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- f-w-j.. p ... tttr- $". Bute Hlstorieal Society MM.MM,,tMa-aMMC---iaiaMa-MMMMa I I IHE JOURNAL. I8BUH Bit BV iVI. D SAMPSON TtMNM, KANSAS. JtMCaV la AtvMM, lkt 4m rut si SVTBB OF SHBSORIPTIOn KM itlMMl. 1 00 M J. W. JENNEY, tlemeeimthic l'ltynioinn ASD MIRUCon. w aatsaTTaa9f" aaJaave. e"aal J YaMPat , aWTftfr ettJaWBl aaPaVflasfaaea" (vYav CrttTifl F. M. SCHNEE, -.sWlW. f.illinlni MHaWm 4tM.l la IHW'wk iiminlMliidlt(r Krn aasaablt aa la A. K MianV feaWMac hiI Jw to Dr. I. E. Lay to n Pkysioian and Surgeon, I Y.na ( V A, MrV war HalM- M. aattMar raaa.aly laratosl Ih Ha, t aaaas ar aaraaaa a aa all Ms 4 arn aS aaa lM-r- rail aa lr al atak ajar iMHtWini-K tftal brawr H xaarxal aaaa fclaaa T Ml nam i-s ih h isu-fr mm . tail 4lrr. I a ! a trial V 1 WITH I lira, wi Ifcr aiMH Ml IN. rH- tw- aw.i M.aHrtaa '. aba I ha r itcr-it.--.1 MMr I. t It -ar. t all- aii-iMftml ait. DR. P.. E. NICKLES, .WHIM Mar'alM I l.. I.M. It I !- tiiiiiiI. IS a Mo aaW-et lit- -it v (- -vn aia aaat Mali- rr of - ii iatii, ttaa-fc My m j . V. HI aaaaaatt. aaiiMU aH anailniil rail. . - -) 1 ilall I as ftaia-ii aa4 lt--- lar)T Hal ar. Mtaaara arrarai.1) s)rsl. 4 -- la !. W, "aai vr..aliaa.K i a. ri iu. K. Mul n. Blair & Houston, ATTORNEYS AT LAW HM.INA.K K. I 'ftrx-lfcHr-- a xxriay. U M KiKMar K.A. Kt'M II Bishop 8c Burch. Attorneys-At - Law . h MaHrr Twi'l". MOORE & QUINBY, A 1TO R N EYS- AT- L A W "TaaaF-a aaVailP 89-11 lalPf)l aVaTw& MAUNA. KMISAK. 11- JASLRJ CHASE. Notary, Collector, AllCtiOllC'lM. .. i r-iurth-l ina1a-iri a N-rtatly N lir X,.rt ai.la Irafa JOHN J.GEIS, ftotanr Public and Convey ancor ata WalHaial mw' Baakilen aua. Kaaaa. IH KIN, Straifarrt. a iitalnMliul Mai lfar4wr. na. UW Van rtran Hl. HMk !! S C. SERYILLE. Uiar- aai. rvaaa Hal -rW ritelrr. Xaiaaun atac Mat f'f't ! tJ. la ai napii aaa 4 fka -a. aHaa Kaatu. W V V"' V Aison,Seaian&Co. Lumber Dealers. A tMll Line at Lowest Prioes. tHliw: I i. Smith Flllh SJ. EU'rhanlt & Siulewlorf. I n. i h.nt l'.i-r. I-if . Kir, SAUNA, - - KANSAS. First Mok Bat, SALINA, KANS. riTM -i KTI.I H INinilU'Olt.VTKD Ul. ItlRBtTOItS. M.M NrtM, M. II Tla, K W.CHwr, tarSHtr, J. H.irrlll, tV. HHk. JahH K. SlwttH, rrtwi. M . U. Twaw. CVti(r. TaH II. ItarK A.j.'l Ca.Wer. i ut. T. A WllUAHi. GEIS& WILLIAMS ' aWrI Raa akMf W al l"MBCflaraa aHMl BWrtC SALINA. KANSAS. REAL ESTATE AND LOANS. it ii aavaaf ataprtr Vtto wM i !! raM aaal ain aawic oa aar tmrkk. tmt farllMMw arr pal far Ml'1i4lwc r that acaawa aaaaMaa. aO-' TO XiOuSLjfcT a nawwi daaaal aaa aHlaMTal fawfMrf ara jaakr wr Haw aia a Haat IMata. Wiiul a i n cat aWn i antiilUu baucM. Sa, la makiat loaaa. ftaaay Mtraf V.WRVAMlMa irf aH kind coir- KXltl rwaa aTJWt a ajL-ftoUj A Hi- JL 4Wat ma aaOaaataal. aaM n aas) WnaV aaV.a Caaba faart afataln Oara-r iU. JV a Itaa Aaaaaas. Harawflfli Liier VOL. XVffl. NOfOlty 111 ED. LOTZ, Prop'r. aBBBsm' --'TTa-::X fJ?C Fx Blr--f3U XTavb rev's CUSTOM Infills Highest Price paid for Corn, Rye and Oats Flour, Meal and Feed always on hand. The Oldest Jewelry House IN CENTRAL KANSAS. The attention ot the cltireim of Hallna ami our many patron In olulty if) ri-niiet-tfiilly Invllwl to our CoMi-unr Hto.'k of tiW CLOCKS, JEWeLrY AM SILVERWARE ur Goods are the Latest in Ssyle and snjeiic in Workmanship. Remember the Old Stand of D. & J. B. WHITEHEAD, Ja,iiaes J. X JOURNAL ST.I3ST.A., -DE. Drugs, Paints, Oils, 0.10 )rr'J WJifl vZd) v Glass, Lamps, Etc. Etc. Also keeps a Fine Line Of CIGHS constantly in Stock The I. A. FERLEI Steal Sli Naw la la IIm uf jrarloln. pl. :i-ur. rawwt 111. MvMl far .ll Hr-i is. Im. AMRKIt'N.TIII.NVAI.I.. H lllTh r I Hiaaf llila aalai m a faaiali t . aiitl ruiiu !! ntm tiar Htrrwa. a atlarrrl Urmrl lraw Halnia. Kaiiaft. lo.inj -rt in l.iinf. i r) ICr.w lllltfx. V-a sMSlSls&prW 0 . New Drag Having purchased the ,..,,, ri!L -a ., ii nun i i iu -v i : .f . r nii.iiii ia,Aa. them of our best treatment and good goorls. Hlg Santa Fe Cor and Iron W. 31. Undertakin In all its "branches. Also a fine and complete line of PUBNITDBB & CAEPETS. Woolen and Metolic burial caseB in stock W. & M. D. BERG. No. 113 & 115 West Iron Ave., Salina, Kansas sail 1 fefafot, SALINA, Kans. th( 3AX-.XT.A. TC.A2TSAS Purcell's i"jtfl ipJl'H scT) 1 J SiJ?J BLOCK KZA.2STS S XbT- Brushes Window ig Apncy. Iripto Knn i r lln' ttliiiill for timr fHwu. Mliuilir. im-lwllMc Ibr I I'N VK l:.f .1 h'N.in.t IN.MX. I MH M"ll N. A. FERLEN. corner Drug Store we nnr nlA friends, assur- x aa Ayenues. D. Berg, Store, SALINA, KANSAS, THUKSDAY, SEPTEIMBElt McKlNLEY'S SPEECH. Ilou. Willinn MeKiulej-, or Obio, Talk to Owirirlan- ou Tariff. Full Teit or His Adtlrew IMiienil Ierore the l'iedmuut SiK'iflj. The ailvantaw or the Aiuerirau l'ri tective System Shown. AuAlile, I.ueiil. anil Couvinciuir Ar KUineut Asrain-t Free Traile Atlanta, Oa.. Auj?. 21, l&SS. Cnugreyriiiiau William .McKinley, of Ohio, in answer to au iuvltailon fioui the (ieorgiu (.'h:uilaiiiua Society, apiiearwl before that a xoei3tion lo-Uay iipou itn roimils uear tills city, aud in th rexeiiee of a eoueourse 01 people numlii-riiiK many tliouiaiuls ilelivereil an ail-ilrei-s UM)ti the tarill, an viewed from biitli a revenue anil a proteethe HtaiiilHiint. Tlie rull text or the ail drei la art follows: Kei.uiw Citizkxs: I make my aekuowledgiuenta to the rieiliuoni f-'c.ot ty for the eourteny andeoriHali ty of iim invitation, which hax given me theopjiortiitiity to meet for the llrat time an aeneniblaKe of the elti zena or Georgia. 