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Western Reserve chronicle and weekly transcript of the times. (Warren, Ohio) 1854-1855, March 28, 1855, Image 2

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, P. COX. : : : :
: Emtok a Funinw.
: Associat Editor.
Varreo, Wednesday, March 28.
The Indian and the White Man.
Although accused by some of our co
temporaries of having our sympathies
arrowed down to the wrongs, of the
Mack man, we cannot rid ourselves of a
convictioa which lias Leen growing upon
r Tie for years, thai among the sins which
will lie heavy aud dark at the door of
this nation, must ba numbered that of un
just Jaod ruthless persecution of the red
man f the forest. That the Ind ian has
be. oftu rousad by the usurpation of
his ancestral" hunting grounds, arid the
irresistible encroachments of the whites
to .sudden "anJ terrible deeds' of savage
cruelty and revenge cannot ba denied.
T- 1 . a - ., ...
a nut me swin ana bloody vengeance
which has in such cases been visited upon
him has often been natural in the circum
aiances, we are fully aware; but that
the merciless system, of exterminating
Of aression which has characterised In too
raany instances the conduct of the gov-
enment, and stamped with shame the-
annals of our. border warsrhas been jus
tified by the deeds, of savage cruelly
which are appealed 'to for their defence
we cannot acknowledge. Shocked by
the revolting' acts of barbarian retribu.
tion vrhich have roused the sleeping settler
at dead of night to find Lis cabin in flames
na tf).. tomahawk and scalping knife
awaiting himself and his family at the
door, we are apt to lose sight of the wrongs
which have kindled in the untaught and
fiery heart the flam a of savage vengeances
Robbed of his hunting grounds, made
aacred to him by every association which
Hs P0""6.1; over, his untutored heart
driven step by step backward from the
graves of his fathers, and made an alien
and an eutlaw in the land which he
deemed bestowed upon him by the "Great
Spirit, it was natural that he should look
upon the, white man with the hatred which
ia borne Tn the-human breast of a con
sciousness of oppression and wrong.
The extenuating excuses urged by the
"pale face" intruder are beyond his com.
prehension. He only sees that he has
been robbed of all he'held most dear, and
his forest-born philosophy refuses to rec
ognize the- fine-drawn sophistries of his
more1 subtle brother.'- Though he could
not answer in kind the arguments which
were-" 'urged to justify his expatriation,
yet those noble instincts of Freedom,
Fquality'and Justice which are born of
an unfettered intercourse with Nature by
forest and prairie, taught him it was
wrong"'" -
These' considerations in view, an en
lightened sense of justice would dictate
to this nation a kind and conciliatory,
instead of a fierce-and exterminating
course of polioy towards the red man."
Its aim should be to civilize aud human.
ize his rough and darkened nature, and
" endeavor to recompense ' him for . the
wrong "of the past with the blessings of
civilization and enlightenment. Is this
the course which has been pursued? Is
n 1. !.'' . l: c . i
..... y1 vi uie tirest-nir
An array ef facts might' be produced in
answer to these questions which might
well cause the blush of shame to mantle
the cheek of the patriot and the philan
thropist: Violated treaties and deeds of
red-handed violence on the part of the
emi-savage desperadoes who infest the
borders of civilization in the West, and
South West, aad who look upon the In
dia' as fit game to be hunted .and shot
down without mercy and without com
punction, are fresh and thick in the mem
ories of those who have had the human
ity to notice, and the hardihood to protest
against them. ' -
We copy fhei following from an ex
chapge, and enter with it our solemn pro-
test against such outrage, past present and
to come. J "" ' ' ' ' 1
Mr. Edgerton, of Ohio, is doing the
State good service in exposing the abuses
ef the whites upon the Indians. In a re
cent debate in Congress, he read from
the report of Joel Parker, an Indian Agent
in Oregon.1-' This atatement is so much
to the point) and sets forth the true reason
of th "difficulties with the Indians so
plainly, that is worthy of general cir
culation. Mr, EJgerton read as follows
from the report :
"From the frequent recurrence of sim
ilar atrocities against the Indians in south
ern ; and ..southwestern Oregon, the con
viction i forced upon me, that a premedi
tated . and combined effort, on the part of
reckless and evil-disposed whites roaming
through that country, has been, and con.
tin ues to- be made, to plunge the govern -
rnent into another. Indian war, and carry
eut their favorite schemes of annihilating
these Indians.
"These' miscreants, regardless of age
or sex, assail and slaughter these poor
weak, and defenceless Indians with im
punity, as there are no means in the hands
tf the agents ,to prevent these outrages,
or bring The perpetrators to justice.
"There are many well-disposed persons
in that district whose sense of justice
and humanity, revolts 'at such inhuman
scenes; but, through fear of some other
cause, they are silent. It is- presumed
that many anile and take part in these
deeds of .horror as means of self-preservation,
their fears being wrought upon
by reckless and lawless persons, lest the
appe&ranca of opposition to their conduct
might subeot them to a doom similar to
that which befalls the Indian." .
S'xw-HAKrsinRE.--The full returns
from this State give the following result:
sll others The united vote of the
' t)pposi:ion wa - ------ :37,336 ' --''
' Baker, Nebraska - - - 26,712
l.iTf . , . j r
fusion ilajon'ty . - - 10,624
The Senate stands, Fusion 10, L cofo
co IT'Ifo choice t: In 'he Rouse, the
Fusions have 221 members, the Locof
cos have -79- The . victory is total and
complete.' It revolutionizes the Slate at
hoihc,: and in Congress. -Two Fusion U.
Senators, ' and. three "members of the
House, being the entire delegation, are
thus secured. The year 1 S55 pens even
more auspiciously than did 1851., Con
neeticut, Rhode Island. Virginia close
the list of flections for. the spring, and
nothing is more certain than that they
will follow in the footsteps of New, Hamp
shire. Pierce,' Douglas 4 Co., bein to
in - -ion that the Nebraska
to th-
[For the Chronicle.]
Whatever shall have a tendency to in
duce a course of conduct among men
that shall infringe in any m inner upon
justice equity and right, must of neces
sity undermine morality in proportion i.s
it unhinges conscientiousness and recon
ciles men in hardness of heart tj in
jure and oppress their fellows,
There need be no higher evidence of
a demoralized slate of public sentiment
than is to be found in rel.iliou to fl igran
. r ? - .
acis oi injustice condemning some wn
. . .
seventy, winking at or justifviiiii others
of eqna' enormity, or rauallv wrnmr.
