. Conducts a General Banking and Exchange Business, And gives special attention to Collections, &e. 13-37yl PHYSICIANS. A. CLARKE, M. D. PHYSICIANL. & SURGEON. OFFICE OVER over A. B. Clarke's Drug Store, west end of bridge. References, Dr. H. Hrvant, Inde pendence Drs. Staples, McClure, Waples and Other physicians, of Dubuque, and the faculty of the Bellevue Hospital Medical College. H. C. MARKHAM, M. 1. PHYSICIANnorthwest AND SURGEON. OFFICE AT residence, corner Chatham and Gennessee Sts., Independence. DR. H. O. DOCKHAM, PHYSICIAN 6 P. M. AND SURGEON, QUASQU*- ton, Iowa. DR. H. H. HUNT, OFFICE AND RESIDENCE, CORNER Of Court and Blank Streets, north of Catholic Church. W. A. MELLEN, M. D. HOMfEOPATHIST, INDEPENDENCE, IA. Office and rooms in Burr's Block, Chat ham Street, over Barnhart's Grocery. Office hours from 8 to 9 A. M. and from 1 to PHYSICIANS 2 ""1 4 to HOUSE & WILSON, AND SURGEONS, OFFICE over People's National Bank, corner Chat ham and Main Streets, Independence, Iowa. Will attend to calls in the city or country. Con sultations in English and German. J. O. HOUSE. 8. G. VIMOK. INSURANCE, &C. FRANK L. JACOltS, INSURANCE AGENT AND AUCTIONEER. Represents old and reliable companies. Will cry sales on property of any description. Terms moderate. Office at W. U. Telegraph Office, Main St., Independence. BARBER SHOP. JOHN BURKE, THE FASHIONABLE BARBElt AND HAIR Dresser. All the modern conveniences krown to the profession. Shop over Barnett & Co's Store, Main street. Independence, Iowa. LAUNDRY & BARBER SHOP. I. W. EVANS CO., PROPRIETORS OF NEW CITY LAUNDRY and Barber Shop. North side Main street, four doors east of Walnut. We are perma nently located and desire a share of your pat ronage. All work warranted. DENTISTS. E. E. SHATTUCK, DEUTISTI Over the Bazaar, Main St., I n e e n e n e I o w a Ail work at reasonable prioei. W. H. THRIFT, DENTIST, (Over R. R. Plane's Store), Independence, Iowa. Extracting, Filling, (Gold or Silver) Regulat ing irregular teeth, &c., &c„ at reasonable priOM. £. M. BISSELL, Dental Rooms! Over City of Parte Store, IlfDEPENDENCE, IOWA.y PROSPECTUS. SUBSCRIBE FOR THE "Iowa Investigator I" THE Oldest Temperance Paper in the State, And endorsed by the PROMINENT STATE TEMPERANCE ORGANIZATIONS. The Investigator will he tent from this time to January 1, '79, for 60c. REGULAR RATE, $1 PER YEAR. JLtMrew, •RANT KATZENMKYKR, -46m2 IOWA CITT. AGRICULTURAL. BUCK-EYES! We *gain offer to the -OF- BUCHANAN COUNTY, 10 00 15 00 30 00 55 00 95 00 —THE— N E W NEW BUCKEYE TABLE RAKE, -AND THE- Buckeye Harvester! HAVING SOLD THE BUCKEYES, For the past 13 Years, NO KOBE NEED BE SAID. Winegar & Manning... [2m44 GREOCRIKS AND DRUGS. GROCERIES DRUGS! NEW CASH ARRANGEMENT. I will from this date sell both Groceries and Drugs, At my stores at west end of the Bridge, For Cash or Country Produce! ifiM# that canntit Iwteat. FARMERS' TRADE SOLICITED 'Good Goods, Small Profits and no Combinations to keep vp Prices. Goods Delivered About Town. A. B. CLARKE. FIiOURING MILL.. OF Buchanan County! THE Independence Mills, Having- made extenglve'improvementi In their miila this summer, are preparedlto do I S I N by the exchange method, giving Flour, Mid dlings, and Bran In exchange tor wheat Our rates of exchange are from 30 to 36 pounds of Flour to the bushei, with offall. We shall aim to do what is just by ull. and will give as good returns its cun be made by any mills doing first-class work. The excellent reputation of our tlour warrants us in saying that we are do ing better work than ever before. The high est market price paid for milling wheat. TO THE TRADE. Orders promptly filled for the following brands of Hour: Patent Process, Fancy, Fami ly and Oniham. Orders and correspondence solicited. INDEPENDENCE MILLS CO. Independence, Iowa, Sept. 20,1877. FURNITURE. Thos. Coghlan & Sons, Cabinet Makers & Undertakers. Having opened out a shop for the Manufacture and Hale of HOUSEHOLD, CHURCH, HILL AND SCHOOL FURNITURE. ALSO COFFINS AND CASKETS, Fuaerala -promptly dtteiUMitof ,0 k Full Stock iu Every Department. Ware-rooms in Judge Barton's store, ope door east of the Commercial Hotel. Main'St.. IN DKI'KN DENCK, IOWA. LUMBER AND BUILDING. Money Saved in Building. E3. ZINTST, Independence, Iowa. Having in connection with my business a lint class Lumber Yard, and always keeping on hand a full assortment of Bash, Doors, Blinds, Ac.. Ac., and have also in my employ a gang of first-class mechanic*, I will be able to take con tracts and execute work for leas money than any one else. I also keep in my Lumber Yard near the Depot, a complete assortment of all grades and descriptions of L71£BES1 Wltieb I will sell at tliv. Lowest Prlo* for the Market. Estimates and Specifications made out at short notice. Also constantly on hand a large supply of Coalaad Lime. ,'X f. :•. SR. ZCNW, contractor art VoiMer. VOL. XIII, NO. 52. INDEPENDENCE, IOWA, FRIDAY, JULY 19, 1878. GROCERIES. J. W. Johnston Has j»st reeutved aad in now located la LEYTZE'S BLOCK, MAIJT-St. WWe he keeps OM hand a large Stock of Groceries, Crockery! "W ooden "Wetre Please give him a call and he tcilJ pay you Cash.for ABUTTER AND EOGS. Buy Your Groceries oi JOSLIN, The Grocery Man. GROCERIES Cor. Main and Walnut Sts. Independence, Iowa. The subscribers have on hand a choice and well selected Stoek of FAMILY GROCERIES! Which they will sell at the very lowest bottom prices. Their stock consists of Sugars, Teas, Coffees, Spices, Syrups, Confectionery, CANNED AND DRIED FRUITS, Kerosene Oil. Wood and Willow-Ware, Earthen Ware, &c., &c, N. B.