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The enterprise. [volume] (Wellington, Ohio) 188?-1899, December 04, 1889, Image 6

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1 V T W'f ;
r, ,
Tbtrar a feast
In themlnlttre-
tloa of hue Gih"
porarlly held lit
with the oondu
atop taken It i
, telllgent nnd wt
Union It known,
M to needed I
than that whir)
. tnunloatlont of t
i Good will ane
our relation
govern m , I
few tnu
exist tb
ad edjusuno... c
upon eetleractors
dealing efo-u-i
neve b
nod oar
ticn are even tern
0 of tboM ohirged
business. Every
4rrvnMi of n to
il Th list of tbe
, ud suggestion
1 an earlier volo
iUse annual com
j) Congress.
Ve ehireotorlted
icnoe with other
il 1 d leave
n ft In. fSanoe re
lev Vit .lleodto
t c deration
. ftuuf quUon
.bid farm. The
. other States
v avowed,
a. 'i it count
..,. ij it Is our
hu borau
i . , 1
h.erltg 01
..oeiiiurv of tikm oeeiing
srlth- Sorrt c-"rrBinow hea soured to .' f
i-. .u . i f blgaJue,ad a tea
451 i.Hrtulnu.Bi aUt -ike nrs. year, of aha
awoncd owiwr our eeoalttoUoeal ottn
iluds, as bwoosad nests wttola ear aonlcrs, U
representatives cfail th Independent Statee of
Korth aad South America, met together in
earnest ooaferenos touohlng Uie bast method
of pvrpetuaUng and expanding the relatione of
eautual Interest and triendlloeas extended
monc them. That the opportunity that a
forded for promoting ekieer International role.
lions and Uie lnoreased prosperity of the State!
represented will be eaed for tbe mntaal good of
all, loan not permit myself to doubt. Our people,
will jawnlt with Interest aad oonadsaoe the re
aulta to flow trust so ansplolous a meeting ot
allied, and In large part, Identical Interests. The
reoooimendstlott of thin International eonfet
enoe of enlightened statesmen, will hare tbe
attention of Congress and its oo-ope ration In
the removal of unnecessary barriers to bene
noial Intercourse between the nations of Amer
ica, but while the commercial results which U Is
hoped will fallow this oonferenoe are worthy ot
pursuit and of the great Interest they hare ex
erted, it Is believed Ust the crowning benefit
will be found in the better securities which may
tie derlsed for the maintenance of peace among
all American nations and settlement of all con
tention by methods that a Christian elrtlliatlon
ran approve. While viewing with Interest our
National resources and products, the delegates
will, I am nit. And a higher satisfaction in the
evldenoea of unselttsh friendship which every
where attend the Interooars with eur people.
Another international oonferenoe. having
raat aoaillbllltisa f or mod. has laUly at-
ribl.l, and It now in session at this oapltal.
An Invitation was extended by the Oovernment,
under the Act of Oongrest of July a, 18, to all
maritime nations to tend delegates to oonfer,
touching the revision and amendment of the
rule aad the regulations governing veswila and
to adopt a uniform system of marine aiRnals,
The response to this Invitation hut been very
general and very eordlaL Delegates from
iwrsty six nations are present In tbe confer
ence, and they hare entered upon their useful
work with frest teal and with-an evident sp
precistoa of its lmportanoe so far as the agree-
tnent to be reached may require legislation to
give It effect The oo-operatlon of Conirrena is
txmOdrntly relied upon. It Is an interesting and
Unprecedented foot that the two International
conferences have brought here the accredited
representatives of thirty-three nations. Boliv
ia, Ecuador and Honduras are now represented
try resident envoys of the plenipotentiary grade.
All the States of the American system now
aiatn Win dlpiomatlo representation at tola oanl:
aal. ' '
in thUeormectloa It may be noted that all the
settees f the Western Hemisphere, with one
xoeptlon,seod to Washington envoys extraor-
Inary and ministers plenipotentiary, being the
eritrbeet grade accredited to this Uoifernment.
Tbe United States, on the other hand, sends ee-1
voyi of lower grade to some ot our sister repub--,
lies. Oar representative In Paraguay and
Uruguay ta a minister resident, while
to Bolivia w send a minister resident
end -Censul Oeneral. In view of the Im
portance of our relations with States
of the American system, our dlplomatia agents
la those ooentrtea should a of tbe uniform
rank of envoy extraordinary and minister plen-'
lpotenilary. Certain missions were so elevated
by the lain Congress with happy elf ret, and I
reoommeod the completion of the reform that
twgun with tba Inclusion also of Hawaii and .
Hsvtl In view of their relation to the American
tiystem of Btatea, I also recommend that timely
rovttoa be made for extending to Hawaii an
ivltatlon to be repreeeated la uie International
oonferenoe new sitting at this oapltal.
Our relations with China have the attentive
oohslderatloo which their magnitude and Inter
est demand. The failure of the treaty negotia
ted under the administration of my predecessor
for the further and more eompiete restriction of
Chinese labor Immigration, and, with It. the
logMatlon of tbe last session of Congress de
pendent thereon, leave some questions open, f
whioh Congress should now approach in that
wise and )ust spirit, which should characterize
tbe relations of two great and fripidry powers.
While our supreme Interests demand the
exclusion of a laboring elcsent which
experience has shown to be incompat
ible with our ' social life, all strna to
oompets this Imperative need should be so
comiianlrd with a recognition of the claim of
those strangers now lawfully among us to hu
mane and ust treatment. The ecoeiwlon of to!
young Emperor of China marks, we may hope,
an era of progrms and proHiierlty for the great
country over which he Is called to rule.
Tbe pretest state of afl uirs In respect to the
Bamoan Islands Ik encouraging. The conference
which was held In this city in the summtr of 1W7
between the ntireaentatlves of the United
rltates, Uemanr snd Great Brltainhave been ad
journed because of the persistent divergence ot
views, which was developed In It deliberations.
The subsequent course of events In the Islands
save rise to questions of a serious character.
On the , 4th of February last, the German
Minister at the oapltal, in behalf of hit govern-
uKiii, pnnwpn munipwu ui m riimervnce
at Berlin, This proposition was accepted
at Congress In February last was informed.
Pursuant to th understanding thus reached,
commissioners were appointed by me, by and
with the advice and oonsent of the Senate, who
proceeded to Rrlla, where the conference wet
renewed. The deliberations extended through
set ' weeks, and resulted in tbe oonclusion of
h treaty, whioh will be submitted to the Senate
for It approval. I trust that the effort which
have been made to effect an adjustment of this
question will be productive of the permanent es
tablishment of law and order In Samoa upon a
twsit of the malntenanoe of tbe rtgLtaand In
terests of the natives. The questions which
bare arisen during the past few years between
Great Britain and the Uattetl8ljktes are In abey
ance or In course of adjustment.
On the part of the government of the Domin
ion of Canada an effort has been apparent dur
ing the season Just ended to administer tbe lawt
and reg 'utlons applicable to th Batteries with
as little oocaslon for friction as was possible,
and the temperate repreaentattona of this Gov.
eminent In respect of eases of undue hardship
or of harsh Interpretation have been In most
oasea met with measures of transitory relief. It
is trusted thst the attainment of our Just rights
under existing treaties and In virtue of the con
current legislation ot the two contiguous coun
tries will not be long deferred; and that all ex
isting causes of difference may be equitably ad
justed. I recommend that provision he made by
the water boundary between the United State
and Canada la the narrow channels that Join the
Great Lake. Tbe conventional line therein
traced by the northwestern boundary survey
yean ago la not In all cases readily ascertainable
for the sc.tlementof Jurisdictional questions.
