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Daily Ohio statesman. (Columbus, Ohio) 1855-1870, January 07, 1861, Image 2

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Governor's Message.
rdleie (Htlsntoft'itStnatt,
'-. 'and Wihfflwsi bfpr.'imtai;M.
' I .welcome your return, to J out otlkial labor, snd
-..7..uj .o,io fri)roujooiliiion of our
"-WJriiitoVirf'ftilMit rear, with the
..r ik. (lnmmimUmer of titatistics. furnish much
InttnttiB la forme teojr- iwta'lr 4w-rie growth of our
Slat. '-lhe sources, hat ohielly lo tb teller, wide
will Hi' terfor yin lo few y, 1 a ladenled far
the ftrtoWlbg facts, wliich exhibit. In part, the gratl'ying
progress of A But 14 itstaaterUt developmeot. during
lof past ln yeiira. ; . ,,
Population.':.'....!. 1,J5I '
Increase. 1 J"
.,,-,1 Jpore percent. 1: I 1
lmprWJ LuhW' . -a !.
TJnUBprvd lands, .wl' WW.WM- tV i
Mli IK O
:W5 871
18,4 '
l3,IOi,M5 lortt
18111,154 ."
, iDCraHO Of WO , ,. ;
'!, ..provdianil. .7 .1 ,
Unmher of land owner! ,f57i,iW0 ' '
Ae'egesjuantilvof land :
wo by cta perron.. ouaore
Average prk ,f land $19 90 per acre
. B4urs
J '.'I DUp wre
"1 '. . . ioICULTI!4l PBOUt'CT
I ,
T.r1;;.-,:.;. IMU....I
1 iretn crop- w r . .t 457,124 buth 133,100,173 bnsh
Maadirw H4y).i.."L. 1.443.10!! ten 1,800,46s tons
Livestock-- 7,7:t3,4' numter ,sr.l,S7 o
InomM of grain
l-.-iliiol ki ,.;:;'' ii 'Mtwuia. ' :"
0m1 'toe4. ......J. . .' 8,000,000 bash.
Ins fnrnao' ' i. '' Mo'
Iron pig neUU vade.f. ., s,6j8 ton..
hltiide........ ', r.JO,350baeh.
Vlu of mining pro- '
duoU ....2.e4,7(0 .
IooretM f coal mined ; .,
pig Iron. . . .
" ; salt m4e. ' ' ' '. '
1 .".;:,' Tliee.. i
44 000,000 both
94 NO.
106.000 ton
,000,000 buh
8 380,000
. j (OOpr.ct
. . ii-fit -. .Jt r.'s MiiurcTi ye.
(11 t ' ?. 1850,
Vklu of annufacturat
proper .
$41,184,707 . . 67,ae,7ej
AggregAta . Talus of
uanafaoturiDH, nil
log,' and BNolianlenl -iolostry..
,..-. 63M7.3SU
Increase of mau- - . . i
. ufactmei, val , .
( ne
J j chanicat and ,
-- lndoetrj..
: - roMXiiti'C hid XiViuniux
- ' ' .' " 1PM.
Venele built, number.
Tonnage of Teaaelt huiit
Aggregate tonnage....
Veueli cleared for for '
eltn Stale
Tannage of . Tetaal
clearei for foreign
port i.i
Increaaa of yea
, wU built
' . ton-.'
' nege
. . -' . whole
' tounagei 1
" . foreiuu
5 2)1 ton
,400. "
ctitf , m :
19,521 ton
t!407 "
8j ,
1 oi om or lux.
' 1B30
Canali... .'...' WW miles
Katltoeda 'M0
3.0S4 "
Turnpike and flank
RimiU 2 (KK) " 3,100 "
Inereaie jf Itall-
roails . 7(Hipr.
" Turn-
pike 50
Th estimated coat of the2,7nO miles of hwimed built
since lK'tu, Is eighty millions of dollars
. ' " 1S50. 1MU.
Cuh yalnc of all prop.
art .'(.7?li.(10U 8t,1UJ,60l 00
State Debt. 15,ii0,;ii8 16,027.834 81
Tha aggregate debt of the state. aaanicipaUtles, bank
ert. merchants, and imliriduals, was estimated by the
Commissioner of Statistics, I his Report of 159, at
f 1(9,592.310, exclusive of railroads, which Is specific
ulfilse on tb road.
Debt doe out of the Stale, tn5.0oO,Mlo, consisting of
dbt due b; the State, municipalities, tanks, ana mer
chant. V r ; , X
Inermf In tli value of propeny. ... 75 percent.
i'roiKirfiiosotelebt to talueof property... .r8 -
" due out of the State to -the
whole value of property. P "
The entire debt ( the Bute and of the people of Ohio,
is aoasli'ermbly.lea 4ban the lacrease in the Titlne of
iironsrSeln the last ten years. Small s ij this drtt com-
pared with th resonrse of th Bute, It I yet a heavy
burden oa th Industry of th people, which can only be
lessened, or removed, by augnienwa production and In.
creased ecemotny. " -The
-treat inert as of mining and manufactures, exhib
ited by thee condensed statementv,isa highly encouraging
and gratirylng net. It indicates a uii luruier nu u
dilnite progress of development of these Importaotlnter
eii. The capabilities of the State in that retard are al
most unlimited. The duty of the 8tato to foster the'
breathe 1 of nseful industry by all suitable legislation
as It it the duty of aU good forernment to insure to labor
not only full occupation, but the greatest productive
uess Is well appreciated. Ailed as ,we msy hope such
an obligation will be by the general government, the fn
tureoillflod Ohio second to none of her confederated
sister la mining and manufaotnring wesl'h, and in all
the aoccmparymg essentials of social inpependenee,
which characterise an industrious people of diversified
pursuit. -
Important as are these Interests to the people of the
Bute, and at deferring as they are of being carefully
cherished, we should bear in mind that it is on agricul
ture that we must depend as the main source of our wet
fare, fully three fifth of our population are cultiva
tors of th saiL Whatever, therefore will promote the
develonment of this branch of sur industry, should
celre tha animating and invigorating encouragement of
the State.
It most be almttterl that agriculture, either as a act
" ence or an art. is far from beiot pursued with that ardent
and suecseefu I spirit dus to its importance. The productive
resources of th Bute are but imperfectly developed
Th area actually cultivated does not exceed one-fourth
of the entire territory. This returns, perhaps, as ah an-.
dsnt erops as in natural iertiiuy 01 we son, nine amen
by scltnce, can produce. Other countries. in consequence
cf their dense and increasing populations, have been
oblised to appeal to science and solicit aid from Its treas
urea, not only to restore the fertility of tha cil, bnt, by
artlneiat applications, to increase the primitive produc
tiveness. It i,g ratifying to know that the intelligent ef
forts of tas Ohio Bute Board of Agriculture, to intro
duce among our farmers an improved system of agricul
ture founded on tcietiflo principles, are being crowned by
the happiest results.
There 1 no doubt that the prof res of agriculture
would be promoted H the advantage resulting from an
experimental fan could be conferred poathe farmers
of the But. To inaugurate so desirable an institution
It might be well to place a portion ef the Reform School
Farm under the direction of the Ohio State Board of As-
riculture, and to direct the result of experiment in th
several departments of farming and stock raljlni, to be
communicated to the farmer of tha State through the
annual report 01 mat uoara. r
Agricultural schools, whereTer established, hire been
productive el valuable result. - Boca au Institution in
this Bute, organised apou principle adapted to the has
iuof the people I do not doubt, would reoeiv their ap
proval. I invite your favorable conalderattoa to this
lubjecl. . ,
As our civil and political Institutions are derived from
th wisdom and exist in the will of the people the
source of all rightful authority and of all legitimate sov
ereignty tt la obvious that it is upon th education of
th peopl we must rely tor the purity, the preservation.
and the perpetuation of on r icpublican form of govern
ment. In this sacred cause wa cannot exercise too mnoh
libotmlity. It la klentiaed with . r beat interests la this
world, and with ear feestdesunte (a the world to come.
It Is a so re ef jat prkle-to the people of this Bute
that Ohio baa no cause of self reproach on this account.
Th wis provision of her organic law, imposing tha duty
upon tb General Asembly of maintaining a thorouih
and efficient system of eommort schools throngho t the
State, and tb fidelity with which thttobliiratlon has ban
discharged, bear honorable witness of ber seal in behalf
of popular education.
Our present school, law was enacted In 1853. It Is
much nor comprehensive and effective in Its provisions
than any preceding law In Ohio. Relog radical in some
of its feature it la not surprising that it met with earl
opposition. It imposed, what seemed to some, an unrea
sonable taxation, and conferred authority upon Board
of Rducation which waa objected t by many. But from
the Brat a large majority of the people hare approved
the system, and linos it baa vindicated its value by iu
actual working lilt I opposition is arrayed against it.
Wherever It Las been faithfully administered '.t has ac
complished a noble work for th people of iheBute..,.
lor a fall exhibit of the progress in eduoation nudes
this system I refer you to th report of tb School Ooav
munloasr. ,-,-L .
The reoelpbj and exDendlthrea for the school year end
tog Aaguet st, ltMO, wet as follows, yi p- --
u ,u.-;A l" " 1 ananerm' -.i! j .r .
- r f ' H - v
Balance on hand September 1, 1859,... ....... $589,790 57
fines, license, and miacellaneoosaoaroes.., 69 775 13
Irreducible school funds 70,64i 45
SUt taa. ...-.1,S44,15J 39
Township tax-for pro loosing echools tlx
' tseatbs and sustaining high schooli,... Myta 07
Totrashp tea for sit, bulldlag, repaint, and -
contingent expenses .1....... 1..,. STRasri 0
Total $3,500,001 S3
Amonp t paid tathera..a . sa s t . i fl.OH.WO 92
Bite, buiidints ana repair," i.x.w ji
FusL and aUtther eoulsogsai rxpeosef. ..1 J,lx5 44
Total. ........ , , .$2,700,828 67
Tb following table show th eneoaraglng progress
- made by ear aonooi system oaring toe pee six yean, also
a cemparaaea bet weep the last two years:
.,..- -1 1 ..-to -. 18tS, 1850. lflfio.
