•I .MI*i .. N I N
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Wm.TOMAN, Editor and Proprietor
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Main St., Four Doors from Bridge.
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ed without charge. Obituary Notices ten cents
A TTOKNEY AT LAW. OFFICE OVER
A- O'Brien's Store, Independence, Iowa.
J. E. COOK,
AT LAW, INDEPENDENCE,
Iowa. Office over A. H. Frank's Restau
rant, Main St.
H. W. HOLM AN,
(SUCCESSOR TO J. S. WOODWARD),
A TTOKNEY AT LAW AND COLLECTION
J\. Agent. Office over Tabor & Son's Drug
Store, Independence, Iowa.
FRANK D. JACKSON,
ATTORNEY AND COUNSELLOR AT LAW.
J\ Special attention given to Collections. Of
fice over Chicago Clothing House.
O. M. G1LLKTT,
AT LAW AND NOTARY PUB-
lic. Office in Osgood1s bui Iding, up stairs,
next to the river.
JAST. fi. JEWEL,
OFFICE IN MUNSON'S BLOCK
i with Lake & Harmon, Independence, Iowa.
Collections a specialty. Will practice in all the
Courts of this State and Federal Courts. Col
lections and conveyances made, taxes paid,
houses and land rented or sold. All business
in city or country, and before Board of Super
visors will receive prompt attention. Also
ag-cnt for Equitable Life Insurance Company,
of Des Moines, Iowa.
D. D. HOLDKIDGE,
AT LAW, NOTARY PUBLIC
and Land Agent. Office over Taylor's
Hardware Store, Independence, Iowa.
LAKE & HARMON,
AT LAW, INDEPENDENCE,
Iowa. Office in Munson's Block, Main St.
JF.I) LAKE. M. W. HAKMON.
BIUJCKART & NEY,
AT LAW, INDEPENDENCE,
Iowa. Office over Morse's Store. Consul
tations in English and German.
D. W. BRUCKART. JOHN J. NET.
W. G. & J. B. DONNAN,
CONVEYANCING, WAR CLAIM AND
Land Agency ()lliee. Office in First Nation
al Bank building. Independence. Iowa.
J. S. SNIFFIN,
Counsellor At Law,
Walker, Linn County, Iowa.
Conducts a General
Banking and Exchange Business,
And gives special attention to Collections, &e.
A. CLARKE, M. D.
& SURGEON. OFFICE OVER
over A. B. Clarke's Drug Store, west end
of bridge. References, Dr. H. Hrvant, Inde
pendence Drs. Staples, McClure, Waples and
Other physicians, of Dubuque, and the faculty
of the Bellevue Hospital Medical College.
H. C. MARKHAM, M. 1.
AND SURGEON. OFFICE AT
residence, corner Chatham and
Gennessee Sts., Independence.
DR. H. O. DOCKHAM,
6 P. M.
AND SURGEON, QUASQU*-
DR. H. H. HUNT,
AND RESIDENCE, CORNER Of
Court and Blank Streets, north of Catholic
W. A. MELLEN, M. D.
Office and rooms in Burr's Block, Chat
ham Street, over Barnhart's Grocery. Office
hours from 8 to 9 A. M. and from 1 to
HOUSE & WILSON,
AND SURGEONS, OFFICE
over People's National Bank, corner Chat
ham and Main Streets, Independence, Iowa.
Will attend to calls in the city or country. Con
sultations in English and German.
J. O. HOUSE. 8. G. VIMOK.
FRANK L. JACOltS,
AGENT AND AUCTIONEER.
Represents old and reliable companies.
Will cry sales on property of any description.
Terms moderate. Office at W. U. Telegraph
Office, Main St., Independence.
FASHIONABLE BARBElt AND HAIR
Dresser. All the modern conveniences
krown to the profession. Shop over Barnett &
Co's Store, Main street. Independence, Iowa.
LAUNDRY & BARBER SHOP.
I. W. EVANS CO.,
OF NEW CITY LAUNDRY
and Barber Shop. North side Main street,
four doors east of Walnut. We are perma
nently located and desire a share of your pat
ronage. All work warranted.
E. E. SHATTUCK,
Over the Bazaar, Main St.,
I n e e n e n e I o w a
Ail work at reasonable prioei.
W. H. THRIFT,
(Over R. R. Plane's Store),
Extracting, Filling, (Gold or Silver) Regulat
ing irregular teeth, &c., &c„ at reasonable
£. M. BISSELL,
Over City of Parte Store,
SUBSCRIBE FOR THE
"Iowa Investigator I"
Oldest Temperance Paper in the State,
And endorsed by the
PROMINENT STATE TEMPERANCE
The Investigator will he tent from this
time to January 1, '79, for 60c.
REGULAR RATE, $1 PER YEAR.
-46m2 IOWA CITT.
We *gain offer to the
N E W
HAVING SOLD THE
For the past 13 Years,
NO KOBE NEED BE SAID.
Winegar & Manning...
GREOCRIKS AND DRUGS.
NEW CASH ARRANGEMENT.
