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J VOLUME XXL fRt. [Zi J/\tJ. /ft&o] CAMDEN, SOUTH-CAROLINA, TUESDAY MORNING, JANUARY 24, 1860. NUMBER 4. CHESS COICTTiyriSr OF THE k * - CAMDEN JOURNAL, g Tuesday, January 24, 1860. * PROBLEM NO. 12, BY "R. S; P.," OF CHARHSfO"^ ;S0,^p>7s'r T* ,t| ?= " . 5 * 1 BLACK. . . I . i""""M ? m i ] Mj^LjSi WZm WW# WW W/W, l^irlfwwm '-i kWIUTE. White to play, and Checkmate in three moves. Solution to Problem No. 11, WHITE. I BLACK. 1. Kt to.Q R 5. 1. P to K B 3. 2. B WQ R 3, 2. P to Q 3. 3. B to Q Kt 2, 3. P takes B. IPtoQBt -w M ' 1 , . 1. P to Q 3. 2. B to K Kt. 5. 2. P to K B 3. v 3. B to Q 2. 3. P takes B. 4. P to Q B 4, mate. :a TO CORRESPONDENTS. Wo have on file several problems, from members of the C. C. Club,?a new position by " ION," to mate ia six moves, will appear in our Chess Column, as No. 13. The President of the Chess Club, as an inducement "to -competition in the invention of new positions of vjuess, oilers a box ol elegant UhessmenMor the best original problem by any member of the Club, to be t " ' ^awarded at the close of his official term. We anticipate the receipt of quite a number of * problems frpm the Club, and will endeavor to give a selection of the best?reserving always space for those of our correspondents. Clit Cmnkn ttwklij Sournnl. * j ^Tiicsday, January 24, I860. JT. W. CALL, Associate Editor. m tm pgwcringm-tntfTirMi. ? Earthquake. Our quiet community was somewhat startled on Thursday evening last, by a very sensible quake of old mother earth. The sli-ick was hard and of considerable duration. We are told that it caused considerable emotion among the crockery of some of our friend*. Y ' A General Convention. ^ " The proposition of Gov. Letcusr to the legislature of Virginia, in regard to a general convention of. all ? the. States, for the purpose ;of determining the most adviaiiblo plan of settlcraentfor the important questions l^ornuwgas it'does theinoat^olit'W i ' t ' emhodinent ol Southern purpose in the guise;of an / effort to ! is wcl1 calculated to har' nifti1-.r--taw'a"<*fi plans which have been proposed for '?o^5outh to'securc a guaranty of her rights and privilege under the constitution; or. upon failure therein, to effect a release of herself from the obligation of a # common party to that instrument of government which is interpreted by one section to levy war upon the institutions of the other. ***" As to the effects of this convention in harmonizing the-two sections of the Ui.ior. upon the question of Blavory, we regard the amalgamation of oil and water as much moro possible. Tlie stubborn hostility ot the North to the spiead and perpetuation of tins institution basso manifested itself in the shape and direction of her general policy and demeanor, that wo are constrained to believe the disease as now beyond the t healing influences of mere external remedies But. if wfl those moro practiced than ourselves in the cure of po3 litical disorders, think there" is a change of restoration j-* to an active, vigorous health of the body politic?such as marked the "purer days of the republic"?wo are free to fionfess that, the end if attained, would amply justify the means. Should the Northern States participate in this convention in accordance with the idea entertained by its movers, and the South should demand anything like a , surrender of their views and policy as towelling the ( slavery question, it will either result in the restoration , of peace and harmcny under the .constitution, or drive still farther apart the already disjointed sections. Thus < o. ^ jit will open up a direct issue, the result of which must i fy> of infinite advantage to the South in either case.? ] If the North shall abandon the aggressive warfare it i Jias been waging upon our institutions for the past half i (Century, then will the South havo achieved all that she 1 jhas been battling for. Or, failing therein, the assem- j jbly will be equivalent to a bona fide Southern conven- i tion charged with the duty of declaring our people i absolved from all further obligation under the federal i (compact I The signs of the times evidently indicate that the .convention will, of necessity, be forced to exorcise the 1 & -functions of the latter, rather than those of its first 1 |^_ commission. To effect a settlement of this question Br -without unloosing the bands of confederation involves I ' the yielding up of, as it were, the hereditary faith of a ' people, who have matured in the settled conviction that slavery is incompatible with true philanthropy jind Christianity. Hence, whenever the experiment is pj.-- "made," itls moro than possible that these fannticalideas will preponderate bvor all conservative sentiments that may be brought to bear, and servo to fasten conviction still more firmly upon the people of the South, thnt their interests and rights arc only safe in their own . keeping. The South, if true to her proper policy, need not fail #on this occasion to demonstrate a commendable love ' jfor the Union, and at the same time exhibit the utmost sensibility upon such questions of policy as threaten to j i*-. /mdanger her individual interests, the protection of I which should form the paramount object of her action ?. , If tho North, as is most probable, shall refuse to sur- < B render her views upon the question of slavery, then B Jthe South will have given the most conclusive evidence . to the world that none of the possible evils of a dissolu\ tion of tho Union can, with justice, be traced to any- ] V thing like a precipitate movement on, her part. She V will then have placed beyond imputation her dovotion \> the Union, and throw the responsibility of its disrup- , ion upon its real authors, yijft' We regard this scheme as the best.yet devised, not 1<3 secure unanimity of action at the South, hut to ||p|P|?3cmonstrate 'hut the sentiment of disunion is not. the 1 i ?fj?csult of Southern disaffection to the Federal Govern- ' WKW ment, but of Northern infidelity and treachery to the most essential articles of confederation. The Sonth I * j lias nothing to yield but all to domand. The most illiberal sentiment to disunion dare not assume thqt the South should acquiesce in the terrible doctrines am [ ' nimciated by the fanatical teachers of the North. The j first great law of self-preservation thunders its cotir demnation of such doctrines and inrosts tiic people of the South with the most comprehensive right to regulate their institutions in and of themselves in such way as may best promote their internal welfare, leaving it with our enomics of the North to determiue the puntinunnce of the Union in accordance with this prin^ -c? Be Careful Doctors. We see it stated that an English justice has laid itdown as a principle of law, that a physician is not entitled to payment if the patient dies under his treai; ment. Should this opinion hold good in American jurisprudence, we apprehfeUd tf/at some of oar disciples of -lEsculujpius wfttild find tl\gjur plethoric pocket-' books consider^! V-aS5hn&<^ Weindcr'-if such ah act would"'.