—All they ask is to call and see their goods before purchasing elsewhere. Highest price paid for Produce. Hemember the place, corncr Main and Walnut streets. A fresh arrival of IPixre Drugs, PAHTTS, OILS. WINDOW GLASS and LAMPS, GLASS AND NON-EXPLOSIVE CHANDELIERS, fa Chicken Powder, A positive cure for Cholera in all kinds of poul try —never known to fail. Also HORSE POWDER, The best remedy for Epizoot and Influenza. The last two articles are iny own manufacture, and 1 can recommend thcin with confidence. Swedish Leeches Constantly on Hand! Prescriptions Carefully A Acurately Filled. Everything for sale at Astonishingly Low Prloss. OT"Take a look. C. R. WALLACE. FTTHB2 Drugs and Medicines, At Lowest Rates. A. B. CLARKE. Sign of the GOLDEN MORTAR. -THE- Largist and BEST Stock in the Oity! —AT— Smale Brothers, Independence, Iowa. MANUFACTURING. INDEPENDENCE Ibnufacturing Company Wood Work. Sherman Patent Window Blinds, Screens for Doors and Windows, Sash and Doors, Frames Mouldings, Wood Turning, &c. Maohine Shop. Machinery Repaired, Lathe work of every de scription, Drilling and Fitting. Corn Plow Shovels a specialty. Blaohsmlthlns. Plows Repaired, Horse Shoeing by an Expe rienced Workman, General Job Work. Feed Mill. Jgeed Grinding done Feed kept on band for s Reduoed Prices* All tt« atom own -at ptkms wfnjfiatorolt WESTERN WANDERINGS. No. 1. GEORGETOWN, Col., Joly 7, 78. MR. EDITOR:—The Mayor and left JouC. on the first instant, by way of the R. & N. R. R., at 8:30 A. M. We took notice of the crops in Buchanan county to see how they would compare with those further south as we went on our way. The corn crop through Bu chanan is better than that in Linn so far as we saw it by this route. The wheat crop has more rust on it in Bu chanan than further south. As to grass and oats we could not sec much differ ence. We remained at Cedar Rapids from 11 A. M. to 7:301\ M. In that time we called on many of the former residents ©f Independence, and found them com plaining of dull times there. In fact they did not seem to think Independ ence a bad town to stay in. The train ®n the main line of the B., C. It. & N. Vas an hour behind time. The ticket •gent at Cedar Rapids interested him self in our behalf, and as there was "14 persons bound for Kansas and west by the same route, he telegraphed ahead to i'oiuBlb'JS Junction and had them hold the C., R. I. & ]J- train for us. We ar rived at Columbus UJiGtiOfi at 10 P. M., and found the train waiting td-take us to Atchison. We were soon on thft road and on our way west. The next morning we were at Princeton, Mo.— Here we saw good crops—some of the wheat cut corn standing about 31 feet. Some of it had been worked and laid by. Oats in head and beginning to turn ripej grass very large. This part of Missouri is a fine rolling prairie,with timber along the streams, and raises considerable fruit, as the orchards showed. There was not much change in the character of the land or the forwardness of the crops until we reached the blufl's of the Missouri. Here the land looked poorer and the crops showed less growth. Some where about this time we no ticed a man come into our car in a great hurry, followed by another who handed him a hat and went back. The person went to the rear of our car, changed hats, sat down in a seat and was appar ently asleep in a few seconds. Soon another came through the cars looking for some one but did not find him. Then a man with gray beard and well dressed looked in and then consulted with the other man. On inquiry we learned that the man with the gray beard had lost $115 by betting with a man on three card montie, and was trying to find the man. At Rushville, Mo., the train slackened, but did not stop. I looked around for our sleepy friend and he was missing. I looked out the window and saw him scrambling up from the bank of the railroad and make off so I con cluded he carried the money of our gray bearded friend with him. On reaching the Missouri bottom our train slackened again, and the man who came in with the hat and gave it to his friend 1'umped EDWARDS & CO. Buy Your Groceries ot JOSL.IN, The Grocery Man. DRUGS AND MEDICINES. CITY DRUG STORE off and started back towards tusnville. We concluded they were chums, and had got $115 out of a man that was old enough to know better. The Missouri river was quite high. The water overflowed the flats to a great extent, and was well up to the railroad bridge. Our train had made up its lost time and we were landed in Atchison on time, to-wit: 10:45 A. M., July 2. We found the train for Pueblo all made up and standing ready to receive our baggage and ourselves. As the time for change of cars here is only 30 min utes, we did not have time to see much of the city. At 11:15 we pulled out from Atchison, and in a short time had passed the bluffs and were out on a fine rolling prairie country, well settled and crops looking very finely. Wheat was mostly harvested, and showed a large crop. Oats were ripening, corn tassel ed and silked, grass