I will from this date sell both
Groceries and Drugs,
At my stores at west end of the Bridge,
For Cash or Country Produce!
ifiM# that canntit
FARMERS' TRADE SOLICITED
'Good Goods, Small Profits and no
Combinations to keep
Goods Delivered About Town.
A. B. CLARKE.
Having- made extenglve'improvementi In their
miila this summer, are preparedlto do
I S I N
by the exchange method, giving Flour, Mid
dlings, and Bran In exchange tor wheat Our
rates of exchange are from 30 to 36 pounds of
Flour to the bushei, with offall. We shall aim
to do what is just by ull. and will give as good
returns its cun be made by any mills doing
first-class work. The excellent reputation of
our tlour warrants us in saying that we are do
ing better work than ever before. The high
est market price paid for milling wheat.
TO THE TRADE.
Orders promptly filled for the following
brands of Hour: Patent Process, Fancy, Fami
ly and Oniham. Orders and correspondence
INDEPENDENCE MILLS CO.
Independence, Iowa, Sept. 20,1877.
Thos. Coghlan & Sons,
Cabinet Makers & Undertakers.
Having opened out a shop for the Manufacture
and Hale of
HOUSEHOLD, CHURCH, HILL AND SCHOOL
ALSO COFFINS AND CASKETS,
Fuaerala -promptly dtteiUMitof
k Full Stock iu Every Department.
Ware-rooms in Judge Barton's store, ope door
east of the Commercial Hotel. Main'St..
IN DKI'KN DENCK, IOWA.
LUMBER AND BUILDING.
Money Saved in Building.
Having in connection with my business a lint
class Lumber Yard, and always keeping on
hand a full assortment of Bash, Doors, Blinds,
Ac.. Ac., and have also in my employ a gang of
first-class mechanic*, I will be able to take con
tracts and execute work for leas money than
any one else. I also keep in my Lumber Yard
near the Depot, a complete assortment of all
grades and descriptions of
Wltieb I will
sell at tliv.
Lowest Prlo* for the Market.
Estimates and Specifications made out at
short notice. Also constantly on hand a large
supply of Coalaad Lime.
,'X f. :•. SR. ZCNW,
contractor art VoiMer.
VOL. XIII, NO. 52. INDEPENDENCE, IOWA, FRIDAY, JULY 19, 1878.
J. W. Johnston
Has j»st reeutved aad in now located la
LEYTZE'S BLOCK, MAIJT-St.
WWe he keeps OM hand a large Stock of
Please give him a call and he tcilJ pay
ABUTTER AND EOGS.
Buy Your Groceries oi
The Grocery Man.
Cor. Main and Walnut Sts.
The subscribers have on hand a choice and well
selected Stoek of
Which they will sell at the very lowest bottom
prices. Their stock consists of
CANNED AND DRIED FRUITS,
Wood and Willow-Ware,
Earthen Ware, &c., &c,
N. B.—All they ask is to call and see their
goods before purchasing elsewhere. Highest
price paid for Produce. Hemember the place,
corncr Main and Walnut streets.
A fresh arrival of
WINDOW GLASS and LAMPS,
NON-EXPLOSIVE CHANDELIERS, fa
A positive cure for Cholera in all kinds of poul
try —never known to fail. Also
The best remedy for Epizoot and Influenza.
The last two articles are iny own manufacture,
can recommend thcin with confidence.
Swedish Leeches Constantly on Hand!
Prescriptions Carefully A Acurately Filled.
Everything for sale at
Astonishingly Low Prloss.
OT"Take a look.
C. R. WALLACE.
Drugs and Medicines,
At Lowest Rates.
A. B. CLARKE.
Sign of the GOLDEN MORTAR.
Largist and BEST Stock in the Oity!
Sherman Patent Window Blinds, Screens for
Doors and Windows, Sash and Doors, Frames
Mouldings, Wood Turning, &c.
Machinery Repaired, Lathe work of every de
scription, Drilling and Fitting. Corn Plow
Shovels a specialty.
Plows Repaired, Horse Shoeing by an Expe
rienced Workman, General Job Work.
Jgeed Grinding done Feed kept on band for
s Reduoed Prices*
All tt« atom own -at ptkms wfnjfiatorolt
GEORGETOWN, Col., Joly 7, 78.
MR. EDITOR:—The Mayor and left
on the first instant, by way of the
R. & N. R. R., at 8:30 A. M. We
took notice of the crops in Buchanan
county to see how they would compare
with those further south as we went on
our way. The corn crop through Bu
chanan is better than that in Linn so
far as we saw it by this route. The
wheat crop has more rust on it in Bu
chanan than further south. As to grass
and oats we could not sec much differ
We remained at Cedar Rapids from
11 A. M. to 7:301\ M. In that time we
called on many of the former residents
©f Independence, and found them com
plaining of dull times there. In fact
they did not seem to think Independ
ence a bad town to stay in. The train
®n the main line of the B., C. It. & N.
Vas an hour behind time. The ticket
•gent at Cedar Rapids interested him
self in our behalf, and as there was "14
persons bound for Kansas and west by
the same route, he telegraphed ahead to
Junction and had them hold
the C., R. I. & ]J- train for us. We ar
rived at Columbus UJiGtiOfi at 10 P.
