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ESTERN ESERVE SRON Volyime 5G-jSTo. 2-4. "Warren, Ohio January lO. 1872. Whole No. 2884- BUSINESS DIRECTORY. CYXESTERXRESERTE CHR05ICXE VJ Published every Wednesday morning, la KmplreBlock, Market Ku. Warren V. &rrKSKt,Utorand Proprietot. THBLES AS D TESTAMENTS at thej I)aeftuieojf of publishing them..fwr sale 1 by me 1'KrxBri.i.Co. Bible Sotiktt, at all 1 its depositories thronghont tlie eoonty. AH the styles and prices published by the American Bible Roclety.kept constantly on i hand. Central Iiepository at Hapgood A ' crown s. Market at., (south side oi touri House square) Warren, . Only 5. I"!. DR. LOT, Physician and Surgeon, Office and residence a few rods South oi the Atlantic A Oreat Western Depot, where he can be consulted professionally. Warren, 0 April 19, livl-tf E. LYXAX, Dentist. Office over J , S. C. Chryst Co. 'a new meat market. opposite itie xnri House, aiaraei v ar ret!, Ohio. Ian. a. lSTD-tf DOCT. SPELLXAX, Dentist Has concluded to remain in Warren. andean be found at bis old rooms for the future. May IL UPO-tf. GEORGE P. HTJXTER, Attorney at Law, Office in VanGorder Block, Market St Warren. Ohio. Feb. 23. 1S7U-U. TI. filLLMER, Attorney at Law, .and Notary Public, icewton Falls. O. iVov. 8, 1S71, 1 yr. J SPEAR, Physician and Surgeon, J office over Freer & Smith's Grocery, arcet Street, Warren, Ohio. DR. D. ttlBBOX'S, Dentists, teeth extracted without pain; upper or low er sets of teethfor $12.(10. Olfiee over T. J. Mc Lain Son's Bank, Main St.. Warren. Ohio. Jan. i. 1ST o.-. 3. HAiaUK. - C T. XKTGlLT. aARHOX & XETCALF, Physicians, and Surgeons; Office on High Street at tand formerly occupied by Dr. Harmon Jan. W7H JOB HCTOHI7VH. W. T. SPK.AK. HCTCHrXS & SPEAR, Attorneys at Law. Office in First National Bank iiug, 2d story, front, -ooms W.rren O. Jn. 4 l(7tt-ly. JH. BRISCOE, Physician and Sur . geon. Office over Park A- Patch's store. Market Street. Residence, north aide of Market Street, two doors east of Kim. I "ar ticular attention paid to Chronic tUsoaaea. Jan. &, IBTU-lyr. T,R. F. A. BIEECE, If Physician and ! Block, High bUees. Homo? path I c Phvsiclan and Surgeon. Otfk- in Sutilfl's DR.J.K. XELSOX, Physician and Surgeon, office east of First Nat. Bank. Omce hours from 7 to ll' o'clock, a. m and a to 8 p. m. Jan. 2d 171 BR. F. MYERS, Physician and Sur geon. Office .td door north of National Mb Entrance off liberty street. Office hours, from U to 12, a. m and 1 to p. m. Residence, corner if High and Chestnut streets. Nov. 27. lou;- lr JBRACKIX, M. D., Eclectic Phy .siclan and Surgeon. The cure of Can cers, n specialty, or no pay required. All Ills to which the human frame is heir to, at tended with promptness, at all hours. Office overs. Li. Hunt's Shoe Store. No. 2u Market t-t. Residence opposite Arnold Scofiield, on ... t. ... i . . w .. in l 1 iuexzietui nu. w, wii. J. TACTBOT. TBABw ACXLXT. YArTROT A ACKLET, Successors to J. Vantrot Co.. Dealers In Watches, Jewelry acd Diamonds. Mrket Street, War ren. OillO. S. 7. EiTLOT, H. H. HOSXa. T ATLIFF k MOSES, Attorneys and I onnsellers at Law. Office over the Ex- riiauge Bank of Fre.jcan A Hunt, on Market c . 1 1 nhi. . Tun f ItTTA QU .1 JU iru uum . 1 X. COWDERT, Attorney at Law, I .Office eornerof Mill and Main St.,Nlles, tiaio. foct-is ltci-tf. 6. TTLER, Manufacture and Dealer la brans. Bines. Pistols, Cutlery ing Tackle, tiuu Materials, Sporting twins aBCDioes. sc o. o. -tku - io. LJr. i 18T0-U Apparatns, Sewing Machines. Ac ket St Warren. Ohi . POETXJt. X. rOKTKH. WS. & W. F PORTER, Dealers . in School and Miscellaneous Books, Stationary, Wall Papers, Periodicals, Pam phlets and Magazines, at the New York Book i-lore. Main Street, Warren. Ohio. LM05 D. WEBB Notary Public. Fire and life Insurance Agent; and pension atut Bounty Agent. Passage Tick ets sold to and from, and money remit ted to the old country, at the lowest current rates. Office la Webb's Block, Main Street, Warren. Ohio. Jan - f-TO. H S. BOBBIXS, Newton Falls, Notary Public. no.l. lS71-lyr GEO. B. KEXXEDT, Fire and Life Insurance Agent, Warren, Ohio. Oct.. 1871-lyj. sr. d.haUv , r. J. kackbt. SALL t MACKET, Manufacturers of Harness and dealers In Saddlery ware. Trunks, Valises, Traveling Bags, Whips, Horse Blankets, Saddles and Fancy Saddlery, No. g, Market Street, Wat n. O. Jan. 5. 1870. WHITTLE SET ADAXS, Fire and Life Insurance Agent, Warren, Ohio. Merchandize and other property insured in the best Companies, on favorable terms; ' Farm property. Isolated Dwellings, and their urniiure insured for one, three and five years. Office in McCumbs and Smith s block. -uoid a of at I line the as I ders J F.B.HtrrCBTIKS, O. . CLIDDCH, J. JT sTULL HCTCHESS, GLIDDE5 & STULL, Attorneys at Law. office over Smith 4 Turner's Store, corner of Main and Market Streets, Warren. Ohio. jJan. s, lK7l-lf. CC McXUTT, House, Sign, and s Ornamental Painter, Oralner, Ac, King's New Block. Main St., Warren, Ohio. May 10. 1871-U WHEJ AT WARRES, Call at M. HAKR'S', one door south of the Post Office, lor your Cigars and Tobacco. He keeps the best five cent Cigars In town. July W, 71-ly. IX. 1IAWS0X, Mayor of the City .of Warren. Civil Jurisdiction same as Justice of the Peace for the city, and crimi nal jurisdiction throughout city and eoanty. Also agent for Cleveland Ceuieut Sewer and drain Pipe of a U sizes. (JanS,ll71. DREX.XEX & GOISrS X L. C. It. Carriage Works. Warren, Ohio, manu facturers of Carriages. Buggies, Wagons, Sieighs, and specialties. Ail orders from anv Dart of the country promptly a liended lauPainting, Trimming and Repairing done to order on the shortest notice. South of CanaL y. (Jan S, fc.72. of to At rT0 THE FARMERS OF TRUXBCLL JL County. O. B. Pealing, Agent for Ohio; r .rniers insurance com pauy; resmenceone door north of National House. Warren, O. Kales of Insurance lower, and security bet ter than anv other responsible company in (he Stale. Call and see him before yon In sure, may i. 1871-lyr. TDDIXGS t XORGAX, Dealers In Sa I pie and Fancy Dry Goods, Carpets, Mst tTuin and Floor OH Cloths, window Shades and fixtures. Tea, Coffee, Ac They keep eon - stantly on hand, a. large and full assort ment of goods in their line, of good quality and fashionable styles, and oiler them for aale at the lowest prices In the market. Jan. 5. IT0. ADOLFHUS GRinXR, Dealer in Musical Merchandizeof all descriptions, viz: Pianos, Organs Melodeons, loltns, OultarsVAccordeons,Claronetta. Flutes, Fifes, Drums, Piano-spreads, Piano-stools, sheet music. Music-books, Violin strings. Guitar citrines, Ac Ac Store in Webb's Block, over Porter's Book 8 tore. Uan. 5. 1370. t-robale will 11th on acres two horse good Said the as JU H. WALKXa, W. B. LESLIE, SL. L. WALK EX. fTTALKER, LESLIE & CO., Bank- era. Church Hill, Ohio. Dealers in Government Securities, Fore 1 en and Domes tie Exchange. Collections made. Interest allowed on special Deposits. (Jan. 4-ly. the and of Ohio, P. land EMaie ston; lands line dred ITARTF0RD AC ADEMICInstitnte. Jj. J. W. Cheney, A. B., Princl-xl, with an i eaictent corps of assistants. Two courses of ' sludy. Normal and Clasnlcal. w inter Term begins Dec. ain. For circulars add res T. A. BCSHNKLL. Rec'y. Oct25' lWl-lyr Hartford,TrumbullCo.,0. Wd estate Hair Jewelry Manufactory i MISS S. E. GORDOX. respectful ly announces that she still continues tne uuslness of manufacturing all kinds of Hair Jewelry, Watch Chains, Pins. Ear rings, Ac. made to order on the shortest slue and at living r.ites. Switch, Curls, raids, of ail descriptions and colors, con stancy kept on band. Rooms No. King's New Clock, Main SL, Warren, Ohio. Mar. SBI. 1X71. 8. k GORDON. 'OHIPPIXG CARDS, Direction La O oe Is, A, promptly furnished by the CHRONICLE OFFICE al4. f-Common Pleas. SHERIFF'S SALE. The State of Ohio, Trumbull County, as . James C. Nolan, 1 In Trumbull vs. James O'Harra, et. aL y By virtue of an order of sale Issued on! of me loiin oi oommon Pleas of Trumbull Oo. Ohio, In the above named case, to me direct ed and delivered. I have levied upon and shall expose to public sale at the door of the court House in the elty of W arren, Ohio, on Saturday, Jan. 13, A. D. IS 72. between the hours of one and three o'clock p. Ei. oi said day, the following described lands and tenements, situate in tbt tom-n. ship of Brookfleld, in said count v and State, bounded as follows, to-wlt: East by the highway leading from Sharon. Pennxvlv. nia, to Hubbard, Ohio; north by lands of " 1 in. mam oi ii. sianin; sou t n by landaof A. F. Mlr.ner. Containing one and one-fourth acre of land. Appraised at t . TerrnnCaah. BherKTs Offloe. Warren. o' Dec' 13. 