No.ef roattsaiitaaM'd...' H20,64 865,914 891844
Me emailed la sehooU... 551.9.19 OOO.CKM :,177
Arerag dally attendame.t , 31551 , $58,390 t l.9i
No. of teacher employed. . 16 754 1. 19,544 , 0,731
Amount paw ieaanr..9 1, .J..00 t.o:a s,uw,uoO
No. of seaool house..:... '7,830 . 10,7 , 10.4
Talus of school boBSa..$'.'Rl,9ll $4,40J,122 $1,777
No. f public hlxh Khcols., ., 9 . .., , 151 n.,lu,. Ml
Teacher la Blgh ohcol.,, , JUfi SW3 , , ' , .319
FupU enrolled 1 tu I.,.. 724 . JfJ bU ,13,183
These fact aatltftctortly show that our school system t
rapidly daaaoastrallni IU exoeilenoe. Th itesdy In
eteas la th aamrer of ehlldrea tai attendaac upoa the
awhoola, tb lniroTSoient in the qualifiMUom of teach
er, th numtwr and character bf th hrga school of the
)Ukt, and Ui great tasproreaMnt la the architecture of
ibeashoel koujwa, are indloaUr ( a per vadlns du."
tiosal inrt antong to people. ;
I ;-V.'Imu,4.ub
1 do not Oeea It nteeteary to recotmaad hny.auaD-
etalmadirk-ailari of the school law Th Small
HAn ahirh Ika !1amffllliinBr recommend for lb
eoaragwnent of Institute In tha nor sparaely Mttled
COUUlie WUUII, ,Juu ww,, "V piiNHuii,
' Connected with In subject 01 eaucouon r inrno
attention lotbe-eeport, for this ear of the Corneal
ioon of to Btat library, lo which tby mailt om
suggestion which are emitted 10 your cooeiaersiion.
The Stat Mbrery nu now own inunwiioiy-i"".
yrv"Tli ntir ipioim ir '""r-.r." "
. .. ... m . - j
-IT. ..,;nn inniNrfintf mIbpIsa. to November 15. 18011,
nave oeen w.o,s-. ot . . inv wuuw .1 -a
hookal22,;93, I '.
The people of Ohio having provided liberal Inttruotlo
for all the youth of the State, IS seems not only sppro
priale, but Imperative, that while the oommon school
furnishes that instruction necessary to a fair knowledg
of th method sad maaas of tntelleotual service, aa In
stitution should be festered wnicn is eapaois siwii
iog andpreMnrbig toe appliances moat approved (or the
practical application of thos methods and means.
Lioraries are noi otnij ...
telligence, nor are they only places of deposit for pub
lic records. They are workshops wherein the highest
enlevement of the human mind are prepared for, or
,,.hi int. Tha Ohio Htate Library nas become iu a
respectable degree, a workshop for writer of books of
historic value, and it would be a sourc ef Just prbl
to the people of the State It it were uppiieu wiui
books aa would afford an opportunity for any cltlten to
aleouta whatever lntelleetual engagwnenU... hi last
or hit business might reqain ' , r - - "
Huch anDronnallon aa tua nuances ui me cuiiv I'aum.-
for the fiolihlng of ths Library Hall and for tha Increase
and preservation of ths Library, by mean of accessions
and by a oataiouge, are respeouuiiy recumiueuuvu.
Tbe suggestions oi me Ltiorary uommiaaiuoora mHcu
ing exchange of Ohio laws, report and documents,
Willi sister Bute, and wlih government andVsoelstl of
Europ, deserve consideration. Th Librarian has given
particular attention to that branch of bla duty and ought
not to be deprived of any reasonable mean of promoting
such exchange. Interchange of law and public doc
ument encourages that intercourse of nations which most
eminently contributes to thorough acquaintance with the
characteristics of their people. This, tne reuerai uov
eminent liberally recognised when It authorised the free
transmission of all publio record Between tne nisiea, auu
In that spirit w may encourage thorough interchange, a
well with foreign nations, aa within tbe Union Many
f thu mntt Talmhle accessions made to the Library with
lo the lastflr year bar been by mean of International
She benevolent Institution of th Stat eontlnne to
auk ampla returns for tbe patronage they hare receiv
ed. I take great pleasure In referring you to the Report
of those entrusted with their administration, showing
their operation duriog th past year, and their present
oondition. Accompanying these Report, yon will be
ratified to find the first Annual Report ef tbe Hamilton
County Lunatic Asylum, which promises to be one of the
most valuable end successful institutions ot it 1011, in
the Country. Mo provision having bean toad, by law,
for printing this Report 1 transmit it to tbe Senate in
manuscript. - r - v : - 1 v
It will be seen by reference to a carefully prepared ta
ble of institutions for the Insane in the United States in
connection with the subject of recoveries of lunatics,
tormina s cart of the very valuable Report of ths Super
intendent of die Central Lunatic Asylum, that that In
stitution has for many year maintained a position in ad
vance of all similar institutions of th United States In
the proportion of It recoveries upon th Dumber of pa
Menu committed to It car. This fsct is attribuisd by th
Superintendent, in no small degree, to the policy of the
Bum la requiring all it Inmates to be maintained at the
expense jot the State, and all chronlo and incurable case
to give place, when necessary, to those that are recent
and hopsful. -
Whilst this 1 a gratifying evidence of the wisdom of
our sum policy in respect to tne anminiiiration 01 our
Asylums for th Insane does not the fact that the chronic
and incurable casesmust give place to tho .e that are recent
and more hopeful, suggest the duty of the Bute to make
some suitable provision for the custody and care of th
incurable insane 1 would not in erection anu msinien
ance of an asylum for to beneficent a purpose be in ac
cordance with tha humane spirit of our Constitution, and
the benevolept sentiments of tha people.
I beg leave to call your particular attention to the ac
companvlng Report of tha Trustees of tba Medical Col
lege of Ohio. The finances of that institution are serl
ously embarrassed, and legislation is asked for by
the Trustees, to suable them to relieve the college from
Its difficulties.
It gives me much pleasure to call yourattentlon to the
Report of the Directors and Warden of th Penitentiary.
Th management of the Institution during the put year
ha been highly satisfactory. Th law rewarding the
good conduct of the convicts, by shortening their terms
of sentence, ha been attended with encouraging results
upon the discipllntof th Institution, under its sumo
latin- influence the prisons, for the most part, cheer
fully perform tbe tuts assigned to them, and faitlully
discharge all.their duties to the institution.
The number 01 convicts in in rrniicnuary on ids urn
day of November last wa '.Oi; of whom JiH were reclv
ed during- the year, la ths asms period 883 weredls
charred bv the exultation of their sentences, by pardon,
and by Judicial process. 'ivs were ssnt to tb Kefonn
School, and nine died .
The caan receipts and cash earning of the Institution
for the rear were S97.1I05 40. Th actual expenditures dur-
ln the same time were S77 610 JO. leaving- a cash balance
to favor of the Prison of $295 34. The labor performed by
th convicts in the construction of shops and ether build
ings, waa Talaaa at $9,071 62, This added to th profit
as it ehouldbe, to make a proper exhibit of th ability
of th Prison for (elf support, show an aggregate
nrofit for th year of $9 306 96. The results show that
kthe prison when finished will net ealy realise the re
formatory porpose Tor wnicn 11 was enaonsneu, wiinom
beinr a pecuniary chart upon th people, but that It
may be mad a permanent sou res of revenue I tbe
The enlargement of the Prison, and construction of
workshops, authorised by your act ef last Jlsrch, have
been diligently prosecuted.
In connection with this subject, I venture to tujpest
for,your consideration, in case you determine open the
erection 01 a new prison, tnai provision ne snaoo 10 r sucn
a construction of it as will admit a'eosnplete ssperatleo
between tha minor and adult coovlou. The humane con
sideration favoring such a separation are too obvious to
need a statement of them.
By reference to the Warden' Report It will be seen
that or tne nine Dunorea and tnirv-two convicts in pris
on, only one hundred and ninety seven of them profess
to bay been temperate in their naoits, wnne in res Hun
dred and seventy nine acknowledge that they had been
Intemperate. Toe proportion or the crime commuted
under th Influaoe of latoxioatloa do not appear, but
from th statement of tbe habits of the convicts, and
from other well known facta relating to tbe subject, there
oso be little doubt that very much of the crime for which
they are Imprisoned, wa not only committed, but alto
originated under Intoxicating Influences
, AsM this li but th history of crime everywhere. Could
any fact furnish a more earnest appeal to the Legisla
ture to exert all its constitutional authority for suppress
ing the evils of Intemperance 7 I trust yoa will give this
aubjeot your'prompt and serious consideration, and that
you will devise some sufficient legal remedy for diminish
ing then evil, which will address Itself favorably to tlis
peopl of th State, and thereby secure their earnest sup
port'for itaienforotment. It would be of little practical
benefit for your legislation on this subject to be la ad
vance of publio sentiment, bnt it should fully meet tb
demands of lhat sentiment- I
I bar much satisfaction la communicating to yon th
official report of th past year's opsration of tbajStat
Reform School. Many material Improvement In regard
to economy, general management, and discipline have
been introduced into It administration. Th enterprise
should no longer be regarded as an experiment. Brief
as Is Its history it had established It claim npon th pob
lic confidence. Its success ha realized all tbe reason
able expectations of It early advocate. Th pi a teal
example est reformation, wnicn 11 a lurnisned, fir
th most gratifying assurance of It permanent useful
ness, it admlntstrauoa I excellent. 1 eommtn the
Institution to your fostering care.
I refer vou to the report of the Auditor for a detailed
exhibit of tbe financial condition of th Btat, and ear
nestly recommend to your approval the plan, which with
th concurrence of the Fund Commissioners, he submits
for th payment of our entire pubis debt try mesas of
taxation, without the renewal of any of the existing loans.
The reasras presented by the Auditor in favor of the
immediate adoption of this policy are, In my Judgement,
unanswerable. The whole amount ef oar reducible debt,
foreign, domestic and temporary, is $ 14,250,333 59, which
sum but littl exceed oa sad a half per cent, of tb
taxable valuea of the Btat, amounting to $900,000,000,
in round number. With such resource at her command.