M., and found the train waiting td-take
us to Atchison. We were soon on thft
road and on our way west. The next
morning we were at Princeton, Mo.—
Here we saw good crops—some of the
wheat cut corn standing about 31 feet.
Some of it had been worked and laid by.
Oats in head and beginning to turn ripej
grass very large. This part of Missouri
is a fine rolling prairie,with timber along
the streams, and raises considerable
fruit, as the orchards showed. There
was not much change in the character
of the land or the forwardness of the
crops until we reached the blufl's of the
Missouri. Here the land looked poorer
and the crops showed less growth.
Some where about this time we no
ticed a man come into our car in a great
hurry, followed by another who handed
him a hat and went back. The person
went to the rear of our car, changed
hats, sat down in a seat and was appar
ently asleep in a few seconds. Soon
another came through the cars looking
for some one but did not find him. Then
a man with gray beard and well dressed
looked in and then consulted with the
other man. On inquiry we learned that
the man with the gray beard had lost
$115 by betting with a man on three
card montie, and was trying to find the
man. At Rushville, Mo., the train
slackened, but did not stop. I looked
around for our sleepy friend and he was
missing. I looked out the window and
saw him scrambling up from the bank
of the railroad and make off so I con
cluded he carried the money of our
gray bearded friend with him. On
reaching the Missouri bottom our train
slackened again, and the man who came
in with the hat and gave it to his friend
EDWARDS & CO.
Buy Your Groceries ot
The Grocery Man.
DRUGS AND MEDICINES.
CITY DRUG STORE
off and started back towards
tusnville. We concluded they were
chums, and had got $115 out of a man
that was old enough to know better.
The Missouri river was quite high.
The water overflowed the flats to a great
extent, and was well up to the railroad
bridge. Our train had made up its lost
time and we were landed in Atchison
on time, to-wit: 10:45 A. M., July 2.
We found the train for Pueblo all
made up and standing ready to receive
our baggage and ourselves. As the time
for change of cars here is only 30 min
utes, we did not have time to see much
of the city. At 11:15 we pulled out
from Atchison, and in a short time had
passed the bluffs and were out on a fine
rolling prairie country, well settled and
crops looking very finely. Wheat was
mostly harvested, and showed a large
crop. Oats were ripening, corn tassel
ed and silked, grass a large crop. They
complain here that the season lias been
the wettest they have had for years.
The growth of crops show that the
earth has not lackcd moisture. The
country presents no special change to
Topeka. It is all very fine. At Topeka
the train from Kansas City and our
train were joined together and proceed
ed west as one train.
From Topeka our course was nearly
south, and we passed over the divide
between the Kansas river and the
streams running south into the Arkans-
Tliis high land docs not show a
rich soil. It does not look rich and the
crops were not good.
At Carbondale, on the south side of
the divide, they find coal near the sur
face, and better coal at greater depths.
We saw some farms fenced in with stone
and there was considerable rock in sight.
As we begin to descend into the Nosho
valley the crops and the land improve
in appearancc. Some farms show good
cultivation and have good crops. Otliers
show such crops as neglected lands do
At Emporia is the junction of the
road from Persons with the A., T. Jk,
S. F. Here some of our passengers left
us. At Olymote, on the Cottonwood,
the corn and crops were the best wc
had seen south of Topeka. This Cot
tonwood valley appears to be the best
land wc have seen yet south of the
JEansas valley. This valley of the Cot
tonwood lias the reputation of being
fiery fertile, and the crops this year go
to sustain such a reputation. A rich
sub-soil, with fine crops of corn and
oats growing, and wheat in shock, show
ing that they have a good crop of wheat.
Along this valley wc first saw bluffs
that were water-washed, with an out
croping ledge of lime rock some 30 feet
above the river. On the bluffs here can
be counted eight water lines, showing
that the water made as many stops in
its decline after the bluffs were uncov
ered before it reached what is now the
fciest farm land in the country.
Farther west we saw some brown
Stone, but it was not plenty. After
that the bluffs began to assume a more
broken or knobby appearance. At Pea
body we commenced descending into the
Arkansas valley. W. H. Pettibone?who
is now division Superintendent ot the
west division of the A., T. & S. F. 11.
R., came on the train at Emporia and
was with us until wc reached Newton,
where his headquarters are. Mr. Petti
bone was Assistant Superintendent of
the B., C. R. & N. when the Postville
branch was built, and many of our citi
zens will remember him. He gave me a
note to Major T. J. Anderson, the Gen
eral Agent of the road at Pueblo, to as
sist us in getting through the Rocky
Mountains. And permit me to say that
all the officers and conductors on this
line do all they can to make the travel
pleasant for the passengers. The road
bed is good and the cars and rolling
stock is good. Everything passed off
pleasantly. We were at Newton, Kan
sas, at about 9 P. M., July 2, and at
Dodge City at daylight. July 3.
At Dodge City we first saw persons
living in dug-outs, and also saw a large
number asleep on the ground near the
railroad with nothing but the earth for
a bed and the cerulean air for a roof.
