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WtWMttm. VOL. XVII, NO. 51. CIIARDON, GEAUGA COUNTY. OHIO. FiUMY, DECEMBER 15, 18057 WHOLE NO. 83L'. President's Message. Follow Citizens of the Senate and Home of Representatives. To cxprosa gratitudo to God, in tbo nnmo of tbo pooplo, for tbo preservation of the United Sates, is ray first duty io addressing you. Our thoughts next retort to tbo death of the lato President by an act of porricidul treason. The grief of iho nation is still fresh 'it finds some solace in tlio consideration tbat bo lived to enjoy tbo bigbost proof of its confidonc by cntoriog on Xbo renowed term of the Cbitf Magistracy, to which bo had boon elected; that bo brought tho civil war substantially to a closet that bis toes was deplored In all parta of tbo Union; and tbat foreign nations bare rendered justico to bis memory. His removal csst upon me a heavier weight of cares tbaa over devolved upon any of bis predecessors. To fulfill my trust I need tbo support and confidence of all wbo are associated with tuo in the various dppartmcnta of Government, and the sup port and coofidenco of tho people. There is but one way in which I can hope to gain tbofr necessary aid; it is, to state with frank noss the priociplos which guido my oonduct, .and their application to tbe present stale of affairs, well aware tbat tbo efficiency of my labors will, in a groat measure, depend on your and their undivided approbation. Tbe Union of tbo United States of Arocrl ca was Intended by its authors to last as long aa tbe Btalea themselves shall last. "The Union shall bo perpetual," .ro tbo words of tbe Confederation. "To form a more per foct Union, by an ordinanco of tho people of tho United States, is the dcclarod pur- Eoso of tbe Constitution. Tbo band of Hviue Providence was nover more plainly visiblo in tbe affairs of men than in tho fram ing and tbe adopting of tbat instrument. It is, boyond comparison,. the greatest event iri American history; and iudond is it not, of all ovonts in modern times, tbo most prog rant with consequences for overy pooplo ol the oarih? Tbe members of the Conven tion which prepared it, brought to their .work the experionco of the Confederation, of tboir Beveral States, and of other Repub lican Govornmeota, old and new; but they needed anH they obtained a whidoin superior to experience. And when for its validity it requirod the approval of a people that occu pied a largo part of a continont and actod Separately in many distinct conventions, what ia more wonderful than that after earn est contention and long discussion, all foot ings and all opinions woro ultimately drawn in one way to its support ? Tho Constitution to wblob life was thus imparted contains within itsolf ample re sources for its own preservation. It bas power to enforce the laws, punish troason: aud insure domestio tranquility. In case of -usurpation ot too Uovernment ot a Stato by one m&n.or an oligardhy.it become tbo duly of tbe United Slates to mako eood tbo eruar- anteo to tbat. State of a republican form of government, and so to maintain the homo gonoousncss of all. Does the lapse of time rovesl dofects ? A simplo tnodo of amend ment is providod in tbe Constitution itsolf, bo that its conditions can always be made to conform to tbo requirements of advancing civilisation. No room ia allowed even for tbe thought of a possibility of ita coming to an end. And these powers of self-preservation bave always been assorted in tbeir com- filete integrity by every patriotio Chief Mag s t rate by Jefferson and Jackson, cot less than by Washington and Madison. Tho parting advico of tbe Father of bis Country wbilo yet President, to the peopto of tbe United States, was that "tbe froo Constitu tion, which was tbe work of their hands, might be sacredly maintained;'' and tbe in augural words of President Jefferson bold up "tbe preservation of tho General Govern ment; in its constitutional vigor, as the sheet anobor of our peace at home and saflv abroad." Tbe Constitution is tbe work of the "People o( the United Statos," BDd it should be aa Indestructible as tbo people. It Is not ttrango tbat tho froroors of tho Constitution, which bad no model In tbo past,sbonld not have fully comprehended tbe excellence of tboir own work, Fresb from a struggle against arbitrary power, many patriots suffered from barrassing fears of an absorption of the State Governments by tbe Uenoral