a large crop. They complain here that the season lias been the wettest they have had for years. The growth of crops show that the earth has not lackcd moisture. The country presents no special change to Topeka. It is all very fine. At Topeka the train from Kansas City and our train were joined together and proceed ed west as one train. From Topeka our course was nearly south, and we passed over the divide between the Kansas river and the streams running south into the Arkans- Tliis high land docs not show a rich soil. It does not look rich and the crops were not good. At Carbondale, on the south side of the divide, they find coal near the sur face, and better coal at greater depths. We saw some farms fenced in with stone and there was considerable rock in sight. As we begin to descend into the Nosho valley the crops and the land improve in appearancc. Some farms show good cultivation and have good crops. Otliers show such crops as neglected lands do everywhere. At Emporia is the junction of the road from Persons with the A., T. Jk, S. F. Here some of our passengers left us. At Olymote, on the Cottonwood, the corn and crops were the best wc had seen south of Topeka. This Cot tonwood valley appears to be the best land wc have seen yet south of the JEansas valley. This valley of the Cot tonwood lias the reputation of being fiery fertile, and the crops this year go to sustain such a reputation. A rich sub-soil, with fine crops of corn and oats growing, and wheat in shock, show ing that they have a good crop of wheat. Along this valley wc first saw bluffs that were water-washed, with an out croping ledge of lime rock some 30 feet above the river. On the bluffs here can be counted eight water lines, showing that the water made as many stops in its decline after the bluffs were uncov ered before it reached what is now the fciest farm land in the country. Farther west we saw some brown Stone, but it was not plenty. After that the bluffs began to assume a more broken or knobby appearance. At Pea body we commenced descending into the Arkansas valley. W. H. Pettibone?who is now division Superintendent ot the west division of the A., T. & S. F. 11. R., came on the train at Emporia and was with us until wc reached Newton, where his headquarters are. Mr. Petti bone was Assistant Superintendent of the B., C. R. & N. when the Postville branch was built, and many of our citi zens will remember him. He gave me a note to Major T. J. Anderson, the Gen eral Agent of the road at Pueblo, to as sist us in getting through the Rocky Mountains. And permit me to say that all the officers and conductors on this line do all they can to make the travel pleasant for the passengers. The road bed is good and the cars and rolling stock is good. Everything passed off pleasantly. We were at Newton, Kan sas, at about 9 P. M., July 2, and at Dodge City at daylight. July 3. At Dodge City we first saw persons living in dug-outs, and also saw a large number asleep on the ground near the railroad with nothing but the earth for a bed and the cerulean air for a roof. Dodge city is situated on the Arkansas liver. The plains are wide the bluffs rise so gradually as to be scarcely prc ceptiblc. We saw but little land in cul tivation, and the corn was poor. It looked as though it was having a hard time to live. At Cimerron we passed by where our friend Riseley has commenced break ing. This is a small town there are but few people here now. If a man wants to get beyond the restraint of fenced lands, and yet have the advant age of a railroad, the place to go is Cimerron. The banks of the river are low, the flats wide and the bluffs pre* sent no obstruction to cultivation. We saw in this vicinity three large heeds of cattle, bat it was tdo early for them to be out grazing. Some distance beyond Cimerron we saw away on the rise to the north some antelope, and further on we saw some more near the track. The grass here is thin on the ground, and we here saw some rough growing stuff that we called sage grass. It was not the sage bush and it was not grass, yet it looked like sage. We fail ed to find any one here who could tell us what it was. The country here looked as though there had not been any rain for a long time. The buffalo grass looked dry and yellow, and the soil showed among it, looking poor and thin. Perhaps by irrigation this valley could be made to raise good crops. There is very little change in the looks of the land along the Arkansas from Dodge to Los Animas. A short distance west of Sargcant a limestone set up north of the track tells you that east of that is Kansas and west of it is Colorado. Near Los Animas wc saw what cattle men call a round uu, in which there were Several thousand nead of cattle, and as many as ten different herds. At Los Animas comes in a branch of the K. k P. R. R. from Kit Karson. At La Junta we saw to our right Pikes Peak, and to our left what are called the Green Horn Mountains, capped with snow. These were the ab at?rbing objccts of the passengers from this "fiiiic on until we reached Pueblo. We arrived at Pueblo 2:25 P. M., Kan sas City time, and after. staying there 30 minutes left at 2 P. M, DeavCJ time. JED L^KE. The Dead of Shiloh. Col. Wills De Hass in Philadelphia Times. Monday morning, at 6 