1 hatecomu upon the niiBBestlou or the eoiuinittee to aildrej" you iimiu a public iiuextiou of great tiulioual import, which conccrtm not only the prosperity of one sec tion butorallnectioiiHof our common country, aud which in of commuiiil ing interest to our sixty million of eople. It in no new ttubje-'t I pro pose to consider. It is aa old as the uoverumelits by men. Taxation with few exception hits been the chief and absorbing issue for mine thuu a century of the republic The government was scarcelj launched before its discussion com manded the best thought or the statesmen of the time, and in ary iug degrees it has been prominently before the public even since. The dillerent theories of taxation liae au interest now uliicli they have never pu-isesied before, l'ublic thought Hauakcued aud the citixt n is Investigating for liiiii-vir. Frank disciisiou and thoughtful consider ation of the two coiillictiiig thcorii are therefore demanded iu the pre-elit state of the public liiiuil, as well as the condition of our nation' treasury. How taxes are In be raiseil to Mippnrt the government, and by what method can they be levied and collected as to bear mo-t lightly upju I lie people, ami at the same time promote rather than retard national pnwerity in the scope of the theme which 1 propo-e to discuss before you to-day. There are some things upo.i which all are iu accord, and which are so manifest as to require no argument or amplication, l'liey are admitted facts. Among them are that the the I'nited States must have ruN llcent money to meet its current expenses and maturing obligations: that the I lilted States as a political society l without asset, without nioni-i , and has no income, except what it secures by taxes collected from its people. It must collect its money, whatever may be Its actual requirements, either by direct taxes or by duties ukiu imports. There are few people to be found iu the country who seriously favor the system or direct taxation for govern mental expense, that is, taxing the people, their propcrlty, real and per sonal, their profesulons and employ ments. The American sentiment is nrauticallv unanimous iu favor of raising at least a large share of the revenue for the government by levylngduliesui"oii foreign import ations. It require nearly $&-0,000.0W every year to meet the necessary wants of tue public service, aud there Is ueiieral assent to the pro position that the bulk of this at-t sum shall be raised from customs sources. I'p to this (mint there is substantial concurrence, and here individual and party peiitimenl divide, and I believe liou-slly di vide, and to these Hues of illusion, and principles upon which they re spectively rest, 1 .invite your re spectful consideration. Free-traders, so-calltd, or to be more exact, the advocates or a reve nue tarill, believing with the other school or political economists iu import duties, iusist that duties shall be levied tiou that class of foreign products which are not pro duced iu the I'liiled .Stales, the principle being that revenue is the sole ami only object or such taxa tion, and that a duty levied upon such foreign products as have little or no home competition will secure thb largest revenue with the small est rate or duty. And this is alto gether true, for whenever you can Hud a foreign article which the Hn ple of this country require ami which or necessity tliey must import, any duly, however low, imleed the very miulinum, will produce reve nue; for iuasmuch as there is no home prmluced article to contend for any mrt or the home market, importations will go on unchecked, Htid the revenue derived therefrom will be only limited by the extent or the importation Influenced by the necessities of our people and their caao!ty to buy. Au Illustration familiar to all or you are the pro duets of tea and coffee. Neither of these great staple articles are pro duced iu the I'nited State.. The demauds of our people for these pro duets, and they extend to every home and fireside In the land, are supplied from abroad. Now, any tax thereon, however slight and in significant, would produce a very considerable revenue to the govern ment; aud this illustrates what is commonly understood as a "revenue tariff." If however, the duty is levied upon the foreign competiug product, it Is made so low, having revenue only in view, that the effect is to destroy home competition and in crease the revenue therefrom by Increasing importations. Hon. J. Itaudolph