It doe not teem reasonebl lhat Ohio should look to
loan to meether accruing liabilities) inconsiderable
when compared wlthhw resources enlee th increased
tax over th present levy which will be required to meet
thos liabilities within a reasonable time, would impose
sa unnecessarily heavy burden npon th people. Such
I do not think woald result from tbe adoption of the
proposed plaa. . , 1-1 - t .-.
Ths lvy for th year 1861 for the payment ef the inter
est and th gradual reduction of th public debt la oo
and four-tenth of a mill oa tb doltar. Th sama law
continued would result lo the reduction of tie publio
debt in January, 1871, to th sum or $11,670,392 20.
Th amount to tie raited In the meantime lo meet the
accruing tnttrtst and principal of th debt by taxation
all tha other sources of the Sinking fund being nearly
sxhsusted would b $9,760,093)54, making the earns paid
to January, 10 1, ana 10 o paid mereaiur oa ths prin
cipal of th debt, $21,430,465 74.
Instead ef adhering to this bum of paying th public
debt, th Auditor proposes an addition of six-tenths of a
mill on th dollar to the present lory, making th entire
levy two mills on in aoiiar, wnicn will prorld a ea In
dent sum to meet the accruing interest, and thoea por
tions of th principal of th dM maturing prior to, and
oa -th first day of January, 1S71, leering the only
$4,090,000 of tbe debt Bopald. g.j .
Coder this plan th amount of th priaei- . ..
pal paid from January 1, 11, to Janu
ary. 1871. would be.... $9 897.441 20
The Interest paid duriog the asm ported - -
would be a,676,:33 50
Mixing tba total paid on prlaeipat aad
1 "Interest.
Addiog to this th principal ef th dsbt r
Burning unpaid January, ten I. ........
4,000,000 00
And (he total amount aald to" Jaautrr. ,v'("i il
Is"; i, and to b swdtlMreaflevwoakl be $19,573,474 70
This is $1,856 991 01 lee than wonld hay to be paid
under tbe present system prior to, and an th first dsy
of January, 1871. To this favorable howiagof th re
suit of th proposed plan of paying th publio debt, It
soouiu o aaueg, ttrsi trail tne increase taxation neces
sary to consummate the nlan will amount to laee then
twenty-fir nts a year, U each Inhabitant of th State,
year iqiu, uam peopi will sss-twitewea oi inree-
uiuu m mis sevyraa ids renselolng two Df to will yield
a suffWent mm to meet th Interest, and prsTid for th
payment, at Its maturity, of tlis principal of U remain
ing four million of th public dabt. '
I append table to this communication shewing th
practical wo rklnst of th nlana.
JETti following table exhibits ths aatottat and dsaerlptieo
of tb tatlr debt of th State: ... n . t . . , .
,i,l a,' soiano nut M m vreTaJ I fi I UK)
lysrsnusgasia i-n,,.,,..,,,.,.,.. sjo.ir.rjia Yi
6proatadMial87e..(.r:'.A4...l ,m!531 93
( per cent do in 1875.-.,u.....u... l.tion (mo m
6 per cents du la 18tJ. .. 2,400 OnO 00
( percent do la 1861. (temoorar loenV I0 00
per cents du la 1M65.,. ,.,.., I02r,,ow to
Btoeksdwe In 1&'4 Bt bearing Interest. r- ,lfta 3ft
i otairorelgB DeM......V.t
$ n,T3,oi tra
Issued trader it of leb. 96, 1843. FaltB 1 vKt
and credit (per cent.. ..m.......... 204.890 80
jjtstMd Baser aot of ss, 'Jf, lwu, -l)Lwd i
swUkMilsm. A near -
;:i),5tS CO
Issued UDder act ef March 7, 189.
credit (not bearl Dg laterest).
J," Mtrcn I7. Land
J0 00
00 30
Bo.oll wl
ag ifilfimi)
t TotiU Dnoeatio oiila.. ......
Ureducibl Blala Dtbt, 0 par cant.
$277,210 M
,2,677,000 M
Bonds (not brarlnitlwtsrwst)
Domeetlc Debt..
Irreilurle Debt.
..w$ 1 3,073,033 53
.... , 377,110 :w
677,600 lit
Totol Debt. .
$10,027,834 21
The receipt and disbursements of tha State during th
fiscal year endiag November 15, 1860, were as follows:
loxanaa, simauav or aacrim an aissoasnnrr.'
Heberal Revenue..
Sinking fund i..... . ...
Caoal Vuod. .1 -.
Oornmoa 8chol fuad
Dislrict School Library Vuud
National Road fund
Three percent Pond
Total Receipt.
$3 97
71 12
$805 792 40
1,364,604 18
4-.'l,B74 62
1,88,5I3 72
B-.',71!l 78
1 14,051
' 19 04
$fi01,S3 58
1,349,385 60
4l7.l-J.7 54
General Revenue
SiuSinclfund.. ........
Cacallk'und. ...... ...V
Oommon School Fund
D 1st 1 lot Library Vuod
National Road Fund..
1,2.r.0,f33 17
,j 78.895 71
. 14.015 31
Three per cent furd.
3,911,508 67
Ba'aoc Nov. 15, VaM.. $06,2011 15
Th re appraisement of leal estate, subject to taxation.
made In 1159, as corrected and equelUed by th State
Board of Kqualuttlon Isst winter, we carried-to the
grand duplicate of th State laalKoO. The quantity of
land not ib cities and village , as entered upon th du
plicate or ibou, is .),.iii,ioi acre.
Valuation thereof. .
Vlue of real estate id cities and Tillage
Total value of real estate....
Value of personal property
Total value of taxable property In
' IrtCO $888.301601
As compared with the several amounts on th dupli
cate of 1859, this shows an Increase in Ibe quantity of
land of 190.C6J acres : . .
Increase In th value of land, not In cllie
and Tillages, of
Decrease In the value of real estate In cities
and Tillage of
8,3.3 690
Total Increase in th value ol real estate. .
Total decrease In tbe value of national
$l5,7f 0,307
The basis of taxation being $888,302 601 , and tha Bute
levy for all purposes thirty-nine and a half cents on each
one hundred dollar of valuation, total amount of taxes
for Bute purposes on the duplicate of 18)10, to be col
lected during the year 1861, is $3 503,719. 93. This sum
is distributed among the several funds in th fo lowing
proportion, Tit :
The General Revenue, H els on each $100 $ 709,3:6. 01
The Binklng Fund, i? ct. in each f 100 l,bTl,575.1l
The Common School Fund If el, on each
$100 1,212 811.78
The taxes levied by local authorities araout to $7,313,
963.41, maktn a total of $10 817,676.31, levied on tbe
duplicate of 1860.
From these exhibits, it will be teen that the taxei lev
lad for local and municipal purpose far exceed, In
amount, tho levied for State purposes. I esnnot doubt
that with proper vigilance and economy, the local taxes
might he considerably lessened. The properly holders
of our citir most particularly feel these burdens, and
with great Justice ask lor soms prescribed limit to local
taxation. Ample authority la given by the Conatitutlon
to the Legislature to restrict the levies of municipal
governments. I respectfully call your attention to this
Important subject, and trust that you may be able to pro
Tide some relief for the people, from the oppressive local
taxes with which they are now burdened.
1 invite your attention to tho aui geations of Die Treis
urer of State, relating to the description of funds to be
received in payment of th public dues. Th law estab
lishing Ihe Independent Treasury, while providing for
the gradual prohibition of payments in paper
money by the State and uoonty Treasurer, and
restricting ths payment to gold and silver
after the fourth day of July, 18t:5, does not prescribe,
nor does any other law prescribe, the kind of funds to be
received by those officers. This is manifestly a defect in
the law, and Is incoi slstent with its frame work and pur
pose. The responsibility ought not to be Imposed upon
tbe Treasurers, to prescribe the kind ol funds to be re
ceived in payment of the public due. Tbia should b
don by the General Assembly. My own opinion is, that
tbe publio intereats would be promoted by restricting
uch payments to specie, end tbe notes cf the specie pay
In Banks of this State, and I respectfully recommend
that th taw be amended accordingly.
The subject of banting and currency, ad,ls-nee ibem-
eeire wun equal force ana directness 'u ine people of
th Btat Whatever theories we may entertain on these
subjects; whatever Ingenloua and bautiful visions of a
people without rants, anu goia anu surer meir only cur
rency, the practical re ill tire are before us We hare
banks; we nave paper money, as a mvter oi tact, bant
ing Is but one oi the divisions oi isoor into which com
merce is tub-divided, and among erery commercial peo
pit thbusincn proper of the banker is at indispenstblt
at that or tn snipper, iransponer, or consignor, in trans
Bating th business of the Country. The practical ques
tion which addresses itself to th Legislator Is not,
whsther tbs Bute may or may nut dispense with the use
of ill bank, bat what is tn test system or plan of bank
ing for the people for whose interests he Is called upon to
act, and how, anu to wnas extent snoniuii ne applied.
And to alto of th currency of tbe Stale. So long as
th people of Ohio are in business connection with the
peopl of other Bates, we are and will be in the receipt
and ase of the issaes of (he banks of other Btates which
circulate with the issues of our own banks,of which to tbe
extent of their existence they take the place and be
come the etubstitute, Th practical question 1 not
whether we r lo bare paper money, or gold and silver aa
th common currency oi tn a at, but whether we are to
hare the issues ol foreign banks or or banks exlstlngwilh
in our State, responsible under our owo laws, and rega
La ted and controlled by our own action. Ths expert-
meat has' been tried, not only la Ohio, but in several
other States, of dispensing with bank iseuee under State
authority with one uniform result ths introduction of
debased foreign currency. Inconvertible into sold
and silver, with all thedlsaslrous and demoralizing coosa
quenoes of ach a currency. W should learn wisdom
from our ewi, experience as well as from tbe experience of
other Btates in this matter. At this very tins Obio is
suffering great inconvenience and loas from tbe depreci
ated currency of otbet States whoee banks her suspended
the payment oi specie, ji waa w ouisin re net rrom aucb
a currency that our existing system of hanking was tab-
lished nnder the act of 1815, creating the Stale Bank of
Ohio, and other banking companies.