A Just and aeoeptabie enlargement of the list
Cf offenses for which extradition may be olalmed
and granted It most desirable between this
country and Great Britain. The territory of
neither should beoome a secure harbor for the
evil-doers of the other through any avoidable
ahort coming ta this regard. A new treaty on
this subject betwee aha tw owrha beaw
recently ncgullaU4 and wUlepou, be laUtKtfif
theSenate. ",' u
The Importance mf the' ryinimewie of Ctflit aV(t
Porto Kim with the United States, their nearest
and principal market, Justifies tbe expectation
that the existing relations may be beneflolaliy
extended. The Impedimenta resulting front
varying due oa navigation, and frost tbe vexa
tious treatment of our vessels oa merely tech
nical grounds of complaint In West India porta,
should be removed. The progress toward an
rxlj.-toiest et pending claims bet wee a the
United Hlales awl ttpau is not as rap id as could
fee desired, , " ; , , , . - ( . , ,
QuesUnra affecting American trite rest ta oon
tieeiloo with railways constructed and operated
by our cltliena la I'ersj have claimed the atten
tion Jf this Government It la urged that other
COvrmmeBla la proaslnt Pere to the payment
of their claims, have dmreganled toe property
rights of Anevlean eltliens. The matter will be
Carefully investigated wlih a view to (eearing a
proper tod (r wlJiittmont.A tlmilar
laauc It now p. !-.'u,gwliB Portii"l. The Bela
goa Bay ra'lwi-1 n was er.utrurled under
acor(-.iim 1 v '-rtiitl.ioea BMriaee sltl
ten. V.u-0 i in e ,i.-teil tk road wai
Stilled by Hu. Bin , tt KiiritiHuvee bavera
men!. A t"i v i- -' ha Im-bb mul throenh
opr Ulniner i i.nna . .im,i thlt act, andne
pnp"r effort t-siM-,-ri to secure relief.
I !i pursuance of trie charter granted by Con
groMi sud under the tons ef It contract with
the gsTernment ottflcarojtte, the Ttrtnv-Ooeahla
OimiilCmnniinv has boguu the construction of.
uie taportaatwalerwej between ths two secant,
wiuun itB or-iinljtto.n contemplates., Qrave
(implications for a time teemed lmialnoot In
of a aunootod reofllot of Jurisdiction -her
twoen Nicaragua and Costa Rtoa la .regard, to
the neoeossry prtvlle to be- eoeeeded by the
latter republic towsxJ the construction of work 1
On the Ban Jcsn r. tor, of which the right bank f
tsOosURIcante.Jiryi lam happy. to learn :
that a friendly er.-Miuemeat nas neeq . onecteo,
between th tw auon. This Oevscoment bat
held Itself read j- to promote la every prop
wty the adjustment of all conditio that might
preatnt obttaolc to" . the. completion of the
work of tuch trenaeeedewi lmportaace to the
oommerct of tula country. Mid,. Indeed,, to Iba
oommerotal fntsrssl of tos world. ' ' '
rh Asadttloaal nfrM .fieilM ,Niftwcefl ttlta
enuntry and the f reiich Hipubll hat.reoelrnej
Wltlol-telln,jn la" ah eartielnatloni of our
Government and coon', In the lelenatieeel ex
position keid it Vur.n JuritiJ last tumtnar. The
iuppM'df.ear catoll'iters; a beta gratifying.
The report ot the trmslna will DC laid be
torOongreailn.due' .-na. , . '
This Gorcramsat ee ae-xrpted under proper
reserve at to It poMoy forelg tcrritoricc,
thelnvitskiioct n tiie-.twvsrrameal ef Belrlqai
to take part ut ah IntenawonaJ Congreta Khlok;
Bpaeed ,vireaisl-, an ie , ith idar of Ho
vtunher for, th miiuii fit dvilug meant to
ieomoU'tM uMVt -iWX Hni-ls In Africa,
and t arevcat Vie eh tpsfwy f slate ay tea. Our
Interest in the extlnci4on of this crime against
hamaolty, Julie rU)0 where it yet norrlwi,
has been lnoreased by the. results of enuwclpav
tledwlthlaourowneuruara. ' '
With Uermsny tbe noet cordial shkUtonteda
tlnue. The questlona arUlng from the return
to the Kmptrt of German naturalised 1a this
country ars oonsldored and disposed of in a
tompcrato spirit, to tbe entire aallafacllaa of
tarsal durtorbsuoeaof the Kepubile ot Haytl are
at last happily ended and that an apparently
table government has been established. It has
hn ,! Miwunivell hv tha United Stale -e-
A mixed oonimlsslon it now In session in thla i
capital for the cetllesaenh at loag-ttandine ;
clalmi against the Republic of Veneiuela, and
It Is hoped that a tatlsfaotory eonoluslon will be :
speedily recehed. Tbie OovernaMat had aot
beskated to eiprest its earnest desire that tbe I
boundary dispute new ponding between Greet I
Britain and Venetuala may be adjusted amica
bly and In strict aooordauoe with the historic tl
lie of the parties. . i -u'j i" ' 1
The advancement of the Empire of Japan hat ,
been evidenced by the recent promulgation of a i
hew constitution, valued for guarantee of lib. I
erty and providing for a responsible ministry U)
eonduot the government. It U earnestly recom
mended that Judicial sighta and processes In
Core he established oa a Ann basis by provid
ing the machinery necessary to earn; out Ireattf
eiuiulatlons in that regard. .
; The friendllneas ot the Persia Government
oontlnueato be shown by Its generous treat
ment of Americans engaged In missionary la
bors and by the cordial eUspositlon of the Shah
to encourage th enterprise ot our citizen in
tbe development of Persian resources. '
A discussion It In progress touching th Juris- ;
dlctlonal treaty right ot the United Btatea in'
Turkey, . A earnest effort will be made to de
fine tbose right to the satisfaction of both go-, ,
ernmentt, 1 ' 4
guestlons continue to arise 1 otr tela-,
tlons with teveral oountriea In respect to the
ligtiltol natural lied oltuens. swpecisiiy is uie .
i the case with Franoe, 1UIV, Russia and Turkey, 1
' nnd to come exteut with Switzerland. From
' time to time earnest effort have bees mad to1
M.iriilBt lhl tihliw.t ht nnnventlnniL At lm-
proper nse of naturallaatloB should not b enr-
niltu-d, but It Is important that those who have
been duly naturalized should every where be ac
corded reeognlttoa of the - right pertaining
to nltlutlon of the eountn of their equa
tion. Toe appropriatoBe ef tpeotol eoavcav
tlont for that purpose la recognized ,in ,,
, treaties this Government has concluded with a
1 number of European Statee, and It Is advisable i
that the difficulties whlsh now srise In our rela
tions with other couo tries en the sata eubjeet
should b similarly adjusted., - . , ...
' Tbe recent revolution In Brazil In favor of tbe I
eatablishaeatef a republican form of govern- I
ment It an event of great interest to tba United
State.. Onr minister at Klo d Janeiro was at
one Instructed to maintain friendly dlpiomatlo .
relations with the provisional government, and
'the Bras Ulan representative at this capital .
were instructed by the provisional government i
to continue their function. Our friendly inter- .
course with Brazil baa, therefore, auffored bo -Interruption.