o'clock, tht? combined forces of Grant and Buell moved against the enemy. Gen. Buell's fresh troops, with the division of Lew Wallace, not engaged on Sunday (why, may perhaps never be known,) pressed the enemy at all points. Steadily the army of the Union regained our camps, and by noon a signal victory had been achieved. Beauregard withdrew his forces in good order, and pursuit was not continued beyond Shiloh church. Tuesday, the 8th, General Sherman de termined to pursue. With two brigades from his own division, two from Buell's army (Generals Garfield and Wood,) and two regiments of cavalry, he proceeded from Shiloh in the direction of Corinth. At the distance of a little over a mile we came upon the advance camp of the enemy on Saturday night. Everywhere along our line of march remains of the retreating army were noticed. Fresh graves were all around the dead, dying and wounded lay in tents, old houses and upon the ground. We were march ed to a point about four and a-half miles from the church, when our videttes in formed us the rebel cavalry were direct ly ahead, concealed in ravines and be hind a long row of tents. General Sher man ordered skirmishers thrown out, deploying companies A and of my own regiment, when orders were given to the Seventy-seventh to support skir mishers. The regiment was led within fifty yards of the line of tents. The ground was an old cotton field, partly covered with fallen trees—hence the name of the engagement, "Fallen Tim bers." The field was skirted by heavy wood. Almost immediately the ene my's skirmishers opened fire, and the writer realized that he was an object of particular mark. A fierce yell filled the air, and the rebel cavalry came up from the ravine and behind tents as thick as tlicy could ride. I ordered to up and fire, which order had scarcely been executed when the entire line was ridden down, the men sabered and shot by a force ten times superior to our own. The dash was one of the boldest of the war. and the loss sustained over one third of my command. The promptness of Col. Ilildcbrand in ordering up the other regiments of hi.s brigade I think saved the day and the commanding gen eral and staff from capture. An officer of his staff (McCoy) was ridden down, and, as General Sherman assured me, he narrowly escaped. I regard this state ment due the memory of a brave and meritorious officer. The dead were buried on the spot the wounded removed to camp the rebel camp destroyed with a large amount of property, and this was the last of the fighting at Shiloh! The loss sustained by both armies exceeded the frightful number of 25,000 men. Four years after the battle, a writer, visiting Shiloh and Corinth, gave a hideous pic ture of the condition of things. He stated that 12,000 Confederate soldiers lay unburicd on the two fields! After the battle of Shiloh General Grant or dered the dead bodies of both armies to be buried. The inhumation, however, consisted of a little more than a thin covering of earth, which the heavy rains have long since washed off, and the re mains of brave men who perilled all for their country's sake lie exposed to the elements. This fact is disgraceful to the government and the people, and should be remedied with the least possi ble delay. Instead of squandering means over idle parades, it should be our duty and pleasure to give the bleach ing bones of our gallant dead the rites of decent burial. Regarding this as a fitting opportunity, it is respectfully and earnestly suggested that Congress adopt some measure for the preserva tion of the remains at Shiloh —that a cemetery be established, and graves properly marked also, that the church at Shiloh be rebuilt as a national me morial. Coal-Tar Marbles. Tn St. Nicholas for July, a boy tells how he made tar marbles on a very hot day and filled the pockcts of his new suit and his hat with them. Pretty soon, of course, the marbles melted and the tar streamed all over him. Afraid to go home, he first slipped off to his aunt s well and tried to pump water and clean himself. The story goes on: Creak—creak—creak—went th^pump handle, which did more work that after noon than in half a dozen days' wash ing. Creak -creak—creak! But the tar only became harder and harder, until I was encased in sheet armor, like the fa mous Black Knight. Presently, my cousin Jenny, an cspecial friend of mine, hearing such continual pumping, and becoming auxious for the family supply of water, came out to see what was the matter. Seeing a small figure curled up under the spout of the pump, drenched to the skin and black as Othel lo, she stooped down to investigate the phenomenon. Oh, what wa3 my despair, when she discovered who it was, and in what plight! To say she laughed would be to give a feeble idea of the peals of laughter that succeded each other as she stood and looked at me. She would try to control her merriment for a moment, onlv to break forth afresh, until she was obliged to sit down from sneer exhaustion. Ev ery time she glanced at my woe-begone countenance, and drenched condition, she would go into fresh convulsions of fun. At last she recovered breath suffi cient to inquire into my case, and to as sure me she would do what she could for me but she soon found, to my des pair, that what she could do was not much to