It appear from th quarterly report of ths! Auditor.
for November last, that the entire banking capital of the
Incorporated bank of thegtate is, vis t $."mi.3U4
36 branches of the State B'k of Ohio $4,104,500
7 Independent bank KrJ,264 ,
1 free bank 1,I24,6isi
Th entire circulation at th same
time was, T -. $8,634,887
Branches of State Bank $'.,403,959 .
Independent banks S75,6e.'
free bank . 655,243 .
This amount of banking capital and Issue hear a very
small proportion ss compared with tb population, wealth
and basinets of this State, to th banking capital and is
sue of moat ot the other Btates, and, as a consequence,
we find out deficiency I supplied by their tcss of ts
sues. It I hardly an over-estimate to ay, that th is
sue of foreign banks now In Ihe bands of the people of
Ohio, are equal to th Issue of onr own banks, or about
ght and a half millions of dollar. Of this sum, a very
considerable portion consist of the Issue of bank which
have suspended specie payments, embracing the banks of
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, Missouri, and parts
of the issue of other State. All inch Issue hav de
preciated in the hands of the peopl of Ohio, at least ten
per rent., amountinr ia tbe sggregate to several hundred
thousand dollar. When it la rememlered that, in the
fall of 1857, only three years ago, a Ilk less wa sus
tained by the people oj this Bute from the same sourcs,
It become a question of scrtous moment to consider
whether oy, and If any, what measure can be adopted
to guard the people from snch frequent and heavy pecu
niary disaster. Bo lopg as tha tapply of circalatlni
Botes issued by our oen banks, Is .Insufficient for ths
transaction of thebutlnesaof Ihe Btate.it will, in my
opinion, lie in Tain to attempt, by legislative actn:(nta,
to expel th Issues of foreign banks. Tb law of Irene
aod the necessities of the people will prove more potent
than statutory restrictions ana promotions, jr th fact
may be considered as demonstrated, as 1 think It clearl i
may, that ws must depend chiefly for currency for ih
business transsctiensof th people of tbe Btat. either
on the issues of foreign tanks, or of the banks of our
own State, I think no citiieu of Ohio cn hesitate a
moment at to which h wonld prefer, aod (ipenlallylo
Tiew of th raot, that, wan wit in three years, tbe bank
of nearly all th other State hav uspeaded the pay
ment of specie, and many of them twice la that space of
time, the banas of Ohio hav proved true to their obli
gation, and equal to thee teat !of thtlr strength, ard
nowoommana me universal eeundenee or sue people or
ihe State. I respeetfally submit to the consideration
of the Legislature, th question whether any pita can be
devised for tbe increase of th banking capital, and con.
sequent enlargment of ih issues of btnks within oar own
Stat, a tbe only practical mean of expelling the is
ms of foreign banks, and of protecting th peopl from
th mtntroia aisasur oi ueoasaa eurretcy. This qu
tion It also Important In another view. II I but five
years, from th first of May next, whea th charier of
th bant Incorporated under th nt or Ternary. Ir345,
will expire.' This embraces the thirty six branches of
th Stats Bank, and tb seres Independent Bank, tb
circulation or wniea Miag withdrawn, w woald be
practically withoelaa Vhso elreulattoa, arid dependeot
upon foreign nana tor our eaiire earreoey. The Bute
may follow tbxmplof to tseaerai QorcrnaMBt ia
restricting tho circulation end disbursement ot tu rrv
noes In gold and silver.. Bat, after alt, this will b
foond to exert littl InBoence over th great businese in
teres' of lb people. The fact, then, of the aear ap
proach of the time for fir year I but brief period la
the history of a Bute when th existing banking system
will terminate, and In view of the very Important conse
quences abieb mast follow this event, antes rrsfrisioB
he made in time so menu, are autucient rsssons lor rs
commending this importantmatttrto yonr consideration
There is abundant reason to believe that a lrg major
ity of the people are not only satisfied with their present
system of banking, but that they wonld regard II as a
great public calamity to see It pas oat of existence It
has met Its obligation nnder all circumstances, main
tained Its credit, and furnished a currency at all lime
convertible Into gold and silver. Thee r ad ran I ages
which th people duly appreciate and woald Tory re
loctantly forego. Wlthamendmenttof the system which
assy be deemed desirable, if any, for ths better protection
ol the creditor oi tne oanti, ana. ia terms subjecting
the property of the hanks to a tax itlon equal to that Im
posed oa tho property of Individual, as provided by our
uonsutoiion, s ao nosuoev. ens system, woaia isanog
Is renewed extetsaeet give as unlrsraal - aatlsfaedoa
the people of tb Btat a It It sow giving.
I aarais Invite rear attention to our PobHe Works.
During tbe past year the expense of that depsrtsseot
nave eoneiderekly sxsseaea lis reortvt - Tfite, M 1 sM,
mslnly owing t tha extraordinary 8 sod of April,
which caused mach damage to a portion1 at tba works.
Th faot that for the last five sears the result ha sesn
me same, baa irlttced th opinion that they will ooc tin
a Mrmeaeat tax ee less aa ther are controlled rrv rhe
tale; and a feeling prevail to a conelderable extent
that the entire interest of th Btat la them honld p
disposed ef. There are gray oonatdsratkms concreted
With this subject, WM-h will, doutlsea. vmsIv vonr ears
ful attention. That th people of th Stale will demand ,
sale of then work. Wnen ther heomn aailsfled (has i
cannot be Dtdt telf-nrtHnlng, I think admit of littl
uoarjt . - "7 - - -i
I'.n.'Ssti'tl fl;.--: t
I am aot InsensIM to the rreat arivnnUrroa thee
vvru un uvin m sua buss. m aevsiau hi- us rpssumts .
.ml MnulHi lla m. U. T-l. . a 1
and increasing Its wealth. They bay creates) far more
than they bay cost. But th countls not lying !
upon was wurae, ana wnicn receive out utuo.it any, ad-
wMs.tin tuem, oDjejs so saxes so aep inem in re
pair for the benefit of others. They have built their
own railroads and mean of communication without th
aid of the State, and sustain Ihcm at their o a cost, no
matter how expensive that may be.andtbey contend that
it Is Jot aa fair and proper fur th rest of th State to
b taxed to pay th expeuae ef keeping their railroad
la repair, aa it Is to compel them to pay taxes to keep ud
the canal. ,The aollve eairytng comaetllioa of th
railroads, It Is.sald, not only diminishes th business .oa
th canala, but will in all lime to come prevent them
from tranaahtipg enough business to make, then) slf
ustainlng. Th fullowing table, complied from the re
port of the Board of public works, Ispertlpent totbit
view of thecals: , . t ,
'i 1 ' '';'. " 1 '
: Check drawn
; s beyond
Hecslpls. Expenditures. ' eurnlngs.
IrTid. .
r).-U. .
lotiO. .
$195 479!
373 52!
: 3f 5,B99j
The estimated total cost of our Public Woiks at th
Urn of-tlielr completion wai $ 14.637.549 79. Tbe ave
g annual expense, beyond tbe Income for ths last Bv
jBsire, omm oeen a iracsion leas titan one-nan oi ons per
csnt. on misoosu we nave then this unravorabl ex.
hlblt. We hare property that cost us about fifteen mil
lion of dollar, and w find by fire consecutive years ex
perience that, instead of paying the interest on its cost,
li is actually lunninsr nam debt.
This I one view of the caae. Let us look at the other.
Many intelligent cttisens org that the Public Works, by
proper system of management, and graduation of tolls,
can D mad not only self-sustaining, but a souioe or rT-
enue to the Slate. Thar are many, and weighty reasons
why this should be thoroughly tested, before we abandon
these costly and important work. Larg inTcatmtnts
bar been mad oo til Una of these works, as is claimed
under an implied pledge on the part of the State, that
they ehould be kpt in permanent condition for use. An
abandonment of Ih eanalt, or their aale without a suffi
cient guraienty for their maintenance would be rulpon
to the parties interested. It would depreciate the value
of property to an amount exceeding the coat of tb canals
In 182-, Congress granted nearly half a million of
acre ot land, between Dayton ana me moutn oi in au
glalse river for canal construction. This waa upon the
oondition expressed In the deed of convaysnce, 'that said
canals, when completed, shall forever remain public
highways for tbs use cf ihe Uuveroment of the United
States, free from lolls or ether. charge whatever, for any
property or ths Unite etitus, or persons in their serv
Ice passing throuiili the same." These lands ware ac
cepted by ths State of Obis with this condition. They
have been sold, and ilia proceeds have been applied lo
tha purposes of the grant II these canals are sold, or
psss out of ths hands of the Bute, how is this promise to
be ruinneu to tne ueuersi uovemmentr
Oa the most of the canals, and especially on the Mus
kingum Improvement tbeie are outstanding lease of
water powar by the Bute, for ninely-nlne year, renew
able forever, and in some instance there arc contracts
in lien of former grant, iu perpetuity. These contract
impose obligations on ih Btat that must be met How
shall tl.es vested rights be proteoted If Ih State dispose
ol ner interest in toese works
It 1 urced lhat If ihe Canal are sold they will ulti
mately be controlled by tb Railroad Corporation of
th state, the enect oi which will bs to so diminish trans
portation an Ibe eanals aa to result in their virtual
abandonment; ths eflect of which, In turn, wauld be to
create such monopoly in th rail roads a to materially
lucreai the tariff of transportation, and conflict with tbe
well established policy of (very commercial State to mul
tiply rather than to lessen ths srenue of trade. . Even
If ihe support of Ihe canals shall Impose a small tax, It Is
worthy of consideration whether tb incidental benefits
to th counties not upon or adiacent thereto, by reason
of lesser rates of transposition, might nnt mnie than
compensate ror tne tax.
There are thirty six countls in Obio, on or contiguous
to our ruoiic works, leaving uny two counties depen
dent mainly upon river, lake or railroads for their ave
nues to market. Tba caual ooncties are mainly those
that wore willitut natural outlets to a market. It it In
struclivs lo note thtlr present position in regard to pop
ulatbn and wealth. By the census of I860, the thirty-six
canal counties have a population of l,lo3,iJb6, while tbe
fifty two other counties hav a population of 1,190, 137
The thirty sis canal counties have an aggregate of $-109,.
vuj,sm on the lax list, rne'mty-two other couutlet
Dave an an reiate oi a-iiti -,i ,o .