uovernment, and many from a dread tbat tbe States would break ewoy from tbeir orbits. But tbo vory great ness of our country should allay tbe appro- honsion of encroachments by tbe General Government. The subjects tbat come un questionably within its jurisdiction aro so numerous, tnat it must evor naturally rpruse to be embarrassed by questions tbat lie be yond it. Were it otherwise, tbe Executive . would sink beneath the burden; tbe chan nels of justice would be choked; legislation would be obstructed by excess; so that there ia a greater temptation to exorcise some of the functions of tbe General Government through the States tban to trespass on tbeir rightful spbore. "The absolute acquiescence in the decisions of the majority" was, at tho beginning of tbe century, enforced by Jef ferson "aa tbe vital principle of republics,' and tbo events of tbe last four years bave established, wo will hope forever, tbat tbere lies no appeal to force. The malntenapce of tbe Uoion brings with It "the support of tbe State Governments io all tbeir rights;" but it Is not one of the rights of any State Government to rouounce ita own place in tbe Union, or to nullify tbe laws of tbo Union. The largest liberty is to be maintained in tbe discussion of tbo aoti of tbe Federal Government; but tbere is no appeal from ita laws, except to tbe var tous branches of tbat Government Itself, or to tho people, wbo grant to the members of tbo Legislative and ot tne executive Depart ment! no tenure but a limited one, and In tbat manner always retain the powora of re mreia. The sovereignty of tbe States" is tbe language of tbe Confederacy, and .not tho language of tbe Constitution. Tbo latter contains tbe emnbatio words. "The Const!. I ution and tbe laws of tbe of tbe United Mates which shall be made in pursuancd thereof, and all treaties made or wbicb sball be made tbe authority of tba United 8:ates thall be the supreme law of the land; and tbe judges ia every State shall bo boond thereby, anything in tliccoiistitutlonjor laws of aty Stale to ibo contrary iiolvilbstand- ing. Certainly the Government of tho United States is a limited Government, and so is overy State Govornmeot a limited Govern ment. With ut, this idea of limitation spreads 'through ovory form of administra tion, general, Mate and municipal, ond rests on the groat distinguishing priuolplo of tbo recognition of the rights of man. Tbo an cient republics absorbed tbo individual in tbe Mate, prescribed his religion and con troll his activity. Tbo American system rests on tho assertion of tho equal right of every mnn to life, lilorty, and tho pursuit of bappiucss; to frocdom of consionco, to tbo culturo aud rxoiciso of all bis faculties. As a conscqucnco tbo Stalo Government is limited, as to tho General Government in tbe interest of Union, as to tbo Individual citizen in tbe interest of freedom. States, with propor limitations of power, are essential to existonco of tbe Constitu tion of tbo United States. At tbe very com mencement, when we assumed a placo among the powers of the earth, tbo Declara tion of Independence was apoptod by State; so .also are tbe articles of Confceloraliou; and wbon "tho people of tbo United Slates" orduinod ond established tbo Constitution, it wss tbe assent of tho States, ono by coo, wbicb gave it vitality. Io tbo event, too, of any amendment to tho Cdnstltution, tbo proposition of Congress needs tho confirma tion of Statos. Without Slates, ono great branch of tbe legislative government would bo wanting. And, if wo look beyond tbe Lot tor of tho Constitution to tho character of our country, its capacity for comprehend ing within its jurisdiction a vast coutiucotal empiro is due to the system of Slates. Tbe boat security for tho porpotnal existence of tho StateB is tho "supreme authority" of tbo Constitution of tho United States. Tbo perpetuity of tho Constitution brings with it tho perpetuity of tho Stater; tboir mutual relation makes us what wo are, and in our political system their connection is indis soluble. . The whole cannot exist without tho parts, nor tbo parts without tho wholo. So long as tho Constitution of the United States enduros, tbo States will en dure; tho destruction of ono is tbe destruc tion of tbo other; tho preservation of tho ono is the preservation of tbo other. I havo thus explained my vlows of iho mu tual rotations of tho Constitution and the States, because thoy unfold