^r&tfbn' human lite? ' ThereVnptv, we have go'iib add ^Stiniated' an additional slur. -But, ?'-%e .don't 'mlan take it back, uuless?unless-?we ketcJi the aigur. Clay Pipes. Cassius M. Ci.ay, we note, Addressed a vast .multitude on the 10th inst.. from the portico of the State House, at Frankfort, Ky., vindicating Mr. Seward, and declaring himself an emancipationist. This was all done without any disturbance?the " horse" didn't kick, tho "alligator" never riz, und the "snapping turtle" wouldn't bite such filthy mud. If we had such useless C!uy as this in our soil, the probabilities are that it would be dug up and thrown over the line fence, or burned into' pipes for gratuitous distribution among our antiquated dames. Death of 33acau!ay. The world of letters has been smitten in the recent death of this brilliant essayist, poet and historian. ? Lord Macaclay was engaged at the time of his death in tracing the history of ltugland from the accession of Jaiies I, and, it is, in consideration of this unfinished task, doubly afllictive to the thousands who have awaited with eager interest the last brilliant stroke of his masterly pen in the consummation of this most attractive work, which was designed as the crowning effort of his life. Plant Trees. We are now in the midst of the season for planting trees, and would embrace the occasion to urge its improvement, not only in the ornamental, but in the more essential particular of planting fruit trees. There is nothing more agreeable than to behold rich dusters of delicous fruit decking the gardens aud suburban fields of our farm and other houses. It manifests a commendable spirit of husbandly among any people, and evidences a proper care for the little comforts of home, which are so easily cultivated and developed within ourselves. We are glad to note that, of late years, the spirit has become more general in its promptings to the improvement of our dear old town, in the planting of shade trees, and that'the antiquated friends of our boyhood's, days?"Pride of America"?are being supplanted by a more beautiful and thriving growth of oaks, "With freshening herbage green." QTTT Trr^TTrTt T->f">T7"TT? "V" Always Lo?k on t&c Sunny Side. BY J. II. K. Always look on the sunny side, Aud though life checkered be, A lightsome heart bi> .s care depart, And time fly pleasantly; "Why sit and mount i 'cr fancied ills, When danger is not near? Care is a self-consuming thing, That hardest nerves can wear. Always look on the sunny side, And though you do not liud All things according to your wish, ^Be not:disturbed in mind ; Are liafSter fir to bearP " When t4iet by fortitude Instead of doubt Always look on t'w^unny side? There's''uealtfv in harmless jest And much to soothe our worldly cares, In hoping for the best. The gloomy path is far too dark For happy feet to tread. And tells of pain und solitude, Of our friends estranged and dead. Always look on the sunny side, And never yield to doubt; The ways of Providence are wise, And faith will bear you out. If you but make this maxim yours, And in its strength abide, Believing all is for the best? Look on the sunny side. M-Z *jx. ^vtgrwa i MISCELLANEOUS. imnrtv iii:mir?CTniri? t Jlj Bj It Ijllk, BOUN IN* SALISBURY, NEW IIAMI'SIIIKE, 1 Sill JANUARY, A. D. 1782, DIED 1852. The father of Daniel Webster raised a log cabin in the wilds of New Hampshire at so early a period, that the smoke of its rude chimney curling over the frozen hills was the last . j * O t t t sign of a white man's habitation the hunter met, till he reached the rivers of Canada. Its ruins still exist, and to them, as to some venerated shrine, the Senator went on a yearly pilgrimage. lie often took his children there, to teach them the hardships endured by their fathers. For that humble cabin, the home of a brave, free, self-relying man, its owner fought under the flag of England in the French war, and against her in the Revolution. From the field he went to his farm, and wrung from an nngonial soil an honest subsistence for a large family. With a respect for labor nowhere so deeply felt as in New England, lie brought up : his children to work ; and their education he- i jan in the district school-house?the Portico j of the people?which the descendants of the | Pilgrims bear with th">m wherever they go, as the Hebrews did the Ark of the Covenant.? I Daniel was the youngest but one of ten children. Early displaying uncommon talents, with feebleness of constitution, he was chosen to he the scholar of the family, with the intention of titling him to teach school during winter*, as u means of support The powerful grasp of i his mind fastened on every grain of science ! that lay in his path; while agricultural labors j iii/l virrornn* rural niimsuifients. knot un throughout lili', finally gave him gigantic powers of endurance. Jle was prepared for ])artinoiith College, where he distanced all competition, and graduated in 18'J 1. lie began his law studies in his native town under Mr. Thompson, and completed them under (rover-1 nor Gore at Boston, where lie was admitted to j the bar in 1805. lie commenced practice in Boscawen, a little village near his birthplace, his father then being a judge on the lench,? In 1807 he removed to 1'ortsmouth, where lie ' was brought into collision with Jeremiah Ma- : sou and other