1871-St. SHERIFF'S SALE. The State of Ohio, XYumbull Countv, sa. Isaac Mecham. ) la Trumbull . , ' .vs. Common Pleas. John C. Logan, et. aL j By vlrtne of an order of sale Issued out of the Court of Common Pleas of TrnmbullOo Ohio, In the above named case, tome direct ed and delivered. I have levied upon and shall expose to public sale at the door of the Court House in the elty of Warren, Ohio, on Saturday, Jan. 6th, A. D. 1872, between the hours of one and three o'clock, &m. of said day, the following described nd and tenements, situate In the township ofOustavus, County of Trumbull and Stale of Ohio, and known as part of Lot No. 11 and bounded as follows: Beginning at a point in the town line. It being the N. E. cor ner of lands before sold to Francis LI nsley; thence west along the north nneof said Una ley land twenty-five chains to a post; thence north along the east line of lands so sold to aaid Linsley, ten chains seventv- nlne links to a cost: thence east .loner t h south line Of lands reserved hr a&iri Tuu Meecham, twenty-five chains to east line of sum lot, oeing the township line: thence south in said township line ten chains seventy-nine links to Uie place of beginning, and containing twenty-six and 89-luu acres. Appraisea si I . -rerms cash. G. W. DICKINSON. Sheriff. Sheriffs Offloe. Warren, O., Dec , lS71-St T EGAL NOTICE. IjDavid Tompkins. Plaint iff, vs Sarah Tompkins, Defendant. Trumbull County, Ohio, Court of Common riH Application lor aivorce. The delendant. Sarah Tompkins will take notice that the plaintiff', on lha nth day of Dec, 1ST!, filed hie petition in the Clerk's omceoisaia court, asking to be divorced from the defendant and alleging for cause werwi uiai sai'i aetenaant commuted adultery at various times and with divers persons, between Sept. 1st. lhtiB. and Dec. 1st. ltxW. Said cause will be for hearing at the next term of said Court commencing March II. 172. The defendant will also take notice mat plaintiff will take depositions to be used upon the hearing of said case, on Saturday, the 6th day of January. 1S72. at the Post Office, in Randall, Cuyahoga, Co., vuio, uiween ine nours oi s o ciocx, a. m. and 6 o'clock. p. m. of said dav. HUTCHINS, GUDDEN BTITLL, Dee. 13. lb71- Att'ys for Plaintiff. . THE RIGHT ONE. JL By Madame Marie Schwartz, author of and Name." "Guilt and Innocence," e. The Hoaton lYtmrcnot save: "There Is scralgbt-forward purpose, a simplicity of i.ieineoi, a utility in action, a variety ana individuality In the characters, and an air probability in the plots, which, although not sensntlonal or especially emotional, ap peal to the higher nulure, exert a salutary influence and attract the tancy." Just ree'd ADAMS' Bookstore. House and Lot for Sale. will sell at a bargain, a desirable W House and Lot on Monroe Street-S doers from Mahoning Avenue. House in first rats repair; contains nine rooms, a first-class cellar, with sewer connections complete, A fifty barrel cistern w ith pomp and sink in kitchen. Good well of water handy. I Ait nnderdralned, 'and everything in tip lop order. For terma, frc enouireof WM. B. PORTER, , , Office ever Iddlngs Morgan's Store, Warren, Ohio. . oct 11-tf. PLUMBING, GAS & STEAM fittin o. TH E UNDERSIGNED ARE NOW prepared todoall kinds of work In their in a first-class manner. Kstlmates made and satisfaction guaranteed on all work done. We also keep a full stock of Bath-Tuba, Wash Stands, Water -Closets, Boilers and ail goods pertaining to a first class Plumbing Establishment. Agents for Cincinnati and Boston Cooking itanges. MORRIS. KELLY CO Aug. t. lS71-rj Youngstown. Ohio. CITY MEAT MARKET THE undersigned would res pectfully announce to the citi zens of Warren and the vlcinitv he has opened a Meat Market on Lib erty Street, opposite E. K. Wisell's Carriage Factory, where be Intends to keep CO nstant 3 on hand, all kinds of fresh meats, and oi good quality as the country will afford. haveemployed the services of a good butch er who has had long experience in the busi ness, and who will always be on hand to at tend to the wanu of all customers. AH or lea for menu In the evening will be firomptly attended to, if desired can be de 1 vered at their residences, or kept In re frigerator till called on. nne 2U. 1S70-U LEMUEL DRAT FOR FALL& WINTER. New Millinery of Latest Styles. 7"E have received from If ew York, II a handsome stock of. FEATHERS, TIPS, POXPUXS, Wings, Flowers of all kinds. Ribbons, Vel vets, Shaded Gros Orenes, XECK TIES, FAXCY BOWS, HATS, all styles. In fact we have one of the finest stock of Millinery goods ever brought this place M. C. M. C. FOHMAN. rooms in First National Bank Building Warren.Ohlo (oct. 11- tf IXECUROR'S SALJL. jjln pursuance of an order granted by the Court of Trumbull county, Ohio, I offer for sale at public auction, on the day of January, A. D. 1872, between the hours of 10 o'clock, a. m. and if o'clock p. ro. the premises in Mesopotamia, the follow ing described real estate, known as the Col, Sheldon Farm, containing one hundred (100) of land, of excellent quality; mgooe. story bouse, .arge barn, corn house, barn and other ont buildings, all li: condition; good fmit of excellent varle j. two good wells of water and a never fall ing stream running through the farm. farm is situate about one mile from center of the township and Is bounded follows : On the north by lands of Fred erick Shearer and Willard Day, and heirs of George Arnold; on the east by heirs of Geo. Arnold and A. C. Fauss; on the south hv the public highway, and on the west by Harri son Laird and benj. Joslln, to place of be ginning, being part of Lou 39 and 40. Terms 1 One-fourth on day of sale and the balance In two equal annual payments, with annual Interest, secured by mortgge. LINUS TRACY, Ex'r or Israel B. Sheldou, dee d. Nov 29. 1K71-K SHERIFF'S BALE. The State o Ohio, T mm bull county, as. Milton Satlifr, 1 In Trumbull Com vs. J-mon Pleas. William Lindser.' J' By virtue of an order of sale, issued out of Court of Common Pleas of Trumbull Oonnty, In tbe above named ease, and o me directed and delivered, 1 have levied upon, shall expose to public sale at the door the Court Honse, in the city of Warren, on - , Satarday, Jan. 6th, A. D. 1S7S, between tbe hours of one and three o'clock, M. of said day, tbe following described and tenements, sit Date In the town ship of Vernon, county of Trumbull, and unio, eounaeu nonn Dy me road lead ing from the center of said Vernon to John. east by the east tine of lands conveved toplalntiff by Phlio Thompson; south by the of Miles Beech, and west by the west of said Vernon; containing three hun ana thiriy-eightacreaoriand. Appraised at $ - . Terms, Cash G. W. DICKINSON, Sheriff. Sheriffs Office. Warren. 0 Dec t. 1X71-61 ESTATE of George H. Bailey dee'd. The nndersigned has been duly annoin- and qualified aa Administrator on the of George H. Bailey, dee d, late of Trumbull Co., Ohio. S. W. 1'AKX. Warren, Dec 2u. lB71-St EXCHANGE BANK Freeman & ftvsT, WASBEK, OHIO. DEALEI18 IN Sllicr. Eastern kesaa. rararreat Baal stas, aaa sll klass af GOVERNMENT BONDS Interest Allowed ea time Deposits. Collections and all business connected wltn Banking promptly attended to. REVENUE STAMPS FOR SALE. Marco L 1871. THE CHRONICLE. VOICE IN THE TWILIGHT. [FROM WOMAN'S WORK FOR WOMEN.] (After our most anx loos efforts to do right, wa often need the comfort which the follow ing exquisitely sweet poem is designed to Impart.) I was sitting alone toward the twilight, WitL spirit troubled and vexed, With loots' that ware morbid and gloomy, And faith that was sadly perplexed. Some homely work I was doing For the child of mv love and care- Some stitches half wearily setting In the endless need of repair. Bat my thoughts weteabeut the "building,' The work some day to be tried : And that only the gold and the silver. And the precious stones should abide. And remembering my own poor efforts. The wretched work I bad done. And, even when trrlng most truly. The meagre success I had won. "It Is nothing but wood, hay and stubble." I said : "ItwitlaH be burned This useless fruit of the talents One day to be returned. "And t have so longed to serve Him. And sometimes 1 know 1 have tried ; Bnt I'm sure when he sees such building. nr win never lei it aoiae." Jnst then, as I turned the garment. That no rent should be left behind. sy eye caugnt an oao mue ouogie oi Df mending and patchwork combined. My heart grew suddenly tender. And something blinded my eyes. With one of those sweet Intuitions That sometimes make as so wise. Dear child, she wanted to help me ; I knew 'twas the best she could do; But oh I what a botch she had made It The gray mismatching the blue! And yet-Oan you understand It t With a tender smile and a tear. And a half compassionate yearning. 