tboprinoiplos on which I novo sought to solvo tbo momentous questions and overoomo tho appalling diffi culties that mot mo at tho vory commonco montofmy administration. It' has boon my steadfast ol joct to oscapo from tho sway of momentary passions, and to derive a boat ing policy from tbo fundamental and un changing principes of tbo Constitution. ' ' I found tho StateB suffering from tbo ef fects of a civil war. ltosistanco to tbo Gen eral Govornmont appoared to havo exhaust ed itsolf. Tho United Statos bad recovered possession of tboir forts and arsenals, and thoir armies wero in tbo occupation of every Stato which bad attempted to secede Wbotbor tho torritory within tbo limits of thoso States should bo held as conquered territory, under military authority emanat ing from tbo President as tbo bead of tbo army, was tho first question tbat presented itsolf for decision. Now, military Governments, established for an indcfinlto period, would bave offered no security for tho early suppression of dis content; would bavdividod tbo pooplo into tbo vanquishers and tho vanquished; and would bavo envenomed batrod, rather than bave restored affection. Onco established, no precise limit to tboir continuauco was conceivable. They would bavo occasioned an incalculable and exhausting expense Peaceful emigration to and from that por tion of country Is one of tbo best moans tbat can be thought of for the restoration of har mony; and that emigration would have boon prevented; for what emigrant from abroad, wbat indrustrious citizen at - homo, would placo himsolf willingly undor military rnlo? Tbo chief persons who would havo followed in tbe train of tho army would bave boon dependents on tbo General Governments, or mon who expected profit from miseries of tboir erring fellow citizens, Tho powers of patronago and rulo which would bavo boen exorcised, undor tho President, over a vast, and populous, and naturally woalthy region aro greater tban, unless under cxtrcroo nec essity, I should be willing to ontruBt to any ono man; they aro such as, for mysolf, I could nover, unless on occasions of great emergen cy, consont to exorcise. Tho wilful use of such powers, if continued through a period of years, would havo endangered tbe purity of tbe general Administration and tbo liber ties of tbe States which remained loyal. Besides tbo policy of military rnlo ovor a conquered territory would bave implied that tbe States wbose inhabitants may bavo ta ken part in tbe rebellion bad, by tbe act of those inhabitants, ceased to cxiBt, But the true theory is. tbat all protended acts of se cession woro, from tbo beginning, null ond void. Tbe States cannot commit treason.nor screen tbo individual citizens who may bave committed treason, any more tban tbey cbn make valid treaties or engage in lawful commerce with any foreign power. Tho States attempting to sccoug placed them selves in a condition vboro tboir vitality was impaired, but not extinguished tbeir functions'suspendod, but not destroyed. But If any Stato neglects or refuses to per form its offices, there ia tbe more nood tbat the Gonoral Government should maintain all its authority, and as soon as practicable, resume tho exorcise ot all its lunctions. (Jo this principle I bare actod, ond bare gradu ally and quietly, and by almost impercepti ble steps, sougbt to restore tbe rightful en ergy of the General Government and of the States. To that cod, Provisional Governors bave boen appointed for tbe Statei,Convon tions called, Governors elected, Legislatures assembled, aud Senators and Representa tives cboaen to tbe Congress of the United States. At the same tiroe.tbo Courts of tho United StateB, as far as could be done, bave been reopoood, so tbat tbe laws of tbe Uni ted Statos may bo enforced through tbeir agency. Tbo blockado bas been removed and too custom houses re-established in ports Of entry, so tbat tbo roronuo of tbo ' United States may bo collected. Tbo Post t flieo Dopnrimcnt ror.cws its ceatoless activ iiy.and tbo General Government is thereby enabled to communlcnto promptly .with its rflicors and agents. Tbo courts bring secu rity to persons and proportj; tho opening of tbo ports invites tbo restoration of indus try and commerce) tho post-effico renows the facilities of social intcrcourso and of bus iness. And is it not happy for us all, that tho restoration of each ono of theso func tions of tho General Govornmont brings with it a