my relief. The clothes could not be got off, and certainly they could never be got clean. She did manage, with a strong pair of shears, to cut off the pockets in my breeches, and then, fearing my mother would be alarmed, she bade me go home, and she promised to secure me against a whipping. I fancy she thought this last i would be easily kept Somewhat comforted, I took up my promise line of march toward the paternal roof, but, as I went along, my heart began to sink again visions of a rod, with which my not too saintly character had made me somewhat familiar, loomed up before me but worse than all, the thought_of my brother's ridicule made my sensitive spirit quail. I thought I would evade all that night, however, by going quietly up the back stairs, and playing sick.' Fortune favored me. I reached the bed room without being seen and, just as I was, with my hat on, for it could only have come off with my scalp, I got into bed and covered myself entirely up with the bed-clothes. It was now dusk, and I felt for the moment quite safe. Present ly my aunt came into the room to get something for which she was looking, and I could hear her give several inquir ing sniffs, and as she went out I heard her say: "I certainly do smell tar where can it come from?'' An interval of peace followed, and then in came my mother. "Tar? Smell tar? Of course you do it's strong enough in this room. Bring a light." It was the sound of doom! My mother soon came close up to the bed, and held the light so that it fell full upon me as she tried to turn down the bed-clothing. Probably, if it had not been for several previous scrapes in which I had been involved, she would have been much frightened but as it was, the sight of her young blackamoor had much the same effect upon her as upon my cousin. Her exclamations and shrieks of laughter brought every mem ber of the household successively to the room, and as one after another came in, fresh zest seemed to be given to the merriment of which I was the unfortu nate victim. But every renewal of the fun was an added agony to mc: for I clearly fore saw that it would oe rehearsed by Jack •md Tom to all the boys in the neighbor hood. Besides this, 1 was not in a con dition to be hilarious. Plastered with tar'from head to foot streaming with persi''ratu,n at every pore my clothes drene^10^ Iny hair matted together and my st*aw ^at soaked with water, fas tened ujjon it, and falling limp and wet about niy\eyes)1 was nofc rendered more comfortabi10 by *act that I could not move without taking my pillow and bed clothes with P?e, as, in my desperate de sire to conceal* juyself from view, I had become enwrapped in the bed-clothing like a caterpillar iR us crysaiisy aiid I was conscious of a dim fear that if I sat up, with the pillow stuck fast on the top of my head, the sight of me might produce fatal results upon the already exhausted family. At last the point was reached where I thought patience ceased to be a vir tue, and I rebelled against being any longer made a spectacle. 1 declared if they would all go away but mother, I would tell her all about it. The crowd retired, commissioned to send up a crock of butter, a tub of hot water and a pair of shears. Maternal love is strong, but I doubt if it was of ten put to a severer test of its long suffering than was that of my mother that night. Suffice it to say that, after my clothes had been cut to ribbons, the sheets torn up, my head well-nigh shaved, and iny whole person subjected first to an Afri can bath of melted butter, and after ward to one of hot soap-suds, I had had my fill of bathing for one day, and was shortly before midnight pronounced to be tolerably clean. The Value of Fiat" Money. Indianapolis News. A ''fiat" paper is satisfied that it has settled the power of the government to give what value it pleases to what is of no value, by the "thus saith the law," and this is the way it does it: "Hen Harrison denounces as idiots those who talk of Hat money. What is it if not the Hut of the government that makes the one dollar ot our daddies worth one hundred cents while the Mexican dollar with three more grains of silver is wortti but ninety cents, and in luiye quantities even less'e What but the liat of the K'vcrnment makes two half dollars, which contain but eighty cents worth of silver, puss everywhere for one dollar? What but the government flat makes twenty-five-cent pieces, containing but nineteen cents worth of nickel, receivable and payable forone dollar?" Suppose somebody should ask, in his turn, why, if the "fiat" of the govern ment is the creation of value in money, it may not be the equal creation of val ue in wheat and meat and clothes, and everything else that money will buy? Why docs gold in "dust," pass as money readily at the value its weight would have as coin, or within a trifle of? It passed so for years in California, Aus tralia and other gold-bearing countries. Why does gold iu bars pass for the same value as the same weight in coin? It has'no government stamp to give it value, except the mark of fineness of the assay office, and that is not the coin stamp, nor is the bar coin. It is worth just as much without the "fiat" as with it. And what is more, the government takes it at its value by weight and what is more