1 felt her grown more dear. Then a sweet voice broke the silence. And the dear Lord said to me, "Art thoo tenderer for the little child Than I am tender for thee f " Then straightway I knew His meaning. So full of compassion and love. And my faith cams back to its Refuge, Like the glad returning dove. For I thought when the Vaster Builder Comes down his temple to view. To see what rents must be mended. And what must be bullded anew ; Perhaps, as be looks o'er the building, He will bring my work to the light. And seeing the marring and bungling. ADU now lar it an is iruiu rignii He will feel as I feltfor my darling. Ana wilt sav as 1 said to ner. Dear child, she wanted to help me. And love for me was the spur. And for the real love mat la la It. The work shall seem perfect as mine : And because It was willing service. i will crown ltwitn plaudit divine." And there In the deepening twilight, 1 seemed to be clasping a band. And to feel a great love constraining ma .stronger man any command. Then I knew by the thrill of sweetness av'Twaa the hand of the Blessed One. hich would tenderly guide and hold me. Till all the labor la done. ray thought are never more gloomy. My faith no longer is dim ; But my heart Is strong and restful. Ana my eyes are uuio mm. . i of to GOVERNOR'S MESSAGE. Fellow-Citizens of the General Assembly. The finances of the State Govern ment are in a satisfactory condition The balance in the State Treasury on the loth of November. 1570. was $766,038,10; the receipts during the last fiscal year were S5,S4l,lM,vi ; making the total amountor available funds in the Treasury during the year ending .November ijtti, 1M1, 56.007.223.01. The disbursements during the year have been f 5,2.9,04o,74. leaving a bal ance In tbe Treasury, overt) her 15th, 1871. of $748,176.27. The estimates of the Auditor of State of receipts and expenditures for the current year, are as ioiiows : Estimated receipts from all sources, including balances. fe5.:AKj.3bb.Z7. Estimated " disbursements for all purposes. $4,776,055.73. Leavinir an estimated balance In the Treasury, November 15th, 1872, of The public funded debt of the State November loth, 1870, alter deducting the amount invested In Ohio stocks, was $9,730,144.36. During tbe past year the debt has been reduced 2y.4io. , Leaving tbe total debt yet to e provided for. $9,000,729.36. Of this amount, the sum of $44,518,31 has ceased to bear interest, the holders thoreof bavins; been notified of the readiness of the State to pay the same. This leaves the total Interest-bearing debt of the State. ss.9.0 "11.06. The taxes levied in 1870, collectable in 1871, were as follows : State taxes M.V2VSt County and local levies 1,77 -. SS74M.W Delinquencies and forfeitures In iormer years . Total tax. Including dellnanen cies collectable In 1871 24,130.S20,I1 The taxes levied in 1S71, collectable In 1S72, were as loiwwt- State taxes 4,M0,T28,S County and local levies lg,t,M,13 Iieltnquencles and forfeitures - 6XiT5i Total taxes and delinquencies collectable In 1872 l25S7,6Mt It will be noticed, with -gratification, that the annual increase of taxa tion, to which the people have been long accustomed, has been checked, and that the taxes, both Ftate and local have been somewhat reduced The increase of local indebtedness still continues. The returns made to the Auditor of State are imperfect. but enough is shown to warrant tbe opinion that during the past year the indebtedness ol tbe towns and cities of the State has Increased not less than one million of dollars, and that their aggregate indebtedness now equals the indebtedness of the State. I respectfully repeat, as the remedy for this evil, the recommendation heretofore made, that all public debts be prohibited.except in cases of emer gency, analogous to those specified in sections 1 and 2, Art. 8, of the Consti tution. The report of the Adjutant General shows that there has been collected by him from the United States du ring the year, on acconntof the State War Claims, the sum or $145,304,60, making tbe total amount of war claims collected $2,826,247.94. It is probable that about $100,000 more can be col lected on these claims without addi tional legislation by Coueret. This will leave about $400,000 of claims un paid, which it is believed, when pre sented to Congress.with proper Touch ers and explanations, will be provi ded for by speeial act. As long, how ever, as the Board of Military Claims exikU, ihese claims will continue.and it would not be advisable to seek Congressional action nntil the Stale, by closing its accounts with individu als, shall be able to ask for a final set tlement. It is therefore recommended that the statutes providing for tbe allow ance of claims against tbe State by the Commissioners of Military Claims be repealed ; the repeal to take effect at such date in the future as will afford opportunity for the presentation and allowance of all just claims. The report of the Commissioner of Common Schools shows that, upon the whole, the educational interests of the State continue to be very pros perous. He presents, however, for your consideration, a number of changes in the school laws, which he deems essential to further progress. The proposed reforms are treated of in bis report under the following heads: normal instruction, supervision, a codification of the laws, and the town ship system. Tbe commanding position which Ohio has held in tbe great transac tions of our recent civil and military history is largelydue to the education al advantages enjoyed by her people. .very measure wnicn tends to con tinue and Increase tbose, advanta- or in a in of his the it new no The real of of the it on over the and and over so Then gers, about Last of the or are have the useful do or But these their tbe ests its the is abuses and large and In by not ges, merits your earnest and favorable consideration. For many year the most eminent teacbers aud friends of education, have urged the necessity of establish ing institutions for the infraction of teacbers in the principles and duties of their high and honorable calling. A few thousand dollars of school fund applied every year to this purpose, will, It is believed, make the expen ditures for school purposes vastly more beneficial in the State. j There are serious objection to the me present mixed system of school management, by means of township 1 1 .1 L 1 - . - . ,. , J. uuarus auu euu-uisirict directors, n is believed that this system ought to give place to the purely township sys tem, in which all the schools of the township are under the exclusive con trol of a board of education chosen by the electors of the township. This plan is in conformity with that which has been adopted with satisfactory results in most of our towns, and is sustained by the experience of other States in which tlie purely township system has been tried. In several eountiea of the State col ored children are practically deprived oi tue pnveiege or attending public schools. The denial of education to any citizen of Ohio is so manifestly unjust that itis confidently believed that the Legi lature needs only to be informed that such a wrong exists to promptly provide a remedy. The official reports of the Peniten tiary, the Reform School for Boys, Reform School for Girls, and the Benevolent Institutions of the State, which will be laid before you, show that tbe work of these institutions has, during tbe past year, been well done. They will, without auestion. receive from you all needed encourage ment ana support. It seems proper, however, to direct vour attention to the nrgent necessity of such legisla tion as will empower the Boards of rustees and .Directors chanred with tbe erection of buildings for the iusane and for the orphans of deceased sol dies, to complete them as soon as