blessing to tho States over which they aro extended? Is It not a sure prom iso of harmony and renowed attachment to the Union that, after all that has hnpponod tho tolutn of tho Gonoral Government Is known only bb a beneficence? I know very well that this policy is attend ed with some risk; that for its success it re quires at least tbo acqulosonce of tbe States which it concerns; that it Implies an Invita tion to tboso States, by renewing tbylr ol legianco to tho Uuited States, to resume thoir functions as States of tbo Uoion. Bat it is a risk that must bo taken; In tho oboieo of difficulties it is tho sovallost tisk; and to diminish, and, if posaiblo, to remove all datgor.I havo felt it Incumbent on mo to as sert ono other power of tbo General Gov ernment tbo power of pardon. As no State can throw a dofonso ovor the crime of treason, tbe power of pardon is exclusively vested in tbo Execulivo Government of tho United Stales. Iu cxerclsiog tbat power, I bavo tukon precaution to connect it with tho clearest recognition of tho binding forco of tbo laws of tho United States, and an un qualified acknowledgement of tho great so cial change of condition in regard to slavory which has grown out of tho war. Tho next step which I bavo takon to re store tbo constitutional relations of the States, has been an Invitation to thorn to participate iu tho high effioo of amending ibo Constitution. Every patriot must wIbo for a gonoral amnoBty at the earliest epoch, consistent with public safety. For this great end thoro is need of a concurrence of all epinions,ond tbo spirit of mutual conclti-. atiun. . All partios in tho lato torriblo con flict must work together in harmony. It is not too much to ask, in tho nnmo of tbo whole pooplo, that on tbo ono sido, tbe plan of restoration shall proceed in conformity with a willingnoss to cast tho disorders of tbe past iuio oblivion; and tbat, on tbo otbor.tho ovidenco of sincerity in tbe future maintenance of tbo Union shall bo put bo yond any doubt by tbe ratification of the proposed amendment to tho Constitution, which provides for tbo abolition of slavery forever within tho limits of our country. So long as tbo adoption of this amendment Is doiayod, Bolong will doubt and joalousy.ond uncertainty prevail. This is tho measure which will efface tbo Bad memory of the past; ibis Is tho caortturo b;ch wilt . most certainly call population and capital, and security to tboso parts of tho Union that ncod tnotn most, tndeod.tt Is not too much to ask of tbo States wblch aro now resuming thoir places in tbo family of tho Union to givo tbis pledgo of porpolual loyalty and poaco. Until it is deno, tho past, bowovor much wo may desiro it.will not bd forgotten. Tba adoption of tbo amondroont reunites us beyond alt power of disruption. It boats tho wound that is still imperfectly closed; it romoves slavery, the elomont which has so long porploxod and divided tho oountry; it mokes ot us onco more a nnitod pooplo renewed and strengthened, bound more than ovor to mutual Direction and support. Tbo amondment to tbe Constituton being adopted, it would remain for the States, wboso powers bare been so long in abeyance to reButno thoir places in tho two branches of Ibo National Legislature and thoroby complete tho work of roetoration. Horo it is for you, follow-oitizons of tbo Sonate, and for you,follow-citizens of tbo'IIouso of Rep resentatives, to judgo, each of you for your solvosoftbo elections, returns, and qualifi cations cf yonr own members, Tbe full assertion of tho powers of tho Gonoral Govornmont requires tbo holding of Cirouit Courts of tbo United Statos with in tbo districts wboro thoir authority bas boon intorruptod. In tbe prosont posturo of our publio affairs, strong objections bave boen urged to holding those Courts in any of tbe States wboro tbo rebollion has exist ed; and it was ascertained by inquiry tbat tbo Circuit Court of tbo Unitod Statos would not be bold within tho District of Virginia during tbo autumn or early wlntor nor until Congress should bave "an oppor tunity to considor and act on tbo whole subject." To your deliberations tbo restor ation of tbiB branch of tbo civil authority of tbo Unitod States Is therefore nocossarily roferrod, with tbo hope that early provision will bo mado for tbo resumption of all its functions. It is manifoat tbat troason, most flagrant In character, has boon committed. Porsons wbo aro charged with