Dodge city is situated on the Arkansas
liver. The plains are wide the bluffs
rise so gradually as to be scarcely prc
ceptiblc. We saw but little land in cul
tivation, and the corn was poor. It
looked as though it was having a hard
time to live.
At Cimerron we passed by where
our friend Riseley has commenced break
ing. This is a small town there are
but few people here now. If a man
wants to get beyond the restraint of
fenced lands, and yet have the advant
age of a railroad, the place to go is
Cimerron. The banks of the river are
low, the flats wide and the bluffs pre*
sent no obstruction to cultivation.
We saw in this vicinity three large
heeds of cattle, bat it was tdo early for
them to be out grazing. Some distance
beyond Cimerron we saw away on the
rise to the north some antelope, and
further on we saw some more near the
track. The grass here is thin on the
ground, and we here saw some rough
growing stuff that we called sage grass.
It was not the sage bush and it was not
grass, yet it looked like sage. We fail
ed to find any one here who could tell
us what it was.
The country here looked as though
there had not been any rain for a long
time. The buffalo grass looked dry
and yellow, and the soil showed among
it, looking poor and thin. Perhaps by
irrigation this valley could be made to
raise good crops.
There is very little change in the
looks of the land along the Arkansas
from Dodge to Los Animas. A short
distance west of Sargcant a limestone
set up north of the track tells you that
east of that is Kansas and west of it is
Colorado. Near Los Animas wc saw
what cattle men call a round uu, in
which there were Several thousand nead
of cattle, and as many as ten different
herds. At Los Animas comes in a
branch of the K. k P. R. R. from Kit
At La Junta we saw to our right
Pikes Peak, and to our left what are
called the Green Horn Mountains,
capped with snow. These were the ab
at?rbing objccts of the passengers from
until we reached Pueblo.
We arrived at Pueblo 2:25 P. M., Kan
sas City time, and after. staying there
30 minutes left at 2 P. M, DeavCJ time.
The Dead of Shiloh.
Col. Wills De Hass in Philadelphia Times.
Monday morning, at 6 o'clock, tht?
combined forces of Grant and Buell
moved against the enemy. Gen. Buell's
fresh troops, with the division of Lew
Wallace, not engaged on Sunday (why,
may perhaps never be known,) pressed
the enemy at all points. Steadily the
army of the Union regained our camps,
and by noon a signal victory had been
achieved. Beauregard withdrew his
forces in good order, and pursuit was
not continued beyond Shiloh church.
Tuesday, the 8th, General Sherman de
termined to pursue. With two brigades
from his own division, two from Buell's
army (Generals Garfield and Wood,) and
two regiments of cavalry, he proceeded
from Shiloh in the direction of Corinth.
At the distance of a little over a mile
we came upon the advance camp of the
enemy on Saturday night. Everywhere
along our line of march remains of the
retreating army were noticed. Fresh
graves were all around the dead, dying
and wounded lay in tents, old houses
and upon the ground. We were march
ed to a point about four and a-half miles
from the church, when our videttes in
formed us the rebel cavalry were direct
ly ahead, concealed in ravines and be
hind a long row of tents. General Sher
man ordered skirmishers thrown out,
deploying companies A and of my
own regiment, when orders were given
to the Seventy-seventh to support skir
mishers. The regiment was led within
fifty yards of the line of tents. The
ground was an old cotton field, partly
covered with fallen trees—hence the
name of the engagement, "Fallen Tim
bers." The field was skirted by heavy
wood. Almost immediately the ene
my's skirmishers opened fire, and the
writer realized that he was an object of
particular mark. A fierce yell filled
the air, and the rebel cavalry came up
from the ravine and behind tents as
thick as tlicy could ride. I ordered to
up and fire, which order had scarcely
been executed when the entire line was
ridden down, the men sabered and shot
by a force ten times superior to our own.