great jurists. In what would I have been with nioj-t men a hopeless struggle, ! the young lawyer was compelled U> put forth all his abilities, and, by unsparing and profound j studies, crowd the investigations of a lifetime ! into days and hours. The next, nine venrs were the period of his Herculean labors. They ; fitted hiin for the trials and triumphs of his j life. The war ot 1812, which drew into the public councils so i tinny statesmen who have since reflected lustre on the nation, found Webster, at the ago of thirty, a menihcr from New Hampshire of the Thirteenth Congress, His first speeches established his reputation. Although opposed to the war, in IS 1-1, he made a powerful speech on naval and frontier defense, in which lie showed as much jealousy for the honor of the nation as any other man. He opposed the scheme of an irresponsible national bank, and saw it defeated by the east ing vote of the Speaker. Although elected for the third time, he retired from public life in 1810, to repair his fortunes, which had been swept away by the great fire Of Portsmouth.-? lie removed to Bbstb'n,- gild for several years devoted himself, to his profession with the grcatest&ucccss: In 1818, his argument for Dartmouth Qollegc in the Supreme Court at XXiehinglori, placed him in the front rank of AmSlcau jurists. He could now have reposed securely On his fame-: but more brilliant occasions than the fortune of any other American orator has ever awarded, were waiting on his genius. In the Convention of Delegates to revise the Constitution of Massachusetts, over whose deliberations the venerable John Adams presided, Webster was the controlling spirit. * . _ .... a. I i rri. _ i greater occasion was ai ijhiiu. iuu hour of the second century from the landing <Jf the Forefathers was sounding, and tlie Passover of the Pilgrims was come. From the consecrated rode, by whose everlasting base the weary Mayflower first swung to her newworld moorings, lie pronounced an oration which was stereotyped on the heart of America, and in the literature of the world. Once more this representative of whatsoever is great in the character of Plymouth inonf Wrs called to interpret the heart of New England. Fifty years after the smoke of battle i dled from Bunker Hill, the corner-stone of an obelisk which now "meets the sun in his coming," was to be laid. A vast multitude stood on the holy ground, with the heavens over their heads, and beneath their feet the bones of their fathers. That oration will be a part of the birthright of every child born in New England.? Again, July 4, 1826, our greatest festival, just half a century after the Declaration of Independence, two patriarchs of freedom left their blessing on the nation1, and died almost at the same hour. The day was now hallowed by a holier consecration ; and Webster commemorated the services of the ascended patriots. Finally, on the 22d February, 1832, which completed the century of Washington, lie portrayed the character of that great deliverer.? With these august names and occasions, the genius of Webster is linked forever. lie returned to Congress in 1823, and remained in the lower house till 1828, when lie was raised to the Senate. In that high position lie continued his illustrious services till his death, with an'intefval of two years while he filled the office of Secretary of State, and negotiated the Treaty of Washington, under Tyler, and another period while lie held the State Department under Fillmore. Wc have not space to record even the dates of his achievements in the tribune; much less to trace their history. His reply to Hayuc was a triumph of genius; his later speeches on the Union were triumphs of patriotism and statesmanship. He was called the expounder of the Constitution during his lifetime; he will be known hereafter as its chief defender. lie has been to it during the , second period of the Republic, what Washington was to its liberties in the first. Vast as are the powers he has displayed, even those ( who hoard his reply to llayne, in which he Surpassed the niodelsofantiquity, felt that there were hidden fountains of elemental fire yet unstirred. The majesty of his person, the un- } fathomed depths and varied intonations of his , voice, his manner always just as excited as his ( soul, the Doric substantiality of his mind, and ( thc^'umvnsting resources^ of his an^,^ "of America.11is great soul passed heroism of tbc nation, like the nioinvvo\?/of the men of the Revolution. We his image when wc think of the Mavllowix^ rooking in Massachusetts Bay ; or speak of Warren, "the first great marlt r in our great cause." We remember bis early history when'we look on the satcheled boy sturdily beating his own snow-path to the district school-house of New England. When we arc told the Union is threatened and the Constitution is in danger, we involuntarily turn our eye to that illustrious tomb at Marshlield. Whenever a day of trial has come on the nation, we have felt the steadying control of his gigantic arm. Above all do we think of him when we stand by the 'mult of Washington, lbr over his niomorv such words have never been uttered. ;is Web stir lias spoken. He has wrought himself so entirely int? all that is holy and grand in national feeling and history, tl.at lie stirs in our minds the same emotions of veneration and sublimity, as do the fathers of the Republic who have been long dead. AYio York Conservative. Xew York Corre-pemleiiee of the Charleston Mercury. Our merchants are making energetic efforts to recover lost Southern trade with the South. One business firm, as you may have seen by ' the New York Jixprhr, have proetlred a special edition of that paper, containing a full ! accoimt. of the great Union meeting, which ; they arc sending to all their customers and friends in the Southern States. Other dry goods dealers are getting out, in a handsome book-form,, a report of the same meeting, which they will dispose of in the same way. Some manufacturers of domestic goods, wiiose main market is South, are stamping their fabrics 1 with symbols of clasped bands, the "Union and Constitution." "the Union forever," and other i national devices, wliicli, it is hoped, will