prac- sicnuie. By the census of 1S70, the number insane persons in the State was 3414. The number of catienta under treatment in the iusaue asylums of tne ciate was, last year, only 1340. The Trustees of the Soldiers and Sail ors' Orphans' Home report that the numoer oiorpnans in UUlo, needing care, is about eight hundred, and that tne numoer cared ror Is only about two hundred and fifty. These facts sufficiently demonstrate the impor tance of the suggestion here made. I renew my recommendation here- tofore made, that the Legislature pro- mo iui me erevuuu oi suitaoie monu ments at tbe graves of General Harri son and General Hairier. General Harrison has manv titles tbo grateful remembrance of the people of Ulna He was one of the pioneers of the West, a soldier of hon orable. fame in two wars against the savages, and in the war of 1S12, a Secretaiy and Acting Governorof the Northwest Territory before Ohio was organize'd, a law-maker of conspicu usefulness at the State f'niiital nd at Washington, and was Chief Magistrate of the nation at the time his death. To honor him Is to hon all who were eminent and useful the early settlement of Ohio. General Hamer severed with dis tinction four times in the General Assembly; was tbe Speaker of the House of representatives; wbs six years member of Congress from the Brown connty District, and died in Mexico, 1840, a volunteer from Ohio, in the serviceof his country, with the rank Brigadier General. At the time of death, tlieUeneral Assembly.with entire unanimity, "resolved, that tbe body of the deceased be brought from Mexico and interred in the soil of Ohio, at the expense of the State." Having undertaken, as the duty of State, to give the remains of Gen eral Hamer a fitting burial, the Legis lature cannot regard that duty as completely performed until an appro- Eriate monument has been built at grave. Since tbe adoption of tlie present Constitution, tbe Governor's duties have compelled him to reside at tbe Capital, if any change is made in respect to the power and duties of the Elective in the revision about to be made of tbe Constitution, tbe change, is probable, will increase rather than diminish his duties. The evi dent impropriety of subjecting each incumbent of tbe office to the inconvenience and expense of procu ring aud furnihbine a suitable resi dence for the short period of a Govern or's term of office, has led, in many states, to tne purchase of a Governor's Mansion. Three of the States adjoin ing Ohio have adobted this course. It cannot be doubted that Ohio will, at distant day, follow their example. lapid increase in the value of estate in Columbusin consenuence its present growth, and Its promise continued prosperity in the future, gives force to the suggestion that, if State is to purchase a Governor's residence at all, it would be well to do promptly.. The importance of wise leeislation- tbe tubject of railroads, in a Mate having the geographical position which belongs to Ohio, can not be estimated. The greater part of travel between the commercial manufacturing States of the East the agricultural States of the West, and of the business of tbe con tinental railways which connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, passes the railroads of this State. Four teen years ago, Govercor Cba.se, speak ing of tbe railroads of Ohio, said i vast interest, aflectinir vitallv many other interests, has grown suddenly to iU present dimensions without eysiem. without general or ganization, and, in some important rexpecia, wuuout responsibility." the railroads of the State carried nnuaily about a million of passen and their gross receipts were six millions of dollars a year. year they carried twelve millions passengers, and their gross receipts exceeded thirty millions of dollars. All of the just powers of the corpo rations which conducts this immense business, are derived from the laws of State. If these laws fail to guard adequately tberightsand tbe interests our citizens, it is the duty of the General Assembly to supply their de fects. Serious and well-grounded ap prehensions are felt tbat in the man agement of these companies, which largely controlled by non -residents of Ohio, practices, uot sanction ed by tbe law, nor by sound morality, become common, which are prejudicial to the great Interests of great body of the people, and which, if continued, will ultimately destroy the prosperity of the State. Kegarding railroads as the most instrumentality by which in tercourse is carried on between differ ent sections of the country, the people not desire the adoptiou of a narrow unfriendly policy towards them it should be remembered that corporations were created, and valuable franchises granted by Legislature to promote tbe inter of the people of the State. No railroad company can sacrifice those interests without violating the law of origin. It is not to be doubted tbat authority of the General Assembly competent to correct whatever have grown up in the manage ment of the railroads of tbe State. The late Commissioner of Railroads Telegraphs, In his last able and valuable report, directs attention to a number of what he terms "clear palpable violations of law," by companies, which are of fre quent occurrence. relation to tbe rates prescribed law for the transportation of per sons and property, he says: "There is a railroad operated in the Htite, er of in of or It is are and oi full duty of any who such "see one to or the of favor or tbe the the next an the I860, In people trusts to now under It which at out either under special charter or lating rates is not in some way vio- iaiea neany every time a regular pas senger, or ireigtu, or mixed train passes over it. As to the laws regulating the occu pation of streets and alleys by rail road tracks, the epeed of locomotives io towns and cities, and railroad cros sings, he says that, statutes which he regards a a wholesome are, "it is noto rious, wholly itrnored by some comna- nies, and only partially obeyed by others." lie quotes the laws forbidding rail road officials from being interested in fast freight, express or transportation companies, and from dealing in rail road securities, and adds, that "the violation of these laws is believed to be very common among railroad offl- ninla- f ciala. The Commissioner also gives exam ples of "the increase or watering of stock" by railroad companies, and re marks, "the foregoing statements are the more striking in view of tbe fact that the stockholdersin the company have been in receipt of regular semi annual dividends fur several years, of from i t to ten per cent, per annum." The significance of this remark of the Co amissioner lies In the fact that the rates which railroad companies may charge for transportation of pas senirers aud freight may be prescribed by tbe General Assembly, whenever j the net profits amount to ten percent. on the capital actually invested. The interests involved are of such magnitude that all legislation ought to be based on tbe fullest and most accurate information which a careful investigation can furnish. I, there fore, recommend that a commission of five citizens, of whom the Railroad Commissioner shall be one, be organ ized, with ample powers to investi gate the management of the railroad companies of the State, their legal rights, and the rights of tbe State and Its citizens, and to report the informa tion acquired, with a recommenda tion of such measures as the commis sion shall deem expedient. Daring the past year, the traveling Cublic has enjoyed, in Ohij, remarka le immunity from railroad accidents. According to the reports of the rail road companies to the Commissioner, not a single passenger has lost life by tbe faults of the railroads In the State, during the year. But the number of persons "other than passengers," and of "employes" who have lost their lives, is quite large, une hundred and fifty-seven persons are reported have been killed, and it is without doubt tbat many deaths have occurred which have not been reported, ilatv these fatal accidents happened in the streets of towns and cities, and at street and road crossings. It is per- lectly practicable to protect citizens from these dangere.by enforcing prop regulations as to tbe speed of train9 and as to the occupancy and crossing streets and road-t. our special at tention is called to this subject. One of the most otnicuit and inter