At a larg portion of this value In the canal counties
bas arisen from th exittenca of ths canals, ao their d
struction would seriously depreciate the same, and th
oisis oi taxation being corretpocdiogly lessened, tut tu
dens of the public debt, and th ordinary expenses of
in government would tnus bs proportionally Increased
npon the remslnlng property of the slate. Whether
sal can be m4 on auch terms as will' secure to the peo
le lis lull use ef these publio woiks is a (ideation
which addresses itself to ths careful oonsklerotion of tbe
Ueneral Assembly ...
Tbe report of the Board of Public Works, and tha Au
ditor of State contain many faoU oonsected with this sub
ject thst will aid ia your Investigations. So.large an Inter
est, involving so important question of public policy,
and such vast pecuniary results should not b disposed
ofwitboutthematurest consideration. After giving th
suHect my earnest attention, I am constrained to repeat
my former leccomtaendatiorj, and suggest the psssage of
a joiniresoiui on autnorising tne commission ot three
gentlemen of lirge experience and capacity, whose special
duty it shall beto maks detailed examination of th entire
sohiect and report to the Uorernor at the earliest uract ca-
ble period, such changes and modlBcation In our canal
law, as In their Judgment may be desirable, tolen tbe
expenses, or to nsment th income so as at least, to
make tn canal seii-sustaior
I Inrite your special attention to th Report of the
Adjutant Osoeral. Tbe subject of our State milllia
should not fill a place In an executive Message merely
Because ine lonauiuiion enjoins npon the ueneral As
sembly thaerssary legislation to render it effective
It demands a more con-iderate attention. The Ki oort re
ferred to preseal a clear aod practical outline of the
system :(eMieiMa ny law ana regulations, th burdens
under which it struggles, and the necessity of leflalalive
action in its behalf.
Tbe organised milllia of the Stale numbers at present
little less than teelve hundred men. These are uni
formed, armed and equiped, and are for the moat part in
commeLdable sttte of disciplne. The unorganised
militia, suiject to be drafted tor military duty In th
event of Insurrection or invasion, amounted. In 1859. to
260,900 men; and the rntlre)dlspoenb' force of the State,
ai ine preseni nme, is aooui Yg-xumr able -bodied men.
The tyonttituuon requires the enrollment of all white
citizen, residents of this Bute, being eighteen year of
age and under fortv-ffve years of age, in tbe militia
The law of March 27, 157, provided for snch enrollment;
but so much of It as relate to that subject has been le
pealed. 1 recommet d Ihe revival of the repealed sec
tion .
Th present militia ayitem, Ism advised, ha received
th favorable notice of ouiceia of tbe army, aod military
men of other Btates; but no system can work successful.
ly unaided by th State. The experiment, wherever tried,
hss failed. .
Tbe citi:en soldier is necessarily suhjocted to a contin
ual expense. By existing laws the State shires bo part
of the burden in maintaining our preesent malitia sys
tem. Tbe bill which passed ons breech of th General
Asembly at it lut session, proposing aa allowance, to
each well disciplined company, of a certain annual sum
for the care and keeping of the public aims, is in tbe
right direction, But I submit, with great deference,
whether the basis Of that bill thonld not be enlarged.both
as it regards th sum to be appropriated to ach company,
and the number of the uniformed militia to be aided
Certain it I, lhat two thousand of a militia the esti
mate upon which tha sum in that bill is baaed it a num
ber greatly disproportioned to the extent and population
of tbe Btat. '
By th theory of our government the general defense
is inlnuted to Ihe-mllitl It Is yonr duty to determine
to what extent that theory shall be practically observed
la Obio. ' A majority of tbe States have made liberal pro
vision for the supporl-ef their milllia.
While it wonld be nowise to burden tbe people with
taxes for large military appropriations in time of peace,
II would be equally unwis lo disregard Ibe acrificas
and bur dsn ef thos who bar nndeetaken the duties
and rcspoilbilliies of th service, aod the practical pur
poses ol a military organization. An effective militia it
one of the most reliable pledges of continued peace.
The ability of tbe Slate to summon ber citizena to sup
port her peace when threatened, or her lass when no
lated. It silent, bat impressive guaranty of Ibslr per
petulty and supremacy
It appear that tb Btat ha received 31,902 muskets
aod nties, and ha but about 6 UUO at her present com
mand. Of 11,032 cavalry pistols, but 722 remain. Of
172 revolvers about 40 are supposed to be recoverable.
Of 46 brass cannon more than three fourth were useless,
or dangerous, for service fromneglect.or badasage, antil
tb yuarter Master General restored thorn to serviceable
condition. The same proportion of loss aod depracia
tlon run high through Ilia whole Hat of arm teceived
from the United Btates, Ih original coal of which was
White th present system of Ihe Issue and care of Ih
pablie arms prevents t similar result for Ih future, it I
for th General Assembly to determine whether th sup.
Sly now owned by th State I adequate to bar wants,
ther State, ander similar olrcumstaoees, hav (applied
the lo and wast by purrhsse.
Th annual quota received from tbe General Gorera.
moot diminished with th secession of each sew State
aod Territory. It at at present lsa than one thousand
muskets in value; and when other arsse. or tho neeeeeare
a:cessories to keep other ana tn serrleesbl order r
sobatl lated, the number of musket rt diminished to th
extent ot the ohstttotkm. II I obrtea. therefore, we
cannot look to the General Government for a sufficient
supply oi artMiorao enecuv Btete military orgaolra-
tion . -
Koor attention la also Invited t ibe duties f tb
Quarter-Master uenansl, aod lathi eonnertloa to Ihe
phraseology of the last general appropriation bill, by
w herds He has keen prevented from drawing the compen
sation duo bis service esarmorer." Th salaries of both
th Adjutant and Quarter-Muter General are merely
nominal, aats oagui not oo ,-xneir aaiie ar arda
6as snd of srest resoonsiblHfv.
During lis rtces of th Oensral Assembly Ib Btat
Arsenal hss been completed to the extent provided by
law, under tbe Immediate supervision ef.lhe Quarter
Master General. It Is a substantial edifice. Estimates
Tor iweompieoon, le meet all tn purposes contemnlat-
by llrctioa, wtitbfaraibd by in Adfotant-Ueu)
ral.j . - . ',.., , ws i.
I have thus called your attention to such topic In con
nection with the Htate Militia require h application
of money. Th aggregate Is aufwleotly ressoosujie when
I remembered thst It will bring to th practical test,
ths experiment on the part of Ohio, at a State, serfously
and effectively to give animation and strength to a thor
onxhaad trail btleoced raltlltasystera. -. ' , '-;
iiarlegth legislative recess lb power of the liecu
tlv of ih Stat to aurrender fagltivr from Justice hss
frequently been invoked, nod though s rale this class
f rase aoes aot require peelal public .nolle, yet la
two instances th epplicetlons involved matters of th
gravest moment. Th reuleastiea la oa esse wa foad
en a charge lhat th fagltlv bad stolen certain slaves,
with Intent to defraud ths imputed owner; and la Ihe
otear case, th oesaand ws predicated oa aa Indictment,
charring th accused with aiding a "female atav" toe.
ap from "tut owner and possessor. Thss caS did
ait, ia my Judgment, fell withia the oos of au'homr
exefeirid on me in this behslf.and my e .inclusion, wlih
reason t nereror. ws aalr mad knowa lo in mt
acnttue by whom th resprtlr demand bad been mad,
Ktch replied, eoiitrovsrilog tb rlauifulnes of my eon '
' " ' '' -'-
legislative power vested la Ih General Assembly
eotnprehsnds an authority to provide for th! (nrrndr,
fugitives fromjustlc. in casisnot covered by the ed to
tea! Copitltutlon, and thli consideration, added t th
Importance of th (object Itself, emi to render It prop. I
I ,. . , .V ""''""" '.'y"i i
actio, should be laid before yon. ,,,,, ilf), Bl
entitled to th correlative right of protection, Itsooa
cspltsl s'ltutlon and laws secured to them, while dwelling here,
supremacy ovsr tbecontloent, Th free BlTtee accorded
th. South all th territory la Twhlob fihtwrV pr7
Uleusly lstd, to open ap aod diala la itarim
W malaria by'tba jLTrloaa labor It si sasassTfl Ther
The naranne rinmaniiMi tw thmmm rm-iamatlnnewer then I
srinnrniMw h n h .si.t. n.i.o in it BiiAamnne. anu
,1,1.1,. . . . ... . .1 1 . -,
the am measure of personal freedom and personal
curity, which belonged to It own cltlten. Speaking th
language of th "great etaarter of English llbertise," in
State bad declared that no one within It llmll$'thoiild
be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without du
process 01 law." The same principle has, in some lorm,
been asserted by erery other 8 tale, and flndsconsplcuous
nlacs in tbe Conatitutlon of the I'nited Slates.