'Mow whatever mav be the distinctions
that human laws may t ike, cr the differ
ences thai they nuy nuke bctwrcti a
the various aels or transactions, by whit
our men or set of men, mav lake or oh
tain fom an other or others, au"ht dint i
of value, without a just equivalent; i
a moral point of view, the principle is tl
same call the act (in legal phrase
theft, trespass; robbery, swindling, d
f ... .
iiauutug, ur eaujruon in an Its VoTlOU
ways or passing counterfeit for wood
money the principle is the same, the ob
ject the same, the obtaining that which is
another' t without a just equivalent. And
just so far as the public mind is less of
fended at an unrighteous act or practice
in our or another of all the varbus way
than in relation to the residue, so far it is
already viciated, corrupted, and in imi-
nent danger while condemning wicked
ntss in tome forms, of virtually licensing
it in others.
a wisn to oe understood to aver that
the exacting or tak
unlawful or extortionate interest for mon
aw tfio 'i . t.
""vj, i lur esciianging monev in
cases of other's necessities for notes ei
ther on banks or individuals, at unjust
exorbitant discounts, and practicing ex.
toil ion in that manner, is, in a moral point
ot view, no better than theft in each
case, 1 strain sav. the obiect ainuvl nr
and accomplished, so far as aught is ob
tained for which an equivalent is not giv
en, is the tame. . , : .
1 cannot forbear, though it be a di
gression to point to lessons of instruction
in relation to what must be the speedv re
suit of unchecked usury and extortion in
this State, as certainly as like begets like,
or as there is a connection between cause
and effect ; as derived from the bitter ex
penence of Indiana and Wisconsin
States where the "free trade in money"
has been tested.
Judge Wick (a circuit Judge) of In
diana, in a letter, stated that "he had
been a shuddering witness of the disas
trous effects of usury in that State." He
had rendered judgment upon contracts
for payment of -JO or S'J cents per day
per wet k on a loan of 50 or a 8100.
some instances the interest amounted
ten limes as much as the principal.
Usurers rarely ever brought suit till theif'
claims nearly amounted to the value of
the debtor's property. Thousands were
ruiaed. The evil defects were developed
years passed away in a geometrical
ratio, uuin became .wide spread, the
people demanded protection the Legis
lature passed an act and fixed the rate of
interest at 6 per cent, a penalty for its
violation making void all usurous con
tracts with non residents."
Wisconsin to the ruin of TuaBds of
her citizens tried the unhallowed experi
ment ot "Jree trade ia money." A letier
from the Hon. J. P, Walker, U. S. Sena
tor, represented the effects as most disas
trous. .That money was freely taken at
rates from 20 to 5J per cent, (generally
that of non-residents. ) He aisumed
as the average interest. He predicted
certain disastrous results which
more than realized the law was necessa
rily changed, but the bitter fruits re
mained a blighting curse to that infant
State. In a letter, R. B. Wright said
"One-third of all the improved property
the State was mortgaged from that
cause hundreds of her citizens were
workins in the mines of California tn
means to redeem their mortgaged
lands." Wisconsiu soon went back
passed a 7 per cent, interest law penalty
usury three times the excess, recover.
Die by law. "Those who do not profit
that of others, stand in the next rank
fatuity to those who are foals in spite
Happy had it been for Ohio had she
profited by the experience, the mad folly
these Slates, before being, with less
excuse in her more ripened age, drawn
a similar vortex, to be taught in the
school in which fools will learn, and
where, as the case now is, honest industry
artfully and extortionately robbed ofj
right, and villainous covetousness
thrives upon the pining wants and dis
tresses and the ruiu itcrea'es.
IT it cmtiei.
BrLWER in Parlime.nt; The Liver
pool Journal gives an interesting aecount
the great debate in Parliment on the
question of enlisting foreigners in the
English service. Speaking of Sir Ed
Lytton Bulwer, the Journal says :
"I think Sir Bui wer Lvtton is the most
ridicu'ous lookinsr man. with his hnrs
and blue saucer eves, in her Ma
dominions'; and his Low-wowy
drives one into hvsierics of fidget
and his gestures oh, his vestures!
conceive Cassandra being dogmatic in a
of delirium tremens. The impres
sion for the first five minutes of his ora.
is awful; y u see the members dust
ing their fae-s with their handkerchiefs,
screwing ihe r persons to ih-ir benches,
keeping their eyes off the door that
eo tempt ng 4and es ape from the
tremendo is baronet. But irenius aer s
nl one for-e s the tremendous
i i the mn whose very grotesq :e-
oui proves nts grand on-inality ;
forgetting the manner in ihe matter
when it is good, as on Tuesday the
housecheeis. - Sir Edard sat down, o i
night, with parlim nt ry success,
achieved I at he js celtbrat d
his f erten ieitv which he has been
yea's striving for; and as I watch
him passing along tire 1 bby to dinner
unreserved congratulations, I e m
on lusion lha tint was th -hap
moment of a career which, tho gd
with laun Is, l as, p rhaps beeo a
melancholy IjfV
In Id
so d
wi I
it p
News Items.
ship Queen of the Seas, which cleared
at Boston, Friday last, for San Fran
cico, has all her berths taken up.
Among the passengers are several young
ladies. A gentleman wishing very much
to take passage in the ship, found there
was no room for him exceptby marrying
one of the young ladies, which he ac
cordingly did ; and the berth which was
to be occupied by the young lady, wi
now be fiiled by (we hope) a happy cou
ple !
FTT!r;.M is said t have sold his Mag
azine (or 12,000. The name of the
purchaser has not been given.
Gov. Mkoill has written a letter in re
ply lo the question whether he will with
hold the public arms from independent
companies, compose in part or entirely
of adopled citizens. He cites the law
governing the subject, and very proper
ly comes to the conclusion that there is
no legislation which authorizes him toin
quire into the character of these compa
nies. If they are composed of "male
white citizens," the law, asit now exists,
is complied with.
Tiieke appears to be some difficulty in
Tmnessee in regard to Col. Gtutry. A
portion of the old Whig par:y refuse to
support him for Governor because of his
opposition to Gen. Scott in 1852.
State Rights and Libertt. We
learn by telegraph that the Supreme
Court ot Wisconsin has granted a writ
of habeas corpus in favor of S. M. Booth
and John Ryecraft, who have just been
found guilty under the Fugitive Law and
sentence to one month imprisonment and
$1,000 fine each. On Monday mornin".
they both left Milwaukee for Madison,
where a hearing was to be had, accom
panied to the Rail Road Depot by a pro
cession of two thousand citizens and a
band of music. This is so far, a glori
ous triumph for Freedom, and a just re
buke to the corrupt servile Judge who
pushed the prosecution.
As a precedent this case is important.