its commis sion should bave fair and impartial trials in tho highest civil tribunals of tho country, in otdor that tbo Constitution and tbo laws may be fully vindicated; tbe troth cloarly established and affirmed tbat troason is a crimo, that traitors should bo punished, and tbo offomo made infamous; and,at tbo same time, tbat tho quostion may bo judicially sottlcd, finally aud forover, that no Stato of its own will bas tbe right to ronounoe Kb placo in tbe Uoion. Tbo relations of Ibo General Govornmont toward tbe four millions of inhabitants whom tbe war has called ioto freedom, havo engaged my most serious consideration. On the propriety of attempting to mako tbo froodmon clcotora by the proclamation of tbe Executive 1 took for my connsol tbo Constitution itself, the interpretations of tbat Instrument c-y Its aulnors and tboir cotemporaries, and recent legislation by Congress. Wben at the first movemont to ward independence, tbo Congress of tbe Unitod States instructed tbo several States to iostituto Governments of tbeir own, tbey loft each State to decide for Itself tbe con ditions for the enjoyment of tbe elective franchise. During tbo poriod of tbo Con federacy, tbero contiooed to exist a very groat diversity in tho qualifications of elect ors In tbo several Slates; and even wilbina State a distinction of qualifications pre vailed with regard to tbe officers wbo wero to bp chosen. Tho Constitution of tbo United States reoognlzos theso diversities when it enjoins that, in the cboico of mem bers of tho House of Roprosontatives of the United States, "tbe electors in each Stato sball have the qalificatious requisite for J viewers 01 mo most numerous oranob or tbo Stato Legislature." Alter the formation of tho Constitution, it romaincd, as before, tbo uniform usago for each Stato to en largo tbo body of .its electors, according to ita own judgment; and, under tbis system, ono Slate alter another bas proceeded to iocroaso tho number of its doctors, until now universal suffrago, or something very near it, is tbo general rulo. So Cxod was this reservation of power in the habits of the pooplo, and so uuqucstionod bas boen tho iuterpretation of Ibo Constitution, tbat during tbo civil war tbo lato President nover tarbored tbe purpose cortalnly nev er avowed tbo purposo of disregarding it; and in tbo acts of CoDgress during tbat pe riod, nothing can bo found wbicb, during tbe continuanco of hostilities, much loss after tboir closo, would have sanctioned any departuro by tbo Exocutive from a policy which has so uuiformly obtained. More over, a concession of tbo olectivo franohiso to tho froodmon, by act of tho President of tbo United States.must bave boon extended to all colored men, wborovcr found, and so must bavo established a change of suf frago in tho Northern, Middlo and Western States, not loss than in tbe Soutborn and South-western. Such an act would bave created a cow class of votors, and -would have boon an assumption of power by tbo President which nothing in tho Constitu tion or laws of tbo Uuited Statos would bavo warranted. ' On the other hand, every danger Is avoided when tbo settlement of lie ques tion is referred to tbe several Slates. Tbey can each for itself, decide upon the measure, and whether it is to be adopted at once sad absolutely, or introduced by degrees and with conditions. In my judg ment, tho freodmen, if they show patience and manly virtues, will' sooner obtain a participation in the Elective Franchise through tho States than through tbe Gen eral Government, even if it had power to intervene. When the tumult of emotions that had been raised by the suddenness of the change shall have subsided, it may prove that they will receive the kindliest usage from some of thoEo on whom tbey have heretofore most closely depended, -But while I have no doubt that now, after the close of the war, it is not compe tent for tbe Genor&l Government to ex lend the Elective Franchise in the several States, it is equally clear that pood faith requires the security of the (reedmen in their liberty, their property, their rieht to labor, and their right to claim the just relnrn of theixUhor, I cannot urge too strongly a dispassionate treatment of this subject, which 6houid be carefully kept aioot from all party strife; We must equally avoid haBty assumptions of any natural impossibility for the two races to live side by side, in a stato of mutual ben efit and