re- < commend tliein to Southern buyers. Many firirs have been re-constructed this year for the purpose of getting out '"tainted" members, and presenting an undivided conservative front. Iri some of our leading dry goods houses the fabrics designed specially for Southern trade, are piled up mountain high, and getting dusty and rotten for want, of purchasers. lint the heaviest sufferers are the Connecticut Yankees, who make long hoes and other agricultural implements expressly for plantations. These people are beginning to learn, by a little experience, that "Cotton," which they have been so long deriding, while 1 their very existence depended on it, is "King" after all. Advertising.?A New York correspondent , of the Stwlh (.'urt>lii,i<hi says: If the grand re-action, now going on, is in good faith ami of sullicieiit extent, all may yet 1 be well, but if the aggressions continue, the ; Union cannot and must not last Ten years, ' and we will be two people! Home importations and home manufactures is now the word; push it on ; here is where we benefit ourselves, and, at the same time, touch the Yankees. But , I don't see much improvement in the adverti- , sing columns? Where are your notices of Southern manufactures! But I should remember that it is only the Yankee who knows how to advertise, A Conversion i uom Ciiiustjanjty to ' Judaism.? We learn that a young lady of this city, heretofore belonging to the Christian sect of the Lutherans, lias formally renounced ner i allegiance to lier old faith, and embraced that | of the Hebrews. Wo may add that that great I leveller of distinctions, love, has had something j to do with the conversion ; for the lady, in a j few days, is to be married to a member of the Hebraic persuasion, The ceremony is to be performed in the Synagogue of the Hebrew Association.?A*. 0. Crescent. Peter A. Drown, ono of the oldest and most respected citizens of Philadelphia, died in that' city recently, aged TT. The Dog Law. T Wc published.; in yesterday's Soutl Cyro Union, the Act to make owners of do oft h'abh for sheep killed by them. So far as tf* goes; it does very well. One objection*^ it is that it dOes not go far enough. The u?lnust making the owners liable for double f.ii'Valm of sheep killed; either by anv dog b6T'-")g'R2 to himself or his slave,- will lirtve a cjt'od el feet; The only difficulty that its onforfcinonl mKy meet with, may be the required jj'oof.? The liability to double the amount <T^ vsilqe. may have the effect of preventing Iination : for many persons would compromise, "*}' paying the full and just va.'uc, rather than -hy going into Court, run the risk of being to pay double. Many suppose, and we were .at lirs*f of the same opinion, that the owner, by Riming thein as his own, might evade the taxi111 dogs kept by his slaves. 'I lie evasion is Scarcely possible. The phraseology of the lawTS "that an annual tax of one dollar be and is^hcreby 1 i i - _i_ J. imposed upon every nog root uy a siaf-i paid by the owner of the slave." ,s krpt by the slave, the owner is Jo mate a return to the Tax Collect-J at the time of making his or her general tat return, and in default of making the return, e^hall be liable to a fine of two dollars for eajh and every dog so kepi, and not returned.'^. A free negro is taxed two dollars for every ilj? kept, and is liable to a line of tbree dollars Tor failing to make a return, Oiir olijectioaB If the law is, that it is discriminating, jjbv. law should have been so framed as to impoj- a uniform tax on all dogs no matter to wEO.'ii helonging. This, to l>e sure, might ari|f some of the fox-hunters and bird-hunters :|JUjist all tliose who voted for saich a law, hut tlw should not prevent any legislator from disjmrging his duty without fear or favor. If, in y'o wise ptirpore of protecting so great an in(crest as that of sheep raising, it was nceessa^ to impose a tax on dogs, that tax should hajih been upon all, and not, by discrimination, u^bn only Jogs belonging to this or that clasp .y ^ "the evil requires at>ateinciit, then abate ? to the full extent possible to legislation. Tii'jcl!'turc of wool and its manufacture into */yth are thought to be necessary in our str^'S'lcs to establish independence, and for any legislator to lose sight of tin's great object, andRefuse to go to the'full extent, from fear of )fwying against himself at liome a trouhlesoiV6 opposition, or for any one to class himsJjf with, countenance and support such oppo. jbon, because his sports may be interfered i-S in cither instance, an improper disregar^ 01 r l,,e claims of the country lot simple. si> -this discriminating feature of the law j ? think should he removed, and the law* sliap i 80 :ls to weigh uniformly. It is chiefly bv n'lC tax that an abatement of the nuisance ?al) he. hoped lor, from the dilliculty of ^ jjtaiuing proof admissible in a court that tlu.j01' that Jog was guilty, and the tax should, ^ fcrefore, be upou all dogs, no matter to whom 5'lcy uiu\^ belong, and no one should expect, or obtain exemption. 1 . Columbia South Curtluiuu. Let the South Duop It.?We 1j$P? as a matter of business purely, inserted j^cial advertisements for the New York LedgArT^t 110 fine can point to an instance wenAtiohave mmmeuded that sheet editorial I v: __ sq:M< iLinii ; i 11'. rpor f \ v eu K-ry. as u 11 r. r.\.^ | and such we honest1}' consider thoii) To call either of them MfMt.s-papars, i*, html jhc meaning of tlftj word, Harper's Veklv is a stale, tame, uninteresting pubii<?iou, '.villi 151a k Republican proclivities, and ibuldisbed i.i the South, and possessed of all G redeeming qualities it now possesses, it wo;] iiot live six months. Its dating from Newark sustains it, for, of itself, it is worse than iiumbuir. 'J'he Ledger is ditto only more so. It* main feature is its seusiltun-stories. Sin reading is shunned by tlie strong-minded, h] hence they arc not injured by it; but to he minds of the weak and excitable such unnural stuff I ?11 -ft 1..tu on inr?.iL*iil*ilili. mnmtlit .il'iitit*,. I sands, we know, who condemn "Link Farleigli," "Jileak House," and "J ark lieppard," look on the Ledger as a model laniy paper: but really, in our judgment, the wot. i/ilioic c-tre'ftl trash sold at the stalls in 'hath.unstreet is 110 worse than the New Vol"'Ledger, ; and the..idea of calling it a "family |.per" is supremely ridiculous. And further we are confident it. has strong 1 Hack Iicpttblim sympathies. We see in the number for miliary, j now before lis, under the head of "Ijok No tiees," prefaced by the ussiiranec that <dv suoh ! hooks as the Ledger can recommend ;u noticed ' under that head, a notice and recount a /?,'/? 