It ia time for the State to assert their in
herent supremacy, on this question of lib
erty. Our Court must maintain their
rights and protect her citizens. If the
Federal Courts degrade themselves to
tyrants, the State Courts must be eleva
ted to the true character of the judiciary.
Let this act of the Supreme Court ol
Wisconsin stand forth as it should, a
beacon of progress in human right ; and
let the people hail it as the harbinger of
of their triumph. .
As the begining of the right policy
towards Judges. Apetition has just
been presented to the'House of Represen
tatives of Massachusetts, asking for the
removal of Judge Loring, for the course
he pursued in the Burns case.
Important Decision. We learn thai
last week JudffCBartIev decided that flip
county Sheriff iJ not an officer of the
Probate Court, and that he cannot im
prison a man by order of said court.
The case in point was the State vs. Jo
seph Stibbs, who was immediately re
leased from custody. . S.nce then a Mr.
Cunningham was released on the eame
ground The decision is an important"
one, and shows another t?ifect in the
Probate code. What effeowill it have
theenfocement of the iquor law in
Aitnfe ? "We hear that prosecutions foi
false imprisonment are talked of.
In addition to the above, we learn thai
Judge Bartley has aecideoVthat in order
sustain arjoseiruti5af3f tlirunkeSess
must be'ar'iested when intoxicated.
This vi ill give a new phase to prosecu
tions of tiiat class, and is in accordance
with the just and obvious meaning of the
law. Wayne County Democrat.
Gov. Meoiu. has written a letter in
reply to the question whether he wilS
withhold the public nrms from independ
companies, composed in part or en
tirely of adopted citizens. He cites the
laws governing the subject, and very
properly comes to the conclusion that
there is no Itgislation which authorizes
to inquire in the character of these
companies. If they are oomposed ol
"male white citizens," the law, as it now
oxists, is complied with.
Tux Russian' and Prussian delegations
Washington, discredit the report of the
death of ihe Emperor Nicholas. The
of another grand hoax like that of
fall of Sevastopol is general, and all
like waiting for ano.her arrival be
they found any impoi tant operations
the presumption that he is dead.
The Fremont Cask. The Supreme
Court of the United States on Saturday
decided the Ion? litigated case of Col.
C. Fremont in his favor, confirming
him his immensely valuable property
California. The opinion of the Court
delivered be the Chief Justice, dis
senting opinions being given by Ju3tices
Catron and Campbell.
The late census of Kansas shows that
are aheady 143 slaves in that Ter
ritory. ames Ibvix, one of the parties impli
in the murder of Poole, has been
to hail in the sum of 10,000.
The Washington Star says Mr. Mason
our.French Minister, has cn:irely recov
ered his health, and does not contemplate
coming home at present
The Mexican boundaiy commission
ler ihe Gadsden treaty, is proceedincr
harmoniously with the survey.
The Washington Ut iion says the Span
Governme. t has consented to award
indemnity in the Black Warrior casei
upon making necessary proof, the
of damages will be paid.
PracATioir. The Xational Organ!
;g of the election of Seward through
defection of certain members of the
says :
"From his lime forth, tho 'American
in Ne York, purged of the po
htieal hucksters who have bartt red and
a seat in the S nate, as they would
flic in hogs "t cattle, com or potitoes,
be be nati nal in its pur os e, and
pursuj ihe high ends of its orgamza
lion, wiihou- lurtmr embarrassment in
[From the New York Times, Mar.
The Funeral of Poole.
We have s.-en a great many very large
j popular demonstrations in this city at the
luuerals ol great ani Uit-tingliuished mm;
but-wc remember none thai exceeded in'
numbers that of Willam Pode, wh was
burhd yestirday. Th ; streets in ihe vi-
.i iitv of his residence in Christopher
the large open space direc ly in front of
house the windows, piazzis and roofsof
the adjacent buildings, wi re crowJed to
sutiocaiion; win;e u:eet-Ker s-reet, liroa'i-
way, and nil the streets in this city and
rSro iklvn ih roup li which tiie nroission
parsed, were lined by an immense muf-!aorii,n
of spectators, whose p ppea ranee :
demeanor were in the hi lust decree
respectal.l j an I decorous. A stranger, j
knoinj nothing of the circu:nstanceof
the case, would deem it strongethatth -
death of a man celebrated for nuthing Lut j
propensities aud (acuities for fighiini; i
should call out a popular demonstration i
at least equal to that witnessed at the ob-1
sequies ol Jackson, Clay, or Webster.
Pemons f.tniliar with this ci v and the i
peculiar features of this case, however,
will have no difficulty in finding an ex-
pi mation less d sireditaLli lo cur people 1
than the naked facts would imply. .., Poole
a great many friends among the class :
to which he belonged, comprisim; not on I
ly the fighting men and rowdies or!
the city," but ihe butchers, nv chanics
and working men at 1 irge. He had many '
good qualities, was bold and tearless in
defence of his friends, lavish with money
which he never lacked, and was so gener
ally known to the great mass of the peo
ple that his death under any circumstan
ces would have attracted attention and
commanded sympathy. But the trage
dy which ended his life was one of the
most brutal and fearful ever known in our
city. It startled the public mind more
than any similar event that has occurred
for years. A gang of ruffians had laid
a distinct and premeditated plot to mur
ium. Half a doxtn of them, armed wi.h
revolvers assailed him when almost alone
and wholly unarmed. and failing to pro
voke him, by the utmost insolence they
could use towards him, shot him in cold
blood. His own behavior under the at
tack was forcbearing and yet manly to
the last degree. While he betrayed no
fear even in view ot the teartul odds ar
rayed against him, he commanded his
em per with unwonted coolness, and sub-
mitted to the grossest insults to avoid a
fi'lit. His conduct contrasted with that
of his ruffian murderers, and was very
different, it must be added, from his usu
al demeaner under similar circumstances,
commanded no slight degree of public
respect; and during the fortnight that he
was suffering from his wounds the public
sympathy for him has been constantly in
But another element ha9 had still great
er influence in swelling the tide of public
feeling. Poole was was an American, and
had taken an active part in the crusade
against foreigners w hich still enlists so
much of puplic favor. This crusade,
powerful as it is in religious and conserv.
ative circles, is still stronger and more
determined aud earnest in the class to j
which Poole .belonged. He and Hyer
were among the fighting men of the Amer.
can order, as against the bullies of foreign
birth; and this fact had very much to do
wiht his death. It has been feltand believed
every where that Poole was murdered be
cause he was active in theorganized Native
American interest, because he was a very
difficult man for the "foreign rowdies to
manage or to conquer. He has been re
garded very generally as a martyr to the
Naiive American cause ; and consequent
ly the most conspicuous among the organ
izations that attended his funeral were
the Chapters of ihe Order of United Americans-,
to which lieelouged, and the Pro-
-i . . w . i : i . : . i
ia associations wmcu act in ty iiipauiy
nd in harmony with them. And to this
feeling, more than any other, we are in
lined to attribute tllnninese popular de
monstration of yt-stirday a!trnocn.