yet, it takes its own coin by weight, too, just as it takes bars that have no stamp of money value at all. If the "fiat" makes value why is this thus? Why does the government it self disallow its own creation, put aside its own "fiat," and weigh coin to ascer tain its value? Why does the mint, the great factory of fiat value, reject a coin of its own making, no matter how plain the stamp is, if it is under weight? It won't send out these light coins, though ever so plainly authorized by the stamp. It holds that the value is in the weight, not in the "fiat." Gold is good money, has been in all ages, and will be*until the end of time, without any "fiat" or public authority, simply because it has a value independent of the government, and a value equal, or nearly, to that which the "fiat' gives it. The difference made by the law be tween intrinsic and legal value in coin, which seems to have filled this fiat reas oner's little cranial vacuity with con viction, is no proof of the force of the "fiat" to give real to unreal value. The law says that less than one hundred cents shall be a legal tender for one hundred cents, and that is all that it does or can say. The man who owes a dollar can pay it with ninety-two cents, or force the creditor to go without any thing. That's what's the matter. The government says, in effect, to the cred itor: If you don't take that ninety two cent dollar for one hundred cents and acquit your debtor, you can't have any use of my courts or officers to col lect your debt, and, of course, without the help of laws and courts you can get nothing. You must take that or go without altogether." That is the way the "fiat" mates value in paying debts, but mark you, in nothing else. J[f Bill Smith wants a dollar's worth of cloth in a store, and Bill ones, the owner, won't take the ninety-two cent dollar for it, how is Bill Smith or the govern ment, either, to help it? Bill Jones is a strong reasoner in his way, and he says, "My butter is worth a dollar, and my cloth is worth ten dollars, ana I'm not going to take ninety-two cents for one, or nine dollars and twenty cents for the other. Give me my price or clear out." The "fiat" is not worth a straw. The government can give value in paying debts, for it can withhold its agency in collecting otherwise than as it commands, but there fiat stops. It can't make a man take its valuation for good unless he chooses. If nobody owed anybody, the idlest thing in all this world of vanities would be tne "fiat" that ninety-two cents would be a hun dred. It would be exactly the rebel way of making their money par3 just as silly and just as futile. If the govern ment were to make ten cents worth of silver in a legal coin a legal tender for a dollar—and it can do that as easily, and not much more dishonestly, than what it has done—does anybody suppose it would bring a dollar's worth of food or anything else, though it would pay a dollar of debt? The "fiat" can give val- anythine though it would pay a ue to nothing, but it can force a credit or to take less value for a greater, by virtually outlawing him if he does not. The rebels did that, but they couldn't make their money good for anything but debts. Gain's We. A few years ago, while the Alabama and Chatanooga Railroad was in process of construction, it was a favorable field for colored preachers to labor and take up collections "for de spread ob de Gos pel." Among these a frequent visitor was old Father Helms, from Tennessee, whose fervid eloquence and practical spoundings ob de Sacred Word were attentively listened to by large congre gations of the sable race, with no small delegations of interested white listen ers upon the outskirts. Upon one oc casion, assembled in a lovely Alabama grove, he addressed his congregation thus Ladies and gentlemen oh niy beloved congregation:—Havin' cotchea a bad cold de odder evenin', I shan't attempt to preach toyer dis Sabbath mornin', but will read a capter from de Bible, and spound as I go along." He then read the fourth chapter of Genesis, af ter which he continued his remarks: De odder evenin' I tuk for my tex' de tragedy in the garding of Eden—de kil ling ob Abel, and de cuss and drivin' out ob Cain. Apd after the sermon one ob your smart young darkies—one ob dese yer thin-skinned, saleratus-complexion ed niggers—steps up to me and says he, 'Fader Helms, yer disremembered to tell us who Mister Cain married down in the land of Nod was it his mudder?' Dere was a grinnin' crowd of no count, trifling niggers wid him, and I 'spected at once de white folks had set him up to ax de question. I was so overcome wid de sense of de sinfulness and great sumption of sinners, bofe white and black, dat I could say riuffin. I had nuffin to say. I took the question un der prayerful consideration, and de ans wer were made plain. I'm gwine to spound dat part ob de Scripter toyer all. Who Cain's wife was, and whar he got her, is plain to de all-seein' eye ob faith. In de garding ob Eden Cain raised right smart ob craps and garding truck' and sich. But after de slewing ob his Christian brudder Abel we don't read ob his workin' no mo.' He tuk his gun and dogs and went down into dat sleepy, lazy, no'-count section ob Nod, end loafed aroun' dat country and hav in' lost all his plantation and mules, and all his selfrespec' and pride ob family and state, de nex' we read ob him he had got so low down and triflin' dat he married a gal ob one ob dose no-'count poor white trash families which de in spired 'postel didn't consider fittin' to mention in the Holy Word." The reverend "spounder" gazed around upon his admiring congregation with an air of triumph, and a brother struck up the hymn, Whar, O, whar am de He yrew chillen?