Tucker, of Vir- f;lnla, an eminent lawyer and exper nced statesman, In & speech deliver ed In the house of representatives May 18, 187S, deflneda revenue duty as follows: "Therefore as no higher duty onght to be laid than Is needed to raise the requisite reveuue on any particular article, it follows that the true revenue duty is the lowest duty whieh will bring the required reve nue." This definition is a fair and frank one. and J accept it. A revenue tariff Is, therefore, such a one as will produce the largest revenue from the lowest duty. The lowest rate of duty will encourage importations, diminish borne production, and In evitably increase the revenue ;lt will of necessity check competition at home and send our merchants abroad to buy; it affords no protec tion, net even incidental, for the very instant you discover that such duty fa vow the home producer, that Instant yon discover that Importa tions aud revenue'are eheoked, and that our producers are able t eon trot the home market, or a part or it. Then at once tlie advocate of a reve uue tariff reduees the duty, brings it down to the true reveuue standard; for it must not be overlooked, ac cording to that free trade maxim, where protection begins reveuue ends," and the question of reveuue is always controlling. A revenue tariff is inconsistent with protec tion ; it is intended for a wholly differeut purpose. It loses its force and character as a genuine revenue tarill when It becomes to any extent protective. It lias but one object. It can have but one effect that of o;enIng up our markets to the foreign producer impoverishing tlie home producer and enriching his foreign rival. England is more nearly a free trade country than any other, and her system of taxation "furnishes au unmistakable example of the prac tice aud principle or a revenue tariff. Her import duties are imposed al most exclusively upon articles which cannot be produced by her owu eople upon her own soil. To bacco, suutr, cigars, uhlekory, cocoa, currants, tigs, raisins, rum, brandy, wine, tea, aud coffee these are the articles from whieh Iter customs revenue is derived articles in the main, not produced in England, but which must be supplied from abroad; while practically all com peting products of foreign make or production are admitted through her custom-houses free of duty. A brief statement of the dutiable imports of (treat liritiau will not be without interest. It will be observed that her duties are more largely i minted uixin peculiarly American products than upon any other. The duty Umiii tobacco is, according to moisture, from M to U2 cents per pounds for the raw or unmanufactured article, and if manufactured it pay a duty of from 11.1)4 to $1.1k ier pound. The manufactured article is made dutiable at i" cents a pound greater than the raw product, which, with all England's lioasted free trade, is intended as protection to those en gaged In tlie manipulation of tobae co. It is almost prohibitive to Americans who would exitort man ufactured tobacco. The ad vsloruut equivalent of duty ou tobacco is nearly 2,000 per cent. Cigars iniy a duty of iI..TJ per pound, and from tobacco and snuff over l3,O0U,tt0 of duties aro collected annually. The duty ou tea is 12 cents a pound. How would the Americans injoy paving paying such a duty Uon this article of every day use? The duty collected from this source Is over lS,um,UUU annually. Coffee iays a duty of 3 cents a pound, but if ground, prepared, or in any way manufactured, it must pay a duty of 1 cents a pound another example of where England protects tho-e en gaged in manufacture. Cocoa pay a duty or 2 cents a pound, but if it'is ill any form subjected to manufac ture it pays J cents a imuutl, the manufactured article being double that on the raw material. l'esidcs the articles I have named, (here are about nilictv or a hund-ed others, chiefly of American produc tion, patented and other medicine, which are dutiable at fl.'Wi per gal lon. More than $!,OiK),OOU, or near ly one-fourth of the Itritish reve nues, are raised from custom duties. You will note the character of taxation to whieh the revenue re former invites the jeople of the I'nited States, lloth the breakfa'-t tabic aud the sick room are made to bear a large part of the burden under the liritish system of taxa tion. It is not without significance that tlie nearer we approach tills system the more generous tlie be stowal of Itritish commendation. Every enlargement of the free list of foreign product, every reduction of duty upon such products is hailed as a vindication of Cobdeu and a beiiellceuce to Jsrltisli interests. It i In vain for tlie liritish statesmen to nssufe us that their system is best for us. We are not accustomed to look to our commercial rivals for disinterested favors. "It is folly," said Washington in ids farewell ad dress, "iu one nation to look for ills interested favors from another; that it must pay with a portiuu of its In dependence, ror