The tragedy will result in good to the
city, if it is properly followed up by the
authorities and the Courts of law. The
chief murderer seems to have escaped,
and we have no doubt that he has done so
through the connivance and aid of mem
bers of the Police Department. But other
actors in the affair, men known to have
been concered in planning the butchery
and putting it in execution, are in the
hands of the law ; and it only remains
that the full measure of justice should be
allotted to them. :
Tbk Kissane Teial. This important
action is now progressing with rapidity,
in New York. Finlay, the accomplice
of Kissane, has turned State s evidence,
and is making a clean breast of the story,
and a vile complication of knavery it
proves. Finlay swears that be is a Buffa
lonian by birth, and that the was in the
employ of Mr. E. D. Efner, of that city,
as a tailor; that he made some $ 1,500
by smuggling cloth from Canada to Buf
falo, and then went into business for him
self in Hamilton, C. W. A Buffalo pa
per, in noticing this trial, says that,'-like
most wretches who turn Slate's evidence
he is a great rouge as the ring-leader,
and much less honorable in the pursuit
of wickedness, lie property will secure
immunity from the State prison, at this
time, but will walk ab jut, branded with
the shame of fcs crimes forever. Jus
tice seems likely to get her due to Kis
sane's case, at least."
There is ood sensd and true feeling
in the. followinir fiitiwr su2!estion :
The Providence Journal in commenting
upon the proposition now before Congress
to raise 3000 volunteers to commence a
war of extermination upon the Indian
tribes, at an expense of millions upon
millions ol dollars, suggests that a few
hundred thousand dollars expended in
blankets, seeds, agricultural implements
and other useful articles, and distributed
among tho Indians by honest agents,
would accomplish more than millions
spent in hos ile operations. The Journal
prefers for this work, half a dozen men
whom it could select from the Friends'
Yearly Meeting, properly supported, than
the best army commanded by the best
generals that were ever armed against
the poor Indians.
The Methodist Chcrch on Slayebt.
The annual conftrenceof the M. E.
Church in this State, at their recent ses
sion in Janevil!c, passed the f dljwino-'tionable
among other resolutions on slavery :
1. That our opposition to slavery in
its forms, was never more decided and
uncompromising than at present.
2. That we regard the Kansas and
Nebraska bill passed by our national leg
islature at its recent session, as an alarm
exhibition of the slave power, sur
passed in atrocity only by the fugi:ive
slave law of 1850.
3.. That e deem it our duty as min
isters of the gospel to preach against sla
very as ag dnsi other violations of relig
ion and humani'v, nnd in every other
proper way to labor for i s removal from
ehurch an I the world-
to ra
4. That we affectionately invite our peo
to co-operate with us, by their prayers J gress
that in use of the elec ive franchise, j the
effect a repeal of the fugitive si. ve1 rights
. . f...l r
lupieicin me luriner extension oi , sir,
i. f
slavery, anu io secure lis nn 1 exurpa
Irom the na ion.
The Funeral of Poole. THE DEMANDS OF FREEDOM.
His Speech to Repeal the Fugitive Slave Bill.
February 23, 1855.
i ihe samii hour. Slaverv l nnm
. - -j -- --0
' in.r l.il- ila anniit.M....! ..?.. 1 1 w
Mi . nvv.uuuivu iuiurv. wnicn i
Mr. Sumner. Mr. Pie Men', 0.1 form
his eroucasion, uaSIaveiy was about to clutch
one f 8 triumphs, I rose to make my fi.
nuunign it is now
undertake for the moment to ar
titude rest ; hardly an accidental con
and 'junction which thn constantly brings
Slavery and midnight together.
Since eleven o'clock this forenoon, we
,iave. ucen in our. scats, detained by the
dominant majorit) , which, in subservi
his eiice t0 Slavery, has refused to postpone
t,,ls question or to adjourn. All other
things are neglected. The arious pub
Ic interests which, at the late stage of
tIlc session, a 1 press for alte ition, are
Put asoe. According to the usages of
l,le Senate, Friday is dedicated to the
consideiation of private claims. I have
D.ecn accustomed to call it our day of jus
haJ tice "" 1 have been gl id of that, since
taese matters are referred to us, at least
one d 1 in the week has been s t apart
But Slavery grasps ihis whole day, and
changes it to a day of injustice. By the
Mtienaer winch 1 now lio.d in my hand,
it appears that, at this moment, npwards
of . -evenly-five private bills, w ith which
are associated the hopes and lears of wid
ows and orphans, and of all who come to
Congress for relief, are on your table
neglected, ay, sir, sacrificed to the bill
which id now urged with so much per
tinacity. Like Juggernaut, the bill is
driven over prostrate victims. And here
is another sacrifice to Slavery.
But, I do not adequately expose the
character of this Lill when 1 say it is a
sacrifice to Slavery. It is a sacrifice to
Slavery in the most odious form. Bad
as Slavery may be, it is not so bad as
hunting slaves. There is a seeming
apjiogy ior Slavery at home, in me
States where it prevails, founded on the
difficul ies in the position of the master
and the relations of personal attachment
whieh it sometimes excites ; Lut every
apology tails when you seeks again to
enclave the fugitive whom the master
could not detain by duress or by kind
ness ; and who, by -courage and intelli
gence, under the guidance of the north
star, has achieved a happy Freedom.
Sir, there is a wide ditlciance between a
Slaveholder and a Slave-Hunter.
But the bill before you is to aid in
the chase of slaves. . This is its ohject.
This is its "being's end and aim." And
this bill, with this object, is pressed up
on the Senate by the honorable Senator
from Connecticut, Mr. leucey. Not
from slave soil, Lut from free .soil, comes
this effort. A Senator frorc tLe North
a Senator fiom New England lends
himself to the work, and with unnatural
zeal helps to bind siill stronger the fet
ters of the slave.
Mr. Rusk. Will the honorable Sena
tor allow ire to interrupt him 1
Mr. Sumner. Certainly.
Mr. Rusk. I ask him to point out the
words in this bill where Slavery is men
tioned. Mr. Sumner. I am gladjthe Senator
from Texas has asked the question, for
it brings attention at once to the true
UJjaracter of the bill. I know the lan
guage well, and also Us plausible title.