—Harper's Magazine. Burdette Tries to Help a Lady and Finds it is an Ungrateful World. Hawkeye. The cars are crowded and everybody is wishing everybody else out of the way. The woman in front of me has dropped her shawl on the floor. She is not young or handsome, but she is a woman. Her face has a harsh, forbid ding expression, but withal, I think I can sec tender lines about the mouth. It is a face that has seen trouble. Poor woman, perhaps she has raised eleven children, and now she has them all, with their husbands and wives, to support. No wonder she looks tired and worn and repellant. If she was as young and pretty as she was thirty years ago, a dozen men would spring forward to snatch her shawl from the dusty floor, »iid bow themselves crooked handing it to her. Now we look at it, and feel too dusty even to tell her where it is. A commercial traveler walks down the aisle and steps carefully over it. A woman goes down the other way and thoughtlessly steps on it. I feel asha med of myself and pity the poor, home ly woman. With an effort I' rise from my seat, I stoop to pick up the neglect ed shawl. "Madam," I say, and—oh, if my son's mother could see that smile, "Madam permit me your shawl—" I stopped right there. For as I pick ed up the neglected shawl, out of its voluminous folds fell thumping and rat tling to the floor, a paper bag badly fractured, full of crackers, a tin can, some remnants of an ancient lunch, a six inch bologna, bit off at one end, and a bottle of milk, the latter uncorking itself as it fell. The poor, neglected woman did not seem to be transported with gratitude for my attention. She snatched the shawl away from me and said, with apparent vexation: "There, now, drat ye! looky at ye, what ye've done. Why can't ye mind yer own business and leave other peo ple's things alone?" A ripple of subdued hilarity passed througn the car, and I resumed my seat, fully resolved that if the most ex travagantly lovely and loving girl that ever blessed this world of ugly men, should conic into that car and her head should fall off her shoulders and drop into my lap, I would kick it savagely out of the window and snarl: "Keep your lumpy old woodeny pun kin head out of tne way if you don't want it tromped onto!" Words of Wisdom. There are many who mistake the love of life for a fear of death. Fancy runs most furiously when a guilty conscience drives it. A royal soul may belong to a beggar, and a beggarly one to a king. Very few persons have sense enough to despise the praise of a fool. A doctor may learn to cure by killing, but men never learn to tell the truth by lying. No man is always wrong. A clock that does not go at all is right twice in the twenty-four hours. Courage, the commonest of the yir tucs, obtains more applause than dis cretion, the rarest of them. Let not one failure discourage you. He that has had a fall may stand as up right as he ever did. Love can excuse anything but mean ness but meanness kills love, and crip ples even natural affection. There is no one else who has the pow er to be so much your friend or so much your enemy as yourself. That only can with propriety be call ed refinement, which, by strengthening the intellect, purifies the manners. To all men the best friend is virtue the best companions are high endeav ors and honorable sentiments. Many people's lives are not worth the market value of the iron in their blood and the phosphorus in their bones. The majority of women are little touched by friendship, for it is insipid whe^hey have once tasted of love. In some tranquil and apparently ami able natures, there are often unsuspect ed and unfathomable depths of resent ment. The tear of a loving girl is like a dew drop on the rose but that on the cheek of a wife is a drop of poison to her hus band. Of all monarchs, nature is the moat jost. intlie enactment of laws, and the most .rigorous in punishing the violation of them, —e WHOLE NO. 676. EDUCATIONAL DEPART1EE WM. ELDEX. Editor. CHILDREN should not be kept out Of school for slight causes. If schools are worth anything they are worth patron izing. It costs as much to keep school for four or five pupils as for twenty-five or thirty. Although it may sometimes seem quite necessary to keep children out of school to work in the house or in the field, yet it is true that in so doing par ents rob them of that which is more valuable than money or land, defraud the nation of that intilligence without which it cannot prosper, and help to waste the funds which the State, in its wisdom, has set apart for the education of the young. It may seem a small thing that the pupil should be kept out a day or two now and then, but there is such a thing as momentum in school work, as well as in mechanics, and when the work is interrupted this momentum is lost. A child can learn as much to attend school