whatever It may ac cept under that character. There can be no greater error than to ex IK'ct or calculate uimiii real favors from nation to nation. It is an illu sion which exierlence must cure and which a just pride ought to dis card." We are not, Mr. 1'resideut, Insensible to the good opinion of mankind and of tie English siieak ing race, but when it istolie had oulv at the expense of our industrial iu deendeiice of laboraud the deslaue- lion or national pro)crily, we must regard it witli supreme suspicion and turn from it as eulogy of selHsh interest ami the commendation or interested greed. The other theoiyoi taxation, aud Hie one which I believe to be essen tial to American development aud national prositerity, is lmeil uihhi au exactly opposite principle. It permits all articles of foreign pro duction, whether of the field, the factory, or the mine, except luxuries only, which we cannot produce In the l lilted slates, to enter our rts free and unburdened by custom houe exactions. The duty Is to lie imposed tion theforeigu competing product, that is, tlie product which. If brought into this country, would contend with the products of our own labor, and our own soil, our own lahor and our own factories. In our own markets. I'lider this sys tem if the foreign producer would enter our market with a comiietiiie product he mip-t contribute some thing for the privilege whieh he Is to enjoy, and this something. In the form of duties, goes into the treasury, furnishing revenue In the government; and these duties operate to protect the joiBt labor and capital against a like forelgu product. Tins mode of levying duties an swers a double purpose. It piodures revenue to the government, and at the same time fosters and en courages tlie occupations of our own people, promotes industrial develop ment, opens up new mines, builds new factories, aud sustains those al ready established, which iu turn furnish employment tolaboratfair and remunerative wages. A reve nue tariff accomplishes but a single purpose that of raising revenue; it has no other mission ; while a pro tective tariff accomplishes this and more It brings reveuue to the American treasury and discrimi nates in favor of the American citi zen. A revenue tariff invites the product of foreign labor and foreign capital to occupy our markets free and unrestrained in comjetitlon with theproductof our own laborand capital. A protective tariff invites the product ot foreign labor and foreign capital which are necessary to the wants of our people (whieh we cannot produce in the United States; to occupy our markets and go untaxed to tlie people, but insists that every foreign produet which Is produced at home, or can be success fully, iu quantities capable of tup plying the domestic consumption, shall whenever necessary to main tain suitable rewards to oar labor, bear a dnty whieh shall not be so high as to prohibit IrnportatloBi, but at such rate as will produce the necessary revenues and at the same time not destroy but en courage American production. It aays to the world of producers, "If G, 1SSS. you want to share with the oltiaens or the United States their heme market, you must pay for the privi lege of doing It. Your product shall not enter in free and unrestrained competition with the product of our own iieople, hut shall be discrimi nated against to such an extent as to fully protect aud defend our own." Hon. Alexander Rtpnlipn a ilia. tiugulshed citizen of your own state, and endeared to the people of the South, Btated ou June 28, 1SS2, the theory eo well that I beg to quote from him. "The best way to ralso revenue Is by duties upon imports. They bear less heavily uon the taxpayers, and, as legislators, that is what we should look to. Iu levying duties upon imports you can at the same time make foreign producers pay Tor tlie use of your markets, anil in that way, incidentally and properly, give aid and protection to American Industry. It is not true.aa a general proiositiou that the consumer pays all the duty imposed upon commo dities brought from other conntries. This is a question that I cannot now argue. Iu most instances, where the duties are judiciously laid, they are borne Partly by the consumer aud partly by the importer. "To allow congress thus to raise revenue by duties upon imports was one of the main objects in establish ing the federal constitution of 1817. This system of iuternal revenue tax ation by excise and stamp duties was not favored by the fathets or the republic in times of peace. I speak plainly, and say that it was looked upon then as not oulv of liritish origin, but there was always the odium of liritish toryisui attach ed to it In the American mind. There was never nuy legislation more abhireut to the people of this country, even In their colonial con dition, than what was known as the luramous stamp act." It Is alleged as a serious objection to protective duties that the tax, whatever it may be, increases the cost or