Our minister hat been further In- !
struetod to extend oa the part of thla Govern
ment a formal aod cordial recognition ot th
new republic so soon ae the majority et the
people of Brazil shall have signified their assent ,
to Its establishment and maintenance. i
Wlihtn our owe border a general condition .
of prosperity prevails. The harvests of the laet
Bummer were exceptionally abundant and tbe
trade oondllion now pre vailing seem to promise
a successful season to the merchant and tbe
manufacturer, and general employment to our
working people. Tbe report of tbe Secretary
of Ihe Treasury for tbe fiscal year endl'ig
JuneKl, peat, ha been pr pared, and will be
presented to Congress. It present with clear
ness the fiscal operation of Government, aod I
avail myself of It to obtain aom foci for use
here. The aggregate receipts from all source
for the year were J7,0o0,li')o.l, derived as fol
low: From custom tmTO.TIl.iW
From Internal revenue a lti.HNi.aiaiM i
From miscellaneous aource IKI,XJ&,ttu3.3l j
The ordinary expenditure for the tame period .
were feai.WA.oln no, aad the total expenditures, ,
Including tbe sinking fond, were tti.mi,WA :
Thd excess of receipts overexpendlturea was,
after providing for the sinking fund, thf.tTO, 1 W.bu. )
For the current fiscal year, the total revenue,
actual and estimated, are ieS,0uo.uua, and the
ordinary expenditures, actual and estimated, I
arc ImAoOu.UUI, making, with the sinking fund,
Btntaleipendltureot i'MI.WI.Ild.W, leaving an
estimated surplus of aB,78,iB.01. i
Durins the fiscal Tear there was aimlled to 1
' the purchase of bonds, la addition to those for
the sinking fund, fM,t66, 173.36, and during the
first quarter ot the current year the turn of
, tn.tt&tcn.n, all of which ware credited to the
sinking fund. The revenues for tbe fiscal year
ending June ID, 1HBI, are estimated by the
' Treasury Department at ,ai,uuu and the
expenditures for tbe some period, including tbe
sinking fund, at mi.itl, -177.70. This show an
I est I mated surplus for that year of tiling &a.3u,
, which 1 mors likely to be Increased than re
duoed when the actual transaction are written
The existence of so large an actual and antici
pated surplus should have the immediate at
tention of Congress with a Tlcw to reducing tha
reoelota of tbe treason to the needl of the Gov
ernment at closely at may be. The collection of ,
moneys sot seeded f or pubilo etet Impose aa ua
necessary burden upon our people, aud the pres
ence of so large a surplus in tbe public vault
1 a disturbing element In th oonauct of pri
vate business. Ithaa called Into use expedient -for
putting It into circulation of very questlona- '
ble propriety. We should not collect revenue for .
the purpose of anticipating our bor-d beyond
tnc requirements oi me BinKuig runo, out any
unappropriated surplus In tbe treasury should
be co used, as there la bo other lawful way ot
returning the money to circulation and the
profit realized by tbe Government offer a sub
stsntlal advantage. The loaning of public fundi
to the banks without Interest upon the secur
ities of government bond, I regard as aa un
authorized aud dangerous expedient. It result
In a temporary and unnatural Increase of the
banking capital of favored looalltle and com
pels cautious and gradual recall of tha de
posit to (void clnjury to th commercial Inter
est. It I not to be expected that the bank
having these deposit will cell their bond to
the treasury so long as the present highly bene
ficial arrangement I continued. They now
practically get interest both upou tbe bonds and
their proceeds. No further use should b made
Of this method of getllnr tha surplus
intoclroulftllon, and the deposit now outstand
ing should be gradually withdrawn and applied
to th puroha? of bcuda. it I fortunate that
Such a us can be made of the existing surplus,
and for some time to come, of any casual surplus
that may exist after Congress baa taken the
Beoeanary steps for a reduction of the revenue.
Such leglslstlon should be promptly but very
considerately enacted.' - -J
I I recommend a revision of on tariff law. both
ttiltoailoilnlstretlve fawluret ana la the sobod
ulet. ' Tbone4dof toelormr.rls generally con.
drdeaVund an aoreemewt neon the rrllt and In
OonvenlHSoe to be remedied, and tbe best mstb
odsfnr their correction jeiui, probably ot be
difficult. Uniformity' rif valuation at all eur
Kris It essential ana effective measures should
taken to secure it, It Is equally desirable
that questions affecting rates ana elaesUloattoa
should be promptly deoided. , -. ,
Ths preparation of a new eobedule of customs
dutle Is a matter of great delicacy, because of
It affect npon the business, of the eounarpi wf
great difficulty by reason ot the wide dlvergeaoe
of opinion aa to the object that may be promo
ted by such levislatlon. - Some dtsturbar.ee of
business my perhap result from eotMl deration
ot this subject by Congress. ut thla temporary
III effect will be reduced to minimum by prompt
action and assurance whisk the etntatrp enjeya
that any necessary changes will he so made as
not to Impair th Jsl aod reawsaabl protect Inn
of our home Industrie j The lArqualltlea f tha
law should be adjusted, but tha eruiertlv prin
ciple should be maintained and fairly applied ta
the product of eur farm, ee-wcll ewr ecope,
Thediilles Beoeeearily have rlsl)ns UiuUxl
things besldec Uie public rcvenuya,. We een o4
limit their eSeeta by fixing onr i-vc on I h puo.
lie treasury alone, -They haw lreot relation
to home production! to wovk.i to wsora ana ta
the eoiamerolal Inaepemlenoe. of wir country,
aad Uie wise and patriotic legislator irtiould en
large th aeld ef hi vlsiea to include til of ueea.
"' Th nhcnssary foduutloh Tn biif pul&ltc rev,
nuet csn, I am sure, be raiule without caking .
the smaller burden morn onerous tlmn the larger
by reason of the disabilities and limitation
which the procoui of reduollon puts upon both
caullul and labor. The free list coin vorv snfelv
be extended by placing thereon articles that do
not offer Inlurlrms eoninotttton to sneh domestld "
productaaa4iMr-aira4ajv mH wnipty,'lhsew-'
moral ortn" rm-raiii iux on toiiacvo would re-.,
lieve knTCiporiitiit agricultural product from
ech'Wws'lmnoeed enly- beentise our
revenue from cusion; dutlea was insufficient for
the public needs If tefn provision against fraud
one be devised, the removal of the tax upon
f pints, ueu in ins. ana bus in matinfaciu
ed In Ihssrii aad In mannfat
lOflerArt uurtoa-4yub!e mi-lur
rtarraW vj 41 f - I
preaant. wl ia,.tU cTmr
wouia also one
duolng the
table ni
Treat urv. ahowlnx ihe aiuount of monev ef all
kinds In circulation each year from 1H7K tu th
present time is of Interest, It appears thai the
amount of national bank notes In circulation
hat decreased during that period tl 14, KHlTyS, of
which I87,W, It chargeable to the Ustirear.
The withdrawal of bank circulation will oe
aarlly eontiam coder existing conditions. It i
nrobabl that the adoption of susvestlona made
by tbe Comptroller of tbe Currency, vli : Thnt !
ut minimum ueposu oi oonas tor uie estaDii
meat ef baa be reduoed, and that aa K'
ef Bote to th par vain of th bond be alkwedV
would help to maintain the bank elrcaittloa,
bat while tail withdrawal ef hank novas ha
been going oa there ha boea a large lucres la
th amount of gold and silver coin in circulation
and la the Issues ot gold and silver eertf Ox-ate.
Th total amwiBt of wioaay cf sll lilmtm cls
rulaltonon March k -terH, was Ceio.n.i.i'r; while
on October I, JW, , Uie total was stl ns,!)!j.o30.
There "was an 1neresief- m41t,tfrf li gold
coin, of w7,rt,l(W la standard ill rer dollsrt, of
7t,811,lii in gold certificates, of m,nio7i5ln
HvecoeitutsaUB, aai a .4u.lR,vW 1n- l' sited
States notes, Msak lug p,-1utl .of -f;iia;t.h
There vise during tbe same period rt- rreof
BlM.llM,7islbauB;olre dauca, apd of l4.asl la
subsidiary ,tllvr. Thq, net Incroiw , was
HMsM.lw3.Th . etroulaUnn -i-danr eaplu-Was
Increased about flv dollar during the tiaiscov
ered by the table referred to. The totid coin
age ot silver dollars was on November- IDl.