good will. The experiment in volves no- inconsistency; lot us, then, go and make tbat experiment in good faith, end not be too easily disheartened. The country is in need of labor, and tho freed men are in want of employment, culture and protection. While their right of vol untary migration and expatriation is not to be questioned, I would not advise their forced removal and colonization. . Lot us rather encourage them to honorable and useful industry where it may be beneficial to-themselves and to the country; and in stead of hasty anticipations of the cer tainty of failure, lot there ba nothing wanting to tbe fair trial of the experi ment. The change in their condition is the substitution of labor by contract for the status of slavery. The freedmcn can not fairly be accuaod of unwillingness to labor, so long as a doubt remains abont bis freedom of choice in bis pursuits, and the certainty ol his recovering bis stipu lated wages. In this tbe interests of the employer and the employed coincide. The employer desires in bis workmen spirit and alacrity, and these can be per manently secured in no other way. And if the one ought to be able to enforce the contract, so ought the other. The public interest will be best promoted if the sev eral States will provide adequate protec tion and remedies for the freedmcn. Un til this is in some way accomplished there is no chance for the advantageous use of their labor, and the blame of ill success will not rest on them. I know that the sincere philanthropy is earnest for the immediate realization of its remotest aims; but time is always an element in reform. It is ono of the great est acts on record to Lave brought four millions of people into freedom. Tbe ca reer of free industry must be fairly opened to them, and then their future prosperity end.condition must, after all, rest mainly on themselves. If they fait, and so per ish away, let us be careful that the fail ure shall not be attributable to any denial of justice. In all that relates to the des tiny of the freedmen, we need not be too anxious to read the future; many inci dents which from a speculative point of view, might raise alarm, will quicjly set tle themselves. Now that slavery is at an end or near its end, the greatness of its evil, in point of view of publio economy, becomes more and more apparent. Slavery was essen tially a monopoly of labor, and as such locked the States in which it prevailed against the incoming of free industry, W here labor was the property of the cap italist, the white man was excluded from employment, or bad but the second best chance in finding it; and the foreign em igrant turned away from the region where bi condition would be so precarious. With tbe destruction of the monopoly, free labor will hasten from all parts of the civilized world to assist in developing va rious and immeasurable resources which have hitherto lain dormant. Tba 8 or nina States nearest the Gulf of Mexico bave a soil. of exuberant fertility, a climate that is friendlv to Ion? lifo. and can sustain a denser population than Is found as yet in any part of our country. And the future iuuua ui population io mom win mainiy be from the North, or from the most cul tivated nation in RuvAn. Frnm thn nf. ferings' that have attended during our late . i i . a . struggle, lei us took away to tne future, which is sure to be laden for them with freater nrnanevitv limn baa r hefnra , 1 - been known. Tbe removal of the mo nopoly of slave labor is a pledge that those regions will bo peopled by a nu merous and enterprising popnla'.ion that 111 -J- f ' .1 win vie who any in tne union in com pactness, inventive genius, wealth end in dustry. Our Government anin tr from and wia made for the people not the people for tne uovernmeut. to mem tt owes alle giance; from them it must derive its cour- B?0. Strength and wiarfnm. Rut. white the uovernment .is thus bound to defer to the people from whom it derives Us existence, it fihould. from tVi verv con sideration of its origin, be stroDg in its power of resistance to the establishment v. iuctjui.H4ie., AUluujjUJIVB, fJurfJetUlllVa and class legislation, are contrarr to the genius of a tree government, and ought not io oe allowed. LI ere there is ao room for vavored classes or monopolies, the principle of our Government beini? equal laws and freedom of industry. nueivici uiuuu(juiy Uklitius B lUOlCUia, II is sure to be a source of danger, discord and trouble. We shall but fulfil nnr rlu. ties as legislators by according "equal ana exact justice to an men," special privileges to none. The Government is subordinate to the neonle: but. as the agent and representative of the people. u muse do neia supeiior io monopolies, wbicb. ic themselves, ought never to be OTftntPil? fttlfl TtrhirTvttrliPrA (nan r.