1 ; of the "Life of Capt. Jolai Brown," t?f ilar-J per's i.rry notoriety. We hope tha Ledger: subscribers and admirers hereabouts vil make a note of this before they send on author :B'2. lYcwberii (A*. ('.) ]Jrttrcsx. Committed.? Win, Jordan, the feow who was arrested in this city on Friday last for running off two negros from Wa.-hingt<( county the property of Solomon Newsoii of tig cousttv, wasexamined before Justice I'iipiot '*sterdav morning. He plead guilty to theoHouee, 'ipl.-imivl<>ilirbiir tn iiMcino ntf.-i'i'il ibfmt.f c !.. i ,v" o j? r+m . lVc., and was fully committed for tria-^at the next term of the Superior Court of Veiling-i ton county, which is to he held on the second I Monday in March next. In default, e.hnil he was taken to jail to await requisition .'inn the ' nllieers of said county. Jordan sai he is , from the State of New Jersey; had 'keen to Macon in pursuit of work, and fa:.invito procure it. there, was on his w.yrsto .Ati;flstn for the same object, when iieic!l in lieIfros at No. 12 station on the Cciiljii Railroad, lie is likely to get steady employment lur a term of years in the Penitentiary; The ncirrus returned home in corpanv with their owner yesterday, afternoon. Anr/mtn Chronic!; 17lit. Elections ?The following recent elections arc announced in our exchanges : Sumter.? Watson, Sheriff; Rev. X'.Grahnin, Ordinary. Of the town of Sumter, T. I. Fraser, Inteiidant; L. J>. Hank*, X. Crate, J. T. Solomons, and M. L. I.afar, Warden? Darlington*.?E. Jk I triiliso'i, C'le-lc; J.J. Russell, Ordinary. Of the town of'i'iimnonsvillc, Rev. Win. Rrockingtnii, Iitondaut; James JC. By:d, M. I).. J>. A. Melyicli;rn, Esq., John E. Norwood, M. J.)., and Jesse Keith, Esq., Wardens. Georgetown*.?E. Waterman, Jr., Sheriff. Edgefield.-?T, Watson. Senator ;S. Harrison, Clerk; Lewis Jones, Sheriff; \\ F. Dunsou, Ordinary, A Light Move.?The Snuffer II says ? I'Wc learn from our worthy l>o.>ti>ii.sU,r that, of a largo miinher of subscribers recently at his oiliee for Harper's Monthl)' ,'iin1 Wocklv publications, there is now hut our loll -solitary and alono?and that it is the puipr.se of this one to discontinue at the expiration of his suhseiiption torm. The Southern Field l.nd Fireside, in the meantime, has had laijre acces. sions. Let the Southern people, generally, follow this example, and the. effect wi|~rwc,u |;, sucn and felt." j ! i i Alabama in tile L.eaa : The action taken by the Democratic Stab . Convention of Alabama,- of which there are ac i counts in our telegraphic column this morning is an omen of good cheer to all those who hav< , the rights and security of the Southern peoph . at heart,- and are not immersed in the debasin; r scramble of lifting men to tlic Presidencj ! through party trickery and time-serving com ^ promises of principle. She takes high groulit . iujdie vital question of Southern expansion. and sends a noble delegation to Charleston tc . insist upon the repudiation of the Douglas consi ruction of the bred Scott decision and tlic . Cincinnati platform. This is a sine qua nou tc , the oblnimiiont ol her support for the nominee.' of the Convention, ller delegates are instructed to withdraw if this requirement is refused. The State of South Carolina will unhesitating , iy deny her support to any one who stands equivocally on this great issue, and will heartily co-operate with Alabama. If the "National" Democratic party cannot stand this test, and the Northern Democracy is devoted to frecsoil and the prohibition of slavery from the common Territories, then to tins section, with its civilization and safety, it is inimical and a party worse than valueless. On this great test, it must survive or go to pieces. The South cannot support a party wedded to anti-slavery, whether in one fonn or another. "Hostile legislation" is as bad as the Wilmot Proviso," while more aggravating and deceptive. Charleston Mercury. The resolutions, offered, in the Montgomery Convention last Friday bv Hon. It. G. Seott, of Monroe, ami so warmly applauded, one after tiie other, as read, are these : 1st. That the Constitution of the United States is a compact between sovereign and coequal States, united upon the basis of perfect equality of rights and privileges. 2d. The T crritories of the Union are common property, in which the States have equal ngnts, ana to which tin; citizens or every ouiie may rightfully einjgrate with their slaves or oilier properl)*, recognized as such in any of the States of the Union, and by the Constitution of the United States. 3d. That the Congress of the United States has no power to abolish slavery in the Territories, nor to prohibit its introduction into any of them. 4th. That the Territorial Legislatures, created by the legislation of Congress, have no other or greater constitutional power to abolish slavery, or to prohibit the introduction of the same within the Territories, than Congress possesses by the Constitution, and such constitutional power only belongs lo the people of the Territories, when in the exercise of lawful authority they form a State Constitution, preparatory to their admission into the Union. 5th. That the true c-uistriicliori of the decision made by the Supreme Court of the United States, in the Dred Scott case, affirms and maintains the doctrines and principles in the three preceding resolutions, and we most cordially approve both the reasoning and conclusions of that august and pure body of learned nnil eminent Jurists. "Gili. That the rights of person ami property, I whether such property consists of slaves, or other chattels in the territories of the United j States, are constitutionally entitled to full, ample and adequate protection, through the j legislation of the Territorial Legislatures there- ; and tlmy_ ^ by propmhigh conyftutioiial right and equally the duty f of Congress, to interpose and pass all laws ne''! ocssary to remedy the omission. 