Hta.eUS.OUI. of which w:I.M!W were 6i the
treasury vault and t60,l,4el)- were tti 'lrola
tlon, 01 thctmpsnt In-tk ylta tfTlfitH.m
Were represented by outstanding silver errtltl
atea, leaving ,Mi,T7 hot in olruBiatianiaiid.
not represented by eeitliioates.
The law requiring the parehase by tbe' treae
nrv of two million dollars' worth of silver bul
lion each month, to he coined Into silver dollar '
of 400 and twelve and one-half grains, has been
observed by the department ; but nelthnr tha
preeent aeonctary nor aay .of his prcdiaxsMor
bat deemed it Bate to oxeroise tie discretion
given by law to Increase- tbe" tnoothly pur
chase to tour wiHIlen dollars. When th law
was enacted (February US, 1781, the price
of (liver ta th market was It.) 4-10 per ohane,
making the bulltos .value ot the Hollar us cents.
Siaoe that time -the price ha f alien a low a
BI.S osnu per osaoe. reducing th bullion value
of the dollar to 70.0 cents. . Wlthlu the last fsw
month lb market prto Was aomswhat- ad
vanced, and on the Brat dv of November last
the bellkia value ef tbe irilver-dollar was T
oent. Thecvll antlolpatlons which have aceosi
panied the colnagr and use ot the sliver dollsr
have not bee realized.. As a sola it hat not
bad general us, and the pubilo treasury hat
been compelled to store it.. But this U mani
festly owing to the fact that Its paper represent-.
atlva hi more convenient. The general accept
ance and use of the silver certificate .tbow that
silver has not been otherwise discredited. Some
favorable ooadltloaa have contributed U main
tain this practical equality In their couiuicrelal
nie Between the gold and silver dollsr But
some of these are trade oondttkuu thnt statu
tory enactments do not control, and' of the
continuance of which we can not be certain,
i I think It la clear that it we should make coin
agcol silver at present ratio free, w must ex
pect the difference In bullion valuea of tht gold
aadUvr dollar will betake aeoeent of ta
commercial transaction, and I fear tbe aame r
ault would follow anv considerable incresse ot
present rate of coinage. Such, a result would be
discreditable to our financial management end '
disastrous to all bullae Interest, .we should
not trend the dangerous edge or men a
peril, and. Indeed, nothing store harmful
could happen to the silver In term is. Any safe
legaslatlon npoa thic Subject most secure the
equality of the two ooiot In their commercial
uses, (have always been an advocate ot the
uneef silver In our carrewoy. we ire large
prjduc-rs of that metal and should not illscred t
It,' To th pi a which will be pnaMWted by the '
Sorrutary of f's Treasury for th Issuance ot
notes or orltfloatec upon the deposit of sliver
bullio at It market value, I have been able to .
gtvd only a b,kty examination owing to the
nM of -other matter and to tha fact
that It has been so recently formulated. The
details of such a law require careful consider
tloa, but th general plan luggeated by hint
'seems to satisfy tbe purpose to continue toe
use of silver In oouneciioa with our currency and
at the tarn time to obviate the danger of which
I have spoke. At a later .day I may communi
cate further with Congress upon this subject.
The eoforocmeDt of the (.illness Kxolusiun act
bat been found le be very difficult on the North
western frontier. Chinamen landing at Victoria
dnd It easy to pas our border, owing to th lm
possibility wilt the force at command of the cus
toms offlnirs ot guarding so long an Inland line.
The Secretary of the Treasury bat authorized
the employment ot additional officers, who will
be assigned to this duty, and every enort will be
made to enforce the law. The Dominion exact
head tax of t-'s) for each Chinaman landed, and
when the persons, In fraud of our law, oross in
to our territory aad are apprehended, our officer
do not know what to do with them, a the
Dominion authorities will not suffer them to be
tent back without a second payment ot tho tax. .
An effort will be made to reach an understand
ing tost wlU remove tbU difficulty.
The proclamation required by Section It of the
act of March . IHhu, relating to the killing ot
seals and othnr fur bearing animals, waa issued
by ma on March Hi, nnd revenue vessel waa
dispatched to enforce tbe law and protect the
interest ot the United Slates. The establish
ment of a rvfug statlos at Point Harrow, aa
directed by Oongreas, was successfully accom
plished. Judged by modern ttandards, we are practi
cally -without coast defence. Many of the
Itructnret we tiave would enhance rather than
diminish the peril of the garrison If subjected to
ihe tire of Improved guns, and very few are co
located a to give full effect to ths grecter range
of tuch gum as we are now nteklng for coast
dsfoase usee This general subject ha
had . consideration In Congress tor aom
yesn and the appropriation tor the eon
structloa i ot , large rifled sunt, made one
vearaso. Wat. I am sure, the sxoreaaion of a i
purpose to provide utuble work In which i end It remains only by every suitable agency to
these giro mbxht be mounted. An (tipropria- I pUeh him upward into the estate of a self -sup-tlon
now mad fur that purpose would not ad- porting and responsible citizen. For the adult,
ranoe the completion of the work beyond our ; ine nrst step la to locate him upon a farm, and
Bblllty to supply them with fairly effective gun. I for the child to place him In a school, (school
The tewrtty of our coast cltiet against foreign i attendance should be promoted by every moral
attack hould aot iet altogether in th friendly ency and, those falling, should be oompelled.
disposition of other nation. There should be a The national school! for Indians have bson very
second line, wholly in our own keeping. I very successful and ahould be nraltlplled and, a tar
rgrnlly recommend an appropriate at thla i bs possible, should be so oruanlxed and
uwton tor the construction of such works in .
our most exposed harbor. I spprov the sugges
tion of the Secretary of War that provision be
made for encamping- com panic of the National
Guard ia our coast workt for a specified time
each year and for their training and In the use
of heavy gun. This auggeitloa that an in
crease of ths artillery force of the army I do-,
atrabte, It also oommended to the consideration
of Congrecc.
Tht Improvement of our Important river and
harbors should be prompted by the necessary
appropriation. Care ahould be takes that the
Government I not oommltted to th prosecu
tion of work not of public and general advan
tage, and that the relative usefulness of workt
of that class Is not overlooked. 1 do not doubt
that the end would b sooner and more eco
nomically reached If fewer separate workt were
".ndcrtokna at the aame time, and those selected
for their greater general Interest were more
rapidly pushed to completion. A work once con
siderably begun should not b subjected to th
risk snd deterioration which Interrupted or In
sufficient appropriation necessarily oeoaaion. '
iTbe assault by David 8. Terry upon- the por
B of Justice Field, of the Supreme Court of
the United States, at Lathrop, Cel., In August
lust and the killing of the assailant by a deputy
United Statet marshal who had been depuKxl
to acoompany Justice Field aud to protect him
from anticipated violence at the hands of Terry,
in connection with the legal proceeding which
btve followed, suggest questions which. Id
my Judgment, are - worthy the attention of
Ongresa. . .1 recommend that more dodnlte
firovlslea be made by law, not only
ir . the protection , et federal eftloeri, but
f', full trial ton tuch cites in to United
Staves Oonrtiu In commending such legislation
I 4o npt at aM lmpenek cltlior the general ade-
?lary ot Ihe provision made by tho State lawa
it aheptoiecUoa of -all citizens, as the grnoral
disposition f tk'i'e charged vita th execution
of sueh laws to grve protection to tbe oflloers of
the United, Htsitga, The duty of pniteoUag IU
officers lis BUi-b. and of punishing lliwe who
asu thess. oii. aoaouut of their official acts,
should nolo devolved expressly or by aouoea-,
Event whlcn have bean, Brought to my attest-'
tlon, hardening In other jutrts of the country,
have also fktfeeled tbe pprtrly of extending,
by b-KleiatliiBy flttr . protection toi. those wito
nilbe called witnesaes ia the courts cf Uio
UtHed Mtee ,Tba- tun mpl twos wl are
up i d U have, knewlcibveof pubilo ndease
totvtMad u-r t-earts and grand Juries, ai d
toglreevkleara, Thar it auAlfestrwuiltiiig
duty that thee 'Wlllieeses shall ha prutenU'4
from t)uy aa grcjeiHitof Uulr tnsttsaauy. ' Tut
lnvctiailima ot crloihu orfeases are often
rnademd futile, ana the punishment of crime
iBjnosalble, by th Intimidation of witnesses.