regularly for twelve "consecutive weeks, as to attend every other week for a year. THE State Normal Institute held si Iowa City, July 1-5 was well attended. Some valuable papers were read, and a variety of topics, pertaining to the work of the County normals, provoked discussion among county Superintend ents and institute conductors. The opinion seemed to prevail that but few studies should be taken up this year, and that among these, reading, perhaps, is most important. THE Science Institute at Iowa City, June 25 to July 5, was a decided sne cess. About thirty public school teach ers, from different parts of the State, were in attendance, and enjoyed the ad vantage for advanced study which the occasion offered. All seemed satisfied that the time was well spent, and ex pressed the that a similarinstitute might be organized next year.^^^JI IN the June number of the Journal of Science and Art may be found an able paper from the pen of Prof. Sam uel Calvin, on shale, recently discover ed below the Devonian limestone, at Ik dependence. In this shale, Prof. Calvin found several new species of Brachipod, but he could give Mr. Kildaff small en couragement in his search for coal. Questions Answered by State Superin* tendent Ton Coelin. 1. Any person aggrieved by the ac tion of the County Superintendent, in refusing to grant a certificate, or in re voking the same, may apply to him for a rehearing, the proceedings to conform to the rule in case of appeal from the board. From this decision an appeal may be taken to the State Superintend ent. 2. Without special mention in tie contract only the common branches are intended to be taught, by the contract with a teacher. 3. It is the intention of the amend* ment to Section 1,381 of the Code, only to provide for the instruction of pauper children on the basis of the actual cost of their instruction, in the schools they attend. They will be enumerated in the district where they reside at the time the enumeration is taken, and the amount of semi-annual apportionment for the following year will be received by the district. If, at the time of the enumeration, they have acquired a resi dence at the poor house, they will be enumerated in that district. But Chap ter 116 still requires the payment of tuition. 4. At a sub-district election, at least two electors must be present to make an election possible. 5. At the annual meeting of the in dependent district, the President, Sec retary and one Director must be pres ent. 6. Scholars are entitled to all school privileges at once upon actual removal into a district, although they may be enumerated elsewhere. 7. The employment of an assistant teacher without a valid certificate, by the Principal or the Board, does not fulfill the meaning of the law. It is quite natural for us to look up on some member of our profession as lucky, and to bewail our own misfor tunes. Have you ever observed the farmer's load of potatoes when it reach es the market after being driven several miles over a rough and stony road? When he started with it, there were various sizes mixed together promiscu ously in the wagon, but the jolting pro cess has worked a marvelous change. Now only the largest are seen on tne top, while all the smallest are found in the lower strata, if they have not indeed been sifted clear out. Though this is a homely illustration, it will be sufficient for our purpose. The law which brings some teachers to the surface and sinks others to the lowest stratum, is very similar. It is simply the jolting pro cess. The small potatoes may have been "lucky" in being on the top at the start, but it is certainly not luck that puts them at the bottom when thev reach the market. The road over which the pedagogic cart is driven is none of the smoothest, and every rut will tell. The teacher who commences his work with scanty literary and less profession al preparation, need not be surprised if he soon finds himself jolted ana jos Jed to the bottom. There is no luck about it it is only the survival of the fittest. If you would rise in the profession, it can only be through this law your on ly way is to fit yourself' for tne work. Do this, and every jolt will help yM} neglect it and you will surely settle t* the bottom.—Jotea Normal Monthly. ONE of the School Board, going his rounds as an amateur, put the follow ing Question to a pupil in a oounfey school: How do you parse 'Mary milked tlM cow?'" The last word was disposed of as fol lows: Cow is a noun, feminine gender, sin* gular number, third person, and stands for Mary." '"Stands for Mary!" exclaims he of the board, "how do you make that out?" Because," added the intelligent ft- Eow"if il, the cow didn't stand for Ma«y, could Mary milk her? At a recent school graduation, the motto was Vestigce nulla retrorsom." A resident clergyman was closing the exercises with prayer, and evidently wishing to pray to the point, or to air his latin, brought in the motto but the sentence proved too long, and this Was the ending: "and when they go out into the temptations of life, and their feet wander into the paths of vice and sin, may they remember their" motto, and take no steps backward." Friends should be very delieate and careful in administering pity as medi cine, when enemies use the same artioln as poison.