' upoa the requisitions being msde, It was mynrstuuiy
toenquire whether th case were such a called for the
exercise of the power thus Invoked. II wss readily as
certained that all my authority. In this behalf, cam from
in laminar provision of th general uonstitntion, rela
ting to tha surrender of fugitives from justice. Inas
much as this provision operates In restraint of literty, it
must lie rigidly construed, and every ease not fairly in
cluded mutt be held aa beyond its scope, and erery doubt
must be resolved against it application. Kigorou as
this rule seems, It existence and wisdom aro alike be
yond question. It la. the same rule in favor of liberty
which ha obtained for centuries in that country from
which we have drawn our systems of criminal Jurispru
dence, and the sanis rul which I to-day in all the 8 tats
applied to criminal proceedings In every stage of their
progress. Adopted to protect the citizen (gainst the ex
ercise at arbitrary power, tha experlence.of many age
has proved lit value.andit still retains Its place among
tha nhlr safeguards of personal security, it has be
come a fixed principle of law, and yet. independent of
its clear dictates, 1 am satlsued thai upon no recngmzcu
rule of construction can tbe constitutional provision re
made to covor tbe case in question
These reclamations presented substantially th tame
nueetinn and were therefor to b determined by III ap
plication of tha same general principle Bach of them
-harcil ihe accused with the commission cf an act by
which "an owner and master" had been deprived of his
alleged "slave." The question was thus presented,
whether an act of this nature can be considered as either
"tresson, felony, or other crime," in the sense In wnicn
thee phrases ar used by tb Constitution. Manifestly,
It 1 not treason, and manifestly, it Is not felony, accord
ing to th lmporlof that word when the Constitution was
Doe "other crime" Include every offense declared to
be such by the law of a Bute 1 If ao, my duty to sur
render was placed beyond question. But this I conceive
would be a most mischievous and impraotlcable interpre
tation. For, if by "other crime" le meant any act mads
criminal by tbe law of a Slate, then tbe Executive of each
State is under constitutional obligation to remand Its
citizena to another, for any act which the Legislature of
any State mav designate at a crime. In this sense ths
word "crime" has no other meaning than that which a
l.i-jl.lnture. in ila discretion, may give II, anil
tha conatitutionai oblisatlon of th Executive of
each Btate would be created by the caprice,
and the liberty of Hi elttzsn would be deprived, upon
the legislation or the others. Buch a construction of the
constitutional provision could noj be tolerated, for It
would lead to Infinite abuse; nor could III obligation! ic
If, then, by "other crime" It was not Intended to make
the citizen of each State liabl to rendition at the dis
cretion of the Legislature of everyarther Btate, aod a
mora limited and definite meaning is to be given to the
term "or other crime," where shall thst limitation be
The provision under consideration was Introduced as a
rulcol International law between the States, As inter
national law it must have a definite meaning, understood
and recognized when entered into hy tbe Btates. It
must have the same meaning in all the Slate. Its con
struction, therfore, must 1st determined by tbe general
and accepted meaning of the terms used at Ihe time the
provision was adopted. ...
Whit, then, was th received acceptation of the words
"treason, felony, or other crime wnea the constitution
was fiamed?
The common law. Us iury, indictment, rules of evi
dence, and definition of felony and other crimes and mis
demeanors, was Interwoven with the rrlminnl jurispru
dence of tilth original tbirtein Stabs of tba liuion. Tha
Constltlon Itself, more than once, expressly, (Art. VII,
amendments) ana erery where by necessary implication,
iecognir.es this system as a part ol the national Julspru
denee; and In the Federal tribunal! It Is constantly ap
pealed to, not as a source of jurisdiction, but a tbe
means by which a jurisdiction, when given, is to be exer
cised, an I as furnishing the rules hy which the grants of
power of ine uonsiiiiuion are io ne interpreuiea ana
applied. The rery phrases "treason, felony, and other
crime" in the provision now In question come to us from
that source, and without reference to it, one at least of
these phrases 1 utterly unintelligible. These consider
ations are conclusive that tbe Constitution at large, and
especially this clsuse of It, waa drawn wiih direct refer
ence to tbe system of the common law, as avoiding tbe
guide to ill exposition and administration
That the offense stnted in these requlsitfons are un
known to the common law is too manifest to need remark.
Although tbe rule of tbe common law seem to be a
sag guide in determining what are crime with'n the
meanlog of the Constitution. I have not been governed
by that alone.
This provision of the Constitution as has already been
stated, is a rule of International law between States. It
construction may, therefore, be Tery penperly determin
ed Dy international law. ine extradition oi crrmloale
ha never been extended to purely lacal offenses, grow
ing out of domestic Institutions, and the word "crime"
would undoubtedly be regarded, lo an express compact
between two Slates, as rotating not merely to grave of
fences deemed wrong by the general conscience of the
Chiristian world, Lut as crimes by the lawi and usage of
all civilized nation.
If, then, the crimes refened to In the Constitution are
not any acta whatever, which any Stat may capriciously
declare to be such, the meaning of ths Constitution must
be found in what are defined t be crimes hy ths common
law, or recogntr.eu as sueh by the law of nation!. It Is
clear lhat neither the common nor international law, re
cognizes the acts named In these requisitions as "crimes,"
and 1 cannot admit, nor do 1 believe any Btate will ad
mit that iti citizens are subject to requisitions for ny act
wnicn any omer nine may declare tu he a crime.
In reaching this conclusion I have not been unmind
ful af Ihe inconveniences to which It may sometime give
rise. Occasionally it must doubiless hnppen that an of
fender nsmnst the local lawa and the local policy of one
State will escape punishment by seeking lefutre In an
other State This fortune, however, befalls all coter
minous Btates, and hai not been found lo entail serious
mischief, or to disturb Ihe harmony of their peaceful re
lations Besides, It Is Infinitely letter that an offender
should occasionally Moan, than Hut a State should t
obliged to tecognir.e and enforce the laws of another
jurisdiction Inconsistent with her own policy, and con
trary to tne general usages of mankind. Every rule
must b more or less imperfret.bnt the on which has seem
ed to me to be contemplated by the ftmstitutlon Itself,
Is, pereaps. aa fanltleas as any that could be devised. Ii
accords with th principles of natural justice, the obligs-
tiuus ui icuim iiciKnuonieou, anu ne comity or ntlionl,
While, st the tamo time. It respects the sovreimtvof the
Btate, aid ssrurej the citizen bit just measure of pro
Buch are the considerations that dcrmined my action lo
regard to th requisitions referred to. lied I ha
clothed with the legal authority, Iwould prompty have
arreu rcu mc accuacu parties, nut my sense of duty
luniuci irjr me luug eswnnsneu practice oi mis Depart
ment, did not permit me to treat them as malefactnra for
sie purposes oi extradition. I therefore declined to sur
render them.
Von assemble at a period otextraordinarv Interest in the
Ooaai ry. For eighty years the people of the several State.
or ine uonieaerary nave lived in peace with each other.
Fraternal ties have bound them logciher.and fraternal of
flees have been mutually dlKharoe 1 to thelrmiiiu.l n,o.
perltyand happiness. Duriustbls period the neiinn'e
ngreis pas been nnuiterruped. The great nursoaesot it.
formation have been in ateady pn eeasofcoDsumatloii. The
wise pol'cy by wb ich, for the most part. It hss been govern
ed, in cherlrhirrgour resourcesaoJ. cultivating peace with
an me worm, uas cicvatea our character abroad and con-
nrmeu our prosperity at home. From a people feeble
iu niira resources at toe Beginning, we have he
come one of the leading powers of the world. Bin ui-i
culture, manufacture!, commerce, and navlmmn in .11
Ibe useful arte, we are In tbe front rank of nations, while
the influenced onr civil Institutions, founded on the con
sentof the people and recognizing Ihe equality of all
meo before the law. and their Inalienable rights to life,
liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, is moderating th
do poliem ot other government nd arouaine the minin
sod nationalites of tbe world ii the assertion of their
rignis ai nome mc aepublionaa given to it citizen
as extent of prosperity aod happiness not enjoyed by any
other people, while abroad the title It confers of Aa.rn.i-
can cltzen la a nobler credential than was that of Roman
citizen wnen we i-vsars raiea. 1
Bat great. Prosperous, and powerful aa la lha n..,it
lie, at peace with all cations, and the deserved nh,.rt ,.l
universal (admiration, it is now threatened with Iminent
penis irons internal uiisenuons Tne public tranquility
is seriously diaturtied. The nil riot iam of tha fnir. 1.
j... - iu. uimivui mc uuTcrnmeni is denied.
ln.H. .I.n..,l T-W I. . . . 1. - ., .
Doctrines sabveralve of its existence are boliiiv.dr.t.
and made th basis or Btate action. I nder ihr,n.t..js
r.ght of a Stste to secede from tbs confederacy at lu
piciufc, iu yra- r war, consuiiiuonai liberty Js Im
periled, revolution r meditated, and trensnn l. in.iia.4
W may well pause to enquire, why these discontents,
-". Mv.mw .vwvuiii,;ivU SKS1U31 LUB feiH-ra.1 linvwrn.
merit. a
Ambitious men la Republics Wh Hod their alma lh...i
ed by tb regular and utaoslal worbinsx of mm..i
always seek pretexts". dial art iu easy progress, however
prosperous. Party, cUonl, personal prejudices, ths
. . v, ............. , .i fj m i lusiiiuiiuue. uinu uui nnr.
h .f lt!..ltla l lM.l 1.-. ..
salts, are seized upon by ouch man to create hostilities
ii.reu u.e various classes oi a uounlry ; stronglyunited
by oommon Interests, but whoee union give them a gran
deur loo Imposing to- be grasped by malcontents who,
wlihoBinmlt to reach Ihe highest authority la a great
Commonwealth, wonld reduce it to fragment to bscom
matter to apart, ttnrh conspirators never Aiuina ,.
secret motive of Umtrdleeonteot,but faarlctto pretense
rordlssatlsfsctloa among tbs muoea, they woald move.hy
m.ym mi niii yitmm meir jeaiousiy,iueirenvy quickened
bya narrow, misusing, yet honeit patriotism for Ihe lo
cality of Its birth, which, from pecnllarliy in domestic In
ctitnlopi has lost ths TsnUre ground of superior political
luflueoc emcefheld in tb Confederacy The n.i ai..
poiHonaUlntrm of political power of tb free Btate
ovr that of the Blavs Btates, especially of thos where
the wealth flows from an Industry and a peoiee of sari
eullur which expti the shite sac, and accumulates
' saujit an progress, net created a preponder
ance in th northern, U esters, and Middle Btates which
bas secured to them the permanent control of Um govem-
Uurlnr th first fort sleht' i.m ,,t it,. n..i.n.
bad Its Impulss, for th most part, from the great heart
"" " region, isxeepi 111 two tram Mac
Hcliaaetl. all it President may b .aid to hav been
Irgiol fresldesU, for Jackson and Tan Buna were
ch, through h Influence, Duriog th admlnlltra
l n of tb alder Adam, her atar dominated over tb
Congressional eouneiia In Ihe person of Vice-President
.,., ,., msi oi ine second, It arcs again la
both branches of Congresa through tha prestige imparled
. . i "-.s, iiy ma commanding eioqueac
her Senators aud Representative.