7th' That Congress has 110 constitutional authority to abolish slavery within the District of Columbia. 8th. That we hold all of the foregoing propositions to contain cardinal principles?true in themselves?and just and proper, and necessary j tor the safety of all that is dear to lis, and we ! do hereby instruct our delegates to the Oliar- j leston Convention to present them for the calm j consideration and adoption of that body?from whose justice and patriotism we anticipate their incorporation into the Democratic creed. 9l.li. That should our hopes for the sanction of the principles, set out in the foregoing resolutions, by the Charleston Convention, be disappointed, it is our solemn instruction to our delegates to that Convention to take no further part in the same, nor to unite in any vote j nominating any one for the Presidency, bat to j withdraw from the Convention. loth. That to meet the unfriendly action of . the Charleston Convention in reference to the ! foregoing resolutions, and tube prepared for i that event, which we hope may not occur, the delegates thereto be, and they are hereby an- i thorized and directed, if they withdraw from 1 *' ?',l -it !i< pjipIv :i IIIU ^mivriiuwii, t" v*?*ii w?'^vw>vi) ... ... .j .. , Usiv as possible, this body, and to report to it . tlieir proceedings in detail, and we pledge our- | selves, ;it any inconvenience, to attend the I called meeting. Oar Xcxt Legislature. For several years past, the legislators of South Carolina have been elected with hut little regard to the political principles they entertain. Personal popularity or local influences have controlled the elections to our Legislature. If we mistake not the signs of the times, and the condition of the South, the people of South Carolina can 1.0 longer, with safety to themselves or fidelity to the South, refrain from ' carrying through the'polls their principles and feelings into the Legislature of the State. Our ( next Legislature will probably be the most important that has sat since, our Revolution. It should be iille-1 with the ablest, firmest, and most experienced men in the State. Personal or loe.a! inlliienees should he made subordinate to Southern rights, interests and safety. Every voter in the State should endeavor to have distinct views of our public affairs, and fairly I and resolutely have them reflected in the men ; lie chooses as his representative. This is the j theory of popular government. This is his duty as one of the elementary rulers of the ; coinitrv. W hen skies are bright, and the sea j is calm, the best crew may sleep upon the deck ; but when the gale is up, and the ship - - - i .. i -i., ..i i i.? ... la I ?>rs 011 tier course, every lunui suu-.nu ou ?? his post. The mis-use of the smallest rope may he fatal to her safety. Let the people of South Carolina, in tho approaching flection of members to our Legislature, take thsir rights ami destinies into their own hands, and command the course the State should pursue. Wc make llisc remarks, because everywhere throughout tlie interior of the State we understand the canvass is already commenced. There is need of earnestness as well as ability, and ' of explicit declarations of views rather than vague expressions of general soundness to State Rights. We therefore trust that^the people of South Carolina will not allow this important election to ho taken care of by only those who desire to go to Columbia, hut, appreciating the importance of the sectional crisis, will select anil bring forward men who know what they will l>e about, and who are tried and true to the wishes (>f their constituencies?men whose whereabouts are not the .subject of conjecture or experiment.? 67u'/7< .*/?// Mercury An old Grecian philosopher advise all met to know themselves. That's advising a gooc _ maiiv to form very low and disreputable ac qnaiiu.inccp. nomine sujCLiUa Spirit of the South. ? Direct Trade. j\fr. Editor :?I addressed a letter some , time since, to Messrs; Gilliland,- Howell & Co., j of Charleston, asking them to furnish me with ; sucli practical suggestions as their experience r in the importing business would enable them to make, to aid me in maturing a,bill (which I - expect to introduce when our Legislature re1 assembles) for the encouragement of Direct , Trade between the Southern States and Europe, i The subjoined letter is their rcplv, which, though not intended for publication, I have taken the 1! t 1-* I I' ' ' 1 ' iKiurty oi maKing puouc, oecause 01 tnc value of its suggestions, and the importance of the subject. Our people are surfeited with resolutions on the subject of Southern Rights J they are ready for action. The present stateof the public mind at the South is most auspicious lbr the inauguration of a poljcy which may relieve us of our commercial dependence upon the North. Wc can never expect to see that dependence entirely removed, until our political independence is secured; but it is in our power to effect a good deal for the relief of Southern trade, hampered as it is by the restrictions of unjust legislation. While I am not without hope that something may be accomplished by legislative enactments, 1 am satisfied that all which the Legislatures may do?will fall short of success, unless the people of the South shall determine to patronize their own seaports, and thereby build up their trade. The Charleston importers advertise that they will sell upon as favorable terms as the Northern jobbers. Let our interior merchants give them a trial, and let our people encourage them to do so, by trading with those who purchase their stocks tin Southern markets. We should organize Southern Trade Associations in every county, and pledge our patronage to those merchants who will buy of Southern importers. Whenever we can concentrate the patronage of* the South in Southern seaports, we shall succeed in establishing a direct trade between tliu Southern States and Europe. T'll that is done, resolutions and legislative enact-^ juents are impotent. The meagreiiess of our import trade is due, not so much to