the foreign as well as the domestic product to tlie extent of such tax of duty, aud that it is wholly paid by the consumer. This objection would be worthy of serious consideration If It were true, but, as lias been demonstrated over aud over again, It is without foun dation in fact. Wherever tlie forelgu product has successful competition at home the duty is rarely paid by the consumer. It is paid from the prnlits of tlie manufacturer, or divided between him aud the mer chant, or the importer, and dimin ishes their profits to that extent. Duty or no duty, without home coinpetion tlie consumer would fare worse than he fares now. There is not in the long line of staple pro ducts consumed by the people a single one which has not been cheap ened by competition at home, made possible by protective duties. There is not an article that enters into the every day use of the family which is produced Iu the United States that has been made ciieajier and more accessible as the result of home pro duction and development, which was to be secured only by the sturdy malutaluauce of the protective sys tem. While this is true ot protec tive tariffs, exactly the opposite is true of revenue tarill. They are always paid by the the consumer. A duty put upou a forelgu produet the like of which is not produced at home, and whieh enters our markets free from home competition, the cost to the American consumer is exactly the foreign cost with tlie duty added, whatever that may be, much or little. SupKsiug, for ex ample, there was a tax upon tea and ami coffee. There being no produc tion of these artlcltB iu the United States, aud therefore no competition here, the cost to the American pub lic would be the cost abroad aud the duty added. We imported last year j2,4SS,l)00 pounds of coffee. A duty of ten cents a pound would have produced to the government over $62,000,000, which would have been paid by tlie 12,000,000 frmllies of this country, consumers of this article. Eighty-seyen million live hundred and eighty-four thousand pounds of tea were imported last year. At ten cents a pound fS.000,000 and upwards would have gone into tlie treasury, every dollar of which would have been paid by our own ieople. Take sugar.as another example. We pro duced Ian year iu this eountry about eight ier cent, of what our people consumed. The duty collect ed from imported sugar aniouuted to ffc.OuO.OOO. The domestic produc tion was so inconsiderable as com pared with the domestic consump tion as to have had little. If any, ap preciable effect llou tlie price to the consumer, aud therefore this sum was almost wholly paid by our own citlxeus, and the cost of sugar, to the American consumer, because of the inadequate home supply, is practically the rorelgu price, duty added, the domestic producer being so small contrasted with the domes tic demand that it in no wise con trolled or influenced tlie priee. The price to us Is fixed by the 92 per cent, which came from abroad, plus the amount of the duty collect ed at the custom house. It would have been otherwise if the bulk of our consumption was produced at home. If you take any American production which Is large enough to supply the domestic demand, the effect Is different. Then the foreign production must undersell the home production iu order to get a foothold iu tills market, aud therefore the foreign producer is willing to sur render the whole duty, or a consider able part ofit, consenting tc less profits for the sake of extending the markets, with the hope of ultimate ly destroying home competition. The real question, therefore, is whether, in raisiug money to supply tlie government needs we should have thoughtful concern of the in dustrial interests of the people we represent, or, discarding every other consideration, shall adjust our duties Uon the revenue only. The money must be raised, and in rais ing it the protectionist is mindful of the interests of our own people. The tariff reformer is considerate of everyone else's interest but ourown I cannot understand why any patriotic citizen should prefer a protective tariff. I cannot under stand that while se long as taxation must be resorted to and that will be the case so long as tue governments exist it should not be raised upon the foreign article which competes with the domestic article, and thus discriminate in favor of our own and against the foreign, rather than to admit to equality in our markets untaxed, and upon equal terms with our own producers, the products of our foreign rivals. The protective system but invokes the highest law of nature, that of self-preservation. There is everv reason, founded in justice, why the Amerloan producer should in every constitutional way be favored a against the foreign producer whose products compete with his. This is onr natural market. We have made It. We have made it after a century of struggle. "We have made It a cost of capital and brain and muscle. We have preserved It against foreign wars and