Throughout th almost hslf century of Republican
rule, a vtn th autari of Virginia, th fn States wet
not mersly content, bat with the exception of a paroxysm
growlny out of th commercial dltticulUss contrived br
Great Britain, dissipated br th war ah n...k.j .A
th. momentary penio quisled by th Missouri Ooinuro
mls. gava it that zealous vpport which rendsred this
ra aa happy and prosperous for ths whole counter.
BKvery. the anomaly la oar Institutions, was looked
upon throughout this noriod a a dlatn.e.i..
tha result of tha yoke we bad worn lo oor Infancy, andJ
-js -' " "r voimiionon would In tlm
ltwaiBoUnMJlhffmlnblpofMr.Calhodii whlta
Opod thsdeeUns f slavery Bropsgandlim, that seri
ous alarm aroe amone- tha fri.n,!. n.-Juii-.
ernment, that th power of a sectional loiaaaat. faunled
ei.v.rw. waamtdii.it.. J?.?
.rweiea suss ss use ngta-aaxB raotof freemen (auiu-
plied Mid ovrrfiowJfr,m th sortb and mlddi region,
ah Interior race woald lectd further south, and met)
sou viidw iddudsdi ids swot vi mww,.-
nand thataaouisltlona of fine territory Itiould b con
igned to slavery! that California should b rejeoted
from the Union because) lb came with a fn republican
constitution In hr hand, unveiled th deception practised
In tb pledge, given by leading edvoce'ea of tho annexa
tion of Texas, that It would open th way for thewlth
drawal of slavery from tha temperate son on It march
to mfnrle with in ire blacks In the tropics oi uenirai
America.- The compromlre of 1850, providing for th
admission of four additional alave Btates from Texas,
consecrated lhat porlloa aided from ths Nsw Mexican
conquest east of tbe Rio Grande and north of ths at Is
soon Uomprsmlte line to ireeouu annougn emimoa oy
Texas and left all th resfpf 4I"V territory scqulred, to
th construction of the Mexican raw which nad abolished
slavery at one time existing there. This was the second
hard won paaiflcatlon by which Mr. CUy hoped to lay
fdrerer the spectre of disunion, founding It on Ibe prin
ciple of Ihe Ordinance of 1787, which had resigned to
slavery all the territory which, properly appertained to
the domain of the alar Btates, reserving that belonging
to the I nlted Btates for settlement by freemen exclusive-
I0. h. Iw.,lin n.rtiea In their presidential DlatformS,
In wlikh tliey submitted their claims for th sanction of
th popular vote at the Immediately ensuing election,
ratified this settlement ot 1850, adding anw sanction to
til Missouri Compromise. But both these compaols be
tween the State for th settlement ot th great (actional
Issue war nullified by tbe Kansas-Nebraska bill.- Thli
brought on tha civil war In Kansas, waged to defeat th
right of tha people to exclude alavery from tha sanction
or their constitution, and this failing, the Slate Itself has
been excluded rrom admission Into the Union, in viola
tion ot the uniform practice or the government from Its
establishment. Tbe repeal of the Missouri Compromise
did not satisfy, th Hav propagandists- It did not re
more t be Leu against alatery in lha territory scqulred
from Mexico, and which mlht attach to oilier territories
thereafter acquired. To secure the right of taking and
holding their slaves In the territories, and to fortify It
against Congressional Interference, the Supreme Court
wa Inrokeu to estanitsn a a pari oi in uonsiimiion,
that th local, domestic, State Institution ot slavery was
a property which a man ronld carry with him and hold
as property, wherever he could go himself, and therefore
It would be a violation of the Constitution to exclude ths
Institution from any territory of tho United States. As
the Constitution of theUnlted States is equally supreme
In Ihe mainteaanre of right placed under lu protection,
Whether they ere contravened by Ihe constitution and
laws ot Slates or Territories, tb Dred Scott decision, as
Interpreted by the South, open the whole country to Ih
expansion of slavery.
11 is not the election of a President under tho require
ments of tbe Constitution which ha given rise to the
movement in Ihe South. It is not his opinion about the
extension of slavery, for that Is the same that was held
bv the framsr of tha Constitution. - Nor I It about tb
fugitive slave law, th Judicial dec slon In the Dred Scott
case, or other political issues, nor is it personal repug
nance, All parties agree lhat ho I honest, capable and
faithful; and so olesr In his reputation lhat the virulence
of pwrtyspli It exerted In a struggle tor th highest place
and tb greatest patronage ooull not be tempted to a
sail It. The outbreak which ha followed I not the ef
fect In an election on disappointed partiea. The result
was anticipated by all, and lha occasion Isonlysolaed up.
on aa a signal for the explosioa of a plot, long maturing
tn secret counsels, to accomplish Mr. Calhoun's new
ichcme of government for the slsv Slates the estab
menl of a Boutben Confederacy, which. In the language
recently pronounced by a distinguished souther states
man, "Will expand a our growth and civilisation shall
demand; over Mexico, over the Isles of tbe aea, over the
far-off southern tropics, until we ahall establish a great-
confederation or republics, tua greatest, ireecuand most
useful the world has seen."
On the occasion of my Inauguration, I felt It to be my
duty to warn my countrymen of these hostile designs a
gslnat the federal Union. But then thoy were In specula
tion only. Now they are In act. Shall they beconsumma-
ted 7 Shall the national government be degraded into a
mere league between Independent State, exlallng only
by their sufferance, subordinate to them and subject to
bo destroyed at the pleasure ot any state of tne (Jonted
acy ? Or shall it continue to ba maintained, a It has al
ways been maintained, as a government proper sove
reign within Iti prescribed sphere ss tha Btates aie sove-
miun within their nreenrlheil etiheree fnund.il nn Ihe
adoption of the people as ware lha Btates, and creating
direct relstloos between Itself snd the Individual citizen,
which no Btste authority hse nower to Imnalr or disturb.
and which nothlog can dissolve but-revolution.
Nearly twenty-eight years ago, th peopl of Ohio,
soeaklosT through the Ueneral Assembly, declared what In
their Judgment ar the constitutional relation between
the Federal and Btate government. I quote but one of
a series of resolves of tbe General Assembly on tb s sub
'That th Federal Union exists In a solemn compact
entered into Lv the voluntary ponsHnt of tho sieonle of
the United States, and of each and every Stale, and that
therefore, no Btata can claim the right to seced from, or
violate that compact, and however siievous mar be tbe
supposel or real burthens of a State, the only legitimate
remedy is in me wise and ralimui exercise of Ihe elective
franchise and a solemn responsibility nf the public
This Is Ihe Judgment of Ohio to day
There never was a people so throughly bound together
ss a nation as tbe people of the United Blatsa. Tb
founder or the government took possession of Ihe coun
try under the authority of the parent Btate, acknowledg
ing Its sovereignty a binding all tb colon! together as
poruon oi in same realm. When they resolved npon
a separation, againit th content of tha supreme power,
they entered npon a war to establish a republican govern
ment, embracing the confederated colonies, to take "their
p'aoei among the nations of the earth ' aa one and an In
dependent people, constituting another nation, of whloh
the Articles of Confederation, establishing it on tbe ba
sis of "perpetual anion," waa the evidence to tbe world,
and tha covenant among themsalvea. Tbe Oonatltntloa
of the United States wss ths repetition of this erraod na
tional act and, being more emphatically, tbe act ot ths
whole people, they declared In the preamble, "We, the
people, ordain," etc., (giving tba scope of Ih nation's
(unctions,) proclaiming on of tb main object to be to
make "more periect" the anion already established as
"perpetual." What Datlon ever presented ao perfects
record ot its existence as a national government, and of
the indissoluble union, cemented among tha mnnlclpl
commonwealth in charge ol th local. Internal affair of
a people, a th Constitution of th United State' Erery
new I late 1 brought Into th Union by an act of the na
tions! government, and no msu of foreign birth can be
come a ci'izen wilhout swearing allegiance to it. Itao
quire territoiy, provides it with population, nurtures
them In Infancy, and Introduce them as Btateaat matu
rity. It bas authority to annul such constitutions and
laws of any of th Btates aa contravene the provisions of
the Federal Constitution. All Btate Executives, Legis
lature and jad'eial tribunal hav accepted it from the
day It was proclaimed as the supreme la of the land.
The Constitution gives the right of eminent domain even
over th soil of the States, tbe tea-coast's harbor, for
national and constitutional purposes, through which to
establish post-offices and routes, custom house, forts.
navy yards, arsenals, armories, everything necessary for
the national defence and to the administration of Hie
government. Can a State secede and malm the power
and right of self- preservation. Inherent In the siatem.
wkich pervades tbe governments, State and National, and
acting by Its ofr.cars directly on the citizen?
ui,.,, ,uv .iki, (fives mo sue great valley Ol
mo west ne si ine mercy or noatiie communities, and
subject Id be leveled from tha gulf atream, through which
Ibe interior States reach and embrace their seaboard sis
ters ' If there were nothing else In the interposition of a
foreign power npon the grand trunk of th mighty flsod
whose branches bearjite fruit-the riche of the conti
nent It Is enough to array the country (gainst It, that
ii would nreax ine symmetry nature has given It for the
full development of the vast republic bow reaohlng from
ocean to ocean .
The right of secession I the right tetear a limb 'from
th body, and In tha supposed rase of tlm secession ot
States on th lower Mississippi, if the right or domain
over all ita sources would not attach to the seceding
Slates, it wonld at least lerlously conflict with the free
enjoyment of opposing rights, and eventually lead tddis
lonslons.tr not war. between the Statesdirectly interested
in tba navigation of that great highway of the worlds
The Constitution makes body politic of all embraced
within ItsJuJlsdlctlon. To dismember it. is to far lode
stroy II. It constitutes ao Colon, aod separation Is war
sgainst It. Secession and I nioo are incompatible idea.
The attempt to assert Ibe light attaching to both at con
listentwitn the same Constitution Is mere absurdity; th
one I but tb negative of the other, and they cannot be
But the discontent which bar grown Bp between the
Btates may and ought to b reconciled. - - - - .