-Taf tvfel e subordinate ond yield to the Govern ment. The Constitution confers on Concrreaa the right to regulate eommerce amongst the several States. It is of the first ne cessity for. the maintenance of tho Union, ii a a avi m lo&i commerce aaouia oe tree ana unob structed. No State can be justified in any device to tax tbe transit of travel and commerce between States: The position of many States is such that, if they were uuimea io ibbo aavamaee or it for nnr. poses of local revenue, tbe commerce be- M Oj - ? 1 . i ween states migni oe injuriously bur dened, or even virtually prohibited. It is best, while tho conntrv ia still vnanv. and while the tendency to dangerous mo nopolies or tnis kind are still feeble, to use tbe power of Congress so as. to pre vent any selfish impediment to the free circulation of men and merchandise. A tax on travel and merchandise, in tbeir transit, constitutes one of the worst forms of monosolv. and tho evil ia incrflAsert if coupled with a denial of the choice of TTTI .1 . . . . . route, vv nen me vast extent oi our own countrv is considered, it is slain that v. ery obstacle to tbe free circulation of com merce Deiween tne mates ought to be sternly guarded against by appropriate legislation, within the limits of the Con stitution. The report of the Secretary of the In terior explains the condition of the publio lands, the transactions 'of the Patent Of fice and the Pension Buroau, the manage ment of our Indian affairs, the progress made in the construction of Pacific rail road, and furnishes information in refer ence to matters of local interest in the District of Columbia. It also presents evidence of the successful operation of the Homestead Act, under the provisions of which 1,160,533 acres of publio lands were entered during the last fiscal year -more than one-fourth of the whole num ber of acres sold or otherwise disposed of during tnat period, it is estimated that the receipts derived from this source are sufficient to cover tbe expenses incident to the survey nnd disposal of the lands entered under this Act.and tbat payments in cash to the extent of from forty to fifty per cent, will be made by settlers, who may thus at any time acquire title before the expiration of the period at which it would otherwise vest. The Homestead policy was established only after a long and earnest resistance; experience proves its wisdom. The lands in tbe hands of industrious settlers, whose labor creates wealth, and contributes to the publio re sources, are worth more to tbe United S. than if they had been reserved as a soli tude for future purchasers.. The lamentable events of tbe last four J rears, and the sacrifices made by the gal ant men of our Army and Navy, bave swelled tho records of the Pension Bureau to an unprecedented extent. On the 30th day of June last, the total number of pen sioners was 85,986, requiring for their annual pay, exclusive of expenses, the sum ol 88,023,445. Tbe number of an plications that have been allowed since tbat date will require a large increase ol this amount for the next fiscal year. Tho means for the navment of the Blinenda due, under existing laws, to our disabled soldiers and sailors, and the families ol such as have perished In the service of the country, will no doubt ba cheefnliy and promptly granted. A grateful peo ple surely will not hesitate to sanction anyneasures having for their object the relief of soldiers mutilated,-and familiei made fatherless io the efforts to prcsetvo our national existence. The report of the Postmaster Genera) presents an encouraging exhibit of the operations of the Post Office Department during the year, The revenues ot tho past year from the loyal States alone ax eeeded the maximum annual receipts from an tne states previous m tne rebellion, in tbe sum ol 96,038,081; and the annual average increase of revenue during tho last four years, compared with tbe reve nues of the four years immediatelr Pre ceding the rebellion, was 83,533,845. Tbe revenues of the last fiscal year has amounted to 814,558,158, and