domestic conflicts, at freat sacrifice of m.n and money, he foreign producer has contribut ed nothing to the growth or develop ment of the country. Whatever In fluence be has exerted has been agaliuttm aud toour detriment. He has nothing In common with us. He Is without Ibe jurisdiction of our NO. 36. laws. He eannot be reached by the taxgatherer. He Is exempt from all civil obligations in every part of the republic. We can make no requisi tion upon him, either in peaee or in war. Our mode ot reaching him Is through the product he would send to our markets. We can demand of him that his merchandise shall make contribution to our treasury if ho wnitlrf onlnt' Mm noo of nil mar- kets. We can make him serve us in no other way. In the case of a revenue tariff, as l pointed out, his product never bears the burden. Whatever we put upon It Is borne by our people, and in no wise shared by him. This principle of caring for our own is founded upon the highest authority, human and divine. It commences with the family, extends up through thecommuulty,to the state, and at last to the natlou. There is no city In the country In any section that docs not invoke this principle In the administration ot municipal government for the pro tection and encouragement ot Its own citizens. The itiuerant vender Is taxed in every city or the land. If he would expose his wares upon the streets of Atlanta at public auction I doubt not the city government compels him to pay a tax for the privilege ot doing It, and that tax Is added to the ordinary revenues ot the city to assist In meeting its obligations. Now, why Is this done? Upon ex actly the same principle that wo tax the foreign conipetingproduct under the system of protection. It Is done to protect and defend the res ident merchants of your city, who are with you always, within your jurisdiction, subject to your laws, contributing to the wealth and prog ress of your city, paying taxes to adorn aud beautify it, paying taxes to support your public schools and make public improvements. The itinerant vender has no such rela tion to your community. He Is no part of your political organism, lie comes and goes; he la not a tax-payer: he shares in none of the burdens of your people; he is a free-trader, who looks upon your market as much his aud as open to him as to your own tradespeople. Your city government taxes Him to diminish the burdens borne by your own citizens. This Is protec tion, simple and pure, and is the exact character ot that which we would apply to foreign nations seeking our markets. Our fathers recognized tuts principle, it was emphasized iu the second act ever passed by the congress 3f the Unit ed States. The ringing words of that declaration for industrial inde pendence I wish might find a lodgment iu every American heart: W hereas it Is necessary for tlie supixirt of the government, for the discharge of the debts of the nation, and for the encouragement aud pro tection of manufacturers that du ties be levied on imported goods, wares, and merchandise. A more positive declaration iu favor of the protective system it would be difficult to find language to express. This was the first im portant legislative declaration uuder the federal constitution. The only other law that preceded it was that of fixing the oath of certain federal officials. It was made even before Washington was inaugurated. It subsequently received his sanction, and It is a fact not without signifi cance mat ins approval was given to it ou a day memorable iu Amer ican history, the -tth of July, 1781). It had the approval of James Madisou, ItufuslCiug, Roger Sher man, Trumbell, Lee, and a host of other leading men from all parts of the union. Additional tariff legislation was had in 17ii0. Some duties were in creased. The journal of the house of representatives discloses the fact that or the thirty-nine votes given Iu favor of the bill, twenty-one were from southern states, thirteen from the middle states, aud five from the -cw England States, or the thir teen votes against it, nine were from the New England states, three from the southern states, and oue from the middle states. It will thus be seen that we are largely indebted to tlie southfortlieinauguratiou aud establishment of the protective sys tem in the United States, which has for the most part governed our legislation since tlie formation of the government. For nearly sixty years of our national life this principle in its fulness has been re cognized In our laws, and whenever recognized it has been aecomjKiuIed by commercial and industrial ueveiopment, stimulating new en terprises, aud securing proserit to me masses wituoui a iaraiiei In me world's annals. Tlie revenue tariff twriods of our history have been periods of greatest financial revulsions and industrial decadence, want aud poverty among the people, private enterprises checked, and public works retarded. From 188S to 1842, under the low tariff legislation then prevailing, business