The aeeessity of providing tome mora speedy
method for disposing of the eases which ow
some for final adjudication to the Supreme
Court beromot every year more apparent and
it. The nlanof nrovldiux some lnterme-
dlate courts having flual appellate Jurisdiction
of certain classns of quoatlont and oases hat, t
think, -oe.lvd. -a more gcnciel approval from
the btututt unil-hyii-uf the country than any other.
without attenimluKto discuss details 1 reooia
mend tb.it pftivltlon --ehoaldl be inmle for,
the estatoiiahiaeovet saeh eoute.--The salaries
of the Judges of the District Court in many ot
the districts are, In my Judgment, Inadequate.
I recommend that all such salaries now below
,(xo per annum be increased to that amount.
It laqnKetrun hM"tne israouut-oMnbor per-fon-'-Abythsse
ju.igeelnvery aeenttub but as
the, ...vti e6i prep -Nvtuiitaire in ptlier fiursutts
to eoputomese tut-irtsioomes, the salary should
be such In all cases as to provide an Inde
pendent and oomfortable support.
Karnest attention should be given by Congress
Sa a Anmtirierutlon of the ouestlon how far Ibw
restraint of these combinations ot capital cam- I
monly eallod "trusu" I a matter of federal Jut- f
Isolation, w ncn orgBBisea, as way oivea are
to crust out all hsallby competition and to aw-
nonolite the production or x ale of a artlola-of
ov ? -'e n.l general ne-' . .y. v ar. 4.
;ler- ally; pu o- n &
uo . ie j...i..e . surtvat eiiaaiwtt' 'iad
even penal legislation. .
The subject ef aa In tarnation al oepyrlgbt ha
bee frequently commended to the attention of
Congre by my predeoescor. The eoeettneat
ef such a law would be eminently wis and Just.
Our naturalization laws should be so revised
sate mnke the.lpu.uir? ltito toe .oharaulejt a4
good dlh)KisliKin towards our Government, of
th persoua applytng fvcoltunuMkip moan thor
ough.' This can Quly b ..dotal by taking fuller
eontrdl of the cxamlaattoaHir by fixing the time
lor bearing such application and. by requiring
t th preseeoe of aoiue one who thai! represent
the fwevernaMOt 1 the taqiury. I nose wnoare
the enemies OT coclal oruar, or who comf to cut
here tosewetl toe tuJurlou inhuenoe Und Vy
xteed theevll prartloe of aay assoelatloii that
delle our law, should not only be denied pit)..
asnippliQtaVcjtaU,ii ci v' J
The euuctuient of national bankrupt law of
antaraotur to be a pennaaeot part of ear gen
eral lcglslatkia la deslrablex It should be simple)
la It method and Inoxpontlvo In lit edmiult-
ratlav illM Jv : ,iittJ.Wa HVn' -
The report of the Peatmaster Geaesal not
only exhlWU the operations of the department
for the fiscal year, but eontaios many ;valhie
tuggestloni for the Improvement and exteaalon
el uie eervice wtiica arrcoaimenQeoacyoaTas-
tent Ion. No other branch of the Government
has to close a contact with tbe daily life of the
people. Almost avery one am the service it ot
ters, u every hour gained in the transmission
of the great eominerclalaaalla kaa aa actual and
poaalm value that only those engaged ia trade
eaa andentand. ' Th saving of one day 1b the
transmission ot tha mall between New York
and SanTranclioo, which hat recently been ac
eoapltahed, UiBa. incident worthy ef meolloe.
The plan tuggsaied of a supervision of tbe post
office in separate districts that shall involve
Instruction and. eugvetUoa and rating of
efficiency of the postmaster would, I have no
doubt, greatly Improve the service.
A pressing necessity exists for the creation ot
a building for tbe Joint use of the department
and of the city posi-otnee. ThedeparUaent w
partially relieved by renting outside quarter
ton a part of It force, but It I again over
crowded. The building used by th eity offlo
never was Bt for the purpose snd I how inade
quate aod. unwholesome. Tha unsatisfactory
condition of the law relating to the transmission
of lottery advertisement and remittances 1
clecrly stated by the Postmaster- General and
his suggestion as to It amendment should have
your favorable consideration. ,
Tbe report of the Secretary of the Navy show
A reorganisation of the bureaus of the depart
ment that will, I do not doubl -promote the
efficiency of each. ' In general, satisfactory
Broarea ha been made In th eotutruetloa of
the new shipc of war authorized by Congress,
am.. . I -M . W. ... tl. . T., I ,,V. 4 V
was (ubjeezed (to very severe trial testa and to
much adverse' criticism, but It ia gratifying
to be able .to tteto that ' oral around
a uo urmat mat, v, in, hc ',, wiiiuiu.
(the world, from which the ha recently
rewraed.hae' demonstrated that ah Is a flrst-
cws vessel f her rate. , The report et the Beo
retsry abowa that while the effective force of
the Navy le rapidly iacreatlng, by reaaoa of tbe
improved build and armament at the new ships,
the number of our ship tit for sea duly grows
very slowly.' W had oa the ta of Karch test
tniny seven aervioeaui amps, anu mmjukb iuw
have since been added to tbe list, tbe total ha
nol been increased, because in tbe BMientime
four hare been lost or eondemned. - Twenty-six
additional vessels Jiav been authorised aad
appropriated for, but It Is probsbl - that
wnen utey are compieieu our iu wiu oniy oe
Increased to forty two, a gain ot fir. , The, old
wooden ships are disappearing almost a fast a
th now vessel are added. The tact carry
their own arguments. On of the new ship may
Infighting etrength be equal to two of the old.
but it can not do the cruLslna duUoc of two. It
Is important, therefore, that we should bare a
, more rapta incroesciauieniuaDeroi aervieew
blc thipa. I concur In the recommendation of
the Secretary that the construction of eight
armored ships, three gunboat ad fir torpedo
boats be mhortxed.
i An appalling calamity nercil raree ot our
: nnvul vuHsels on duty t the Samoan islands. In
tbe barborof Apia, In March last, Involving the
' loss of four offiovrt and forty-seven aeamen of
' two vessels the Trenton and the VanJalla
and the disabling ot a third, the Nlpele. Three
vessels of tbe German navy shared with our
ships the force of the numcane ana sunerea
even more heavily. While mourning the brave
officers and men who died with tbe high resolve
. to brave perils creator than those of battle It
' is most irrailf vine to state tbe credit of tha
I America nary for seamanship, courage and
I generosity wat msgnltlcently sustained In the
I s:orm beaten harbor of Apia.