esting practical problems which now engages the tboughtsof the American people, ht how to maintain economy. efficiency, and purity in the adminis tration of local affairs, and especially the government of townsand cities, without a departure from principles and methods which are deemed essen tial to free popular government. Manv of the most important functions government are in tbe hands of local authorities. They are directly charged with theexpenditureof large sums of money, with the protection lite aud property, and with tne ad ministration of civil and criminal justice. The duties, In one way or another, touch nearly and constantly the interests and feelings or every citizen. Upon their .faithful per formance depends tbe prosperity, hap piness, and safety of the community. is true, that as yet, Ohio is happi ly, in a great measure, free from tbe operation of causes which in the commercial metropolis of the country recently led to such extraordinary corruption in tbe government of that city. But those causes do not belong alone to the grtat cities of tbe Eaft. They are already at work in our midst and they are steadily aud rapidly in creasing in power. No political party altogether ireeirom meir innuence, and no political party is solely respon sible for them. Ve have laws pro hibiting almost every conceivable official neglect and abuse; and penal are afiixed to the violation of tboee laws which cannot be regarded as inadequate. Tbe difficulty is to se cure their enforcement. Those whose duty it is to detect aud prosecute, are often interested lu maintaining good relations with the wrong doers. The contractors for public works and sup plies, not unfrequentiy nave a com munity of interest with those who the agents of the public, to let and superintend the performance of con tracts. Where these abuses exist, there is apt to be a large circle of ap parently disinterested citizens who labor to conceal the facts, and to sup press investigation. What the public welfare demands, is a practical meas ure which will provide for a thorough impartial investigation, in every or suspected neglect, abuse or fraud. Such an investigation to be effective, must be made by an authori ty Independent, if possible, of all local influences. When abuses are discov ered, the prosecution aud punishment onenders ought to lollow. Ilut eveu if prosecutions fail, in cases of exposure, public opinion almost always accomplishes the object de sired. A thorough investigation, or corruption and criminality leads with great oertainty to the needed reform. Publicity is a great corrector of official abuses. Let it, therefore, be made the or the Governor, on satisfactory information that the public good re quires an investigation or tne analrs any public office or tbe conduct of public officer, whether State or to appoint oue or more citizens shall have ample powers to make investigation. If, by the inves tigation, violations of law are discov ered, tlie Governor should be author ized, in bis discretion, to notify the Attorney General, 'whose duty it should be, on such notice, to prose cute the offenders. The Constitution makes it the duty of the Governor to that the laws are faithfully exe cuted." Some such measure as the here recommended, is necessary give force and effect to this consti tutional provision. In compliance with the Constitu tion, the lost General Assembly sub mitted to the people tbe question of holding a convention, "to revise.alter amend" the Constitution; and at October election, a large majority tbe voters of Uie State decided in or a convention. It la the duty the General Assembly, at its pres ent session, to provide, by law, ror election or delegates, and the as eemblingof tbe convention. Tbe vote on the question of calling Convention which formed the present Constitution was taken at October election, 149. At tbe session of the General Assembly act was passed which provided for electiou of delegates to the Con vention, the first Monday of April, and the Convention was con vened on the first Monday of May following. conclusion. I wish to make my grateful acknowledgements to the of Ohio, for the honorable they have confided in me, and express the hope tbat tbe oaimony, prosperity r.nd happiness which they enjoy in such full measure, may, Providence, be perpetual. so as and the is wife a in man one In or and R. B. HAYES. is said that the subject upon Horace Greeley is to lecture Atlanta is "Tne proper time to set bee trees." this THE DARK SIDE OF CITY LIFE. The Number and Condition of the Poor in Cincinnati—Neglected Children- The Children's Home and Its Work Among the Poor-A Touching Incident —Providential Care and —Providential Care and Approval of the Work-What the Country May Do For Poor of the City. To the Editor of the Chronicle: I cannot doubt that many of your readers will be deeply interested in learning something of tbe number and circumstances of tbe poor of this city. Cincinnati has a verv laree class of poor people; more, probably.Tfeomes than any other city in the country in proportion toits population; certainly more, if we except New York. Dur ing a residence of nearly ten years in Chicago I made it a constant habit to observe the condition of the poor, and since my sojourn in Cincinnati I have been particularly impressed with the uinerence between tbe number and circumstances of this class or people in tbe two cities. Not but there are persons in Chicago whose condition Is very miserable; wherever there are three thousand liquor saloons in active operation in the midst or a population or three hundred thousand people, as in Chicago before the fire, there is sure to be much want, suffer ing and vice. The difference, however, in the character and situation of the two places baa much to do with the con dition of the poor, who cannot deter mine for themselves how and where they will live, but are obliged to take up with such accommodations as they can find. In Chicago there were very few tenement houses, but the greater pan oi tne poor were scattered widely over the city in small houses, many of them in cottages or their own. erected at small expense on leased ground ; while in Cincinnati nearly ail or tbe poor people are quartered in small, close rooms in some one or the third, fourth, or even fifth, stories or cellars of our large tenement houses. Chicago has infinite room to spread out in on three sides, the street car placing a cheap home within tbe reach of all. Cincinnati is more cir cumscribed by natural barriers, and it is thus obliged to build more com pactly and into the air. It may not generally be kuon n that Cincinnati is more densely populated than any city in the couDlry. the population here being about thirty six thousand tothe square mile. New York is about thirty-two thousand, while Chicago, before tbe fire, could not have exceeded half of that num ber, or only about sixteen thousand to the square mile. There are in Cincinnati about fourteen hundred tenement houses, containing about sixteen thousand rooms, in which are domiciled ten thousand families, aggregating be tween forty and fifty thousand persons. There are between four and five thousand families in this city occupy ing only one room each, and aggregat ing from sixteen to twenty thousand persons. In a few extreme cases, two and sometime three families are crowded into one small room, and there, as may be imagined, the degradation and misery are utterly Indescribable. It is impossible In such a stale of things-as this, but tbat there should be great poverty and suffering. No mere description can do justice to the wretchedness of these dwellings. They must be experienced to be appreciated. There is always in the growing cities of this country a sort of border land between business and residence property, which, owing to tbe near encroachment of business, has become' undesirable as a place of abode for the rich, and is not yet required by the demands or trade, and is eonseouent.lv surrendered to th poor of all classes. This Is particularly true of Cincinnati. The line is dis tinctly marked, and forms a perfect moral slougn, as easily traceable as those low, marshy streaks which are an eyesore and annoyance to many farmers. Dwellings which were once the homes of the rich and respectable aud graced with all tbat taste and culture could suggest to render them attractive, are now the filthy abodes of