On the face it purports, toMta "bill to
protect officers aud other persons acting
underthe authority of the Uai ted States;"
and it preceeds to provide lor-lie trans
fer of certain proceedings from the State
courts to the Circuit Court of the United
States. And vet, sir, by thej&lmission
of the whole debate, stretching from noon
to midnight, it is a bill to bolster up the
Fugitive Slave Act. '
Mr. Rusk. I have not listened to the
debate, but I a-k the Senator to point
out in the bill the place where Slavery
mentioned. If the Constitution and laws
appoint officers, and require them to dis
charge duties, will he abandoned thim
the mob ?
Mr. Sumner. The Senator asks me to
point out any place in this bill where
"Slavery" is mentioned. Why, sir, this
quite unnecessary. I miht a-k the
Senator to point -out any place in the
Constituti m of the United States where
"Slavery" is mentioned or where the
word "slave" can be found, and he could
do it.
Mr. Rusk. That is evading the ques
tion. I asked the Senator to point out in
Lill the clause where Slavery is men
ned. The bill proposi s to protect offi
cers of the United Slates, whom you ap
piint, in discharging their duties. If
ihey ore to be left unprotected, repeal
your law.
Mr. Sumner. I respond to the Senator,
wiih all my heart, "repeal your law."
Yes, sii, repeal the Fugutive Act, which
requires the suppoit of supplemen
tary legisla'ion. Remove this ground ef
offence. And before I sit down, I hope
make that very moiion. Meanwhile,
eva le no question propounded by the
honorable Senator; but I do not consider
necessary to show that "Slavery" is
mentioned in the bill. It may not be
found there in neme; but Slavery is the
soul of the bill.
Mr. Rusk lose.
Mr. Sumner. The Senator has inter
rupted me several times; lie may do it
more; bur. pi rhaps, he had Let'.er let me
.n. -
Mr. Rusk. I und.'rslan i the Senator:
I make n boast of that sort.
Mr. Sumner. Very well. At last I
be allowed to proceed. Of the bill
question, I have little to say. Its teu
nical character has been exposed by var
ious Senators, and especially by my val
ued friend, the Senator, from Ohio Mr.
Chase, who opened this debate. Suf
fice it io say, that it is an intrusive and
offensive encroachment on State Rights.
calculated to subvert the power of the
in the protection of the liberties of
citizens. This consideration alone
be ample to secure its rejection, if
attachment to State Rights, so often
avowed by Senators, were not utterly
in a 8 r ng-r attachment to Slavery.
on these things, although well wor
thy of attention, 1 do not dwell. Objec-
as the bill may be on this
ound. it becomes much m re so when
regard it as an efloit to bol.-ter up the
Fugitive Slave Act.
Of this act it is difficult to speak with
moderation. Conceived in dc-liauce of
Constitutor, and of every sentiment
justice and humanity, it sh ul I be re
garded as an outlaw. It may have the
of legislation, but it lacks every es
element of law. I have 60 often
its character on this floor, that I
be briet now. .
There is an argument against it which
espec.a! importance at this moment,
the rngiuve Act is made the occa
sion of a new assault on Slate Rights.
very act is an assumption by Con-
of power not delegated to it under
Co istitution, . and an infraction of
secured to the States.' Show me.
ii you can, me clause, sentence, or
in the Constitution, which irives to
any po a er to legislate on this
subject. I chatlengo heiyirablc Sena
tors to prdtlucc it. - I 'eajl ssly a -sort
that it dnnot be done. The obligations
imposed by the "Fugi ive" clause, what
ever they may be, est upon the States,
nnl bo: , upon Congress. The i.ssociaU
clautfpucblrlg the? "privileges of c ti
zen's"' I. a- jie'ver been made a source of
pow r. It will be in the re ollcctl n of
the Sen ;te, that, du'ing the last sess 'on,
t e S'ntitor from Louisiana, (Mr. Benja
min,) in answer to a question from me,
openly admitted that there were laws of
the Southern States, bearing hard u; on
colored citizens of ihe north, w hich wi re
unc institutional; but when I p'es-e I the
honorable Senator with the question
whether he would introduce or sustain a
bill to carry out the clause of the Consti
tution suturing to these ci'i.ei.s their
rLhts, he d dined to answer.
Mr. Benjamin. I "th nk, Mr. Presi
dent, I have a right to set the record
straight upon that p int. I rose in th
Senate on the oc-easioi relerr d to, as
will be perfectly well recollected by
every Senator present, and put a respect
ful question to the nenator from Massa
chusetu. Instead of a reply to my ques
tion to me, which I answered, and then
I put my question. Instead of replying
to that, he again put a question to me.
Considering that as an absolute evasion
of the question which Iptwto him, I de
clined having anything further to say in
the discussion. I was not here submit
ting to an interrogatory from the gentle
man. I put to him a respectful ques
tion, lie preferred to put one to n:e in
st ad of answering mine. I yielded an I
answered; and when I again repeated
mine, he continued inteirogating me.
It was obvious to every Senator present
that he evaded an answer to my ques
tion, and I therefore let the matter drop.
Mr. Sumner. The Senator fmm Lou
isiana will pardon ma if I suggest that
there is an incontrovertable fact which
shows that the evasion was on his part.
The record testifies not only that he did
not reply, but that I was cut off from re
plying by the efforts and votes of himself
and fiien ls. Let him consult the Con
gressional Globe, and he will find it all
there. I can conceive that it might have
been embarrassing to him to reply, for
had he declined to sustain a bill to carry
out the clause in question, it would have
been awkward, at least, to vindicate the
Fugitive Slave Act And yet there are
Sena'ors cn this floor who, barele.-s of the
flagrant inconsistency, vindicate the ex
ercise cf power by Congress under the
"fugitive" ciause, while their own States
at home deny to congress any power un
der the associate clause, assume to them
selves a complete right to determine the
ex ent of its obligations, and ruthlessly
sell into S.avery colored citizens of the
Mr. Butler. D es the Senator allude
to my Stale ?
Mr. Rusk.
Mr. Butler.
No; to mine.
If he means South Caro
lina, I will reply to him. This is about
the fourth time, I think, that the Sena
tor, and his predecessor (Mr. Winthrop)
before him, have alluded to the laws of
South Carolina. If that be his allusion.
I intend to give some facts in relation to
the subject, of which I have put myself
in possession since Air. W in: hrop former
ly brought it here for d scussion. If the
Senator inb nds to allude to South Car
olina, let him say so.
Mr. Sumner. I do allude to South
Carolina, and also to other Southern
States; but efpec-ia.'ly to South Carolina.