the want of capital, as it is to the want of custom. Respectfully, Yours, WM. II. CHAMBERS. Charleston, Dee. 30, 1859. i Wm. II. Chambers, Esq., Eufaula, Ala. Dear Sir : Yours of the 23d is received, and we are pleased that you are taking an interest I in the subject of Direct Trade. Our opinion concurred in, we believe, by ! nearly all the merchants of the importing and jobbing business of this city, is that very little ! can be effected by legislative enactments, as long as we arc in the Union ; a non-intercourse law will be a dead letter, and bounties of goods of direct importation will not result to any large increase of importations. What in our opinion, will accomplish more, is determination on the part of Southern people to encourage their own seaports and their own merchants, and thereby make Southern markets desirable points. .If Charleston and other Southern sea; ports had any assurance that there would be a I o... .".II ? "i. 3UU?^ i""-v> nujiuii, in ?? very short time, sav one or two years, we would witness the spectacle so much desired, of steamers plying weekly between Liverpool, Havre, and other European ports and Southern cities. , AH that is needed is patronage lpjfj ffljjjfh""' tinue to occupy the position of the commercial Jcentre of'he country. The Southern cities/can import as cheaply as New York, and ifSoutnern 1 trade should seek Southern markets, European c houses would establish their agencies in them, 1 and withdraw from New York. A spasmodic c effort this spring will not accomplish what we ? desire; there must be a fixed determination to ' keep it up, as time is required in the importation of goods. Suppose, for example, the trade of Charleston this Spring should be tripled, ^ and the merchants, in anticipation of an equal 1 increase, or at least an equal amount of busi- c uoss, should increase their importations for the , fall, and the interior merchants, from prejudice ; or other causes, should fail to come here, why 1 it is apparant they would be great iooscrs and ; their importations would fall back to their own ' wants. Hoods which are sold in the fall are usually ordered in the spring proceeding, as they have to be made, and those sold in the spring 1 ordered in July or August proceeding. So : you see how important, nay how essential, to 1 the encouragement of direct importation, is the assurance of patronage. The consumers in the 1 country are the parties who can bring about ' this state of things; let them deliberately resolve to patronize such merchants as buy their 1 goods ill Southern ports, and the interior mer- 1 chants will frequent those markets, and very j suoii will they present such attractions as will lieiv?? no excuse forativ merchants to visit New ' Vorlc or any Northern market. The best remedy Ibr our evils, we honestly believe, is a Southern Confederacy ; the next is Commercial Independence. llcspec t ft 111 v Yon rs, GILLILAND, HOWELL k CO. The EiFccl of tion-Ii9tcrcour.se. We clip the following, siys the Smith Caruliuiiia from an article in the New York Herald It shows the power of the South. She has haiij>iii^ loosely and hitherto unused an arm of defence that, if raised and exerted with all its sinewy strength, would demolish her enemies and plant her own interests upon a basis of permanent prosperity. See, from the following from the New York Herald, what would lie one of the first legitimate and inevitable effects of non-intercourse: "Hut there is another element of power in j their possession which, can be used with terrible effect upon every Northern interest. Their 1 present crop of cotton is estimated at four i millions of bales?the greatest ever made. I This staple is a necessity for the manufacturers of Europe and the Northern States. It is shipped to the consuming markets, and drawn ' against through the hankers of New York to the extent onil'tv dollars per bale, or two hundred millions of dollars annually. The eoitilibrium of trade has been supplied by Northern ' exports to the Southern markets. This Nor| thorn trade being dried up, or even largely j diminished, the South will call upon our ban: kers for specie in return for the hills on the manufacturers of Massachusetts and Europe. : Such a call as this would drain every Northern hank of its specie, and bring the whole of the j immense edifice of Northern credit crumbling j ! about our cars. This is no imaginary picture. ' Every merchant, every banker, every man ot sense, who eon templates calmly the changes ! which the present excitement in the South is effecting in the channels of trade, diminishing their current and changing their course, rocs it clearly, and already contemplates how lie shall ! provide for the exigencies which it must produce before the coming summer shall have , passed away." The Last Massaciiesetts Si.a veC'iitherin.<? an ancient negress, known as Old M ithcr /iostoii, died in Boston, recently, at the mature age of one hundred and eleven years. She was born a slave, and was the last survivor of I the Massachusetts negro slave. .She lived ncg1 looted until the Boston baby show, of a few ' years since, when Barnurn and Wood brought "1 iter out as a curiosity. The showmen paid h?-r enough to Mtppoit her afterwards Tlie Working Jlen. This nation owes everything to her working men. Idlers, men of leisure or drone?, havo been an incubus, which must have held her back and ruined her, but for the powerful intellects, the stalwart arms and the eDtorprisof of our working men. Th cy are the true nobility of the land, whose wise counsels, untiring industry and indomitable energy, have pushed her forward with giant strides, among the nations of the earth. In this classification we include men of all work ; whether it be the? labor of the intellect or the physical man. Degradation of position does not inhere necessarily to either class. The man wlio labert* with his hands, or delves and toils undef tho pressure of manuel labor, is as much a man, nay as much a gentleman, other things beittg equal, as the man who labors with his inind, closed in from the burning rays of sun, or sheltered from the chill winds and rains of mid-winter.?Doth are working men, and are equals, if they be men of