thieves and harlots and resound with midnight orgies and drunken revels. By far the saddest feature of the condition of the tioor U the presence or neglected children, who fairly swarm everywhere. Our late esteemed friend, Mr. C. W Starbuck, who was so prominently engaged in connection with the Relief Union of this city, savs : "At one tenement house I made an effort to count tbe children at play in the yard, but after reaching as high as 121 1 missed count, aud gave it up too difficult a task. In conversation with one of the mothers, she said she thought there were about 22a children belonging to the premises." To rescue and shelter some of these tbe practical liberality of our age has established different institutions, prominent among which may be reckoned The Children's Home, now located at ISO W est Third street. This institution is chartered under tbe laws of the State of Ohio, and is seeking to carry out those beneficent provisions of the statute which look toward the rescue aud reformation or children who would otherwise become subjects for the expensive and degrad ing discipline of our jails and the penitentiary, notwithstanding the noble efforts of our Board of State Charities to rescue those institutions from their purely penal character. and give them more tbe character f reformatories. 11 gainers up sucn children as have no suitable care takers, and adopts them as its own that they become thereafter the wards or The Home. It does not look toward keeping them altogether in the institution, however, for any great length or time: but. acting on the belief tbat a home presided over by a Christian woman is the most natural and healthful condition in which a child can be placed, they are taken, soon as practicable, to good country homes, among Christian people. An agreement is entered into between officers of The Home and tbe person receiving children requiring that they shall be properly cared for in every wav, body, mind, and spirit, and allowed, on attaining their majority, such a sum of money as the circum stances of the case may seem to warrant, varying from one hundred fifty to two hundred and fifty dollars. The rules of The Home require tbat reports shall be received from all children at least four times a year, and that every child shall be visited in its home at least once a year ; and its condition, care and progress U thus noted and recorded. Since tbe organization of the insti tution nearly oue thousand children have been received, and nearly five hundred are now iu good homes in country; tbe condition or whom highly satisfactory and encourag ing. Manv touching incidents might be related or children who have been received into The Home, but ons which I learned from tbe lips or tbe matron must suffice. A man and and three beautiful children, one mere babe, occupied a small room one of our tenement houses. The was or more than ordinary in telligence an: I education, aud had at time filled the situation or teacher one or our public schools. Drink, however, the great destroyer, had brought them down to this condition poverty; and how much sorrow want bud to do with it may only known to Him who understandeth secrets or all hearts: but the young mother sickened aud died. After the father went down more rapidly still, and one morning Inform ed his eldest daughter, a little girl about teu years of aye, (bat she must a to a as do by or to is by and feel not his ted on by H. was on was ed be of other fied but it ment in on law but not choose to the such for, man. On South of on in the country, where they are hunt a home for herself and the children, for be should not return. And so he cruelly deserted them, leaving tbe three helpless little ones to fight tbe battle of life alone. They managed by begging among the neigh bors to subsist for a few days, until they were convinced tbat their father had really left them, and then the brave little girl started out and told her story from door to door, until a a kind-hearted gentleman, who was touched by the simple appeal, investi gated the matter, and brought them all to the Children's Home. There they found a quiet resting place, and were soon transferred to comfortable sun doing well, me mother was a Christian woman, whose last words to her children were loving admoni tions, and directions to her little ones to rely upon tbe dear Saviour, and seek His protecting care; and ir she can looK down irorn ner home in heaven, her blessing must rest upon tbe Children's Home, aud upon those wno nave tusen the wanderers in and are giving them that loving care which their own rather was so heart less as to deny. This is tbe primary work of tbe Children's Home, out sit Is utterly impossible for generoa and pbllan- turoi.ic persons to oe engaged in such work as this, and limit their charity to one ciass oi objects. In the course o! the work for the children, the Managers of the Home are brought in contact with all class or poor people, and their sympathies are appealed to on every hand. Now It may be a poor sick woman in need of everything to make her comfort able, and again another who is able to work, but bos no clothes fit to go out in, not to speak of enduring the Inclement winter. One of the most common and bene ficial forms of relief which they are able to grant is the distribution of second-hand clothing among deserv ing poor, which is supplied by tbe generous contributions of the friends the Home, as indeed are all the means for carrying on the work. In the course or this work it has re peatedly been demonstrated to them tbat as they go forward, trusting in the Lord for means to carry it on, their wants will be supplied. As they give so they receive, and numerous instances might be cited which are at least quite remarkable, and to them seem ut thing short of tokens of Divine approval. At one time clothing was very much needed for the children of a poor woman who had been brought their notice. The Matron said, "We cannot give her any; we are entirelyout." She had scarcely done speaking when tbe door bell rang and gentleman hauded iu a bundle of children's clothing containing the very articles needed. Only a few days since the lady visitor found the family or a gentle man who had formerly been a mis sionary in foreign lands, living in a poor, dark room, and so verv miser able that it seems wonderful how they ever could have become so reduced. The wife particularly needed clothing. she was very destitute. llie Matron ransacked her stores. and returned with the discouraging announcement that she had nothing suitable for her. A few moments afterwards a man came walking up the front entrance with a box on his shoulder for The Hoke. It was opened immediately, and in it was found juAt the garments needed. Now as to what the couutrv mav for the poor of the city : First and foremost, you may help to supply the means for maintaining the work here your contributions. Money, cloth ing, graiu, flour, apples, potatoes, anything which you have will be gratefully received on behalf of the poor creatures whom tbe Managers The Home are seeking to benefit. Second you may open your hearts and homes to take in these children, who kre so sadly in need of some one give them loving care and con scientious training. No selfish motive should induce any one to apply for a child from the Chil dren's Home ; but those who would know tbe joy of being father and mother in truth to those little wan derers, will find their wishes warmly seconded by the Managers. The President or The Home is Mr. Murray Shipley, who has long been well and ravorably known in com mercial circles, and ot iateyeais has been particularly active in efforts to benefit tbe condition of the poor. He ably supported in this noble work a Board of Trustees, conjosed of some of the first men in Cincinnati, tbe institution commands the entire confidence and sympathy of tbe community. those who may be interested, and wish to Tender any assistance, can assured that their donations could be intrusted to better bands, or contributed to a work which will produce more practical or satisfactory results. II. as a Brigham Young Arrested. Salt lake, January 2. Brlgbam Young was arrested this morning at residence in this city by the Uni States Marshal, charged with murder. An application for release bail will be heard at two p. M. by Judge McKean. UriKbam young, in custody or the United States