Mr. Rusk. Does the Senator allude to
Mr. Sumner. The Senator had bet'
ter allow me to goon. When I have fin
ished, he can make any explanation he
thinks necessary.
Mr. Rusk. I will not lake the trou
ble; I do not think the game is worth the
Mr. Sumner. Very well. The Sen
ator can do as he pleases. But let me
say, that if I allude to these States, it is
not to bring up and a -ray the hardships
of .individual instance'-, but simply to
show the position occupied-by them on a
constitutional question identical with that
involved in the Fugitive Act. And now,
at the ri.-k of repitiiinn, if I ean have your
attention for a brief moment, without in
terruption, I will endeavor to state anew
this argument.
The rules of interpretation, applicable
to the clause of the Constitution securing
to "the citizens of each State nil privi
leges and immunities of citizens in the
several States," are equally applicable
to its associate clause, forming a part of
the same section, in the same article, and
providing that "persons held to service
or labor in one State, under the laws
thereof, escaping into another, shall be
delivered up, on claim of the party to
whom such service or labor may be due."
Of this there can be no doubt.
If one of these clauses is regarded as
a compact between the States, to be car
ried out by them respec;ively, according
to their interpretation of Congress, then
the other must be so regarded; not can
any legislative power be asserted bv Ccn-
gress under tny clause, which is denied
under the other.
Congress, in abstaining from all exer
cise of power under t e first clause, when
required thereto, in ord r to prot ct the
liberty of colored citizens, wh le it has
assumed power under the second eus
in order to obtain the surrender of fugi
tive slaves, has shown an inconsistency,
wh ch becomes mons'rous wh- n it is con
sidered ih.it, in the one case, the g-neral
and commanding inU r- sts of Liberty
have been neglec ed, while in the other,
the peculiar and subordinate interests of
Slavery have been care'ully secured; and
such an exercise of power is an alarmin"
evidence of that influence of Slavery in
the National Government which has in
overthr wn
According to the express words of ihe
Constiiut on, in the tenth amendment,
"the powers not delejated to the United
States by the Constitulion, nor prohibited
it to ihe States, are reserved to the
States respectively or to the people;" and
since ni powers are delegated to the Uni
ted States, in the clause relating to "the
privileges and immunities of citizens," or
the associate clause of the same sec
tion, relating to the surrender of "per
sons held to service or labor," therefore
legislation by Congress, under either
clause, must be an assumption of u-idel
egated powers, and an infraction of rights
secured to ihe Slates respectively, or to
people; and such, 1 have already
said, is the Fugitive Slave Act.
I might go farther, and by the exam
ple cf South Carolina, vindicate to Mass
achusetts, and every other State, the
riuht to put such interpretation upon the
"fugitive" clause as it shall think proper.
Legislature of South Carolina, i.i a
series of resolu ions, adopteJ in 1844, as
the following prop isition :
is incieasing, and ought to he
(Cfeldti ntzt wttt.)
I e
Religiox in Politics. The Coustim-
of Nt w-IIampshire requires ihat the
Governor and both branches of the L'g
pi lature mus' be of the Pro-etant relig
ion. In 1-52 ihe prop sit on to aboli.sb
Protestant test, was submitted ty the
people, and rejected, 9 566 yeas to 15,
The Ohio Penitentiary.
We are ndebted to Mr. Butths, the
Wurden, for a lopy of the Report of the
Directors; Ward n, Moral Instructor,
and Physician of the Ohio Penitentiary
for the ye r 1854.
This institutijn has passed through
some changes in its officers during the
past yenr. On the 1st of July, Mr. Dim.
mock ie-igneJ his po t of Warden, and
Samuel W.lson, of Columbus, was ap
pointed lo fill the vacancy. In January,
Mr. Wilson died, and Mr. J. B. Buttles,
of Trumbull county, is now tiie Warden.
At the time Mr. Wi son was appointed,
Dr. Dc. Lazinski" was appoint d Phyi
cian, and Rev. L. Warner, of Mt. Ver
non, Chaplain. These gentlemen con
tinue lo occupy their r spective posts.
The report shows the following as the
financial condition of the Institution:
Total earnings and rect ip-s of the year,
874,376. To'al expenditures, including
the salary of officeis, S6 J.977. Balance
in favor of the Instituti n, $7,399. To
tal expenditures for the support ol the
convicts, exclusive of salaries, 847.G68.
The erection of a new Chapel, the re
building of iho row of work-shops des
troyed by file, and ti.e erection of u new
kitchen, andotherrepairs, have cost S28,
693. Of this sum. 3H,23 have been
expended during the past fiscal year.
Add this to the other expenditures and
the institution is brought in debt 810,
824. The cost of conviction and trans
portation of criminals during the year has
oeen 7,y-)4. which is paid by the State
on the certihcae of Ihe Warden. It
will thus be seen that the Sta e do s not
realize enough from the services of the
criminals to defray the expenses it incurs
in tneir trial and punishment, by many
thousands ot doll .rs.
ihe labor of the convicts is hired to
contractors for a term of years, and a
prices ranging Irom forty cents to one
dollnr per day, slone masons bein? the
ones whose services command the latter
sum. The ellort has been to arrange the
iettings so as to come as little as possible
in competition with the mechanical labor
of the State. During Ihe past year $644
have been earned by Ihe convicts by ex
tra work; this is to remain in the hands
of the Warden till their time of service
expires, when it is to be paid to them
there are 122 convicts wno cannot
read and write, sixty of w hom attend the
prison school, by the chaplain. Sunday
schools are kept up, and 6 teachers are
in regular attendance.
The Directors refer lo the system of
pi tenng that was carried on prior to the
time Mr. Wilson took charge. Two of
the guards are in the jail of this county,
and will be tried at the present term of
the Common fleas.
There were 587 convicts at the close
of the fiscal year (Nov. 15th;) of this
number 239 have been committed during
the past year, ut tcese. Hamilton coun
ty has furnished 73, Lucas, ii, and
Cuyahoga 17. Of the 173 who have left
during the year, 25 have been pardoned
by the Governor, 1 by the President, and
5 have escaped.
Of the 587 convicts, 45 are in on the
second conviction, 8 on the third, 2 on
the fourth, and 1 on the fifth; 377 have
been intemperate, 340 are unmarried, 53
are blacks, and 7 are females; 3 are
sentf ncod for life.
Dunns 'be past year, 44 convicts have
died. Of this number, two died of chol
era, and 21 of acute scurvy, or pntrid fe
ver. X Ins is a new disease in the Peni
tentiary, and it lias proved quite fatal.
fcuch is a brief ciMomarv of the report.