The dash was one of the boldest of the
war. and the loss sustained over one
third of my command. The promptness
of Col. Ilildcbrand in ordering up the
other regiments of hi.s brigade I think
saved the day and the commanding gen
eral and staff from capture. An officer
of his staff (McCoy) was ridden down,
and, as General Sherman assured me, he
narrowly escaped. I regard this state
ment due the memory of a brave and
The dead were buried on the spot
the wounded removed to camp
the rebel camp destroyed with a large
amount of property, and this was the
last of the fighting at Shiloh! The loss
sustained by both armies exceeded the
frightful number of 25,000 men. Four
years after the battle, a writer, visiting
Shiloh and Corinth, gave a hideous pic
ture of the condition of things. He
stated that 12,000 Confederate soldiers
lay unburicd on the two fields! After
the battle of Shiloh General Grant or
dered the dead bodies of both armies to
be buried. The inhumation, however,
consisted of a little more than a thin
covering of earth, which the heavy rains
have long since washed off, and the re
mains of brave men who perilled all for
their country's sake lie exposed to the
elements. This fact is disgraceful to
the government and the people, and
should be remedied with the least possi
ble delay. Instead of squandering
means over idle parades, it should be
our duty and pleasure to give the bleach
ing bones of our gallant dead the rites
of decent burial. Regarding this as a
fitting opportunity, it is respectfully
and earnestly suggested that Congress
adopt some measure for the preserva
tion of the remains at Shiloh —that a
cemetery be established, and graves
properly marked also, that the church
at Shiloh be rebuilt as a national me
Tn St. Nicholas for July, a boy tells
how he made tar marbles on a very hot
day and filled the pockcts of his new
suit and his hat with them. Pretty
soon, of course, the marbles melted and
the tar streamed all over him. Afraid
to go home, he first slipped off to his
aunt s well and tried to pump water and
clean himself. The story goes on:
handle, which did more work that after
noon than in half a dozen days' wash
Creak -creak—creak! But the tar
only became harder and harder, until I
was encased in sheet armor, like the fa
mous Black Knight. Presently, my
cousin Jenny, an cspecial friend of
mine, hearing such continual pumping,
and becoming auxious for the family
supply of water, came out to see what
was the matter. Seeing a small figure
curled up under the spout of the pump,
drenched to the skin and black as Othel
lo, she stooped down to investigate the
phenomenon. Oh, what wa3 my despair,
when she discovered who it was, and in
To say she laughed would be to give a
feeble idea of the peals of laughter that
succeded each other as she stood and
looked at me. She would try to control
her merriment for a moment, onlv to
break forth afresh, until she was obliged
to sit down from sneer exhaustion. Ev
ery time she glanced at my woe-begone
countenance, and drenched condition,
she would go into fresh convulsions of
fun. At last she recovered breath suffi
cient to inquire into my case, and to as
sure me she would do what she could
for me but she soon found, to my des
pair, that what she could do was not
much to my relief. The clothes could
not be got off, and certainly they could
never be got clean. She did manage,
with a strong pair of shears, to cut off
the pockets in my breeches, and then,
fearing my mother would be alarmed,
she bade me go home, and she promised
to secure me against a whipping.
I fancy she thought this last i
would be easily kept
Somewhat comforted, I took up my
line of march toward the paternal roof,
but, as I went along, my heart began to
sink again visions of a rod, with which
my not too saintly character had made
me somewhat familiar, loomed up before
me but worse than all, the thought_of
my brother's ridicule made my sensitive
spirit quail. I thought I would evade
all that night, however, by going quietly
up the back stairs, and playing sick.'
Fortune favored me. I reached the bed
room without being seen and, just as I
was, with my hat on, for it could only
have come off with my scalp, I got into
bed and covered myself entirely up with
the bed-clothes. It was now dusk, and I
felt for the moment quite safe. Present
ly my aunt came into the room to get
something for which she was looking,
and I could hear her give several inquir
ing sniffs, and as she went out I heard
her say: "I certainly do smell tar
where can it come from?'' An interval
of peace followed, and then in came my
mother. "Tar? Smell tar? Of course
you do it's strong enough in this room.
Bring a light."
It was the sound of doom!
My mother soon came close up to the
bed, and held the light so that it fell
full upon me as she tried to turn down
the bed-clothing. Probably, if it had
not been for several previous scrapes
in which I had been involved, she would
have been much frightened but as it
was, the sight of her young blackamoor
had much the same effect upon her as
upon my cousin. Her exclamations and
shrieks of laughter brought every mem
ber of the household successively to the
room, and as one after another came in,
fresh zest seemed to be given to the
merriment of which I was the unfortu
But every renewal of the fun was an
added agony to mc: for I clearly fore
saw that it would oe rehearsed by Jack
•md Tom to all the boys in the neighbor
hood. Besides this, 1 was not in a con
dition to be hilarious. Plastered with
tar'from head to foot streaming with
at every pore my clothes
hair matted together and
my st*aw ^at soaked with water, fas
tened ujjon it, and falling limp and wet
comfortabi10 by *act that I could not
move without taking my pillow and bed
clothes with P?e, as, in my desperate de
sire to conceal* juyself from view, I had
become enwrapped in the bed-clothing
like a caterpillar iR us crysaiisy aiid I
was conscious of a dim fear that if I sat
up, with the pillow stuck fast on the
top of my head, the sight of me might
produce fatal results upon the already
At last the point was reached where
I thought patience ceased to be a vir
tue, and I rebelled against being any
longer made a spectacle.
1 declared if they would all go away
but mother, I would tell her all about
it. The crowd retired, commissioned to
send up a crock of butter, a tub of hot
water and a pair of shears. Maternal
love is strong, but I doubt if it was of
ten put to a severer test of its long
suffering than was that of my mother
Suffice it to say that, after my clothes
had been cut to ribbons, the sheets torn
up, my head well-nigh shaved, and iny
whole person subjected first to an Afri
can bath of melted butter, and after
ward to one of hot soap-suds, I had had
my fill of bathing for one day, and was
shortly before midnight pronounced to
be tolerably clean.
The Value of Fiat" Money.