Marshall, accompanied George A. Smith, Daniel H. Velb, B. Claw son, and other high digni taries, appeared before Chief Justice Mclvean this afternoon, under the in dictment of murder. Tbe court loom crowded. The crowd was suffo cating. Much anxiety was evinced the part of theMorman's, but there not the least snow or disorder or by for disrespect to the court. Hon. C. H. Hamstead and Thomas Fitch appear-! for tbe prisoner, and United States ' the Attorney Bates for the prosecution, Hempstead moved tbat tbe prisoner j l admitted to bail on tbe ground that was an old man seventv-one years age, 1-. feeble health, had come four hundreu miles to meet this and all charges and his physician certi mat imprisonment would imper il his life. Bates offered no opiiosltion to ball suggested tbat il bail was taken should lie fiixed at five hundred thousand dollars. Judge JlcKean sanl the govern of the tnited States has no tail this city holding prisoners arrested process Issued from United States Courts. Tbe Marshal was required to exercise the descretiou which the rests in him. Some times such prisoners were kept at Camp Douglass, tbe commander of tbe post was obliged to receive tbem. The prisoner was the reputed owner of several houses In this city. If he to put under the control of the Jlarsuall .some suitable building or portion or a building in wuicli to be detained it will be for tbe Marshall decide whether to adopt it. It is option of the prisoner to make an offer. In any event the Mar shall will look to it that every com fort or the prisoner will be provided remembering tbat he is an old I decline to admit the defend ant to bail. leaving tbe court Brigbam ten dered to the Marshall his residence on Temple street, which was ac cepted, and Brigbam is now a prison er his own house. Brigbam seem ed perfectly cool and unconcerned. The usefulness of the Signal Service the United States is to be extended :.nd after January first by report ing the depth of water at all piomi nent points on the principal navi gable rivers or the west. The tendency or poor reed in boarding-schools is to make the young lady boarders ra?t, lur the not It " they Mir the ing self and "Jir the savs Mir assist are own nity, a A DOUBTING HEART. BY ADELAIDE ANNE PROCTOR. Where are the swallows fled t V niian an. I Am .4 Pen liance upon some bleak and slonny . O doubting heartr Filr over purple seas They wall, in sunny ease, r . .i1" balmy southern breeze ... ui.uic mem io itieir northern homes once mute. Why must the flowers die ., ... Prisoned they lla ui me coia mo, heedless of tears or rain. v uououns; neart T IL"' OD,y ,leeP below The rt h,t.i. - To breathe and smile upon yon soon acaln. The sun has hid its rays ThnA mmnv - . V ill dreary hours never leave fjie earlb T O denoting heart! Tlie stormy clouds on high; Veil the same sonny sky That umn rnr.r,.n.i..i.k Shall wake the summer Into golden mlnh. Fair hope Is dead, and light - iimvHphM In n !r,Vi What sound can breaktbe silence of despair? The sky la overcast, let stars shall rise at last. Brighter for darkness past. And angel a siiver voices stir the air. THE RUSSIAN "MIR." Men look upon the rrowin? mver ui i.iisBiB, as threatening tne stability of Europe solely bv its maarnitui and assume that if the Slavonic race ever controls the European world it wili be through the military domina tion. Iu this estimate or Russia's probable Influence on the future of turopeon history, the peculiar char- nuierituo oi mat great nation's aortal system is entirely overlooked. The ir,n blood and physical vigor of her uuiuuirrrieous minions, are. it la true grand elements for a reconstruction of the older societies of the w . but there Is a greater power, th RnI sians claim, in the healthy life of wen em-iai organization. During the past five hundred Western Europe has been risrolnn. i ! - xi. .. . r. '"8 niuug a iiue mat tenas more and more toward tbe elevation of the few and the dcirrnrWinn rt ih. The results of this process are most plainly seen in England, where the Kreaivr portion or tne sou is nominal' ir ws!s8ea oy a score of nerana By a system of legalized rohhenr th original owners or the soil, the people, have been shut out from their natural snare of this common gift of God. and exist only through the pleasure of tuose wno nave despoiled them. The iniquitious power that these few great lauu-uuiuers possess nas been too plainly demonstrated bv the conver sion of populous countries into sheep walks, and the ex&atriation of the Inhabitants, to gratify the caprice of a juucnrss oi ouunerianu, or some other avaricious proprietor, whose real right io me sou was oniy a legal fiction. As a basis of Christian civ1'i7ation this system of land tenure is worse than a failure. It Is a criminal mis take which must be corrected nr the disruption oi jngiisn society is inev- nam? ; auu r.ngiana'8 experience In this matter is, or will be. the experi ence of every country organized on a euuai oasis. At tbi juncture Russia arioeam and offers a long-tried foundation for a new order of things, a return to first principles, departure from wbichiias everywhere proved disastrous. "What appears in the West as the cnance doctrine or tbe greatest think' era." writes Kmlnnurnv "vhit there regarded a the highest ex pre sion or philosophy to which Europe has arrived after centuries of convul sions aud trials, has in Russia ever lain enshrined in tbe character and ideas of the people. Our peasant com munities are iu their nature nothing else than the realization or the idea which is now earnestly stuggled after in tbe West" That idea is the com mon brotherhood of men, and the in alienable right or each man to a share of his native soil. The idea br private right to proper ty In land is foreign to tie ideas of the Russian people. The earth is God's, they say, and the use of it his gift to man, not to individuals no oue owns it, or can own It. to the ex clusion of his neighbors. Thev would soon think of granting the exclu sive right t navigate the Volga to one man, or a company or men, a3 the ownership of the land alonir its banks. Both belong to the nation as whole, for the equal but undivided use of all the people. Individual ap propriation or sale of land seems to them as irrational as an individual mo nopoly or air or sunshine would be to us. Whatever a man creates bv his own wit or labor is his, the fruits of nis own planting, the .corn he cult! vates, are his ; but the soil is the com' moti inheritance of the people, and cannot oe alienated from them. Tbe entire social and political sys tem ui itussia is based on and grows ouiui tins iree tenure oi land. Tbe social unit, the national microcosm is the family. A group of families liV' ing in one place and sustaining a fam relation to each other, form a Mir. nation is a family of Mire, under supreme direction of the Czar, who is regarded as father to the entire people, 'lue national territory, dl vided among the Mirs according to tneir occupancy, is either cultivated them iu common, or sub-divided into equal portions and temporarily allotted to tne beads of families form ing the Mirs. The woodlands, pas tures, nunung-grounds and tlsbenes, remain undivided and free to all, uuder local regulations preventing unequal appropriations. To provide new claimants between thealot ments, a number, of shares are set apart a a reserve, to be rented or otherwise made use of for the com mon benefit until it is needed. The shares of those who die, or remove to other parts of tbe couutrv. revert to leserve. If a stranger comes to among them, he is adopted by lie Mir as into a family, and given an equal share in the common posses he sioiix. In many parts of tha country especially ainoug the Cossacks, local guveruiuenl is purely democratic, tbe Elders, or chief men of the village communities, being elected by popn vote. In all cases tlie authority f Elders is nothing except as an expression or tbe will of the people. viuu siuiiti uirecus uie Jdir." ToaRusIan the word Mir denotes simply the aggregate of tbe people oruiiug a couininnuy, puk Aotvto is tbe personification o." order and power, possession and providence. The shoulders or tbe Mir are broad : carry everything." " What be longs to the ii.tr, belongs to the moth er's little son." "A thread or the becomes a shirt for the naked." Justice is usually administered by Elders ; sometimes by the Mir at large. Passing