Ihe number of convicts is at this time
considerable over six hundred, but we
have great faith in the idea that a Ihoro'
enforcement of the liquor law will essen
tially reduce the list of recruits foe the
coming year. This has been the effect
New England, and there are good rea
sons for expecting similar results in
Ohio. Let us, at least, faithfully try the
experiment. '
Personnel op tub late Czar. An
intimate friend of the late Czar writes the
"Niehoias has the noblest face I hare
ever seen in my life. - The habitual ex
pression of his physiognomy has a certain
severity which is far from putting the
beholder -at his ease. Hit smile is of
complaisance, and not the result of gay
or abandon. There is something ad
proaching the prodigious in this prince's
manner of existence. He speaks with
vivacity, symplicity, and the most pr
feet propriety; all he says is full of point
meaning no idle pleasantry not
word out of its place there is nothing in
tone or voice or tne arrangement ot
phrases that indicates haughtiness or
dissimulation, and yet you fed that his
heart is closed
"The personal habits of the Emperor
were marked by the most feverish activi
ty. He would ride, walk, superintend a
sham-tight, and hold a review, all. in the
same day. He traveled incessantly, pass
over at L st one thousand five hundred
agues every season, and wore down the
strength of all who we e attached to his
Pbobioalttt of the Administration.
The Washington correspondent of the
Courier and Inquirer writes:
There never was a Congress more pro
digal of mun- y than the last, as there has
never been an Administration which, du
ring the first half of its existence, expen
ded so much. One hundred and nf.y I
millions, in two years is an example of
proJigalily which woulJ have terrihed
.Republican lathers whom tren.
Pierce professes to have made bis model.
object of expenditure has been neg
lected by Congress. Ten millions have
appropriated for Mexico; sight mil
lions for Congress; a million and a half
been settled upon the District of
Columbia fr ihe coming j ear; and for
sundries and miscellaneous, an item of
870,000,000 have been entered.
Pkixceton College Destroted. A
telegraphic desp.tch from Prince on an
nounces hat Nassau Hall, tbe college
building in that borough, was en irelv
destroyed on Saturday evening, having
hre from some unknown cause.
students lost their furniture, tlo hes
ifec. The loss is estimated at $50,
Insurance, 816,000.
.Nassau Hall was a substantial stone
building, four stories high, about ISO by
foe-, and was erected we believe,
1802, when the o d co'leriate edi
was destroyed by fire. The number
studenti in the institution, according
the last catalogue that wo have seen
23i .V. V. Commercial.
k the
The Olive Bbanch Rejected
with sorrow but without surprise
ihat the majority of the Board of 'Inn
tees of the Wot r.i Reserve Coll ge have
the proposition' for arbitrament
their difficulties, as recoromonaeci and
by the Committee lately here from
bast. Of eourse all hope ol recon
aro at enJ, and the future must
tho result. We hall not LDticit ate
rosult, although it necila no prophe
tio vision to see to what end these things
Clevn- Herald.
Snp rior Court of NewOfoafchaA!
dicharL'tJU the attachment issued hy
k, aga'nst Ole Bull, and. award
ing tho costs lo the pia.in.tiiL.
att ti
by the
The New Postage Act.
Tee following is the offi ial noticeof the
Postmaster General in reference to he
new postage Law: .
Xolice is hereby giren, that, a2recab?y to
an a.t of Congress approved March 3d,
1-55, ti e following rat-s of postage are
o be charged, on and after the first day of
April next, in lieu of thoe now establish
ed, to wit:
On every single letter conveyed in the
mail between places in the United S a es,
for any distance not exceeding three
thousand miks, three cents; and for
any distance exceeding three thousand
miles, ten em's.
From and af er said first 'day' of April
prep iy ment on letters is required, except
ing upon such as are to .cr from a for
eign i-ou-ilry or to officers ol the gvern
ment on official business. The franking
priv lege rem iio unchangr d.
From and after the Crst day of January,
eighteen hundred fily-six, pos mastcrsre-.
quired to place postage stamps ubon all
prepa d letters on which such stamps
may rot have le n placed by the writ
ers. ,
By the third section of ihe act the Post
master General u authorized to establish .
a un form system for the registering of
valuable le'trs. 3
This provision of the law willbecarried
m o effect, and special instructors there
t re will be issued to Postmasters assort
aa tLejie -ary blank3 can be prepared
and distributedfr
Postmaster Gen. -
A Southerh Opinion of a Nobthers
Senator. The Petersburg (Va.) Intelli
gencer, breaks out in the following strain
about the new Senator from Massachu
set:s. Senator Wilson. This illustrious
abolitimist showed his wooley propensi
ti s in the Senate the other day by a ram
pant speech and vote against the bill for '
protecting the U. S. officers against the
violation of incendiary mcbs whilst en
gaged in executing the laws of the land.
A more unprincipled character could not
be picked up from the political gutter of
Massachusetts than this representative of ,
the sovereignty of that once truly nation
al but now miserably fallen Common
wealth. Such men as her Charles Sum-
1 r w:i - .c . -v- i
uu ncm y " nsuu iu me xvauonai
Councils, compare beautifully with the .
Daniel Websters, Edward Everetts and
Rufus Choates. How extremely proud,
too, is the contrast between such scamps
as Wendell Phillips, Theodore Parker
And T.lnvrf ft a ft i crn fka mva c!ila awY
- . VIM Slt2 OUO iUC aHU
the sages, heroes and patriots of her rev
olutionary history !
vv hy is it that our neighbor of the
Democrat cannot speak of bttmner in the
indignant tones that we do of Wilson.
Is Sumner better than Wilson.
KKURALOIA. This formidable disease, vhieb.
seems to baffle the skill of the pfaysici&ns, yields Uie
Bisicic to Carter's Spanish Mixture-
Mr. F. Boyden. formerly of the Astor Home, N "
Tork, and kite proprietor ot tbe Bxcaange Hotel, Rich
mond, V., is one of the hamlrgds who hare been cored
af serere Neuralgia, by Carter's Spanish Mixture.
-Since his care be has recoowended it to Bombers of
others, who were sufferine with nearlr erera bn of
disease, with the most wonderful success.
lie says It is the most extraordinary medicine hm
has ever seen used, and the best blood puriSer kaown.
see auTerusement in another colons.
strictly true that indigestion Is the pareoC of a strge
proportion of fatal diseases. Drsenterv. diarrhe&-
eholera morbus, lirer complaint, and many ether di
seases enumerated in the city inspector's wei-ly cat
alonre of deaths, are generated hy indigestion lene
Thiok of that dyspeptics ! think of it all who suf er Irom
disordered stomachs, and if yon are willing tote gnid-
e oy wiTice, lounaea upon experience, resort at once
(don't delay a day) to liooaand Oermas Bitters, pre
pared by Br. C. M. Jackson, which, aa an alteratiT..
curatire, and inrigorant, stands alone and nnapproach
ed. Oeneral depot, riu Arch street. We hare irins
these Bitter, ami IfewtKwt the nr- nll.ni 1 .K-.
disease specified abore. PkiltdclukU ctrr irm.-a-
adTertin-mcnt. Mar. 7-lm -
Blu SaDT, Kt.. May 12, 18.