Tbe fugitive (lave law provide for tbe execution of
a duty imposed by th Constitution. Unfbrtunatelr it
contains clauses Insulting to IL just prid,atid to tin
conscience oi in section oi in country i n which It Ii
brought to bear. Itlsdifficull to execute a law revolt
ing to the public opinion where It I to operate Yet
this law has been executed by tb federal officer, not
wllhstasdlg, and ander as honest administration It may
have full effect. If tie clauses, offenelte and deroga
tory to those who are required to execute it b repealed,
there I bo doubt th personal liberty laws, which ob
struct its proper secutlon, If toy each ther be, passed
from whatever motive, woubd be repealed or essentially
modified. Tbia ought to be done. Th obooxioui fee
turei of the fugitive slsve statute wer Inserted at ths In
ligation of Bepresentstivssfrom State sot Interested In
It execution, and plotting- to defeat II th.t h bi.im
iot wool oencnt u ws paistd might b Melted to join
rs acuvnieaoi Dreaeipguie union, wdicu is bow manifest
ly th object of thos that make tb clamor about th cb
tructloo of tho furitiv alar act to ineiir loaaii,..
To State really wronged, If any, by th legislation ol
the f re Btate are loyal to the Union tnd do not urge
their wrongs to overthrow it. But those who have nloti.il
thefetal measn re create disaffection , In Ih loyal Statu
oy inrowioginemaeiveeinio tn or s sen todofend their
rignti, ana oat ling on them tor support.
' The comity shown by th patrlotlo Leilslatnre and oth.
er offirtal representatives of th State of Kamtni-k
Tennessee to tho But of Ohio, try their visit to this Cop
tics iaat wmier, auu use irauo, conciliatory ana magnaa-
imuuo temper tney uispiayea, would lUSUly tbe Mglsla
tur oi Ohio la invoking the Vre Btate to rpl u
laws, If any such til re bo, oontraTenlna lb right which
iivis iwuuw uitizeue ws sue oowiuJUBIir Claim ondsr Ilia
constitution, and rtly on a future Congress, if it bnot
don bytb present Congress, for tb abrogation of
whatever i obooxlous in th f uglily lav aot, and for
uiisiaoiiuusiiwin i a will IUI1T protect th liMrtl!
of IhacUlunsof th free State, ' . , I r ,
a us conciliatory cours wonld be expected of th
Southern Sate, hy therepeallns of such of their lawa ao
contraven th Constitutional right of th citizens of
eixe oral, vrun less, tn citlsen or tn fret
State will not be satisfied. Tby claim and will Insist
upon all their constitutional t-tchta ta ererw fltate and
Territoiy of th Confederacy- The they cheerfully
(coord to th citizens of Ih Southern State. Deter
mined to do no wrong they will not contentedly submit to
any wrong Unawed try threat they demand th am.
ptoyment of all th Constitutional power of th Peder
eral Government to maintain andpreserre th Union .
Rejecting tb whol theory of Stste secession as In pal
pable violation of th Constitution, theytannot consent
to ths exerets of any powsr under It emotion. ' Th In
tegrity of th Colon, it oneneaa and Indivisibility must
bo nreservtd. Io th Union they will b as orupulotly
carefOI tn protect . th rights 'Of tb Slara a 'th
Free States. Nay, more. Oonsxrlowjof thalr por, and
regarding tha Union a ssassebl ud fraternal Ualoss
as tb ooblast legacy they oso bequeath to their potrlty,
they will cheerfully yield Try thing to their brethren
of tb South, that may not disturb ih harmony of th
Constitution, ana mat may d consistent with right. Jus
tice, humanity and ths demand! of a christian etvlllti
tloa. But with treason against th Federal Govern
ment thaw bar a term of compromls to make, none
to accept. Against that, thsy datntnd th nforomntof
til ewV 1'"- ' ' ' ' ' - i " ok.- s
I purpeeely awoM attaching any torportano to th
aly thr thraateatog nniot, that sols ling to tb .
Ubl stile Of Slavery in sua remaining tern to nr or tn
United Btate. a all most see that that li Mttled br d-4
ere wor peuui woo legislative smacxmtni or judicial
oecjsicae. x u. vyiuivw wwiwivu wj tow ouprem voxtn
tlalmed try th South, opens thess terrltori to (tare
ry, and Territorial L(nitar nmw it, but tb lawa or
nsture which operate on ilsv production, combined wdh
It! law wniao reguiai emirreuuni lutoiuivi u. .i.
ane of slave Institutions In the elevated lojions now to
be Mttled. The Kansas experiment, made under the
most favorable circumstances for the South lhat can ex
ist, Is conolusiTO on this lubjoct. If this wer aot enough ,
th overwhelming public opinion pronounced io the late
presidential election must produce the conviction, that
the Slavery queatton, ai oonnocveu witis to rvmaiDiua
territory of the United Statei, ll forever settled, snd
that th slopes of th Rocky Mountains, east and wast,
ar reserved exclusively for free Institution!.
Aiamtmbsrof th Confederacy, Ohio lies a vital lo
tsrestt Its preservation, a I'b hsr vast capacities for
development ber great extent of territory her soil of
.Inexhaustible frllllly-4ier salubrious climate her al
most boundless subterranean wedllh 4ir large maoufao
taring reiourses, aod ber numeroul facilities for s pros
perouscommeroc, added lo the moral qualities of bsr peo
pie, and th purity of her civil lnstllutloa, the Isels I
that under th protection and fostering oar of th Union
her material ami moral destiny would secure to her for
over an equal rank among tbe most prospernuiand pow .
srful ef States. Nor 1 Uils all. Her citizens oumlng
rrom all th Blatei or the Confederacy to ahare her bloat
lugs and partake of her foi lunss, and bound to cash ol
inem oy in oioatst commercial relation!, ah I attuned
to Ih Union by th double tie of consanguinity and lu - .
tercet. Loyal aa she always ha been loth Oonstltu- '
tloo. see will maintain her loyalty come what may.
Speaking the language of ths (rest defender of Ihe Ooa
tutlon, ber people say lo ths misguided people of ths
South, who ar meditating th overthrow of th Govern
mnt: "Be assured, be assured, thst among onr political
sentiments the love of Union I still uppermost! We will '
stand rait by .the Consultation aod by thos who dsfend it.
W rely oa bo temporary expedients, on ao political .
combination; but we rely on tbe true American feeling,
the genuine patriotism of the people, and th Imperative
decision of the publio voice. Disorder nd confusion In
deed may srile; scenes of commotion and contest are
threatened, and perhaps may com. With onr whol
heart w pray for th continuance of Ih dosnaotlc peace
and quiet of the country. We desire, aaoat ardently,
tha restorstlon.of affection and harmony toalMtspari
u aesire mat erery citizen oi ine wool sjoaniry may
look to this government with no other senirmente but
thos of grateful respect end attachment. But we can-
not yield, cren to kind feeling, tba cans of th Con
stitution, th true glory of the Country, and ths
great trait which we hold ia our hands for succeed
ing age. If Ihe Constitution cannot be maintained
without meeting then scenes of commotion and contest,
however unwotcom. ttey must com. W cannot, we
must aot. we dare not omit to do that whloh. In our
Judgment, the aafety of th Union require. Notre-
(sruiese or consequences, we muslyetmeetconteqaencea,
seeing th hazards whloh surround th discharge of duty.
u must yet p uisonargea. ear ouraaive w abuo no
responsibility in attemptlog lo maintain th cause. Ws
are tied to It by Indissoluble bands of (Section and
duty, and wa shall cheerfully partake In Iti fortunes
and fata. We aie ready to perform our appropriate part
whenever the occasion may call on ua aud to take our
chance amoag them npon w um blowi may fall tint and
fall thickait. We shall ex-:t ovary faculty we possess
In aiding to prevent the Constitution from being nulls
fled, destroyed or impaired, and (Ten should we ses it
fall ,wa will still wlih a voice as earnest as ever Isaaed
from human lips, and with fidelity and teal which nothing
hall xtlnguish. call on th peopl everywhere, to come
to It rescus." .
Relying oo the pstilotism of th ooonl. and lha Di.
Tin aid for tb prelection l th Union, Ohio calmly
awalti th exigencies of tbe future.
COLUMBUS. January 7, 1861.
Statement ihoutng th annual Tt&uMtm of Prbitl- '
pen ana unierett of mt rvotio -rxntfevt DtOt ofth
Statt of Ohio, by tho application of th Conttlh,-tlonal
Sinking Fund, for arioi afttn ytori, com
menclnf January 1, 1861 .
1861 Ain't fund. debt. $13,021,856 SO
int. '61
07,061 a:
Am't to bera'dt.
168,948 t
1862 Am't fund. debt.
13.453.908 20
iOfJ.924 49
Am't to b re d..
. 179.085 00
Am't fund, debt
13,273,823 SO
189.830 90
'83 766,179 3'J
am t to 1 re'd,.
im'lfnnd. debt.
13,03.993 00 "
201.220 00;
'o4jr4,78l 59
ti5.?fl8,7lC 3J
Am't to be re'd..
tm'tfand. debt.
Am't to be re'd..
Am't fund. debt.
Am't to be re'd..
12,882,773 Sill
S13.S93 00
13,669,480 80
941,091 00
'66 749,918 bl
Am't fund, de't ! 19,443,389 SO
'C7 743 JJ3 35
Am't to bo te'd.
X39.656 0
Im't fund, debt
12,203.733 20
254,035 (to;
'68 781,873 99
'6 700,731 t
Am't to be rd'd.(
Am't fund, debt
11 940,698,90
860277 00
tm'ttobe re d..
Am't fund, debt.:
im't to be re d.. i
11,680,421 "(l
85,434 00.
II '394,98 7 ill'
879,385 90' .,
"O 90,J7i 67
Am't fund debt.!
Add dom c debt.'
$11,070,373 tu
Total amount principal paid In from Jan.
1, 1661, to Jan. 1, 1871, lac $o oofj m w
Total amount idterestpaid from Jan. L
1861, to Jan. 1, 1871, Inc : A7.niku
Total amount t? be raised by taxatltn da. '
ring th ten ytara, in order to comply
with the requirement! of the Oonsti- '
tutloa $9,760.093 U
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