, The report of tbe Secretary of the Interior ex
hibits the transaction of the Government with
the Indian tribes. Substantial progress has
been made In tbe education of the children of
school age and In th allotment of lands to
adult Indiana. It 1 to be regretted that the
policy of breaking up the tribal relation and of
j dealing with the Indian as aa Individual did not
appear earlier lu our legislation. Large reser
I rations held In common and the malnleuunc of
the authority of the chiefs and bead men have
' deprived the Individual of every incentive to the
. exercise of thrift, and the annuity -ha eon
. tributed sn affirmative Impulse towards a state
' of confirmed pauperism. Our treaty stlpulo-
lions should be observed with fidelity and
j our legislation should be highly oonslaerute
I of the best Interest of en ignorant and helpless
: people. Tbe reservations are now generally
surrounded by white settlement, we can no
w... .... .,,,.h i k. T,n.n K.-ir in ih wiiri.rn...
oonduoted a to facilitate the trnn-'fer of tho
eohools to the Bute or Territories in which they
art located, where the Indian In a neighbor
hood have accepted citizenship and have become
otherwise fitted for tuch a transfer. This con
dition ot thing will be sttained slowly, but It
will be hastened by keeping It la mind, and In
the meantime thai co-operation between the
Government, the mission eohools, which has
wrought much good and ahould be cordially and
impartially sustained.
The last Congress enacted two distinct lawt
relating to negotiation with the Sioux Indians
of Dakot for a relinquishment ot a portion of
their lands to tbe United States and for divid
ing the remainder into scparat reservations.
Both were approved on the same day, Murcb
a. The one submitted to the Indiana, a specific
proposition, tho other fsectlun 3 of the ludlan
appropriation act) authciized the Ih-iwldent to
appoint three commissioners to norotlate with
those Indians for tliu accouipltuhmont of
tba same general purposes, aud required
that any agrevmcuta mode should on
submitted to Congress for ratification. ' On
April IS I sppotnti-d lion. Charles Foster,
of Ohio: Hon. William Warner, of Mlsiourl
and Major General Ooortre Crook, of the United
States Army, commissioners under the last
named law. -They were, however, authorized
and directed firm to submit to the Italians th
deunlte proposition made to them by the act
flrit mentioned, and, only la the event ef a
failure to secure the assent of the requisite
nnwber to that proposition, to open negotiation
fur modi Hod term under th other aot. The
work of tbe omn mission was prolonged and
arduous, but the assent i of, the requisite
cumber waa finally obtained to tho proposition-
made by Congress, though the
rouort of the Commission baa not yot been sub
mitted. In view of these fact I shall not, at at
present advised, deem it necessary to submit th
tgrweaitm to Congress for railiieatlou, but It
wui, m cue course, oe suDimuea. . i neae agree
tnedt release to the United Slate about ,uutt,
tjuo tjcretaf laad, -.,- .. t't.r.Miut !
tThe commission provided for by Boctloo 14 of
tba Indian Appropriation bill to negotiate With
the Cherokee Indian aiua-alt- ether Indian
claiming land irlng went of tha-aiaetvlsiBj,
dei-i-w of 1)1''". for the ecsstun to tin- liu i-
Slut -of k-tt uc4. tends; was eunminti ii bv ')
api" H- v ot 4uBi--- rslia t lerl?
auo '
1. J-.l'l-'.
'H 4 ;..
,',1 (y,i Ju. c . -if I
a th. err'Mietf ivf-.-f ih'
,-. .at) i ..lileqi- "
- -V
rf)v . 'wr.
li t . . -
eutii - ,.'-uuff,ls4iistiya4iOu.i,raily ito-u.-mH!'
by a people ae had serve with co: splcuouj
gaUauUy in war aad wllk great tVielity la peav.
The v scan ay thus created mi tilled by thf
appointment ot Warren G. Bayre, of Indiana
A second oonferenoe between the commlsslot
and the Cherokees was begun In November, but
no results have yet been attained, nor it It be
Ueved that a oonclusion oan be immedlatel)
ec pec ted. The eattl syndicate now) occupy
lag jth anda fur' grazlun purposet ts dearly
onetiof the agencies responsible for . tht
obstruction of out negotiations with the Cher
okees. The large body of agricultural land!
constituting what it known aa the "Cherokee
Outlet" ought not to be, and Indeed oan not long
be held for grazing, and for the' advantage ot a
r against tbe publio'ciniepaat ua the best a
vsntsfps Of malndluas teimeUea Tht United
States! t :Mw, uadef, uue arnnriesj eertai
righuln4heWaaas2he-arll(w( be Bead
oppressively but It oan not be allowed that thoee
who by inference oooupy these Und shall in
terpose to dofoat tho wis purposes of the gov
ernment. t JUrAleT"'IHrl(rtjWnWit Tmatl8" oats-eea th
VwMed SUtes and th Creek nation ot Indian
oa January Ik, im, a abaoluto title wst se
cured by the Unite Btatea to about 0,OUO
acres et li-nd. Section It ot -tha India Apnea,
priafi -st, apprev' 1 Vlar 'i ilS8 md- ),
vlclo' 'the, purr icbi jiit) U "d i
fnaii . leminole uMll wevt. .env,t
theirlaau. The Aalefatoe eft the Seminole na
tion delivered t proper releaee and conveyance
to th United Rules of all th land mtntloaed
la the sot, whioh wat accepted by me and certi
fied to be in compliance with the statute. By
ths terms of both the eott referred to, all the
land o prtrtanjtedeM.uillatohAt pait4l
the pubilo domala aad open to .settlement
under the Boaitead law. But of thanAm
braosd In those piifohase. being In the eggrei
gaslt.euj,4jdorea 5u0,(IU'ores had at
Ttady, under thaterm ot the, treaty f tW heea
acquired by the United States tor the purpose
at aaKUaf OUST lad Van. brtbea thsceoa, aad has
beea tpproprlated to that ,purpot,i.Tha laad
remaining and available for settlement oon
tilted ' of, lTIJV jaeiws,. . surrouaded eon
all - tide by lands In J the, occupancy
Ct.'tai :.'WkV 'j, COTrvt J ha 'provteVed
no civil government or the poopiiLWhawcri
t he invited by my proclamation to ettleirpoa
the, lands, exocpta to ihe arw eetsrt, which
had been established at Musoogee. or the united
tales Court la Softool toe .adjotnla State
had power toenforoe tbe general lawa of th
Unttea ntatet. ia wis oonaiuon oi wings i wai
ulte reluctant to epea the tonda.to Mttlement,
lut In view of tba fact. that, several thou
sand persons, many of them with families, had
gathered upon th border Bf the Indian
Territory, with a view ot securing home
alaada am th : ceded I '.lands, andr tha 'de
lay, would , Involve them in much fo
aod tufferimr, -I did,' on March Slaat,lMu
Sroclamation declaring thnt the land therein
esoribed would be open to settlement, andet
the provisions of tba lew, on April )M following.
Two laad districts had been established and the
office - were open tor business when the ap
nolnted time arrived. It ia much to th credit
of the aettlerc that they very gee orally observed
ine limitation ac to toe tune wuea
thev mhrht enter the . territory, i Cere will
be taken that those who entered In violation
of tha law do not tecum tha advantage thev ua
fairly sought. There waa a good deal ot appro
oeniiou that the strife for locations would re
sult in much violence and bloodshed. 'but hap
pily ueee aatlolMtloo wera not iwllrrd. Am
estimated that there are now In the Territory
about BXU0O people aad aeveral eonslderabl
towns htv sprung up for which temporary mu
nicipal government nav been organized. Guth
rie it tald to have bow a population of eVJUU. ,
'In order to secure the peace of thlt new com
muntty.ln tbe absence ot el vli government, 1
directed General Merrill, commanding the de
partment of the Missouri, to act In aonJuBotloa
witn tnc maranai ot ine uniteo piate to pro
serve the oeeoe. and anon their requisition to
use the troops to aid them to- executing . war
rant and la quieting any riot or breachee of
the peace that might ooour. The presence ot
the treope has given a tens ot tecurtty to -the
well disposed citizen aad tended to restrain that
lawless. . ,
I very urgently recommend that Cong-res at
once provide a Territorial government for these
people. Seriou question, which may at any
time lead to violent outbreak, are awaiting tha
lattltutlons ot court for their peaceful adjust
Mnt. The American genius for self-govern mant
has been well illustrated la Oklahoma, but It 1
aclther aafl nor wise -to leave those people
longer to the expedlenU whioh have temporarily
served them. . . s -
Having no power to levy taxes, the people of
Alaska are wholly dependent upon the General
Government, to whose revenues the aeal Osh
crle mke a large- aanuali contribution. An
appropriation for education tbould eel liter be
overlooked nor stinted. The tmallnesa of the
population and the great distance! between the
settlementt offer serious obstacle to the estab
lishment of the usual Territorial form of gov
trament. Perhap the organization of several
sub-diitricts, with a small municipal oounoll of
limited power for each, would be cafe and
useful, i . .'