sound principles and virtuous habits; or both arc equal if alike dograded by vicious conduct. | The conventional and irrational rules of soeictv, unsound its it has become, We know, make distinctions where there is no difference; stamping with honor and position men who belong to that class of working men, whose employments are intellectual, and too often branding with disgrace those who labor with their hands, and from whose brow flow$ tho sweat of toil. But who does not sec tho injustice and baseness of this ? Does the vocation of a doctor, a lawyer, a merchant, possessany intrinsic excellency per sc, over the vocation of a mechanic ? We think not. All are* essential to well-being of society, and equally? so?vet superior wealth have raised the one,, while the lack of these have depressed thethe other. Yet the poor laborer is a moreimportant fixture, in some respects, than eitherof the others.?His hands feed and clothe and. provide the conveniences and luxuries of lifefor them. Without him, time and means woulcK be denied-thein for the pursuit of knowledge or.wealth. Indeed, if there be wealth and intelligence and happiness and prosperity in the land, we owe it to that class of men who are not too indolent or too much ashamed to obey the divine command, to work with their owu hands. Every man should work. His own health and virtue, and happiness, and the good of society, demand it. Labor in no sense, is degrading. But there are disabilities connected^ with mariuel labor which often lead to degradation and ruin. Men whose lot or choice may be to engage in the mechanical or agricultural pursuits, should be placed in position in early life to acquire intelligence, to reccivethe bias and bent of a virtuous education, so asto lit them to take positions in society, whicLi tliev can rightfully claim, because of their essent;?i - 1----1 T - "* iwiuv-t uiiuiAjmi. intelligence ana virtue are as precious in the rude sailor, tho hlack smith, tiie .shoemaker, the tailor, and all other laboring men, as in the more privileged walks ot life ; and these should entitle mechanics to positions of honor and influence, and as any other living men. Let the working men cf the land look to these objects, and labor to promote them. Truths for Wives. In domestic happiness, the wife's influence ia. much greater than her husband's : for the one. iold depends upon trifles more immediatelymder her jurisdiction. By her management if small sums, her husband's respectability and uvdit arc created or destroyed. No fortune :an stand the constant leakages of extrava: jances and mismanagement; and more is speuti u trifles, than woman would easily believe.?. ['lie one great expense, whatever it may be, is urned over and carefully reflected 011 ere in-, urred ; the income is prepared to meet it ;.but, t is pennies imperceptibly sliding away which In mischief: and this the wife alone can stop. or it (.Iocs not come within :i man's province.? L'here is often an unsuspected trifle to be saved;, n every household. It is not in economy alone hat the wile's attention is sq.necessary, but n those nicotics which make, a wjcll-regulated, ioiisc. An unfurnished cruet-stand, a missing coy, a huttonlcss shirt, a soiled table-cloth, a, nustnrd-pot with its old contents sticking liard^ nid brown about it, arc really nothings; but aioh can raise ail angry word or cause discomfort. .Depend on it, there's a great deal of domestic happiness in a well-dressed iiiuttooi-cliop,. jv a tidy breakfast table. Men grow sated of' beauty, tired of music, are often too wearied, for conversation, (however intellectual,;) but they can always appreciate a well-swept hearth and smiling comfort. A woman may love herhusband devotedly?may sacrifice fortune, friends, family, country, for him?she may have the genius of a Sappho, the enchanted beau-, tics of an Armida; but?melancholy fact?if with these she fails to make his home Qomfort I * I * ?!lt J- L I 1 A m..\ awe, nis ncan win iiicviuiuiy escape uerN nuu women live so entirely in the atfcctious, that without love, their existence is a void. Better submit, then, to household tasks, however rc-. pugnant they may be to your tastes, than doom, yourself to a loveless home. Women of a high-, er oilier of mind will not run this risk; they know that their feminine, their domestic, are their first duties. o? A Wiiitk Bov Whipped to Death.?The. coroner of this county, Henry Baker, Esq., held au inquest on yesterday, in the upper part of the city, over the body of a little boy named; Peter, about ten years of age, the sop of Mrs.' Catharine MeCannon or MeKennon. The. evidence before the inquest was, that the little, boy came to his death from a severe beatii g inflicted on him on Friday last by Mrs. Miller. Several little boys gave in their testimony to[ this fleet, and Mr.-. Burns testified that Mrs. Miller had informed her, that 011 Friday last she had beaten Peter, a.nd would beat him again, if she could And him. J)r. Swinnev testified that, in his opinion, the death of the boy was caused, by f\ severe beating which he lyvl received. The little boy died 011 Sunday night. Mrs. Miller had not been arrested at noon on yesterday, but officers were promptly in, search of her. Augusta CoZsrilutionuliit \lth ins!. Ad.vice to Auctioneers.?The.ro is considerable truth in the remarks of the Selma (Ala.) Sot tin el on this subject: W o have never, until a short time since, been able to tell why it was that articles of ; evoyv kind brought so much more money at sc.in..- auctions than they slid at others. A friend explained it to '.is. Those auctioneers, lie said who advertise in the daily papers, always drew a crowd, and consequently their goods bring fair prices. But those who, write off and stick I then; up i\l the corners of the streets and other I public places never could sell anything at a living price, as no one presumed an advertisement was worth reading unless it was in a paper ; and another thing, business men havo no time after they left hoipe to stop and read manuscript notices Dihty Bands.?Lamb once said toabrotber while playing with Martin Burney, whose hands were none of the cleanest "Martin, if dirt was trumps, what a hand you'd hue."