A ''fiat" paper is satisfied that it has
settled the power of the government to
give what value it pleases to what is of
no value, by the "thus saith the law,"
and this is the way it does it:
"Hen Harrison denounces as idiots those
who talk of Hat money. What is it if not the
Hut of the government that makes the one
dollar ot our daddies worth one hundred cents
while the Mexican dollar with three more
grains of silver is wortti but ninety cents, and
in luiye quantities even less'e What but the
liat of the K'vcrnment makes two half dollars,
which contain but eighty cents worth of silver,
puss everywhere for one dollar? What but
the government flat makes twenty-five-cent
pieces, containing but nineteen cents worth of
nickel, receivable and payable forone dollar?"
Suppose somebody should ask, in his
turn, why, if the "fiat" of the govern
ment is the creation of value in money,
it may not be the equal creation of val
ue in wheat and meat and clothes, and
everything else that money will buy?
Why docs gold in "dust," pass as money
readily at the value its weight would
have as coin, or within a trifle of? It
passed so for years in California, Aus
tralia and other gold-bearing countries.
Why does gold iu bars pass for the
same value as the same weight in coin?
It has'no government stamp to give it
value, except the mark of fineness of
the assay office, and that is not the coin
stamp, nor is the bar coin. It is worth
just as much without the "fiat" as with
it. And what is more, the government
takes it at its value by weight and what
is more yet, it takes its own coin by
weight, too, just as it takes bars that
have no stamp of money value at all.
If the "fiat" makes value why is this
thus? Why does the government it
self disallow its own creation, put aside
its own "fiat," and weigh coin to ascer
tain its value? Why does the mint, the
great factory of fiat value, reject a coin
of its own making, no matter how plain
the stamp is, if it is under weight? It
won't send out these light coins, though
ever so plainly authorized by the stamp.
It holds that the value is in the weight,
not in the "fiat." Gold is good money,
has been in all ages, and will be*until
the end of time, without any "fiat" or
public authority, simply because it has
a value independent of the government,
and a value equal, or nearly, to that
which the "fiat' gives it.
The difference made by the law be
tween intrinsic and legal value in coin,
which seems to have filled this fiat reas
oner's little cranial vacuity with con
viction, is no proof of the force of the
"fiat" to give real to unreal value. The
law says that less than one hundred
cents shall be a legal tender for one
hundred cents, and that is all that it
does or can say. The man who owes a
dollar can pay it with ninety-two cents,
or force the creditor to go without any
thing. That's what's the matter. The
government says, in effect, to the cred
itor: If you don't take that ninety
two cent dollar for one hundred cents
and acquit your debtor, you can't have
any use of my courts or officers to col
lect your debt, and, of course, without
the help of laws and courts you can get
nothing. You must take that or go
without altogether." That is the way
the "fiat" mates value in paying debts,
but mark you, in nothing else. J[f Bill
Smith wants a dollar's worth of cloth
in a store, and Bill ones, the owner,
won't take the ninety-two cent dollar
for it, how is Bill Smith or the govern
ment, either, to help it? Bill Jones is
a strong reasoner in his way, and he
says, "My butter is worth a dollar, and
my cloth is worth ten dollars, ana I'm
not going to take ninety-two cents for
one, or nine dollars and twenty cents
for the other. Give me my price or
clear out." The "fiat" is not worth a
straw. The government can give value
in paying debts, for it can withhold its
agency in collecting otherwise than as
it commands, but there fiat stops. It
can't make a man take its valuation for
good unless he chooses. If nobody
owed anybody, the idlest thing in all
this world of vanities would be tne
that ninety-two cents would be a hun
dred. It would be exactly the rebel
way of making their money par3 just as
silly and just as futile. If the govern
ment were to make ten cents worth of
silver in a legal coin a legal tender for a
dollar—and it can do that as easily, and
not much more dishonestly, than what
it has done—does anybody suppose it
would bring a dollar's worth of food or
anything else, though it would pay a
dollar of debt? The "fiat" can give val-
anythine though it would pay a
ue to nothing, but it can force a credit
or to take less value for a greater, by
virtually outlawing him if he does not.
The rebels did that, but they couldn't
make their money good for anything
A few years ago, while the Alabama
and Chatanooga Railroad was in process
of construction, it was a favorable field
for colored preachers to labor and take
up collections "for de spread ob de Gos
pel." Among these a frequent visitor
was old Father Helms, from Tennessee,
whose fervid eloquence and practical
spoundings ob de Sacred Word were
attentively listened to by large congre
gations of the sable race, with no small
delegations of interested white listen
ers upon the outskirts. Upon one oc
casion, assembled in a lovely Alabama
grove, he addressed his congregation
Ladies and gentlemen oh niy beloved
congregation:—Havin' cotchea a bad
cold de odder evenin', I shan't attempt
to preach toyer dis Sabbath mornin',
but will read a capter from de Bible,
and spound as I go along." He then
read the fourth chapter of Genesis, af
ter which he continued his remarks:
De odder evenin' I tuk for my tex' de
tragedy in the garding of Eden—de kil
ling ob Abel, and de cuss and drivin' out
ob Cain. Apd after the sermon one ob
your smart young darkies—one ob dese
yer thin-skinned, saleratus-complexion
ed niggers—steps up to me and says he,
'Fader Helms, yer disremembered to
tell us who Mister Cain married down
in the land of Nod was it his mudder?'