was at a standstill, and our merchants and traders were bankrupted; our industries were raralyzed, our labor remained idle, and our capital was unemployed. Foreign products crowded our mar kets, destroyed domestic competi tion, and, as invariably follows, the price of commodities to consumers was appreciably raised. It is an instructive fact that rvery panic this country has ever ex(erienced has been preceded by enormous importations. From 18(4 to lsfll, a similar situation was presented under the low tariff ot that eriod. Contrast this period with the period from 1560 to 1880, the former under a revenue tariff, the latter under a protective tariff. In 1S60. we had 193,000,000 acres of improved land, while in 18S0 we had 237,000.000, an Increase of 75 per cent. In lbGOour farms were valued at $8,200,000,000. In 1SS0 the value had leaped to 10,197,000,000, au Increase of over 300 r cent. In ISNO vre raised 173,000,000 bushels or wheat; in 18S0, 498,000,000. In I860 we raised 838, 000,000 bushels or corn; in 1S80, 1,717,000,000 buhels. In I860 we produced 6,000,000 bales of of cotton ; In 18S0, ",00fj,000 bales, an increase ot 40nereent. In 1S00 we manufact ured cotton goods to the value of $115,681,774; in 1SS0 the value reach ed 211,000,000, an Increase of upwards of 60 per cent. In 1860 we manufactured of woolen goods 8!,000,000: in lb&0, 1287,000,000, an increase of 333 per eent. In 1880 we produced 00,000.000 pounds of wool; In 1S80, 240,000,000 pounds, an Increase of nearly 300 per cent. In lhCO we mined 16,000,000 tons of coal: In 1SS0, 76.000,000 tons, an Increase of over -toper cent. In 1860 we made 987,000 tons of plglron ; in 1SS0, 3,885,000 tons. In I860 we manu factured 285,000 tons of railroad iron, and in 1&S0, 1,203,000 tons. In I860 our aggregate of national wealth was 18.159,000,000: In 1860 it waa 143.000,000,000. From 1848 to 1660, during the low tariff period, there waa but a slntrle year in which we exported in excess ot what we imported. The balance ot trane daring ine twelve or the thirteen years was against us. Our people were drained ot their money to pay for foreign purchases. We sent abroad over and above our sales. 1306,218,16!. This vast sum waa drawn from the United 8tates. from business, from the channels ot trade, which would have been bet ter employed In productive enter- nrlteS and thtll nnnllMl nar want. for which we were compelled to go abroad. Daring the last tairteen years, under a protective win, there was but one J ear that the balance of trade waa against as. For twelve years we sold teottr for eign customers in excesa of what we bought from them the sum aftl.eiz,- 8W'765- . . . , This contrast makes an interest ing exhibit of the work, under the the two systems. You need not be told that the government and the people are most prosperous whese balance of trade is in their favor. The government is Ijke the oltixea, indeed it ia but an aggregation of citizens; and when theeltJaea buya more than he sells ne is soon con scious that his year's business Is not a success. Our wealth Increases 1875,000,000 every year, while the increase of Frauce la 1375,000,000 ; Oreat Britian 1325,000,000, and Uermany 130009, B00. The total carryiBg capacity of all tbe vessels entered and eleared from American porta darlBg tbe year lSh-S7 in the foreign trade waa 23,000,000 tons. The amount of freleht transported by the rail roads of the United States was alone I 32,W0,W tons during the same I UAPlvl The sum ot our industries exceeds that ot any other people or tribe or nationality. Mutual!, the English statistician, plaees the industries of the United States at $11,106,000,000 annually, whieh is 2,206.000,eGH greater than those of the United Kingdom of Oreat Britian, nearly twice that of France or Uermany, nearly three times that of Russia, aud almost equal to the aggregated industries ot Austria. Italy, Spei, Belgium, Holland, Australia, Can ada, and Sweden and Norway. This advancement is the world's wonder. The nations ot the earth cannot furnish such a splendid ex hibition of progress In any age or period. We defy a reveuue tariff policy to present sueh au exhibition of material prosperity and indus trial development. Arts, science, and literature have held their owu In this wonderful march. We are prosperous today beyond any other people. The masses are better cared for, better provided for, more self-respecting, and more Indepen dent than ever before iu our history, which cannot be said of the manses of other countries. One of the striking differences between a rev enue tariff aud a protective tariff is that tlie former sends the mon ey of its people abroad for forelgu supplies, and seeks out a foreign market. The latter keeps the mon ey at home among our own people, circulating through the arteries of trade, and creates a market at home, which is always the best because the most reliable. Tbe south has shared iu this splendid progress, in this golden period of development. From 