Ia th administration of the land Itwt th
policy of facilitating In every proper way the
adjustment of the hone ollm of Individual
settlers upon th pubilo lands ha been pur
sued. Tht number of pending cases had, during
the preceding administration, been groutly In
creased under the operation ot order for a time
suspending final action lfl a large part of the
oases originating in the West end Northwest
and by tbe subsequent use ot unusual methods
of examination. Only those who are familiar
with the condition under which our gricul-
tural land have been- settled oan appreciate
the sertoui tnd often fatal consequence to the
settler of a policy that put hi title under sus
picion, or delays the issuances of his patent,
while care ts taken to prevent and to exiumi
fraud. It should not be Imputed without reason.
Tbe mknlfett purpose of the homestead nnd
pre-emption law was to promote the settle
ment of the pubilo domain by persons having a
bona fide lntont to make a home upon the se
lected lands. Where this Intent is well estab
lished and the requirements of the law have
been snbitautlally complied with, the claimant
It entitled to a prompt and friendly con
tlderatlon of hi case. But where there
It reason to believe that tbe claimant
Is tbe mere agent of another who It teeking- to
evade a law Intended to promote email holdings,
to receive by fraudulent method large tracts or
lumber ana other lands, both principal and
agent tbould not only be thwarted In their
fraudulent purpose, but should be msde to feel
Ihe full penalties of our criminal ttatutea. The
lawt - should be so administered at not to con
found these two classet and to visit penalties
only upon tho latter. '
i Tnc unsettled state of tho title to lsrg
bMUet of lands In Torritortea . of Now
Mexico and Arizona ho greatly re
tarded tbe development of those Territor
ies. Provision should be ' made by law
tor the prompt trial and final adjustment before
Judicial tribunal or commission of all claim
based upon Mexican grunts. It It not lust to
an Intelllvotit and enterprising people that their
p soce should be disturbed and their prosperity
retarded by these old oonlcntlona. I express
Uie hope that differences of oplnlos as to meth
ods may yield to the urgency of the case,
Tho law provide a pension for every soldier
tnd s.illor who was mustered Into the service of
the United State during tbe Civil War, and I
now (uttering from wound or dlsesse hiving an
origin in Uie service and the llneof duly. Two
of three necessary foots, viz. i muster and dis
ability, are usually susceptible of easy proof,
but the third origin In tbe acrvlce la often
difficult and In many deaervlng case Impossible
to establish. That very many of those who
endured the hardships of our most bloody and
anluou oanipalgna are now disabled from dis
uses thst bad a real but not traceable origin In
tervlce, wo do not doubt, beside these Is
another class, composed of men, many of whom
erred the three lull yoara, and of re-enlisted
veterans who added a fourth year of service ;
who escaped the cuaualtle of battle and th
assaults of disease ; who wore always ready fur
any detail ; who wen In every battle line of
thulr command, and were mustered out in sound
beslth snd hsve, stneo the close of the war,
while fighting with the aame Indomitable aud
lndcpeuuui.t spirit, the ocntexl of civil life,
beea overooine by disease or casualty. '
'I am not unaware that the pension roU
already Involve a very largo annual expendi
ture, neither am I deterred by that tact from
reoouimemllDg that Congress grant pension to
Itch honorably discharged soldier and eiillont
of the Civil War as, having rendered substantial
aervioe during tbe war, are now dependent upon
their own labor fore maintenance and by din
ease or casualty are iucupaoiated from earning
It. Many of Uie men who would bo included li
this form of relief are now dependent upon pub'
He Bid end It doe not. In my judgment, consist
with the national honor that tbey shall
continue to subsist upon the local relief given
Indiscriminately to puupers, Instead of upon
the apeolol and generoua provision of tbe nation
they served so gallantly and unselfishly. Our
people will, I am lure, very, generally approve!
luoh legislation, and I am equally cure that the
lurrtvors of the Uaioa arsny aad navy will tool
t grateful sense of relief whea-thl worthy and
(uttering class of their oomrades la fairly cared
or. There are Borne manifest Inequalities la
to existing lew that ahould be remedied. To
tome of these the Secretary of the Interior ta
celled attention. , ,-,
It I gratifying to be able to state that by the
adoption of new aad better method In the War
Department, th call of the Pension Onto tat
information a to th military and heapltal re
oordeof pen tloa claimant arc now promptly
answered aed the tnlurtuus and vexatious d-'
lay that bav heretofore eeminvsj are entirely
avoided. This will cTnutlv facilitate tbe adjust
ment ot all pending cMias.' a '
t'he ad vent of four new States Snath Dakota,
North Dakota, Montana and Washington Into
tba Union ander the Ooattlliittoa la th same
toeata, aad th edulsstoe of their duly chosen
rtarcf ntHlvrt to our National CoBgrcst it th
same teuton, It an event as unexampled as M It
Interesting. The oortlttoatton of the vote oast
nd ot the constitution adopted in each ot th
Btutet wat hied with me, aa required by the aot
Of February W, 1NH9, by the Governors of tald
Territories. Having, nfter a careful examina
tion, found tnul me several constitutions anu
, i ...... i. TnrmDHcan -rn form and not
xeptiguaBt to. -to Xkiuatltutloa.at toe .Ua ited
States, nd thut all the provisions oi ine act oi
Ookgrest hod been oompuoa witn, i urn so uo
elare by proclamation in the oase of each State.
Each of these State ha within It rntouroe
the development ot which will employ the ener
etoaaf iadyleWeortleieubsistonoe to a
re:t population The (smallest of these new
BtaiesetrWaabjiitttoi etapds JBwelfth, and the
tWastMmata talfil, -among tha forty-two
la area. The people of these Btatet are already
well trained Intetltmnt and Betrlotlo Amertoaa
Citizens, having oommon interests and sympa
thies with those of the older States, and a oonv
Cion purpoeo to defend the Integrity of and lip
oid the honor ot tha nation.
The attention of the Inter-State Commerce
Commission ha beea called to the urgent need
Of Oungreeatonsl legislation for the better pre
i ion of the Uvea and 11m be et tho engaged
ioerkting the great Inter-State freight line
. ,i oouatry, and especially of the yardmen
and brakemen. A petition, ilgned by nearly tea
thousand railway brakemM, wat presented to
the commission, asking that step might
be take to bring , about the as
of automatl brake aad aouDlers oa
freight car. At a meeting of Stat
Mfti-nalV'-Mrtmnitai.tatMl.ar'ialA atVirStl1niTl.in
In Maroh last, upun tha Invitation ot the Inter
state Commerce (Mramtatntlientlon ra
unanimously adopted, urging th commission
to consider what can fee dose to prevent the lost
of ll'c and Umb la .coupling and uncoupling
freight are, and ta haadliog the brake ef such
ear. During the year ending June , ltJ8,
ever lm railroad employes wsre, htllca la
service, and more thaa tU.OOO Injured, It i
oompetent, I think, for Oongreas to require
uniformity In the eon structloa of cars
need ia inter state oommrae, and the nee- of
Improved safety appllanoe upon (uch train.