Dere was a grinnin' crowd of no count,
trifling niggers wid him, and I 'spected
at once de white folks had set him up to
ax de question. I was so overcome wid
de sense of de sinfulness and great
sumption of sinners, bofe white and
black, dat I could say riuffin. I had
nuffin to say. I took the question un
der prayerful consideration, and de ans
wer were made plain. I'm gwine to
spound dat part ob de Scripter toyer
all. Who Cain's wife was, and whar he
got her, is plain to de all-seein' eye ob
faith. In de garding ob Eden Cain
raised right smart ob craps and garding
truck' and sich. But after de slewing
ob his Christian brudder Abel we don't
read ob his workin' no mo.' He tuk his
gun and dogs and went down into dat
sleepy, lazy, no'-count section ob Nod,
end loafed aroun' dat country and hav
in' lost all his plantation and mules, and
all his selfrespec' and pride ob family
and state, de nex' we read ob him he
had got so low down and triflin' dat he
married a gal ob one ob dose no-'count
poor white trash families which de in
spired 'postel didn't consider fittin' to
mention in the Holy Word."
The reverend "spounder" gazed around
upon his admiring congregation with an
air of triumph, and a brother struck up
the hymn, Whar, O, whar am de He
yrew chillen?—Harper's Magazine.
Burdette Tries to Help a Lady and Finds
it is an Ungrateful World.
The cars are crowded and everybody
is wishing everybody else out of the
way. The woman in front of me has
dropped her shawl on the floor. She is
not young or handsome, but she is a
woman. Her face has a harsh, forbid
ding expression, but withal, I think I
can sec tender lines about the mouth.
It is a face that has seen trouble. Poor
woman, perhaps she has raised eleven
children, and now she has them all, with
their husbands and wives, to support.
No wonder she looks tired and worn and
repellant. If she was as young and
pretty as she was thirty years ago, a
dozen men would spring forward to
snatch her shawl from the dusty floor,
»iid bow themselves crooked handing it
to her. Now we look at it, and feel too
dusty even to tell her where it is. A
commercial traveler walks down the
aisle and steps carefully over it. A
woman goes down the other way and
thoughtlessly steps on it. I feel asha
med of myself and pity the poor, home
ly woman. With an effort I' rise from
my seat, I stoop to pick up the neglect
"Madam," I say, and—oh, if my son's
mother could see that smile, "Madam
permit me your shawl—"
I stopped right there. For as I pick
ed up the neglected shawl, out of its
voluminous folds fell thumping and rat
tling to the floor, a paper bag badly
fractured, full of crackers, a tin can,
some remnants of an ancient lunch, a
six inch bologna, bit off at one end, and
a bottle of milk, the latter uncorking
itself as it fell. The poor, neglected
woman did not seem to be transported
with gratitude for my attention. She
snatched the shawl away from me and
said, with apparent vexation:
"There, now, drat ye! looky at ye,
what ye've done. Why can't ye mind
yer own business and leave other peo
ple's things alone?"
A ripple of subdued hilarity passed
througn the car, and I resumed my
seat, fully resolved that if the most ex
travagantly lovely and loving girl that
ever blessed this world of ugly men,
should conic into that car and her head
should fall off her shoulders and drop
into my lap, I would kick it savagely
out of the window and snarl:
"Keep your lumpy old woodeny pun
kin head out of tne way if you don't
want it tromped onto!"
Words of Wisdom.
There are many who mistake the love
of life for a fear of death.
Fancy runs most furiously when a
guilty conscience drives it.
A royal soul may belong to a beggar,
and a beggarly one to a king.
Very few persons have sense enough
to despise the praise of a fool.
A doctor may learn to cure by killing,
but men never learn to tell the truth by
No man is always wrong. A clock
that does not go at all is right twice in
the twenty-four hours.
Courage, the commonest of the yir
tucs, obtains more applause than dis
cretion, the rarest of them.
Let not one failure discourage you.
He that has had a fall may stand as up
right as he ever did.
Love can excuse anything but mean
ness but meanness kills love, and crip
ples even natural affection.
There is no one else who has the pow
er to be so much your friend or so much
your enemy as yourself.
That only can with propriety be call
ed refinement, which, by strengthening
the intellect, purifies the manners.
To all men the best friend is virtue
the best companions are high endeav
ors and honorable sentiments.
Many people's lives are not worth the
market value of the iron in their blood
and the phosphorus in their bones.
The majority of women are little
touched by friendship, for it is insipid
whe^hey have once tasted of love.
In some tranquil and apparently ami
able natures, there are often unsuspect
ed and unfathomable depths of resent
The tear of a loving girl is like a dew
drop on the rose but that on the cheek
of a wife is a drop of poison to her hus
Of all monarchs, nature is the moat
jost. intlie enactment of laws, and the
most .rigorous in punishing the violation
WHOLE NO. 676.
WM. ELDEX. Editor.