Ma. R. E. Skllkks- Dear Sir 1 Your Vermifuge nrn.
dnces snch wonderful results, that I think it worth my .
while togirea few facts about it. A neighbor. Or
Gray, bought of me one rial of it. and gaxe the content
ot three of his children ; the first passed leO.the second
153, and the third 76 making 4U9 worms discharged
by us in g one rial. Mr. Ilrar immedialetr purchase.
four rials more. Mr. J. McSurley also rare the eon
tents of one rial to three of his children, which bronghs
from the first 73. from the second Si, and from the
third 31 making 136 by the use of one rial. I rns
my owm child, aged one year- two tea-spoonfuls, which
expelled 14, one of which was at least one foot long.
Voor Vermifuge Is considered the best that has erer
been brought to this section of the country, and se far
as I know, has never failed. Tours respectfclry, - -
i. L. Tl'RMAX. .
Prepared and, !! by B. K. SELLKUd dc Co, Pitta- '
burgh, Ps. Mir. ". I n ;
In Warren, on the 33th instby the Elder Isaa
Errett, Mr. Eu BaLbVta, . of Weathrrsfield. and
Miss Laraa M. Folsob. of Warren.
l. William Hall,
ti. i Suit kn Ataschment.
Sqnire Hall Jr.
The defendant, who ia a Bon-resideat of Trumbnlt
county, will take notice that at my instance, an order
ia Attachment was issued against the roeda, chattels. .
credits, monies, and effects of said defendant, by Mil
ton Oranam, a Jwetice of the peace, ol Vernoa, in said)
county, eo tbe 13thuay of March. l&5d ; for the snmoF
$??. Said case stands for trial on the 4tb day of May -loij,
at 11th o'clock A. M. of said day.
Mar. 3. 1t.
1?0H SALE, Oil Meal and Oats, By
- the quantity or inmalIlots,bythesubseiber ona-
mile south of Oaasru, Ohio. - JOUX M06KK Jr. :
Mar. 13, "53 tt.
One hundred Barrels of Soap, a snVadid article-
Also Fifty boxes of Candles. H A L. C-DA I, Mar
ket t., one door west o safwe om-a, ".
H. R Candles and Soao delivered to any part or
the Tnwn.br annlring as abore directed. Also act-
sons wuhing to exchange ashes and grease for soap,
can be accommodated. Please sare your ashes-
Mar. 2 If- a, u. v- VAl.
NOTICE, is hereby given that 1 shall
It expose to sale en the premises at public rendu e-
the 19th day of April IMii, between the boars af Mr
M.and 4 r. M. on deferred payment ot two years.
fullowingdescrihed farms, aad real estate situate la.
township of t ernon, 1 rumnuil county, unio, under
order of sale issued to me as guardien of Timothy K.
Thompson, by the Probate Court of said County.
One peiee of land kying about half a mile North of
eenter of stud township hch bounded, as foQosrs:
Be-iaaiarat a point on the North and South center
Highway, in said Vernon, at the South-East corner of
lands of Lucius liolcomh, and running thence South
amngsaid Highway sereaty rods to the North-East cor
ner of Units if Thomas A. Thompson ; thence West .
along the North line of said lands of Thomas A. Thom
son, three hundred ami thirty-lire reds to a stake anct
stones, at the south-west corner of said Timothy K.
Thompsons lands: tnence north on the east line of lands)
known as lands of late owned hy Granger, aad on th
line of lands of sard Timothy Ft. Taompsoa. sev
enty rods to the south line of lands formerly owned by
Perry Sheldon, and now belonging so said Lucius Iler-
comb; thence running east along the south line of said
lands of Uolcomb 3S rods to the place- ol beeianing.
containing within said boundaries, one hundred and
acres and fnrty lire roils, known as tha
bomest-ad farm of said Timothy K. Thompson. Said
oftland will he sold entire or in parcel as may -best
suit purchasers. THOMAS A. THOMPSON,
llumnlian of Timothy K. Thompson.
By Sr-n-ifT TrTTLa. Atly's. j M.ir. i 4.wj
The examinination of teachers for Trumbull Co
he held this Spring aa follows ;
Bluumneld. AU Wh.
.Newton rails, April 11th.
Warren, oa every Saturday daring the month of
except Saturday the ltth.
The following principles adopted by tbe Seats Con
vention of School examiners beat ia Cincinnati in De
last, wiU be strictly adltcr.-d to by this Board of
That Private Ecumj:i uirn arc plainly contrary
the spirit and letter of ibe'law.
That leUmoniul of good moral character, satis
to the Board tf Examiner., or a ms-rilyetbeic.
Id in all cases be required, as indispensable to the
nment f a eenidcato
That profaaa sweorinip. lar-snperanoe or dishon
esty in a caudidate, should everywhere be reimnred aa
evidence that such character; is uauua(, sal oertt.'.
to die coutrary notwithstanding.
That time should be giTen (or a. ''a! '.and aa-trnt
cxauiioatioa of every cAtundate. lu the various lirsnci.
designated hy li.w ; and tha to. oav-t any ana of
because it may not hive heeu taught, or is not '
to be tnght, in particular district. i direct.
Violation of the law applicable to the esse.
That each board of examinera should ailopt and
out such regular system, by wh ich all parties con
cerned may understand, by toe-eer-J rtnate granted, Us ,
relative mer.ts of those-who hold tliu.
Tbateertiucatr alwuld net brenered.waethe ;
boenl that originally granied them, or any other
as the result of a eew examination.
That the att iiument and actual possession of a
should const rnse ne-emim on. ant board t .
another, where th: result of such examination,
not indicate proirress in kna-!edre.and ia alk
belongs to the teai her s profession ; lint, on tue . .
Ihat want of such indsraimns should bore-',
Id aa snulQ ent grounds for denying a renewal st
evrMocat. wbera no other serWui, disqualification)
be ssanifessvd-
No oeitati!t be irranv-U to rarer-any fn
to the exiimiacitioii at which the eert-ncate iss
1 order el Vhc Boar I. IV. RNNEY.
i r'y of Board ot rot
Warren, Mar 2 wv

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