Time will be necessary to make the seeded
chaage, but an earnest aad Intelligent begin
ning ahould be made at once. - It to a roproach
to our civilization, that any elaaa ot American
workmen thould In the pursuit ef a accessary
and useful vocation be subjected to peril of
life sad linib to greet a that of a. soldier, la lime
of war, . ,
Th creation tf 'a Executive DepartBlmt
to be known a th Department at Agriculture,
wattwlsoand timely- respodse to a request
which had long been respectfully urged by the
tanners of the country. Much eemaln id-be
lone to perfect the organization of th depart:
tient to that It fairly realize the expectation
which It oreatton excited. In this connection
attention -la -called to amrgetloa contained
in the report of the Secretary. ,whlch , 1
herewith submitted. The ' need df a lew
iffloer for the department, such as Is pro
vided for the ether Kxeoutlrg departments, 1
manifest. Th failure ot the last Congress to
inake th usual provision forthe publication ot
the annual report should be promptly remedied,
fne public Interest In tbe report aad It valu
to the farming community I am sure will not be
diminished under the hew organization of th
I recommend that the weather service be Sep
tra ted from the War Department aod estab
lished a bureau in the Department of Agrl'
culture. Thlt will Involve an entire re-organ-ration
both of the Weather Bureea aod of the
Signal Corpe, making of the Drat a purely otvlj
organization and of the other purely military
itaff corp. The report of tbe Chief Signal
etrtrerehowa that the work of tnd oorptvnll
milltsry side has beep deteriorating. , ,. .
Tbe interests ot the people of tbe District of
Columbia tbould not be lost tight of In the
pressure far consideration of measure affecting
tbe whole country. - Having no legislature of it
own, either municipal or general, the people
must look to Congress for the regulation of too
oneorni that are the subtest of local ooatroL
Our whole pooplo have aa Interest that the Na
tional Capital ahould be mad attractive and
beautiful, and above all that It repute tor
pedal order should be maintained. The lew
regulating the sale of lntoitoatlng drinks In to
District should be revised, with a view to bring
ing tbe traffic under stringent limitation and
control.' ,'.'.- i i i-' "i -, -i a i...... . ,
The proposition to observe the four hundredth
anniversary of the discovery of Amerole by the
opening of a World' Fair or exposition In aom
one of our great eltlee will be presented tor the
consideration of Congress, The value snd Inter
cut of inch an exposition may well claim tbe
promotion ot tbe General Government. -
On the 4th of March last the Civil Service
Commission had but a tingle member. The
vacancies were filled on the 7th day ot May, and
since then toe commissioners hare bee Indus
triouslv, though with an Inadequate force, en
gaged in executing the law. They were assured
by me that a cordial support would be given
them In the faithful and Impartial enforcement
adopted In aid et it; heretofore the book ot ell,
glble has been closed . to every one
exoept as certification 'were made up
on the requisition ot th appointing officer.
This secrecy wat th tonroe ot much suspicion,
nd of many charges of favoritism in the admin
istration of tbe law. What I eeoret la a! war
uspected, and what It open can be Judged. The
commission, with the full approval of It mem
bers, has now opened the list of eligible to tbe
public. The eligible list for classified post
office and custom bouses are now oublloly
posted In the respective offices, a ere slso the
certifications lor appointment. Th purpose
of the Civil Service Taw was absolutely to ex
clude any other consideration in oonneclloo with
C-pnlrtmeuta nnder It thaa that ot merit, a
t. sti'd by the examinations. The business pro-'
ceeds noon tbe theory that both the examining
boards and the appointing officer are abso
lutely 1 mornnt at to the political views tnd
tociulioatof all persons on the civil service
list, It It not too much to say, however, that
zoinn recent Congressional Investigations have
somewhat sbaken nubile eonfidenee In-the Im
partiality of Uie selection for appointment.
Tbe reform of the civil service will niako bo
ante or satisfactory tdvanoe unUl the present
law and Its equal administration are well es'..t
llsbed in the confidence of the people. It will
be my pleasure, as it Is my duty, to tee tint the
l.w la . v iu-, , ..1 .Ilk m,nM. mm! n.n.l .ill
If aom of itt provisions have been fraudulently
evaded by appointing ofnoera, our ruseownent
should not auggest the repeal of the law, but re
form In tta administration. We ahould hate one
view of the mutter, and hold It with a tinoerlty
that I not effected by the consideration that
the party to which we belong it for a Ume In
My predecessor, on January 4, ISM, by u Ex
ecutive order to take effect March in, brought
the railway mall eurrloe uudcr the operation ot
Uie Civil Service lew. Provision was made that
the order tliould take effect sooner In any Stale
where an ellglhlo list was seiner obtained. On
March II, Mr. Lyman, then the only member of
Uie commission, reported to me that It would
Hot be possible to have the list ot the ellgiblec
ready before May 1, and requested that the tak
ing effect ot the ordor be postponed until that
time, which was done, aubjoct to th name pro-
Jlslon contained In the original order as to
tales In which an eligible llt was sooner
obtained. A a result of .the - revision
of tbe rule of the new classification and of the
Inclusion ot the railway mail eervice, tht work
of the commission has been grestly lucreeed
tnd the present clerical force Is found to be in
tdequit, I recommend that the additional
clerkt asked by th commission be appropriated
for. The duty of appointment I devolved by
tbe constitution or by the law and tbe appoint
ing otBosra are properly hold to a reeponsibtllly
In It exercise.
The growth of tbe country and tbe ecWqnept
Increase of tbe civil list have magnified Uila
luuuiiuu ui mid Ejttnai.'TO u iHiini por uouai ly.
can not be dented, however, thut the labor eon
nected with this necessary work 1 Increased,
often to tbe point of actual distress by the
sudden and excessive demands that are
made upon an Incoming Administration for
removal and appointments. But on the oth
er band-ft I not true that incumbency
It a conclusive argument for a oontlnunnoe la
(Slice. Impartiality, moleratlon, fidelity to
public tlnly and a goo attainment la the dut
ch a rye of It must be added before the argument
It complete. When those holding administrative
ofllcea co ooBduot themselves aa to oenvlnoe
Jnal political opponent! that no party consider,
utlon or bla affects la soy wsy the diHcka.wo of
their public duties, we can more easily aluy tbe
demands tor removals1 ; 1 '
1 1 ant 'Satisfied that, toth is andontpftbn
ctaasillod eervice, great benefit -would acerue
from the adoption at aom system by whioh tlie
oOioer would reorlv the distinction and beueilt
that In all private employments oome from ex
ceptional falthfulnes and efficiency In the per
formaaoe of duty. I have cuggealed to th head
o the Kxecutlvc Department that they consid
er whathor a record might not be kept In each 1
bureau of. all those e lessen ta Uiat are covered by
the term "faithfulness" and "enioiencj" aud a
rattag made snowing th relative sueriu of the
clerkt of each clas-Ui)s rating to be regarded
at a lest of merit in making promotion.
(I have tla kagsetted t the postmaster Gen
eral that he adopt some plan by which he caa,
upon the nasi a of the report to the department
and of 'request Irmpeellene. ladloate the rela
tive merit of pastmsstert of each class. They
will he apart prialcly Indicated ia) the bmotal
register and report ol Ike d.-partment. That a
rreut ttlmntn would be gtvee to wuuie service
do not doubt, end that such a re ire would be
the best defence against removal from office
' The interest wf the Oovsrament to the educav
tkxrot the people found in early eipresakm,
bet only In the thoughtful aad wnwtl,iiee wi-b
lug utterance of our ablest ilatesnon, but in
liberal anproprlettua ' feuta to ewmos re
source for th upuort ef ediicatle ia the new
Slate. Ne on will deny that HI of th grav
eat aatloDll aoaotm that too who hold tha

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