1851 to 1N0 the average yearly production of pig Iron throughout tbe United States was less than bOO.OOO tons. Iu ltH the states of Alabama, Tennessee, Vir ginia, West Virginia, Kentucky. Georgia, Maryland, Texas aud North Carolina produced 875,179 net tons, or 75,000 more than the whole aunual output of the United Stales under the Ireo trade period. The eight years just isseu have brought to the south wonderful progress. You had iu IbbO, ltt.43.t miles of railroad; you now have 36,737 miles, aud this Is Increasing You raised in lbM), 5,7.Yi,3.Q bale of cotton; In INSS you raiseil BSPO.Otm bales. In l.V0 you raiseil 431,074, 839 bushels of grain, ami in 1867 you raised U2,305,0U0 bushels. In Ismi you had live stock amounting in value to 391,312.254; It is now val ued at $5,7J,tia-vV)0. Tint value of your agricultural products In IKso was 57 1,08,4-, ; In l.srfT it had readied 742,IXi7,4H0. In lt0 you produced 397,301 tons of 4g iron; In 1887 you produced 921,43-1 tons, and I am assured upon the beat authority that It is. upwards or a million now. You mined In lu 0,019,741 tons or coal; In 1SS7. lH,47b, 785 tons. You had iu ISM), 17V cotton mills; you have got today 300. and they are Increasing. The number of your spindlei in I860 was 714.979; there are today 1,495,145. Thenuiu ber of your looms in 1880 was 15,222; there are now over 31,000. The value of cotton goods in isso. which you produced, was 21,IXJU,0U0; In 1887 It waa over Hl.UXMiti. And yet, iu the presence of sueh prog ress, It is seriously proposed to le verse the jwlley under which it has been made. Surely a new era of Industrial development has come to the south. Nothing should It permitted to check or retard it. To her, nature lias been most prodigal with Iter gifts. Her hills and valleys have been made the storehouses of richest treasure. Coal aud iron mines wail iniatieutly the touch of labor and capital, and tempt both with prom ise of lavish prolit. Raw materials are found at every turn to Invite the skilled artisan to transform them into the ftabdted product for the highest use of man. She posesses the libers In rich ahMH danee; her skilled lahor s)hmM weave the fabric It is said that there is nothing frown iu any of the states, exeeit 'lorida, that (.ieorgiu cannot profit ably produce. She has eoal, iron deposits, marble aud building stone, cotton and cereals. NetblHg bwt her own folly, nothing but blind ness to hei highest ami best inter ests can keep tier from the front rank of the Industrial states of the union. Whether we discuss this question from principle, from statistics, or experience, we must reach the same conclusion; all lead to the same conviction. Iet me give you some important evidence from high and undoubted sourees, whieh eoHlirm the argument -which I have been making. President Fillmore said on Decem ber 2, 151. In his message to con gress, speaking of the eoHilitien of the country: "The value of our exports of breadstuff aud provisions, which 11 was supposed the incentive of a low tariffaud large Importations from abroad would have greatly aug mented, has fallen from 4.wl,tt21. In 1847, to 26,051-73 in JWrt, ami to 21,Ht8,tS53 In 1851, with a stroHg probability, amounting almost to a certainty, of a still further re duction In tlie current year. The policy which dictated a low rate of duties on foreign merchandise, it was thought by those who promoted and established It, would tend to benefit the farm ing population of this eountry by Increasing the the priee of agricul tural products In foreign markets. The forgoing facts, however, seem to show lucoutestably that no seh result has followed the adoiitien ot this iKlley." Again he said in his message of DecmberB, 1842: "Without repeating the argument contained Iu my former message iu favor of discriminating protective duties, I deem it my duty to eall your attention to one or two other considerations affecting this sub ject. The first is the effect of large Importations of foreign goods upon our currency. Most or the gold of California, as fast as It is seined, finds its way directly to Europe in payment ot goods purchased. In the second place, as our manufactur ing establishments are broken down by competition with foreigners, 'he capital invested In them la lost, thousands of honest and Industrious citicens are thrown out of employ ment, and the farmer to that extent la deprived ota home market for the sale of his suplua produee. In tbe third place, a destruction el ear manufactures leaves the foreigner without competition In our market, and be consequently raises tbe priee of articles sent here ror sale, as is now seen in the increased cost of Iron Imported from England." In December, 1857, President Bu chanan, in his annual message to congress, said: "The earth has yielded her fralte abundantly and has bountlfally re- Lwarded tbe toll or the husbandman. HS nave poneneu ui me eicmenvj of material wealth In rich abun- CmtfnuotffurtMff. '&i' J-""S H Hi MatTl!