near a village, Baron Hauthausen saw an instance or tbe latter. Oneor tbe villagers bad pre sumed to enclose a portion or the common pasture land. He was sum moned before tbe Mir to give an explanation or his conduct, but fear the communal stick he hid him ; whereupon tbe people assembled pulled down the unlawful fence. potozhil," said the Baron's driv er, "the Mir bas decided." "What Mir decides must come to pass," another Russian proverb. The principle or communism rules tmong Russian artisans tbe same as among the peasant farmers. The organized as a manufactory is tbe original form or mechanical industry. Whatever one does, all do. The members or these artisan communes each other with purchases in partnership, and snd their produc tions to the market towns, where thev kept for saie by members of their Mirs. In tb'is way every indi vidual is identified with his commu which, wherever he may be. he regards as bis home. He Is a part of family for whtxe welfare all his ef fort' are directed to a degree scarcely It or of a or for the bles It on set on ' per is is Is and 500 same over in span this piers, feeL the will A " with the And of of credible by those reared In the Isola tion of other forms or society, 1'roiu the cradle to the grave he experiences the benefits of his union with thoe about him. The fact of exiatance en titles him to a share of allthegociU and privileges pertaining to his Mir. And whatever may happen to hitu through life, one thing is assured, be cannot las left utterly destitute. There is always a home for him in his Mir, and a portion of land, if be needs a house, his townsmen will help him build one from Umber cut on the common estate. - If he marries, another share is added to his land, or to his interest In tbe communal man ufactory ; fed a like Increase is made to his estate with every addition t his family. Whatever he gains Iv bis personal skill or labor is his ewii. subject only to the Christian duty of helping those who need help: but he cannot tue his surplus wealth iu lesseningthe inheritance of hie broth - r's children. A Russian Dwcbess f Sutherland is, therefore, as imposi ble as a Russian Glax's Baby. . It la not necessary to share the en thusiasm of Slavonic socialists in their belief In the winning, world- redeeming power of Russia's social system, the new formula of civiliza tion, as Alexander Herzen calls it. to recognize the probability of its playing a great part in the revolutions of the coming century. It is a living, aggressive fact, and Its advocates make oo secret of its propagandist tendency. The historical mission of tbe Rus- so-Slavic race, they tell us, is to break tne spen by which the nations or Western Europe have bound down the masses, to emancipate the poor. and to reconstruct society after the Russian modeb. In this ambition all the lower classes of Europe are count ed on as natural allies ; and not with out reason. The denial of individual property in land is one of the strong est planks in the platform of tbat threatening power, the much malign ed internationals. Regardless or po litical boundaries, the people of Eu rope are striking hands and calling for an order of things morn in conso nance with their needs. They de mand what Russia grants. If thev succeed, the whole framework of Eu ropean society, as it now stands, must fab. "The equal rights you give your peasants to the soil is more dan gerous to us Westerns than all vour armies," said Qount Cavour to a Rus sian diplomatist, and tbe history of me coming century bias mir to justi fy his remarks. S. COX'S "SUNSET." At the request of many readers, we republish from the Ohio Statesman of May l'J, 1853, the brilliant piece of descriptive writing which won for Mr. Cox the immortal name of "Sun set" : Columbia Journal. - A OREAT OLD SUiWaTT. What a storm ful sunset was that of last night! How glorious the storm. and bow splendid tbe setting of the sun : w e oo not remember ever to have seen vhe like on our round globe. The scene opened in the West, with a whole horizon full of a golden inter penetrating lustre which colored the foliage and brightened every object into iU own rich dyes. Tbe colors grew deeper and richer until the gold en lustre was transfused into a storm cloud, full of finest lightning, whicli leaped in dazzling zigzags ail round and over the city. The. wind arose witli fury, the slender shrubs and giant trees made obeisance to its maj esty. Some even snapped befor? Its force. The strawberry beds and grass plots "turned up their whiles" to ee Zepbyrus march by. As the rain caiue, and tbe pools formed, and Hie gutters hurried awav. thunder roared grandly, and tbe fire bells caught tbe excitement and rung with hearty chorus. Tbe South aud East received the copious showers, and tha Wet all at once brightened np, in a long, polished belt of azure, worthy of a Sicilian rky. Presently a cloud appeared in t!: azure belt, in the form of a castellated city. It became more tn'it'rf, revealing strange forms of peerless fanes and alabaster temples, and glories rare and grand In this mundane sphere. reminds us of Wordsworth's splen did verse in his Excursion : "The appearance instantaneously disclosed Was of a mifhty etty, boldly say A ilderness of buildings, sinking far And self withdrawn Into wondrous depth,. Far sinking Into splendor wilaoa end ! ' But the city vanished only to give place to another isle, where the most beautiful forms or foliage appeared. Imaging a Paradise in the distant and purified air. The sun, wearied or elemental com motion, sank behind the green plaius the West The "Great eye In heav en," however, went not down, with out a dark brow banging over its de parting light. The rich flush or tbe unearthly light had passed and the rain bad ceased ; when tbe solemn church bells pealed, tbe laughter of children out and joyous after the storm is beard with tbe carol of birds; while the forked and arple weapon the skies still darted illumination around the Starling College, trying to nvai its angles and leap into its dark windows. Candles are lighted. Tbo piano strikes up. W? feel it is good to have home ; good to be on the earth w here such revelations or Beauty and Power may oe mane. And as we eannot le frain from reminding out readers tf everything wonderful in our city, we have begun and ended our feeble sketching of a sunset which comes so rarely that its glory should be com mitted to immortal type. The Pennsylvania Railroad Com pany have been using for several years a machine for grading and ditching by steam, which some of tbe residentsaloDg thenumerous branches that company hereabout will prob ably recognize. It is described as follows: '" This contrivance is named short the ' steam Irishman.' aud hillside crumbles before It at a wonderful rate. The machine resem a small coal railway locomotive. Is propelled by steam, .nd placed a temporary railroad, and bas two arms and a small scoou shovel pro jecting in front of the engine. Wbea opposite a rising in tbe ground anil operated, it levels and gathers np the earth, at the same time deposit in r It the damp cars. It is fail the Irishman ' can do the work of oue bundled men, and will fill twelve cum hour. The price of such a machine nearly ten thousand dollars." ' Tbe bridge now in process of erec tion across the Mlsiis- ij.pl at St. Louis one or the wondeis of the age. It to be a tubular, cast steel, arch bridge, supported by th abutment two piers ; the latter are 315 feet apart, and 4!9 feet from It nearest abutment, making thoee spans about feet each, Its greatest span is tbe as that or the Kullenberg bridge tbe Leek, an arm of the Rbiue, Holland. Telford's suspension bridge across the Menai Strait ban a of 570 feet. The Victoria tubu lar iron-bridge of Montreal exceeds great length, being 5,808 feet U miles), but it rests upon twenty-foer and its spans mainly oniy 27. The suspension bridge at Niag ara spans 821 feet, and is 245 feet above water The East River bridge span 1,600 reet, at a heightb mid way of 130 feet. demure-locking chap hailed a charcoal peddler with the query, Have you got charcoal in your wagon?'' "Yes, sir," said the ex pectant driver, stopping his horses. "That's right," says the demure chap, an approving nod; "always tell truth and people will respect you!'' he hurried on, much to the regret the peddler, who was getting out tbe wagon to look for ajsrick. Ihmbuiy yen.