the ex penditures to8 13,694,728, leaving a sur plus of receipts over expenditures of 8bV 61,430. Progress has been made in tt storing the postal service in the Southern Stales. The views presented by the Post Master Gen. against the policy of granting subsidies to ocean mail steamship lines on established routes, and in lavor of con: tinuing the present system, which limits the compensation for ocean service to the postage earnings, are recommended to the careful consideration of Congress. It appears, from the report of '' tba Secretary of the Navy, tbat while, at the commencement of the present year, tbere were in commission 630 vessels of all classes and descriptions, armed with 3,000 guns and manned by 51,000 men,' the number of vessels at present in com mission is 117, with 630 guns and 12,128 mon. By this prompt reduction of the naval forces the expenses of the Govern ment have been largely diminished, and a number of vessels, purchased for naval purposes from the merobant marine, have been returned (o the peaceful pursuits of commerce. Since tbe suppression ol active hostilities our foreign squadrons have been re-established, and consist of vcbsoIs much more efficient than those employed on similar eervice previous to the rebellion. The suggestion for the enlargement of the navy yards, and es pecially for the establishment of one la fresh water for iron-clad vessels, la de serving of consideration, as is ' also the recommendation for a different location and more ample grounds for the Naval Aeademy. ' In the roport of the Secretary of War, a general summary is given of the mili tary oampaigns of 1864 and 1865, end ing in the suppression of armed resist ance to the national authority in the in surgent States. The operations of the general administrative bureaus of the War Department daring the past year are detailed, and an estimate made of the appropriations that will be required for military purposes . in the fiscal year com mencing the 30th day of Jnne, 1866. The national military force on the 1st of May, 1865, numbered 1.000.616 men. It ts proposed to rednce the military es tablishment to a peace footing, compre hending fifty thousand troops of all arms, organized so' as to admit of an enlarge ment by filling up the tanks to eiehtv- two thousand six hnndred, if the circum stances of the eountry should require an augmentation of the army. The volun teer force bas already been reduced by the discharge from serviee of over eight hundred thousand troops, and the De partment is proceeding rapidly In the work of further reduction. The war es timates are reduced from 8516,240,131 to 833,814,461, which amount, in the opinion of the Department, la adequate for a peace establishment. The meas ures of retrenchment io eaoh burean and branch ot the service exhibit a diligent economy worthy of commendation. Ref erence ts also made in the report to the necessity of providing for a Uniform mil itia system, and to the propriety of making suitable provision for wounded and disabled omcers and soldiers. .. The revenue system of the countrv is & subject of vital interest to its honor and prosperity, and should command the earnest consideration of Congress. Tbe Secretary of the Treasury will lay before you a full and detailed report ol tbe re ceipts and disbursements of the last fiscal year, of the first qusrtor of the present fiscal year, of the probable receipts and expenditures for the other three quarters, and the estimates for the year following the 30th of June, 1866. .1. might con tent myself with a reference to that re port, in which you will find all the inform ation required for your deliberations and decision. But (he paramount importance of the subject so presses itself on my own mind tbat I cannot but lay before you my views of tbe measures which are re quired for the - good character, and, I might almost say, for the existence of this people. Tne lite of a republic lies certainly in the energy, virtue and intel ligence of its citizens ; but it is equally true that a good revenue system ia the life of an organized government. I meet you at a time when the nation ' has volnntarily burdened itself with debt' un precedented in our annals, ' Vast as is its amount, it fades away into nothing when compared with the countless blessings thst will be conferred upon, the eountry and 1 . l . : i .1.. upon van uy iu preservation ui wuo u I Concluded on fourth page.