CHILDREN should not be kept out Of
school for slight causes. If schools are
worth anything they are worth patron
izing. It costs as much to keep school
for four or five pupils as for twenty-five
Although it may sometimes seem
quite necessary to keep children out of
school to work in the house or in the
field, yet it is true that in so doing par
ents rob them of that which is more
valuable than money or land, defraud
the nation of that intilligence without
which it cannot prosper, and help to
waste the funds which the State, in its
wisdom, has set apart for the education
of the young.
It may seem a small thing that the
pupil should be kept out a day or two
now and then, but there is such a thing
as momentum in school work, as well
as in mechanics, and when the work is
interrupted this momentum is lost. A
child can learn as much to attend school
regularly for twelve "consecutive weeks,
as to attend every other week for a year.
THE State Normal Institute held si
Iowa City, July 1-5 was well attended.
Some valuable papers were read, and a
variety of topics, pertaining to the
work of the County normals, provoked
discussion among county Superintend
ents and institute conductors. The
opinion seemed to prevail that but few
studies should be taken up this year,
and that among these, reading, perhaps,
is most important.
THE Science Institute at Iowa City,
June 25 to July 5, was a decided sne
cess. About thirty public school teach
ers, from different parts of the State,
were in attendance, and enjoyed the ad
vantage for advanced study which the
occasion offered. All seemed satisfied
that the time was well spent, and ex
pressed the that a similarinstitute
might be organized next year.^^^JI
IN the June number of the Journal
of Science and Art may be found an
able paper from the pen of Prof. Sam
uel Calvin, on shale, recently discover
ed below the Devonian limestone, at Ik
dependence. In this shale, Prof. Calvin
found several new species of Brachipod,
but he could give Mr. Kildaff small en
couragement in his search for coal.
Questions Answered by State Superin*
tendent Ton Coelin.
1. Any person aggrieved by the ac
tion of the County Superintendent, in
refusing to grant a certificate, or in re
voking the same, may apply to him for
a rehearing, the proceedings to conform
to the rule in case of appeal from the
board. From this decision an appeal
may be taken to the State Superintend
2. Without special mention in tie
contract only the common branches are
intended to be taught, by the contract
with a teacher.
3. It is the intention of the amend*
ment to Section 1,381 of the Code, only
to provide for the instruction of pauper
children on the basis of the actual cost
of their instruction, in the schools they
attend. They will be enumerated in the
district where they reside at the time
the enumeration is taken, and the
amount of semi-annual apportionment
for the following year will be received
by the district. If, at the time of the
enumeration, they have acquired a resi
dence at the poor house, they will be
enumerated in that district. But Chap
ter 116 still requires the payment of
4. At a sub-district election, at least
two electors must be present to make
an election possible.
5. At the annual meeting of the in
dependent district, the President, Sec
retary and one Director must be pres
6. Scholars are entitled to all school
privileges at once upon actual removal
into a district, although they may be
7. The employment of an assistant
teacher without a valid certificate, by
the Principal or the Board, does not
fulfill the meaning of the law.
It is quite natural for us to look up
on some member of our profession as
lucky, and to bewail our own misfor
tunes. Have you ever observed the
farmer's load of potatoes when it reach
es the market after being driven several
miles over a rough and stony road?
When he started with it, there were
various sizes mixed together promiscu
ously in the wagon, but the jolting pro
cess has worked a marvelous change.
Now only the largest are seen on tne
top, while all the smallest are found in
the lower strata, if they have not indeed
been sifted clear out. Though this is a
homely illustration, it will be sufficient
for our purpose. The law which brings
some teachers to the surface and sinks
others to the lowest stratum, is very
similar. It is simply the jolting pro
cess. The small potatoes may have
been "lucky" in being on the top at the
start, but it is certainly not luck that
puts them at the bottom when thev
reach the market. The road over which
the pedagogic cart is driven is none of
the smoothest, and every rut will tell.
The teacher who commences his work
with scanty literary and less profession
al preparation, need not be surprised if
he soon finds himself jolted ana jos Jed
to the bottom. There is no luck about
it it is only the survival of the fittest.
If you would rise in the profession, it
can only be through this law your on
ly way is to fit yourself' for tne work.
Do this, and every jolt will help yM}
neglect it and you will surely settle t*
the bottom.—Jotea Normal Monthly.
ONE of the School Board, going his
rounds as an amateur, put the follow
ing Question to a pupil in a oounfey
How do you parse 'Mary milked tlM
The last word was disposed of as fol
Cow is a noun, feminine gender, sin*
gular number, third person, and stands
'"Stands for Mary!" exclaims he of
the board, "how do you make that
Because," added the intelligent ft-
il, the cow didn't stand for Ma«y,
could Mary milk her?
At a recent school graduation, the
motto was Vestigce nulla retrorsom."
A resident clergyman was closing the
exercises with prayer, and evidently
wishing to pray to the point, or to air
his latin, brought in the motto but the
sentence proved too long, and this Was
the ending: "and when they go out into
the temptations of life, and their feet
wander into the paths of vice and sin,
may they remember their" motto, and
take no steps backward."
Friends should be very delieate and
careful in administering pity as medi
cine, when enemies use the same artioln
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